WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground-based ionospheric modification

  1. Observing Tsunamis in the Ionosphere Using Ground Based GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Song, Y. Tony; Stephens, P.; Hickey, M. P.; Foster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following recent seismic events, including the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011. We observe fluctuations correlated in time, space, and wave properties with this tsunami in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the Tohoku tsunami near the epicenter, at Hawaii, and near the west coast of North America. Disturbance magnitudes are 1-10% of the background TEC value. Observations near the epicenter are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement. The potential exists to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for future early warning systems.

  2. Models of ionospheric VLF absorption of powerful ground based transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio transmitters play a role in precipitation of energetic Van Allen electrons. Initial analyses of the contribution of VLF transmitters to radiation belt losses were based on early models of trans-ionospheric propagation known as the Helliwell absorption curves, but some recent studies have found that the model overestimates (by 20-100 dB) the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. It was subsequently suggested that conversion of wave energy into electrostatic modes may be responsible for the error. We utilize a newly available extensive record of VLF transmitter energy reaching the magnetosphere, taken from the DEMETER satellite, and perform a direct comparison with a sophisticated full wave model of trans-ionospheric propagation. Although the model does not include the effect of ionospheric irregularities, it correctly predicts the average total power injected into the magnetosphere within several dB. The results, particularly at nighttime, appear to be robust against the variability of the ionospheric electron density. We conclude that the global effect of irregularity scattering on whistler mode conversion to quasi-electrostatic may be no larger than 6 dB.

  3. Full-Wave Radio Characterization of Ionospheric Modification at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Full-Wave Radio Characterization of Ionospheric Modification at HAARP We have studied electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence stimulated by...radio receivers at HAARP in Alaska, and ground-based radio receivers, incoherent scatter radars, and in-situ measurements from Canadian, ESA, and Polish...363255 San Juan, PR 00936 -3255 31-May-2015 ABSTRACT Final Report: Full-Wave Radio Characterization of Ionospheric Modification at HAARP Report Title We

  4. Long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring for ground based augmentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwook; Lee, Jiyun

    2012-08-01

    Extreme ionospheric anomalies can pose a potential integrity threat to ground-based augmentation of the Global Positioning System (GPS), and thus the development of ionospheric anomaly threat models for each region of operation is essential for system design and operation. This paper presents a methodology for automated long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring, which will be used to build an ionospheric anomaly threat model, evaluate its validity over the life cycle of the system, continuously monitor ionospheric anomalies, and update the threat model if necessary. This procedure automatically processes GPS data collected from external networks and estimates ionospheric gradients at regular intervals. If ionospheric gradients large enough to be potentially hazardous to users are identified, manual data examination is triggered. This paper also develops a simplified truth processing method to create precise ionospheric delay estimates in near real-time, which is the key to automating the ionospheric monitoring procedure. The performance of the method is examined using data from the 20 November 2003 and 9 November 2004 ionospheric storms. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of simplified truth processing within long-term ionosphere monitoring. From the case studies, the automated procedure successfully identified extreme ionospheric anomalies, including the two worst ionospheric gradients observed and validated previously based on manual analysis. The automation of data processing enables us to analyze ionospheric data continuously going forward and to more accurately categorize ionospheric behavior under both nominal and anomalous conditions.

  5. Investigation of Thermospheric and Ionospheric Changes during Ionospheric Storms with Satellite and Ground-Based Data and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Philip G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this proposed research is to improve our basic understanding of the causes of ionospheric storm behavior in the midlatitude F region ionosphere. This objective will be achieved by detailed comparisons between ground based measurements of the peak electron density (N(sub m)F(sub 2)), Atmosphere Explorer satellite measurements of ion and neutral composition, and output from the Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) model. The primary result will be a better understanding of changes in the neutral densities and ion chemistry during magnetic storms that will improve our capability to model the weather of the ionosphere which will be needed as a basis for ionospheric prediction. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions: (1) To what extent are negative ionospheric storm phases caused by changes in the atomic to molecular ratio? (2) Are the changes in neutral density ratio due to increased N2, or decreased O, or both? (3) Are there other chemical processes (e.g., excited N2) that increase O+ loss rates during negative storms? (4) Do neutral density altitude distributions differed from hydrostatic equilibrium? (5) Why do near normal nighttime densities often follow daytime depletions of electron density; and (6) Can changes in h(sub m)F2 fully account for positive storm phases? To answer these questions, we plan to combine ground-based and space-based measurements with the aid of our ionospheric model which is ideally suited to this purpose. These proposed studies will lead to a better capability to predict long term ionospheric variability, leading to better predictions of ionospheric weather.

  6. Extended lateral heating of the nighttime ionosphere by ground-based VLF transmitters

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Graf, K. L.; Spasojevic, M.; Marshall, R. A.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Foust, F. R.

    2013-01-01

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: SPACE PHYSICS, VOL. 118, 7783–7797, doi:10.1002/2013JA019337, 2013 Extended lateral heating of the nighttime ionosphere by ground-based VLF transmitters K. L. Graf,1 M. Spasojevic,1 R. A. Marshall,2 N. G. Lehtinen,1 F. R. Foust,1 and U. S. Inan1,3 Received 16 August 2013; revised 9 October 2013; accepted 11 November 2013; published 3 December 2013. [1] The effects of ground-based very low frequency (VLF) transmitters on the lower ionospher...

  7. Ground-based acoustic parametric generator impact on the atmosphere and ionosphere in an active experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Yuriy G.; Cheremnykh, Oleg K.; Koshovy, Volodymyr V.; Melnik, Mykola O.; Ivantyshyn, Oleh L.; Nogach, Roman T.; Selivanov, Yuriy A.; Grimalsky, Vladimir V.; Mezentsev, Valentyn P.; Karataeva, Larysa M.; Ivchenko, Vasyl. M.; Milinevsky, Gennadi P.; Fedun, Viktor N.; Tkachenko, Eugen N.

    2017-01-01

    We develop theoretical basics of active experiments with two beams of acoustic waves, radiated by a ground-based sound generator. These beams are transformed into atmospheric acoustic gravity waves (AGWs), which have parameters that enable them to penetrate to the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions where they influence the electron concentration of the ionosphere. Acoustic waves are generated by the ground-based parametric sound generator (PSG) at the two close frequencies. The main idea of the experiment is to design the output parameters of the PSG to build a cascade scheme of nonlinear wave frequency downshift transformations to provide the necessary conditions for their vertical propagation and to enable penetration to ionospheric altitudes. The PSG generates sound waves (SWs) with frequencies f1 = 600 and f2 = 625 Hz and large amplitudes (100-420 m s-1). Each of these waves is modulated with the frequency of 0.016 Hz. The novelty of the proposed analytical-numerical model is due to simultaneous accounting for nonlinearity, diffraction, losses, and dispersion and inclusion of the two-stage transformation (1) of the initial acoustic waves to the acoustic wave with the difference frequency Δf = f2 - f1 in the altitude ranges 0-0.1 km, in the strongly nonlinear regime, and (2) of the acoustic wave with the difference frequency to atmospheric acoustic gravity waves with the modulational frequency in the altitude ranges 0.1-20 km, which then reach the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions, in a practically linear regime. AGWs, nonlinearly transformed from the sound waves, launched by the two-frequency ground-based sound generator can increase the transparency of the ionosphere for the electromagnetic waves in HF (MHz) and VLF (kHz) ranges. The developed theoretical model can be used for interpreting an active experiment that includes the PSG impact on the atmosphere-ionosphere system, measurements of electromagnetic and acoustic fields, study of

  8. Mapping the East African Ionosphere Using Ground-based GPS TEC Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Chalachew Kindie; Kim, Yong Ha; Yeshita, Baylie Damtie; Workayehu, Abyiot Bires

    2016-03-01

    The East African ionosphere (3°S-18°N, 32°E-50°E) was mapped using Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements from ground-based GPS receivers situated at Asmara, Mekelle, Bahir Dar, Robe, Arbaminch, and Nairobi. Assuming a thin shell ionosphere at 350 km altitude, we project the Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP) of a slant TEC measurement with an elevation angle of >10° to its corresponding location on the map. We then infer the estimated values at any point of interest from the vertical TEC values at the projected locations by means of interpolation. The total number of projected IPPs is in the range of 24-66 at any one time. Since the distribution of the projected IPPs is irregularly spaced, we have used an inverse distance weighted interpolation method to obtain a spatial grid resolution of 1°×1° latitude and longitude, respectively. The TEC maps were generated for the year 2008, with a 2 hr temporal resolution. We note that TEC varies diurnally, with a peak in the late afternoon (at 1700 LT), due to the equatorial ionospheric anomaly. We have observed higher TEC values at low latitudes in both hemispheres compared to the magnetic equatorial region, capturing the ionospheric distribution of the equatorial anomaly. We have also confirmed the equatorial seasonal variation in the ionosphere, characterized by minimum TEC values during the solstices and maximum values during the equinoxes. We evaluate the reliability of the map, demonstrating a mean error (difference between the measured and interpolated values) range of 0.04-0.2 TECU (Total Electron Content Unit). As more measured TEC values become available in this region, the TEC map will be more reliable, thereby allowing us to study in detail the equatorial ionosphere of the African sector, where ionospheric measurements are currently very few.

  9. Plans of a test bed for ionospheric modelling based on Fennoscandian ground-based instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Kero, Antti; Verronen, Pekka T.; Aikio, Anita; Vierinen, Juha; Lehtinen, Markku; Turunen, Esa; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Virtanen, Ilkka; Norberg, Johannes; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Kallio, Esa; Kestilä, Antti; Partamies, Noora; Syrjäsuo, Mikko

    2016-07-01

    One of the recommendations for teaming among research groups in the COSPAR/ILWS roadmap is about building test beds in which coordinated observing supports model development. In the presentation we will describe a test bed initiative supporting research on ionosphere-thermosphere-magnetosphere interactions. The EISCAT incoherent scatter radars with their future extension, EISCAT3D, form the backbone of the proposed system. The EISCAT radars are surrounded by versatile and dense arrays of ground-based instrumentation: magnetometers and auroral cameras (the MIRACLE and IMAGE networks), ionospheric tomography receivers (the TomoScand network) and other novel technology for upper atmospheric probing with radio waves (e.g. the KAIRA facility, riometers and the ionosonde maintained by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory). As a new opening, close coordination with the Finnish national cubesat program is planned. We will investigate opportunities to establish a cost efficient nanosatellite program which would support the ground-based observations in a systematic and persistent manner. First experiences will be gathered with the Aalto-1 and Aalto-2 satellites, latter of which will be the Finnish contribution to the international QB50 mission. We envisage close collaboration also in the development of data analysis tools with the goal to integrate routines and models from different research groups to one system, where the different elements support each other. In the longer run we are aiming for a modelling framework with observational guidance which gives a holistic description on ionosphere-thermosphere processes and this way enables reliable forecasts on upper atmospheric space weather activity.

  10. Mesoscale ionospheric electrodynamics of omega bands determined from ground-based electromagnetic and satellite optical observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We present ground-based electromagnetic data from the MIRACLE and BEAR networks and satellite optical observations from the UVI and PIXIE instruments on the Polar satellite of an omega band event over Northern Scandinavia on 26 June 1998, which occured close to the morning side edge of a substorm auroral bulge. Our analysis of the data concentrates on one omega band period from 03:18-03:27 UT, for which we use the method of characteristics combined with an analysis of the UVI and PIXIE data to derive a time series of instantaneous, solely data-based distributions of the mesoscale ionospheric electrodynamic parameters with a 1-min time resolution. In addition, the AMIE method is used to derive global Hall conductance patterns. Our results show that zonally alternating regions of enhanced ionospheric conductances ("tongues" up to ~60S and low conductance regions are associated with the omega bands. The tongues have a poleward extension of ~400km from their base and a zonal extension of ~380km. While they are moving coherently eastward with a velocity of ~770ms-1, the structures are not strictly stationary. The current system of the omega band can be described as a superposition of two parts: one consists of anticlockwise rotating Hall currents around the tongues, along with Pedersen currents, with a negative divergence in their centers. The sign of this system is reversing in the low conductance areas. It causes the characteristic ground magnetic signature. The second part consists of zonally aligned current wedges of westward flowing Hall currents and is mostly magnetically invisible below the ionosphere. This system dominates the field-aligned current (FAC pattern and causes alternating upward and downward FAC at the flanks of the tongues with maximum upward FAC of ~25µA m-2. The total FAC of ~2MA are comparable to the ones diverted inside a westward traveling surge. Throughout the event, the overwhelming part of the FAC

  11. Seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances of earthquake and tsunami waves observed by space- and ground-based GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Y. G.; Chen, C. Y.; Lin, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) is a constellation of six microsatellites launched on April 15, 2006 and has been orbiting with 72° inclination at 700 to 800 km above the earth since December 2007. The main payload of the F3/C is the GPS Occultation eXperiment (GOX) which carries out probing the radio occultation (RO) total electron content between GPS satellite and F3/C. Therefore, F3/C provides us an excellent opportunity to vertically scan ionospheric electron density from 100 up to 800 km altitude. On the other hand, worldwide ground-based GPS receivers can be employed to observe traveling ionospheric disturbances of the TEC. Here, we present the ionosphere response to seismic and tsunami waves by means of F3/C RO TEC and worldwide ground-based GPS TEC as well as existing data of infrasondes, magnetometers, and Doppler sounding systems during the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake.

  12. Magnetic zenith effect in ionospheric modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Carlson, H.C.; Pedersen, T

    2002-12-09

    The theory of ionospheric modification for the beam of powerful radio emission directed along magnetic field lines is developed. Nonlinear process of beam self-focusing on striations is shown to determine strong amplification of heating and acceleration of plasma electrons. It results in a dramatic enhancement of optic emission from the magnetic zenith region in ionospheric F-layer. An excellent agreement between the theory and recent fundamental observations at HAARP facility (Alaska) [T. Pedersen et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. (2002), in press] is demonstrated.

  13. Global Three-Dimensional Ionospheric Data Assimilation Model Using Ground-based GPS and Radio Occultation Total Electron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann-Yenq Liu, Tiger; Lin, Chi-Yen; Matsuo, Tomoko; Lin, Charles C. H.; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Chen, Chao-Yen

    2017-04-01

    An ionospheric data assimilation approach presented here is based on the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter with International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) as the background model and designed to assimilate the total electron content (TEC) observed from ground-based GPS receivers and space-based radio occultation (RO) of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) or FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7/C2). The Kalman filter consists of the forecast step according to Gauss-Markov process and measurement update step. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) show that the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter procedure can increase the accuracy of the data assimilation analysis over the procedure consisting of the measurement update step alone. Moreover, in comparing to F3/C, the dense F7/C2 RO observation can further increase the model accuracy significantly. Validating the data assimilation results with the vertical TEC in Global Ionosphere Maps and that derived from ground-based GPS measurements, as well as the ionospheric F2-peak height and electron density sounded by ionosondes is also carried out. Both the OSSE results and the observation validations confirm that the developed data assimilation model can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional electron density in the ionosphere satisfactorily.

  14. Ionosphere-magnetosphere studies using ground based VLF radio propagation technique: an Indian example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Subhas

    sferics at least in some seasons providing a noise free environment for observing rare and new phenomena requiring better SNR to detect such changes, The VLF signals from the active seismic zones or other electro-geological sources would require high sensitivities of the system and suitable network of transmitting and receiv-ing stations designed for targeted data and applications. Some new results over Indian and other regions show evidences of earthquake related seismo-geological VLF emissions with the potential of being used as a prognostic tool, change in ozone and ion production in the night time middle atmosphere due to transit of stellar x-ray/γ ray sources. Results obtained on whistlers and related studies from a number of Indian stations covering geomagnetic latitude range between 13-24 N will be mentioned and reviewed in the background of theoretical understanding of the lightning return stroke signal elements, VLF propagation through cold plasma, ionospheric wave guide mode, electron precipitation due to cyclotron resonance and production of atomic oxygen O (3 P) and ionisation in the mesosphere due to solar/stellar UV/X/γrays. Use of future VLF techniques in terms of improving ground based observations, critical analysis of available satellite data in the context and real time moni-toring/modelling of earth's geosphere and space weather conditions will be considered for a possible programme of a developing country.

  15. Analysis of Correlation between Ionospheric Spatial Gradients and Space Weather Intensity under Nominal Conditions for Ground-Based Augmentation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) support aircraft precision approach and landing by providing differential GPS corrections to aviation users. For GBAS applications, most of ionospheric errors are removed by applying the differential corrections. However, ionospheric correction errors may exist due to ionosphere spatial decorrelation between GBAS ground facility and users. Thus, the standard deviation of ionosphere spatial decorrelation (σvig) is estimated and included in the computation of error bounds on user position solution. The σvig of 4mm/km, derived for the Conterminous United States (CONUS), bounds one-sigma ionospheric spatial gradients under nominal conditions (including active, but not stormy condition) with an adequate safety margin [1]. The conservatism residing in the current σvig by fixing it to a constant value for all non-stormy conditions could be mitigated by subdividing ionospheric conditions into several classes and using different σvig for each class. This new concept, real-time σvig adaptation, will be possible if the level of ionospheric activity can be well classified based on space weather intensity. This paper studies correlation between the statistics of nominal ionospheric spatial gradients and space weather indices. The analysis was carried out using two sets of data collected from Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS) Network; 9 consecutive (nominal and ionospherically active) days in 2004 and 19 consecutive (relatively 'quiet') days in 2010. Precise ionospheric delay estimates are obtained using the simplified truth processing method and vertical ionospheric gradients are computed using the well-known 'station pair method' [2]. The remaining biases which include carrier-phase leveling errors and Inter-frequency Bias (IFB) calibration errors are reduced by applying linear slip detection thresholds. The σvig was inflated to overbound the distribution of vertical ionospheric gradients with the required confidence

  16. A comprehensive assessment of ionospheric gradients observed in Ecuador during 2013 and 2014 for ground based augmentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Naranjo, S.; Rincón, W.; Ramos-Pollán, R.; González, F. A.; Soley, S.

    2017-04-01

    Ground Based Augmentation Systems GBAS provide differential corrections to approaching and landing aircrafts in the vicinities of an airport. The ionosphere can introduce an error not accountable by those differential corrections, and a threat model for the Conterminous United States region CONUS was developed in order to consider the highest gradients measured. This study presents the first extensive analysis of ionospheric gradients for Ecuador, from data fully covering 2013 and 2014 collected by their national Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS monitoring network (REGME). In this work it is applied an automated methodology adapted for low latitudes for processing data from dual frequency receivers networks, by considering data from all available days in the date range of the study regardless the geomagnetic indices values. The events found above the CONUS threat model occurred during days of nominal geomagnetic indices, confirming: (1) the higher bounds required for an ionospheric threat model for Ecuador, and (2) that geomagnetic indices are not enough to indicate relevant ionospheric anomalies in low latitude regions, reinforcing the necessity of a continuous monitoring of ionosphere. As additional contribution, the events database is published online, making it available to other researchers.

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE IONOSPHERE ON GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE GLOBAL EPOCH OF REIONIZATION SIGNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Marcin; Wayth, Randall B.; Tremblay, Steven E.; Tingay, Steven J.; Waterson, Mark; Tickner, Jonathan; Emrich, David; Schlagenhaufer, Franz; Kenney, David; Padhi, Shantanu, E-mail: marcin.sokolowski@curtin.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, G.P.O Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    The redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen (H i), potentially observable at low radio frequencies (∼50–200 MHz), is a promising probe of the physical conditions of the intergalactic medium during Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). The sky-averaged H i signal is expected to be extremely weak (∼100 mK) in comparison to the Galactic foreground emission (∼10{sup 4} K). Moreover, the sky-averaged spectra measured by ground-based instruments are affected by chromatic propagation effects (∼tens of kelvin) originating in the ionosphere. We analyze data collected with the upgraded Broadband Instrument for Global Hydrogen Reionization Signal system deployed at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory to assess the significance of ionospheric effects on the detection of the global EoR signal. The ionospheric effects identified in these data are, particularly during nighttime, dominated by absorption and emission. We measure some properties of the ionosphere, such as the electron temperature (T{sub e} ≈ 470 K at nighttime), magnitude, and variability of optical depth (τ{sub 100} {sub MHz} ≈ 0.01 and δτ ≈ 0.005 at nighttime). According to the results of a statistical test applied on a large data sample, very long integrations (∼100 hr collected over approximately 2 months) lead to increased signal-to-noise ratio even in the presence of ionospheric variability. This is further supported by the structure of the power spectrum of the sky temperature fluctuations, which has flicker noise characteristics at frequencies ≳10{sup −5} Hz, but becomes flat below ≈10{sup −5} Hz. Hence, we conclude that the stochastic error introduced by the chromatic ionospheric effects tends to zero in an average. Therefore, the ionospheric effects and fluctuations are not fundamental impediments preventing ground-based instruments from integrating down to the precision required by global EoR experiments, provided that the ionospheric contribution is

  18. The Effects of the Ionosphere on Ground-based Detection of the Global 21 cm Signal from the Cosmic Dawn and the Dark Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhirup; Bradley, Richard; Burns, Jack O.; Harker, Geraint; Komjathy, Attila; Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2016-11-01

    Detection of the global H i 21 cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization is the key science driver for several ongoing ground-based and future ground-/space-based experiments. The crucial spectral features in the global 21 cm signal (turning points) occur at low radio frequencies ≲ 100 {{MHz}}. In addition to the human-generated radio frequency interference, Earth’s ionosphere drastically corrupts low-frequency radio observations from the ground. In this paper, we examine the effects of time-varying ionospheric refraction, absorption, and thermal emission at these low radio frequencies and their combined effect on any ground-based global 21 cm experiment. It should be noted that this is the first study of the effect of a dynamic ionosphere on global 21 cm experiments. The fluctuations in the ionosphere are influenced by solar activity with flicker noise characteristics. The same characteristics are reflected in the ionospheric corruption to any radio signal passing through the ionosphere. As a result, any ground-based observations of the faint global 21 cm signal are corrupted by flicker noise (or 1/f noise, where f is the dynamical frequency) which scales as {ν }-2 (where ν is the frequency of radio observation) in the presence of a bright galactic foreground (\\propto {ν }-s, where s is the radio spectral index). Hence, the calibration of the ionosphere for any such experiment is critical. Any attempt to calibrate the ionospheric effects will be subject to the inaccuracies in the current ionospheric measurements using Global Positioning System (GPS) ionospheric measurements, riometer measurements, ionospheric soundings, etc. Even considering an optimistic improvement in the accuracy of GPS-total electron content measurements, we conclude that Earth’s ionosphere poses a significant challenge in the absolute detection of the global 21 cm signal below 100 MHz.

  19. Using Locally Generated Magnetic Indices to Characterize the Ionosphere From Magnetic Data Acquisition System (Magdas Ground Based Observatories in Nigeria.

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    U.C. Rabiu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an attempt to establish a baseline for geomagnetic indices inNigeria. This is particularly very crucial since these indices give indications of theseverity of magnetic fluctuations, and hence the level of disturbances in theionosphere. K (an index which measures the magnetic perturbations of theplanetary field and A (a linear measure of the Earth's field that provides a dailyaverage level for geomagnetic activity geomagnetic indices were generated locallyfrom geomagnetic data obtained using ground based MAGDAS magnetometerslocated at Abuja (9 ̊ 40’N, 7 ̊ 29’E, Ilorin (8 ̊30’N, 4 ̊33’E and Lagos (6 ̊27’N,3 ̊23’E in Nigeria using Computer-based derivation. The indices generated wereused to characterize the ionosphere over the Magdas magnetometer Nigerianetwork stations. Results obtained showed average K values of 3.5 (ABU, 4.60(LAG and 4.13 (ILR, the ionosphere over the three stations was found to berelatively active (4.08 thus setting the baseline for characterizing the ionosphereover Nigeria from ground based magnetometers.

  20. ULTIMA: Array of ground-based magnetometer arrays for monitoring magnetospheric and ionospheric perturbations on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, K.; Chi, P. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Connors, M. G.; Engebretson, M. J.; Fraser, B. J.; Mann, I. R.; Milling, D. K.; Moldwin, M. B.; Russell, C. T.; Stolle, C.; Tanskanen, E.; Vallante, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.

    2012-12-01

    ULTIMA (Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array) is an international consortium that aims at promoting collaborative research on the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere through the use of ground-based magnetic field observatories. ULTIMA is joined by individual magnetometer arrays in different countries/regions, and the current regular-member arrays are Australian, AUTUMN, CARISMA, DTU Space, Falcon, IGPP-LANL, IMAGE, MACCS, MAGDAS, McMAC, MEASURE, THEMIS, and SAMBA. The Chair of ULTIMA has been K. Yumoto (MAGDAS), and its Secretary has been P. Chi (McMAC, Falcon). In this paper we perform case studies in which we estimate the global patterns of (1) near-Earth currents and (2) magnetic pulsations; these phenomena are observed over wide areas on the ground, thus suitable for the aims of ULTIMA. We analyze these two phenomena during (a) quiet period and (b) magnetic storm period. We compare the differences between these two periods by drawing the global maps of the ionospheric equivalent currents (which include the effects of all the near-Earth currents) and pulsation amplitudes. For ionospheric Sq currents at low latitudes during quiet periods, MAGDAS data covering an entire solar cycle has yielded a detailed statistical model, and we can use it as a reference for the aforementioned comparison. We also estimate the azimuthal wave numbers of pulsations and compare the amplitude distribution of pulsations with the distribution of highly energetic (in MeV range) particles simultaneously observed at geosynchronous satellites.

  1. The impact of the ionosphere on ground-based detection of the global Epoch of Reionisation signal

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    Sokolowski, Marcin; Tremblay, Steven E; Tingay, Steven J; Waterson, Mark; Tickner, Jonathan; Emrich, David; Schlagenhaufer, Franz; Kenney, David; Padhi, Shantanu

    2015-01-01

    The redshifted 21cm line of neutral hydrogen (Hi), potentially observable at low radio frequencies (~50-200 MHz), is a promising probe of the physical conditions of the inter-galactic medium during Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR). The sky-averaged Hi signal is expected to be extremely weak (~100 mK) in comparison to the Galactic foreground emission (~$10^4$ K). Moreover, the sky-averaged spectra measured by ground-based instruments are affected by chromatic propagation effects (of the order of tens of Kelvins) originating in the ionosphere. We analyze data collected with the upgraded BIGHORNS system deployed at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory to assess the significance of ionospheric effects (absorption, emission and refraction) on the detection of the global EoR signal. We measure some properties of the ionosphere, such as the electron temperature ($T_e \\approx$470 K at nighttime), magnitude, and variability of optical depth ($\\tau_{100 MHz} \\approx$0.01 and $\\delta \\tau \\approx$0.0...

  2. Assimilative Modeling of Ionospheric Disturbances with FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and Ground-Based GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Pi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The four-dimensional Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM is applied to a study of ionospheric disturbances. The investigation is focused on disturbance features, particularly in the altitude and latitude dimensions, at low latitudes during a geomagnetic storm on 7 August 2006, under solar minimum conditions. The modeling of storm-time ionospheric state (electron density is conducted by assimilating an unprecedented volume of line-of-sight TEC data collected by the Global Positioning System (GPS occultation receivers on board six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites and geodetic-quality GPS receivers at two hundred globally-distributed ground tracking stations.With a band-limited Kalman filter technique to update the ionospheric state, the assimilative modeling reveals a pronounced enhancement in the equatorial anomaly in the East Asia sector during dusk and evening hours. The disturbance characteristics, obtained by comparing with the quiet conditions prior to the storm also modeled in this study through data assimilation, include lifted F layer and reduced electron density in the equatorial region, enhanced density at the magnetically conjugate anomaly latitudes, and tilted feature of density increase towards higher altitudes at lower latitudes. The characteristics are attributed to the enhanced plasma fountain effect driven by an enhanced eastward zonal electric field. These results enable us to distinguish the storm-time electric field perturbations clearly from other sources during the storm. The possible origins of electric field perturbations are also discussed, including penetration of the magnetospheric electric field and wind dynamo disturbances.

  3. Artificial ionospheric modification: The Metal Oxide Space Cloud experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Ronald G.; Pedersen, Todd R.; Groves, Keith M.; Hines, Jack; Cannon, Paul S.; Jackson-Booth, Natasha; Parris, Richard T.; Holmes, Jeffrey M.; Su, Yi-Jiun; Mishin, Evgeny V.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Ard, Shaun G.; Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Retterer, John; Kudeki, Erhan; Reyes, Pablo M.

    2017-05-01

    Clouds of vaporized samarium (Sm) were released during sounding rocket flights from the Reagan Test Site, Kwajalein Atoll in May 2013 as part of the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment. A network of ground-based sensors observed the resulting clouds from five locations in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Of primary interest was an examination of the extent to which a tailored radio frequency (RF) propagation environment could be generated through artificial ionospheric modification. The MOSC experiment consisted of launches near dusk on two separate evenings each releasing 6 kg of Sm vapor at altitudes near 170 km and 180 km. Localized plasma clouds were generated through a combination of photoionization and chemi-ionization (Sm + O → SmO+ + e-) processes producing signatures visible in optical sensors, incoherent scatter radar, and in high-frequency (HF) diagnostics. Here we present an overview of the experiment payloads, document the flight characteristics, and describe the experimental measurements conducted throughout the 2 week launch window. Multi-instrument analysis including incoherent scatter observations, HF soundings, RF beacon measurements, and optical data provided the opportunity for a comprehensive characterization of the physical, spectral, and plasma density composition of the artificial plasma clouds as a function of space and time. A series of companion papers submitted along with this experimental overview provide more detail on the individual elements for interested readers.

  4. C/NOFS satellite observations of equatorial ionospheric plasma structures supported by multiple ground-based diagnostics in October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, M.; Basu, Su.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Sheehan, R. E.; Roddy, P. A.; Groves, K. M.

    2011-10-01

    In early October 2008, the C/NOFS satellite orbited near the magnetic equator at its perigee altitude of ˜400 km at dusk in the Peruvian sector. This provided an ideal opportunity for a comparison, under the current very low solar flux condition, of equatorial ionospheric disturbances observed with the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) in situ measurements and ground-based observations available near Jicamarca Observatory. The primary objective was the comparison of plasma density disturbances measured by a Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) instrument on the C/NOFS satellite with VHF scintillation activity at Ancon near Jicamarca for this period. Here we discuss in detail two extreme cases: one in which severe in situ disturbances were accompanied by mild scintillation on a particular day, namely, 10 October while there was little in situ disturbance with strong scintillation on 5 October. This apparent contradiction was diagnosed further by a latitudinal ground-based GPS network at Peruvian longitudes, a Digisonde, and the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) at Jicamarca. The crucial distinction was provided by the behavior of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The EIA was well-developed on the day having severe in situ disturbances (10 Oct). This led to lower equatorial plasma density and total electron content (TEC) at the equator and consequently reduced the scintillations detected at Ancon. On the other hand, on the day with severe scintillations (5 Oct), the EIA was not so well developed as on 10 October, leading to relatively higher equatorial plasma density and TEC. Consequently the severe scintillations at Ancon were likely caused by ionospheric structure located below the altitude of C/NOFS. The NRL SAMI2 model was utilized to gain a greater understanding of the role of neutral winds and electric fields in reproducing the TEC as a function of latitude for both classes of irregularities. Spectral studies with high resolution in situ

  5. Variations of the ionospheric parameters obtained from ground based measurements of ULF magnetic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Elena; Kotik, Dmitry; Bösinger, Tilmann

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of the amplitude spectra and polarization parameter (epsilon)[1] of magnetic ULF noise were investigated during different seasons and high geomagnetic activity time using the data on the horizontal magnetic components monitoring at mid-latitude (New Life, Russia, 56 N, 46 E) and low-latitude stations (Crete, 35.15 N, 25.20 E). It was found that abrupt changes in the spectral polarization parameters can be linked as with variation of height of maximum and the electron density of the F-layer, and with a change in ionospheric parameters profiles at lower altitudes, for example, with the appearance of sporadic Es-layers and intermediate layers, located between the E and F-layers. It was detected the peculiarities in the daily dynamics of the epsilon parameter at low latitudes: a) the appearance in some cases more complicated than in the mid-latitudes, epsilon structure of the spectrum associated with the presence of two different values of the boundary frequency fB [2]; b) a decreasing of fB near local midnight observed in 70% of cases; c) observation of typical for dark time epsilon spectra after sunrise in the winter season. The numerical calculations of epsilon parameter were made using the IRI-2012 model with setting the models of sporadic and intermediate layers. The results revealed the dependence of the polarization spectra of the intensity and height of such thin layers. The specific changes in the electron density at altitudes of 80-350 km during the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms were defined basing on a comparative analysis of the experimental spectra and the results of the numerical calculations. References. 1. E. N. Ermakova, D. S. Kotik, A. V.Ryabov, A. V.Pershin, T. B.osinger, and Q. Zhou, Studying the variation of the broadband spectral maximum parameters in the natural ULF fields, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 10-11, March, 2013 p. 605-615. 2. T. Bosinger, A. G. Demekhov, E. N. Ermakova, C. Haldoupis and Q

  6. Effects Of The Ionosphere On Ground-Based Detection Of The Global 21 CM Signal From The Cosmic Dawn And The Dark Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Abhirup; Burns, Jack O; Harker, Geraint; Komjathy, Attila; Lazio, T Joseph W

    2014-01-01

    Detection of global HI 21 cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization is the key science driver for several ongoing ground-based and future ground/space based experiments. The crucial spectral features in the global 21cm signal (turning points) occurs at low radio frequencies < 100 MHz. In addition to the human-generated RFI (Radio Frequency Interference), Earth's ionosphere drastically corrupts low-frequency radio observations from the ground. In this paper, we examine the effects of time-varying ionospheric refraction, absorption and thermal emission at these low radio frequencies and their combined effect on any ground-based global 21cm experiment. It should be noted that this is the first study of the effect of a dynamic ionosphere on global 21cm experiments. Our results indicate that the spectral features in the global 21cm signal below 100 MHz cannot be detected from the ground under even "quiet" night-time ionospheric conditions. Any attempt to calibrate the ionospheric effect will ...

  7. Using the IRI, the MAGIC model, and the co-located ground-based GPS receivers to study ionospheric solar eclipse and storm signatures on July 22, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Yen; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Chien-Hung; Sun, Yang-Yi; Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.; Kakinami, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-01

    The longest total solar eclipse in the 21st century occurred in Southeast Asia on 22 July 2009 from 00:55 to 04:15 UT, and was accompanied by a moderate magnetic storm starting at 03:00 UT with a D st reduction of -78 nT at 07:00 UT. In this study, we use the ionospheric reference model IRI, the data assimilation model MAGIC, and ground-based GPS receivers to simulate and examine the ionospheric solar eclipse and geomagnetic storm signatures in Taiwan and Japan. Cross-comparisons between the two model results and observations show that IRI fails to simulate the two signatures while MAGIC partially reproduces the storm features. It is essential to include ground-based GPS measurements to improve the IRI performance.

  8. New-Measurement Techniques to Diagnose Charged Dust and Plasma Layers in the Near-Earth Space Environment Using Ground-Based Ionospheric Heating Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudian, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Recently, experimental observations have shown that radar echoes from the irregularitysource region associated with mesospheric dusty space plasmas may be modulated by radio wave heating with ground-based ionospheric heating facilities. These experiments show great promise as a diagnostic for the associated dusty plasma in the Near-Earth Space Environment which is believed to have links to global change. This provides an alternative to more complicated and costly space-based observational app...

  9. Mapping plasma structures in the high-latitude ionosphere using beacon satellite, incoherent scatter radar and ground-based magnetometer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neubert

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of the year 2000, four radio receivers capable of tracking various beacon satellites were set up along the southwestern coast of Greenland. They are used to reconstruct images of the ionospheric plasma density distribution via the tomographic method. In order to test and validate tomographic imaging under the highly variable conditions often prevailing in the high-latitude ionosphere, a time interval was selected when the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar conducted measurements of the ionospheric plasma density while the radio receivers tracked a number of beacon satellites. A comparison between two-dimensional images of the plasma density distribution obtained from the radar and the satellite receivers revealed generally good agreement between radar measurements and tomographic images. Observed discrepancies can be attributed to F region plasma patches moving through the field of view with a speed of several hundred meters per second, thereby smearing out the tomographic image. A notable mismatch occurred around local magnetic midnight when a magnetospheric substorm breakup occurred in the vicinity of southwest Greenland (identified from ground-based magnetometer observations. The breakup was associated with a sudden intensification of the westward auroral electrojet which was centered at about 69 and extended up to some 73 corrected geomagnetic latitude. Ground-based magnetometer data may thus have the potential of indicating when the tomographic method is at risk and may fail. We finally outline the application of tomographic imaging, when combined with magnetic field data, to estimate ionospheric Joule heating rates.

  10. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Spencer P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York University, 5 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  11. Analysis of ionospheric electrodynamic parameters on mesoscales – a review of selected techniques using data from ground-based observation networks and satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of selected data-analysis methods that are frequently applied in studies of ionospheric electrodynamics and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling using ground-based and space-based data sets. Our focus is on methods that are data driven (not simulations or statistical models and can be used in mesoscale studies, where the analysis area is typically some hundreds or thousands of km across. The selection of reviewed methods is such that most combinations of measured input data (electric field, conductances, magnetic field and currents that occur in practical applications are covered. The techniques are used to solve the unmeasured parameters from Ohm's law and Maxwell's equations, possibly with help of some simplifying assumptions. In addition to reviewing existing data-analysis methods, we also briefly discuss possible extensions that may be used for upcoming data sets.

  12. Coordinated polar spacecraft, geosynchronous spacecraft, and ground-based observations of magnetopause processes and their coupling to the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le

    2004-12-01

    an indirect cause of the observed Pc5 pulsations. During the same interval, two flux transfer events were also observed in the magnetosphere near the oscillating magnetopause. Their ground signatures were identified in the CANOPUS data. The time delays of the FTE signatures from the Polar spacecraft to the ground stations enable us to estimate that the longitudinal extent of the reconnection X-line at the magnetopause was ~43° or ~5.2 RE. The coordinated in-situ and ground-based observations suggest that FTEs are produced by transient reconnection taking place along a single extended X-line at the magnetopause, as suggested in the models by Scholer (1988 and Southwood et al. (1988. The observations from this study suggest that the reconnection occurred in two different forms simultaneously in the same general region at the dayside magnetopause: 1 continuous reconnection with a pulsed reconnection rate, and 2 transient reconnection as flux transfer events.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; MHD waves and instabilities

  13. Mesoscale structure of a morning sector ionospheric shear flow region determined by conjugate Cluster II and MIRACLE ground-based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm

    Full Text Available We analyse a conjunction event of the Cluster II spacecraft with the MIRACLE ground-based instrument net-work in northern Fennoscandia on 6 February 2001, between 23:00 and 00:00 UT. Shortly after the spacecraft were located at perigee, the Cluster II satellites’ magnetic footpoints move northwards over Scandinavia and Svalbard, almost perfectly aligned with the central chain of the IMAGE magnetometer network, and cross a morning sector ionospheric shear zone during this passage. In this study we focus on the mesoscale structure of the ionosphere. Ionospheric conductances, true horizontal currents, and field-aligned currents (FAC are calculated from the ground-based measurements of the IMAGE magnetometers and the STARE coherent scatter radar, using the 1-D method of characteristics. An excellent agreement between these results and the FAC observed by Cluster II is reached after averaging the Cluster measurements to mesoscales, as well as between the location of the convection reversal boundary (CRB, as observed by STARE and by the Cluster II EFW instrument. A sheet of downward FAC is observed in the vicinity of the CRB, which is mainly caused by the positive divergence of the electric field there. This FAC sheet is detached by 0.5°–2° of latitude from a more equatorward downward FAC sheet at the poleward flank of the westward electrojet. This latter FAC sheet, as well as the upward FAC at the equatorward flank of the jet, are mainly caused by meridional gradients in the ionospheric conductances, which reach up to 25 S in the electrojet region, but only ~ 5 S poleward of it, with a minimum at the CRB. Particle measurements show that the major part of the downward FAC is carried by upward flowing electrons, and only a small part by downward flowing ions. The open-closed field line boundary is found to be located 3°–4° poleward of the CRB, implying significant errors if the latter is used as a proxy of the former.

    Key words

  14. Ground-based observations of the auroral zone and polar cap ionospheric responses to dayside transient reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Davies

    Full Text Available Observations from the EISCAT VHF incoherent scatter radar system in northern Norway, during a run of the common programme CP-4, reveal a series of poleward-propagating F-region electron density enhancements in the pre-noon sector on 23 November 1999. These plasma density features, which are observed under conditions of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field, exhibit a recurrence rate of under 10 min and appear to emanate from the vicinity of the open/closed field-line boundary from where they travel into the polar cap; this is suggestive of their being an ionospheric response to transient reconnection at the day-side magnetopause (flux transfer events. Simultaneous with the density structures detected by the VHF radar, poleward-moving radar auroral forms (PMRAFs are observed by the Finland HF coherent scatter radar. It is thought that PM-RAFs, which are commonly observed near local noon by HF radars, are also related to flux transfer events, although the specific mechanism for the generation of the field-aligned irregularities within such features is not well understood. The HF observations suggest, that for much of their existence, the PMRAFs trace fossil signatures of transient reconnection rather than revealing the footprint of active reconnection itself; this is evidenced not least by the fact that the PMRAFs become narrower in spectral width as they evolve away from the region of more classical, broad cusp scatter in which they originate. Interpretation of the HF observations with reference to the plasma parameters diagnosed by the incoherent scatter radar suggests that as the PMRAFs migrate away from the reconnection site and across the polar cap, entrained in the ambient antisunward flow, the irregularities therein are generated by the presence of gradients in the electron density, with these gradients having been formed through structuring of the ionosphere in the cusp region in response to transient reconnection

  15. Comparison of midlatitude ionospheric F region peak parameters and topside Ne profiles from IRI2012 model prediction with ground-based ionosonde and Alouette II observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiyenko, G. I.; Yakovets, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    The ionospheric F2 peak parameters recorded by a ground-based ionosonde at the midlatitude station Alma-Ata [43.25N, 76.92E] were compared with those obtained using the latest version of the IRI model (http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/vitmo/iri2012_vitmo.html). It was found that for the Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan) location, the IRI2012 model describes well the morphology of seasonal and diurnal variations of the ionospheric critical frequency (foF2) and peak density height (hmF2) monthly medians. The model errors in the median foF2 prediction (percentage deviations between the median foF2 values and their model predictions) were found to vary approximately in the range from about -20% to 34% and showed a stable overestimation in the median foF2 values for daytime in January and July and underestimation for day- and nighttime hours in the equinoctial months. The comparison between the ionosonde hmF2 and IRI results clearly showed that the IRI overestimates the nighttime hmF2 values for March and September months, and the difference is up to 30 km. The daytime Alma-Ata hmF2 data were found to be close to the IRI predictions (deviations are approximately ±10-15 km) in winter and equinoctial months, except in July when the observed hmF2 values were much more (from approximately 50-200 km). The comparison between the Alouette foF2 data and IRI predictions showed mixed results. In particular, the Alouette foF2 data showed a tendency to be overestimated for daytime in winter months similar to the ionosonde data; however, the overestimated foF2 values for nighttime in the autumn equinox were in disagreement with the ionosonde observations. There were large deviations between the observed hmF2 values and their model predictions. The largest deviations were found during winter and summer (up to -90 km). The comparison of the Alouette II electron density profiles with those predicted by the adapted IRI2012 model in the altitude range hmF2 of the satellite position showed a great

  16. Ground-based observations of Saturn's auroral ionosphere over three days: Trends in H3+ temperature, density and emission with Saturn local time and planetary period oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, James; Melin, Henrik; Stallard, Tom S.; Provan, G.; Moore, Luke; Badman, Sarah V.; Cowley, Stan W. H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Miller, Steve; Blake, James S. D.

    2016-01-01

    On 19-21 April 2013, the ground-based 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope was used to simultaneously measure H3+ emissions from four regions of Saturn's auroral ionosphere: (1) the northern noon region of the main auroral oval; (2) the northern midnight main oval; (3) the northern polar cap and (4) the southern noon main oval. The H3+ emission from these regions was captured in the form of high resolution spectral images as the planet rotated. The results herein contain twenty-three H3+ temperatures, column densities and total emissions located in the aforementioned regions - ninety-two data points in total, spread over timescales of both hours and days. Thermospheric temperatures in the spring-time northern main oval are found to be cooler than their autumn-time southern counterparts by tens of K, consistent with the hypothesis that the total thermospheric heating rate is inversely proportional to magnetic field strength. The main oval H3+ density and emission is lower at northern midnight than it is at noon, in agreement with a nearby peak in the electron influx in the post-dawn sector and a minimum flux at midnight. Finally, when arranging the northern main oval H3+ parameters as a function of the oscillation period seen in Saturn's magnetic field - the planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase - we see a large peak in H3+ density and emission at ∼115° northern phase, with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ∼44°. This seems to indicate that the influx of electrons associated with the PPO phase at 90° is responsible at least in part for the behavior of all H3+ parameters. A combination of the H3+ production and loss timescales and the ±10° uncertainty in the location of a given PPO phase are likely, at least in part, to be responsible for the observed peaks in H3+ density and emission occurring at a later time than the peak precipitation expected at 90° PPO phase.

  17. Basis of Ionospheric Modification by High-Frequency Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    for conducting ionospheric heating experiments in Gakona, Alaska, as part of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) [5], is being...upgraded. The upgraded HAARP HF transmitting system will be a phased-array antenna of 180 elements. Each element is a cross dipole, which radiates a...supported by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ), the Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, and by the Office

  18. Propagation of interplanetary shock excited ultra low frequency (ULF) waves in magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere——Multi-spacecraft “Cluster” and ground-based magnetometer observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultra low frequency (ULF) wave in magnetosphere can act as an important means for solar wind energy inward transmission.This paper quantitatively analyzes the propagation process of the ULF wave triggered by the interplanetary shock propagating from inner magnetosphere equatorial plane along magnetic field lines to the top of the ionosphere and below ionosphere propagating process and establishes a relatively complete magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere propagation model which can be used to study the relationship between the amplitude of the ULF waves triggered by the interplanetary shock wave in magnetospheric space and the magnetic effect caused by the ULF waves.After a comparison with recent observations,we found that: in the event during November 7,2004 that an interplanetary shock wave interacted with the magnetosphere,Cluster satellites observed that electric field fluctuations and the band-pass filtered result of ground stations meridional component had similar characteristics.Comparing with the geomagnetic measurement near the footprints,we found that the electric field disturbance in the magnetosphere spread along the ground magnetic field lines in the form of the ULF waves and changed into geomagnetic disturbance.The result reveals that the ULF wave is in contact with the ground geomagnetic observation.The ULF waves couple with ionized components in ionosphere and spread to the ground in the form of electromagnetic waves.In this research,we believe that the magnetosphere,ionosphere and ground magnetic effects caused by interplanetary shock wave are the same physical phenomena responding in different locations.Based on the overall consideration of entire electromagnetic response to the interplanetary shock wave,we found that the correlation between CLUSTER multi-satellite observation and geomagnetic station observation is due to the ULF wave propagated in magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere system,and we quantitatively interpreted this response

  19. Dynamics of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities caused by a powerful radio emission of the Sura facility from the data collected onto ground-based GNSS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogogin, D. A.; Nasyrov, I. A.; Grach, S. M.; Shindin, A. V.; Zagretdinov, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of variations in the total electron content of the Earth's ionosphere along the GPS satellite signal propagation path are described. The signal parameters were measured at a network of receivers at three distant sites: Sura (Vasilsursk), Zelenodolsk, and Kazan. They are arranged along the geomagnetic latitude of the Sura Facility under short-wave radio irradiation of the ionosphere. One feature of the experiment is the crossing of a disturbed region by the radio path between a GPS satellite and Vasilsursk. This resulted from the angular sizes of the Sura array pattern; the radio paths between a GPS satellite and Zelenodolsk and a GPS satellite and Kazan did not cross. Variations in the total electron content of up to 0.15-0.3 TECU were revealed at all three sites during four experimental campaigns (March 2010, March 2013, May 2013, and November 2013). The lateral scale of an ionospheric disturbance stimulated by a high-power radio wave and the velocity of its west-to-east propagation along the geomagnetic latitude were 30-60 km and 270-350 m/s, respectively. A decrease in the total electron content (down to 0.55 TECU) was recorded along the Kazan-Zelenodolsk-Vasilsurks line, which is connected with the solar terminator transit; the lateral scale of the related ionospheric inhomogeneities was 65-80 km.

  20. A modification to the ionospheric correction method used in GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, S. B.; Culverwell, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    A modification to the standard bending angle correction used in GPS radio occultation is proposed. The modified approach should reduce systematic residual ionospheric errors in GPS radio occultation climatologies. A new second order term is introduced in order to account for a known source of systematic error, which is generally neglected. The new term has the form κ(a) × (αL1 (a)-αL1(a))2, where a is the impact parameter, and (αL1, αL2) are the L1 and L2 bending angles, respectively. The variable κ is a weak function of impact parameter, a, but it does depend on a priori ionospheric information. The theoretical basis of the new term is examined. The sensitivity of κ to the assumed ionospheric parameters is investigated in one-dimensional simulations, and it is shown that κ ≃ 10-20 rad-1. We note that the current implicit assumption is κ = 0, and this is probably adequate for numerical weather prediction applications. However, the uncertainty in κ should be included in the uncertainty estimates for the geophysical climatologies produced from GPS-RO measurements. The limitations of the new ionospheric correction when applied to CHAMP measurements are noted. These arise because of the assumption that the refractive index is unity at the satellite, made when deriving bending angles from the Doppler shift values.

  1. A modification to the standard ionospheric correction method used in GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, S. B.; Culverwell, I. D.

    2015-08-01

    A modification to the standard bending-angle correction used in GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) is proposed. The modified approach should reduce systematic residual ionospheric errors in GPS radio occultation climatologies. A new second-order term is introduced in order to account for a known source of systematic error, which is generally neglected. The new term has the form κ(a) × (αL1(a)-αL2(a))2, where a is the impact parameter and (αL1, αL2) are the L1 and L2 bending angles, respectively. The variable κ is a weak function of the impact parameter, a, but it does depend on a priori ionospheric information. The theoretical basis of the new term is examined. The sensitivity of κ to the assumed ionospheric parameters is investigated in one-dimensional simulations, and it is shown that κ ≃ 10-20 rad-1. We note that the current implicit assumption is κ=0, and this is probably adequate for numerical weather prediction applications. However, the uncertainty in κ should be included in the uncertainty estimates for the geophysical climatologies produced from GPS-RO measurements. The limitations of the new ionospheric correction when applied to CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) measurements are noted. These arise because of the assumption that the refractive index is unity at the satellite, made when deriving bending angles from the Doppler shift values.

  2. Estimating ionospheric currents by inversion from ground-based geomagnetic data and calculating geoelectric fields for studies of geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, J. S.; Pirjola, R. J.; Cilliers, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    This research focuses on the inversion of geomagnetic variation field measurements to obtain the source currents in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to determine the geoelectric fields at the Earth's surface. During geomagnetic storms, the geoelectric fields create geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power networks. These GIC may disturb the operation of power systems, cause damage to power transformers, and even result in power blackouts. In this model, line currents running east-west along given latitudes are postulated to exist at a certain height above the Earth's surface. This physical arrangement results in the fields on the ground being composed of a zero magnetic east component and a nonzero electric east component. The line current parameters are estimated by inverting Fourier integrals (over wavenumber) of elementary geomagnetic fields using the Levenberg-Marquardt technique. The output parameters of the model are the ionospheric current strength and the geoelectric east component at the Earth's surface. A conductivity profile of the Earth is adapted from a shallow layered-Earth model for one observatory, together with a deep-layer model derived from satellite observations. This profile is used to obtain the ground surface impedance and therefore the reflection coefficient in the integrals. The inputs for the model are a spectrum of the geomagnetic data for 31 May 2013. The output parameters of the model are spectrums of the ionospheric current strength and of the surface geoelectric field. The inverse Fourier transforms of these spectra provide the time variations on the same day. The geoelectric field data can be used as a proxy for GIC in the prediction of GIC for power utilities. The current strength data can assist in the interpretation of upstream solar wind behaviour.

  3. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  4. Saturation and hysteresis effects in ionospheric modification experiments observed by the CUTLASS and EISCAT radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wright

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of high latitude ionospheric modification experiments utilising the EISCAT heating facility at Tromsø are presented. As a result of the interaction between the high power pump waves and upper hybrid waves in the ionosphere, field-aligned electron density irregularities are artificially excited. Observations of these structures with the CUTLASS coherent HF radars and the EISCAT incoherent UHF radar exhibit hysteresis effects as the heater output power is varied. These are explained in terms of the two-stage mechanism which leads to the growth of the irregularities. Experiments which involve preconditioning of the ionosphere also indicate that hysteresis could be exploited to maximise the intensity of the field-aligned irregularities, especially where the available heater power is limited.

    In addition, the saturation of the irregularity amplitude is considered. Although, the rate of irregularity growth becomes less rapid at high heater powers it does not seem to fully saturate, indicating that the amplification would continue beyond the capabilities of the Tromsø heater - currently the most powerful of its kind. It is shown that the CUTLASS radars are sensitive to irregularities produced by very low heater powers (effective radiated powers <4 MW. This fact is discussed from the perspective of a new heating facility, SPEAR, located on Spitzbergen and capable of transmitting high frequency radio waves with an effective radiated power ~10% of that of the Tromsø heater (28MW.

  5. Saturation and hysteresis effects in ionospheric modification experiments observed by the CUTLASS and EISCAT radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. M.; Davies, J. A.; Yeoman, T. K.; Robinson, T. R.; Shergill, H.

    2006-03-01

    The results of high latitude ionospheric modification experiments utilising the EISCAT heating facility at Tromsø are presented. As a result of the interaction between the high power pump waves and upper hybrid waves in the ionosphere, field-aligned electron density irregularities are artificially excited. Observations of these structures with the CUTLASS coherent HF radars and the EISCAT incoherent UHF radar exhibit hysteresis effects as the heater output power is varied. These are explained in terms of the two-stage mechanism which leads to the growth of the irregularities. Experiments which involve preconditioning of the ionosphere also indicate that hysteresis could be exploited to maximise the intensity of the field-aligned irregularities, especially where the available heater power is limited. In addition, the saturation of the irregularity amplitude is considered. Although, the rate of irregularity growth becomes less rapid at high heater powers it does not seem to fully saturate, indicating that the amplification would continue beyond the capabilities of the Tromsø heater - currently the most powerful of its kind. It is shown that the CUTLASS radars are sensitive to irregularities produced by very low heater powers (effective radiated powers <4 MW). This fact is discussed from the perspective of a new heating facility, SPEAR, located on Spitzbergen and capable of transmitting high frequency radio waves with an effective radiated power ~10% of that of the Tromsø heater (28MW).

  6. Low-latitude ionosphere response to super geomagnetic storm of 17/18 March 2015: Results from a chain of ground-based observations over Indian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh; Sripathi, S.; Sreekumar, Sreeba; Banola, S.; Emperumal, K.; Tiwari, P.; Kumar, Burudu Suneel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present unique results of equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere response to one of the major geomagnetic storms of the current solar cycle that occurred during 17-18 March 2015, where Dst reached its minimum of -228 nT. Here we utilized data from magnetometers, chain of ionosondes located at Tirunelveli (8.73°N, 77.70°E; geometry: 0.32°N), Hyderabad (17.36°N, 78.47°E; geometry 8.76°N), and Allahabad (25.45°N, 81.85°E; geometry 16.5°N) along with multistation GPS receivers over Indian sector. The observations showed a remarkable increase of h'F to as high as ~560 km over Tirunelveli (magnetic equator) with vertical drift of ~70 m/s at 13:30 UT due to direct penetration of storm time eastward electric fields which exactly coincided with the local time of pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) and caused intense equatorial spread F irregularities in ionosondes and scintillations in GPS receivers at wide latitudes. Plasma irregularities are so intense that their signatures are seen in Allahabad/Lucknow. Storm time thermospheric meridional winds as estimated using two ionosondes suggest the equatorward surge of gravity waves with period of ~2 h. Suppression of anomaly crest on the subsequent day of the storm suggests the complex role of disturbance dynamo electric fields and disturbance wind effects. Our results also show an interesting feature of traveling ionospheric disturbances possibly associated with disturbance meridional wind surge during recovery phase. In addition, noteworthy observations are nighttime westward zonal drifts and PRE-related total electron content enhancements at anomaly crests during main phase and counter electrojet signatures during recovery phase.

  7. Response of equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to 2015 St. Patrick's Day super geomagnetic storm: Results from a chain of ground based observations over Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samireddipalle, Sripathi; Singh, Ram; Sreekumar, Sreeba; Suneel Kumar, Buduru

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present unique results of equatorial and low latitude ionosphere response to one of the major geomagnetic storms of the current solar cycle that occurred during 17-18 March 2015 where Dst reached its minimum of -228 nT. Here we utilized data from magnetometers, chain of ionosondes located at Tirunelveli (8.73°N, 77.70°E; geom: 0.320N), Hyderabad (17.360N, 78.470E; geom: 8.760N) and Allahabad (25.45°N, 81.85°E; geom: 16.50N) along with multi station GPS receivers over Indian sector. The observations showed a remarkable increase of h'F to as high as ~560 km over Tirunelveli (magnetic equator) with vertical drift of ~70 m/s at 13:30 UT due to direct penetration of storm time eastward electric fields which exactly coincided with the local time of Pre-Reversal Enhancement (PRE) and caused intense ESF irregularities in ionosondes and scintillations in GPS receivers at wide latitudes. Plasma irregularities are so intense that their signatures are seen in Allahabad/Lucknow. Stormtime thermospheric meridional winds as estimated using two ionosondes suggest the equatorward surge of gravity waves with period of ~2 hrs. Suppression of anomaly crest on the subsequent day of the storm suggests the complex role of disturbance dynamo electric fields and disturbance wind effects. Our results also show an interesting feature of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) possibly associated with disturbance meridional wind surge during recovery phase. In addition, noteworthy observations are nighttime westward zonal drifts and PRE related TEC enhancements at anomaly crests during main phase and CEJ signatures during recovery phase.

  8. On the Additional Absorption of Radio Emission from Discrete Cosmic Sources Under HF Modification of the Lower Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrodny, V. G.; Charkina, O. V.; Yampolski, Yu. M.

    2015-12-01

    The possibilities of modification of a weakly ionized plasma are investigated theoretically and experimentally within different electron density behavior models. The dependence of the additional absorption of radiation of discreet cosmic sources Cassiopeia A and Cygnus A in the artificially disturbed ionospheric D-region on the amplitude of heating signal during the special measuring campaigns of February and October 2008 has been analyzed. The ionosphere has been modified with using the world most powerful HAARP heater, Alaska, USA. The 64 beam riometer located in the immediate vicinity of the heater was used as the recording system.

  9. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  10. Modification of magnetic signals of short-period pulsations by the ionosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru, Fujita

    1985-01-01

    The transmission, mode conversion, and reflection of HM-waves associated with short-period geomagnetic pulsations through and by the ionosphere are comparatively examined for three different model cases, bearing in mind the localized injection of the shear Alfven wave at high latitude and the consequent horizontal spread of disturbances to low-latitude regions through the ducted propagation in the upper ionosphere. In the first model case composed of two semiinfinite layers (the magnetosphere...

  11. Polarization features of the ELF emissions excited in the outer ionosphere through modification of the ionospheric F-region by high-power HF radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Alexey

    indent=1cm The results of in-situ measurements performed by the onboard equipment of the DEMETER satellite show that the guided ELF emissions can be excited through modification of the ionospheric F-region by high-power HF radio emission from the SURA heating facility. The power spectra of the excited ELF waves have a sharp upper frequency cutoff at the local proton gyrofrequency. In this work, we study the propagation and polarization characteristics of the observed ELF emissions using multicomponent measurement of electric and magnetic fields from the DEMETER satellite. For analysis we make use of singular value decomposition (SVD) technique. It is shown that the polar angle of the observed emissions wave vector with respect to ambient magnetic field is less than pi/6. The waves propagate upward in the left-hand-polarized mode. The wave polarization changes from right- to left-handed at the so-called crossover frequency. The obtained results improve the understanding of the generation mechanisms of observed ELF emissions. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 12-02-00747-a), and the Government of the Russian Federation (contract No. 11.G34.31.0048).

  12. Multi Station Frequency Response and Polarization of ELF/VLF Signals Generated via Ionospheric Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworth, Ashanthi; Golkowski, Mark; University of Colorado Denver Team

    2013-10-01

    ELF/VLF wave generation via HF modulated ionospheric heating has been practiced for many years as a unique way to generate waves in the ELF/VLF band (3 Hz - 30 kHz). This paper presents experimental results and associated theoretical modeling from work performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. An experiment was designed to investigate the modulation frequency dependence of the generated ELF/VLF signal amplitudes and polarization at multiple sites at distances of 37 km, 50 km and 99 km from the facility. While no difference is observed for X mode versus O mode modulation of the heating wave, it is found that ELF/VLF amplitude and polarization as a function of modulated ELF/VLF frequency is different for each site. An ionospheric heating code is used to determine the primary current sources leading to the observations.

  13. A Diagnostic System for Studying Energy Partitioning and Assessing the Response of the Ionosphere during HAARP Modification Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Elder, John H.; Williams, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    This research program focused on the construction of several key radio wave diagnostics in support of the HF Active Auroral Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP). Project activities led to the design, development, and fabrication of a variety of hardware units and to the development of several menu-driven software packages for data acquisition and analysis. The principal instrumentation includes an HF (28 MHz) radar system, a VHF (50 MHz) radar system, and a high-speed radar processor consisting of three separable processing units. The processor system supports the HF and VHF radars and is capable of acquiring very detailed data with large incoherent scatter radars. In addition, a tunable HF receiver system having high dynamic range was developed primarily for measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). A separate processor unit was constructed for the SEE receiver. Finally, a large amount of support instrumentation was developed to accommodate complex field experiments. Overall, the HAARP diagnostics are powerful tools for studying diverse ionospheric modification phenomena. They are also flexible enough to support a host of other missions beyond the scope of HAARP. Many new research programs have been initiated by applying the HAARP diagnostics to studies of natural atmospheric processes.

  14. Effects of multiple scatter on the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves in a field-aligned-striated cold magneto-plasma: implications for ionospheric modification experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    Full Text Available A new theory of the propagation of low power electromagnetic test waves through the upper-hybrid resonance layer in the presence of magnetic field-aligned plasma density striations, which includes the effects of multiple scatter, is presented. The case of sinusoidal striations in a cold magnetoplasma is treated rigorously and then extended, in an approximate manner, to the broad-band striation spectrum and warm plasma cases. In contrast to previous, single scatter theories, it is found that the interaction layer is much broader than the wavelength of the test wave. This is due to the combined electric fields of the scattered waves becoming localised on the contour of a fixed plasma density, which corresponds to a constant value for the local upper-hybrid resonance frequency over the whole interaction region. The results are applied to the calculation of the refractive index of an ordinary mode test wave during modification experiments in the ionospheric F-region. Although strong anomalous absorption arises, no new cutoffs occur at the upper-hybrid resonance, so that in contrast to the predictions of previous single scatter theories, no additional reflections occur there. These results are consistent with observations made during ionospheric modification experiments at Tromsø, Norway.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  15. Kinesonde observations of ionosphere modification by intense electromagnetic fields from Platteville, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Observations by the Kinesonde (a multifrequency, spaced antenna, digitized complex-amplitude radio sounding system) of ionospheric responses to excitation by the high-power transmitter at Platteville, Colo., are described. Increases of echo scintillation rate and intensity at frequencies reflected near and far from the excitation level are shown. Significant onset delays of these responses suggest disturbance propagation velocities of a few kilometers per second. Calculated echolocations show a time-dependent development toward the excitation region, again with a delayed response. Comments are offered regarding the relative utility of ionogram and Kinesonde observations for study of these phenomena.

  16. Ionospheric Modification by High Power, Obliquely Propagated HF Radio Wave Transmissions. Part 1. Experimental

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    frequency of the disturbing transmitter is greater than the i.. asma frequency in the ionospheric interaction region. In fact, with many practical radio...NY) lay in the Gulf of Mexico and it was not possible to use an oblique probe system similar to- the technique used by the Soviets in their...using a vertical incidence sounder at Albuquerque, New Mexico (35.11N, 106.8 0W) at the midpoint of the 2400 km path. This technique insures that the

  17. Theory of convective saturation of Langmuir waves during ionospheric modification of a barium cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Drake, R. Paul; Afeyan, Bedros B.

    1997-12-01

    In recent experiments (Djuth, F. T., Sulzer, M. P., Elder, J. H. and Groves, K. M. (1995) Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 17,347), a parametric decay instability was excited by an ordinary-wave HF pump during an ionospheric chemical release from a rocket over Arecibo, PR, which created an artificial `barium ionosphere,' with peak plasma frequency above the pump frequency, and a density gradient with a (short) 5 km scale length. Simultaneous incoherent scattering measurements revealed a strong initial asymmetry in the amplitudes of almost vertically upgoing versus downgoing measured plasma waves. We can account for this asymmetry in terms of linear convective saturation of parametrically unstable plasma waves propagating over a range of altitudes along geometric optics ray paths. Qualitative features of the frequency spectrum of the measured downgoing wave are in agreement with this model, although the theoretically predicted spectrum is narrower than observed. The observed altitude localization of the enhanced spectrum to a few range cells is consistent with the theory.

  18. Plasma modifications induced by an X-mode HF heater wave in the high latitude F region of the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Yeoman, T. K.; Rietveld, M. T.; Häggström, I.; Ivanova, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    We presented experimental results of strong plasma modifications induced by X-mode powerful HF radio waves injected towards the magnetic zenith into the high latitude F region of the ionosphere. The experiments were conducted in 2009-2011 using the EISCAT Heating facility, UHF incoherent scatter radar and the EISCAT ionosonde at Tromsø, Norway; and the CUTLASS SuperDARN HF coherent radar at Hankasalmi, Finland. The results showed that the X-mode HF pump wave can generate strong small-scale artificial field aligned irregularities (AFAIs) in the F region of the high-latitude ionosphere. These irregularities, with spatial scales across the geomagnetic field of the order of 9-15 m, were excited when the heater frequency (fH) was above the ordinary-mode critical frequency (foF2) by 0.1-1.2 MHz. It was found that the X-mode AFAIs appeared between 10 s and 4 min after the heater is turned on. Their decay time varied over a wide range between 3 min and 30 min. The excitation of X-mode AFAIs was accompanied by electron temperature (Te) enhancements and an increase in the electron density (Ne) depending on the effective radiated power (ERP). Under ERPs of about 75-180 MW the Te enhances up to 50% above the background level and an increase in Ne of up to 30% were observed. Dramatic changes in the Te and Ne behavior occurred at effective radiated powers of about 370-840 MW, when the Ne and Te values increased up to 100% above the background ones. It was found that AFAIs, Ne and Te enhancements occurred, when the extraordinary-mode critical frequency (fxF2) lied in the frequency range fH-fce/2≤fxF2≤fH+fce/2, where fce is the electron gyrofrequency. The strong Ne enhancements were observed only in the magnetic field-aligned direction in a wide altitude range up to the upper limit of the UHF radar measurements. In addition, the maximum value of Ne is about 50 km higher than the Te enhancement peak. Such electron density enhancements (artificial ducts) cannot be explained by

  19. Macroscopic time and altitude distribution of plasma turbulence induced in ionospheric modification experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, H.; Dubois, D.; Russell, D. [Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Hanssen, A. [Univ. of Tromsoe (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This research concentrated on the time dependence of the heater, induced-turbulence, and electron-density profiles excited in the ionosphere by a powerful radio-frequency heater wave. The macroscopic density is driven by the ponderomotive pressure and the density self-consistently determines the heater propagation. For typical parameters of the current Arecibo heater, a dramatic quasi-periodic behavior was found. For about 50 ms after turn-on of the heater wave, the turbulence is concentrated at the first standing-wave maximum of the heater near reflection altitude. From 50--100 ms the standing-wave pattern drops by about 1--2 km in altitude and the quasi-periodicity reappears at the higher altitudes with a period of roughly 50 ms. This behavior is due to the half-wavelength density depletion grating that is set up by the ponderomotive pressure at the maxima of the heater standing-wave pattern. Once the grating is established the heater can no longer propagate to higher altitudes. The grating is then unsupported by the heater at these altitudes and decays, allowing the heater to propagate again and initiate another cycle. For stronger heater powers, corresponding to the Arecibo upgrade and the HAARP heater now under construction, the effects are much more dramatic.

  20. Features of the Electromagnetic and Plasma Disturbances Induced at the Altitudes of the Earth's Outer Ionosphere by Modification of the Ionospheric F 2 Region Using High-Power Radio Waves Radiated by the SURA Heating Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, V. L.; Rapoport, V. O.; Schorokhova, E. A.; Belov, A. S.; Parrot, M.; Rauch, J.-L.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we systematize the results of studying the characteristics of the plasma-density ducts, which was conducted in 2005-2010 during the DEMETER-satellite operation. The ducts are formed at altitudes of about 700 km as a result of the ionospheric F 2 region modification by high-power high-frequency radio waves radiated by the midlatitude SURA heating facility. All the performed measurements are used as the basis for determining the formation conditions for such ducts, the duct characteristics are studied, and the opportunities for the duct influence on the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and propagation of radio waves of various frequency ranges are demonstrated. The results of numerical simulation of the formation of such ducts are presented.

  1. Excitation of earth-ionosphere waveguide in the ELF and lower VLF bands by modulated ionospheric current. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, E.C.; Bloom, R.M.

    1993-05-21

    In this report the authors use the principal of reciprocity in conjunction with a full-wave propagation code to calculate ground-level fields excited by ionospheric currents modulated at frequencies between 50 and 100 Hz with HF heaters. Their results show the dependence on source orientation, altitude, and dimension and therefore pertain to experiments using the HIPAS or HAARP ionospheric heaters. In the end-fire mode, the waveguide excitation efficiency of an ELF HED in the ionosphere is up to 20 dB greater than for a ground-based antenna, provided its altitude does not exceed 80-to-90 km. The highest efficiency occurs for a source altitude of around 70 km; if that altitude is raised to 100 km, the efficiency drops by about 20 dB in the day and 10 dB at night. That efficiency does not account for the greater conductivity modulation that might be achieved at altitudes greater than 70 km, however. The trade-off between the altitude dependencies of the excitation efficiency and maximum achievable modulation depends on the ERP of the HF heater, the optimum altitude increasing with increasing ERP. For HIPAS the best modulation altitude is around 70 km, whereas for HAARP there might be marginal value in modulating at attitudes as high as 100 Km. Ionospheric modification, Ionospheric currents, Ionospheric heating.

  2. Multi-instrumental Analysis of the Ionospheric Density Response to Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Astafyeva, E.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements provided by Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite missions have already proved to be very efficient in investigations of global redistribution of ionospheric plasma and thermosphere mass density during such phenomena as geomagnetic storms. LEO satellites have various instruments for research of the ionosphere response to the space weather events like GPS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD), total electron content estimation and radio occultation, altimeter, planar Langmuir probe, topside sounder, special detectors for particle fluxes, magnetometer etc. In this paper, we present results of joint analysis of LEO satellite data, in particular CHAMP, DMSP, JASON, as well as data provided by ground-based networks of GPS receivers and ionosonde stations for global ionospheric response to the geomagnetic disturbances. We use in-situ plasma density data from CHAMP and DMSP satellites, along with data of GPS receiver onboard CHAMP-satellite and ground-based GPS-receivers to study occurrence and global distribution of ionospheric irregularities during the main phase of the storm. Using CHAMP GPS measurements, we created maps of GPS phase fluctuation activity and found two specific zones of the most intense irregularities - first is the region of the auroral oval at high latitudes of both hemispheres, the second one is the low-latitudes/equatorial region between Africa and South America. The interhemispheric asymmetry of the ionospheric irregularities intensity and occurrence in polar region is discussed. Analysis of the topside TEC, derived from CHAMP onboard GPS POD antenna, indicate the significant redistribution of the topside ionospheric plasma density in the equatorial, middle and high-latitude ionosphere during main and recovery phases of geomagnetic storm. Multi-instrumental data allow to analyze in detail the complex modification and dynamics of the upper atmosphere in different altitudinal, spatial and temporal scales.

  3. Simulations of resonant Alfvén waves generated by artificial HF heating of the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pokhotelov

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical two-dimensional two-fluid MHD simulations of dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI coupling have been performed to model the effects imposed on the auroral ionosphere by a powerful HF radio wave transmitter. The simulations demonstrate that modifications of the ionospheric plasma temperature and recombination due to artificial heating may trigger the ionospheric feedback instability when the coupled MI system is close to the state of marginal stability. The linear dispersion analysis of MI coupling has been performed to find the favorable conditions for marginal stability of the system. The development of the ionospheric feedback instability leads to the generation of shear waves which resonate in the magnetosphere between the heated ionospheric E-region and the strong gradient in the speed at altitudes of 1-2 RE. The application of the numerical results for the explanation of observations performed by low-orbiting satellites above the high-latitude ionosphere heated with a high power ground-based HF transmitter is discussed.

  4. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  5. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  6. Ionospheric precursors to scintillation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S.J. Spencer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillation is the rapid fluctuation of both phase and amplitude of trans-ionospheric radio waves due to small scale electron density irregularities in the ionosphere. Prediction of the occurrence of scintillation at L band frequencies is needed to mitigate the disruption of space-based communication and navigation systems. The purpose of this paper is to present a method of using tomographic inversions of the ionospheric electron density obtained from ground-based GPS data to infer the location and strength of the post-sunset plasma drift vortex. This vortex is related to the pre-reversal enhancement in the eastwards electric field which has been correlated to the subsequent occurrence of scintillation.

  7. Coordinated studies of the geospace environment using Cluster, satellite and ground-based data: an interim review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A little more than four years after its launch, the first magnetospheric, multi-satellite mission Cluster has already tremendously contributed to our understanding about the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere system. This is mostly due to its ability, for the first time, to provide instantaneous spatial views of structures in the system, to separate temporal and spatial variations, and to derive velocities and directions of moving structures. Ground-based data have an important complementary impact on Cluster-related research, as they provide a larger-scale context to put the spacecraft data in, allow to virtually enlarge the spacecrafts' field of view, and make it possible to study in detail the coupling between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere in a spatially extended domain. With this paper we present an interim review of cooperative research done with Cluster and ground-based instruments, including the support of other space-based data. We first give a short overview of the instrumentation used, and present some specific data analysis and modeling techniques that have been devised for the combined analysis of Cluster and ground-based data. Then we review highlighted results of the research using Cluster and ground-based data, ordered into dayside and nightside processes. Such highlights include, for example, the identification of the spatio-temporal signatures of the different modes of reconnection on the dayside, and the detailed analysis of the electrodynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling of bursty bulk flows in the tail plasma sheet on the nightside. The aim of this paper is to provide a "sourcebook" for the Cluster and ground-based community that summarises the work that has been done in this field of research, and to identify open questions and possible directions for future studies.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; General or

  8. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  9. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  10. Assessing the Suitability of the ClOud Reflection Algorithm (CORA) in Modelling the Evolution of an Artificial Plasma Cloud in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Booth, N.

    2016-12-01

    Artificial Ionospheric Modification (AIM) attempts to modify the ionosphere in order to alter the propagation environment. It can be achieved through injecting the ionosphere with aerosols, chemicals or radio signals. The effects of any such release can be detected through the deployment of sensors, including ground based high frequency (HF) sounders. During the Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) experiment (undertaken in April/May 2013 in the Kwajalein Atoll, part of the Marshall Islands) several oblique ionograms were recorded from a ground based HF system. These ionograms were collected over multiple geometries and allowed the effects on the HF propagation environment to be understood. These ionograms have subsequently been used in the ClOud Reflection Algorithm (CORA) to attempt to model the evolution of the cloud following release. This paper describes the latest validation results from CORA, both from testing against ionograms, but also other independent models of cloud evolution from MOSC. For all testing the various cloud models (including that generated by CORA) were incorporated into a background ionosphere through which a 3D numerical ray trace was run to produce synthetic ionograms that could be compared with the ionograms recorded during MOSC.

  11. Ionospheric research for space weather service support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Iwona; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Dziak-Jankowska, Beata

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of the ionosphere is very important for space weather services. A wide variety of ground based and satellite existing and future systems (communications, radar, surveillance, intelligence gathering, satellite operation, etc) is affected by the ionosphere. There are the needs for reliable and efficient support for such systems against natural hazard and minimalization of the risk failure. The joint research Project on the 'Ionospheric Weather' of IZMIRAN and SRC PAS is aimed to provide on-line the ionospheric parameters characterizing the space weather in the ionosphere. It is devoted to science, techniques and to more application oriented areas of ionospheric investigation in order to support space weather services. The studies based on data mining philosophy increasing the knowledge of ionospheric physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in ionospheric monitoring and forecasting were concerned. In the framework of the joint Project the novel techniques for data analysis, the original system of the ionospheric disturbance indices and their implementation for the ionosphere and the ionospheric radio wave propagation are developed since 1997. Data of ionosonde measurements and results of their forecasting for the ionospheric observatories network, the regional maps and global ionospheric maps of total electron content from the navigational satellite system (GNSS) observations, the global maps of the F2 layer peak parameters (foF2, hmF2) and W-index of the ionospheric variability are provided at the web pages of SRC PAS and IZMIRAN. The data processing systems include analysis and forecast of geomagnetic indices ap and kp and new eta index applied for the ionosphere forecasting. For the first time in the world the new products of the W-index maps analysis are provided in Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms and their association with the global geomagnetic Dst storms is

  12. A Ground-Based Array to Observe Geospace Electrodynamics During Adverse Space Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.

    2004-05-01

    Geomagnetic Storms occur with surprising frequency and create adverse space weather conditions. During these periods, our knowledge and ability to specify or forecast in adequate detail for user needs is negligible. Neither experimental observations nor theoretical developments have made a significant new impact on the problem for over two decades. Although we can now map Total Electron Content (TEC) in the ionosphere over a continent with sufficient resolution to see coherent long-lived structures, these do not provide constraints on the geospace electrodynamics that is at the heart of our lack of understanding. We present arguments for the need of a continental deployment of ground-based sensors to stepwise advance our understanding of the geospace electrodynamics when it is most adverse from a space weather perspective and also most frustrating from an understanding of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling. That a continental-scale deployment is more productive at addressing the problem than a realizable global distribution is shown. Each measurement is discussed from the point-of-view of either providing new knowledge or becoming a key for future real-time specification and forecasting for user applications. An example of a storm database from one mid-latitude station for the 31 March 2002 is used as a conceptual point in a ground-based array. The presentation focuses on scientific questions that have eluded a quantitative solution for over three decades and view a ground-based array as an "IGY" type of catalyst for answering these questions.

  13. Fresnel zones for ground-based antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. Bach

    1964-01-01

    The ordinary Fresnel zone concept is modified to include the influence of finite ground conductivity. This is important for ground-based antennas because the influence on the radiation pattern of irregularities near the antenna is determined by the amplitude and phase of the groundwave. A new...

  14. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  15. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  16. Mesoscale ionospheric tomography at the Auroral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntama, J.; Kokkatil, G. V.

    2008-12-01

    FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) has used observations from the dense GNSS network in Finland for high resolution regional ionospheric tomography. The observation system used in this work is the VRS (Virtual Reference Station) network in Finland operated by Geotrim Ltd. This network contains 86 GNSS ground stations providing two frequency GPS and GLONASS observations with the sampling rate of 1 Hz. The network covers the whole Finland and the sampling of the ionosphere is very good for observing mesoscale ionospheric structures at the Auroral region. The ionospheric tomography software used by FMI is the MIDAS (Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System) algorithm developed and implemented by the University of Bath (Mitchell and Spencer, 2003). MIDAS is a 3-D extension of the 2-D tomography algorithm originally presented by Fremouw et al. (1992). The research at FMI is based on ground based GNSS data collected in December 2006. The impacts of the two geomagnetic storms during the month are clearly visible in the retrieved electron density and TEC maps and they can be correlated with the magnetic field disturbances measured by the IMAGE magnetometer network. This is the first time that mesoscale structures in the ionospheric plasma can be detected from ground based GNSS observations at the Auroral region. The continuous high rate observation data from the Geotrim network allows monitoring of the temporal evolution of these structures throughout the storms. Validation of the high resolution electron density and TEC maps is a challenge as independent reference observations with a similar resolution are not available. FMI has compared the 3-D electron density maps against the 2-D electron density plots retrieved from the observations from the Ionospheric Tomography Chain operated by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO). Additional validation has been performed with intercomparisons with observations from the ground based magnetometer and auroral camera network

  17. Ground Observation and Correction of P-band Radar Imaging Ionospheric Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For high resolution space-borne P-band SAR system, ionospheric effects could cause serious phase errors. These errors are causally related to the radar frequency and the TEC of ionosphere and make the image quality degraded. To guarantee the image quality, the ionosphere errors must be emended. Based on the mismatched filter model caused by ionosphere, it is pointed out that accurate ionosphere TEC is the key for phase error correction, a high precision ionosphere TEC measurement method is further put forward by using the phase errors of SAR echoes, which is validated by processing the data of a ground based P-band radar with well focused radar image of the international space station obtained. The results indicate that the method can effectively increase the accuracy of ionosphere TEC estimation, and thus improve the radar imaging quality, it is applicable to low frequency space-borne SAR systems for reducing the ionosphere effects.

  18. Ground-based Space Weather Monitoring with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael; van Haarlem, Michiel; Lawrence, Gareth; Reid, Simon; Bos, Andre; Rawlings, Steve; Salvini, Stef; Mitchell, Cathryn; Soleimani, Manuch; Amado, Sergio; Teresa, Vital

    As one of the first of a new generation of radio instruments, the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) will provide a number of unique and novel capabilities for the astronomical community. These include remote configuration and operation, dynamic real-time processing and system response, and the ability to provide multiple simultaneous streams of data to a community whose scientific interests run the gamut from lighting in the atmospheres of distant planets to the origins of the universe itself. The LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) system is optimized for a frequency range from 30-240 MHz and consists of multiple antenna fields spread across Europe. In the Netherlands, a total 36 LOFAR stations are nearing completion with an initial 8 international stations currently being deployed in Germany, France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR has the potential to achieve unparalleled sensitivity and spatial resolution in the low frequency radio regime. LOFAR will also be one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. As we discuss in this presentation, the same capabilities that make LOFAR a powerful tool for radio astronomy also provide an excellent platform upon which to build a ground-based monitoring system for space weather events. For example, the ability to monitor Solar activity in near real-time is one of the key scientific capabilities being developed for LOFAR. With only a fraction of its total observing capacity, LOFAR will be able to provide continuous monitoring of the Solar spectrum over the entire 10-240 MHz band down to microsecond timescales. Autonomous routines will scan these incoming spectral data for evidence of Solar flares and be

  19. Space and Ground-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Jon; Zell, Martin

    This chapter deals first with the main characteristics of the space environment, outside and inside a spacecraft. Then the space and space-related (ground-based) infrastructures are described. The most important infrastructure is the International Space Station, which holds many European facilities (for instance the European Columbus Laboratory). Some of them, such as the Columbus External Payload Facility, are located outside the ISS to benefit from external space conditions. There is only one other example of orbital platforms, the Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Orbital Capsule. In contrast, non-orbital weightless research platforms, although limited in experimental time, are more numerous: sounding rockets, parabolic flight aircraft, drop towers and high-altitude balloons. In addition to these facilities, there are a number of ground-based facilities and space simulators, for both life sciences (for instance: bed rest, clinostats) and physical sciences (for instance: magnetic compensation of gravity). Hypergravity can also be provided by human and non-human centrifuges.

  20. Development of Ground-Based Plant Sentinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    plants in response to different strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Planta . 217:767-775. De Moraes CM, Schultz JC, Mescher MC, Tumlinson JH. (2004...09-30-2004 Final Technical _ April 2001 - April 2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developing Plants as Ground-based Sentinels 5b. GRANT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 9 "Z Plants emit volatile mixes characteristic of exposure to both plant and animal (insect) pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The

  1. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  2. Ground based spectroscopy of hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    It has been shown in recent years with great success that spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is feasible using space based observatories such as the HST and Spitzer. However, with the end of the Spitzer cold-phase, space based observations in the near to mid infra-red are limited, which will remain true until the the onset of the JWST. The importance of developing methods of ground based spectroscopic analysis of known hot Jupiters is therefore apparent. In the past, various groups have attempted exoplanetary spectroscopy using ground based facilities and various techniques. Here I will present results using a novel spectral retrieval method for near to mid infra-red emission and transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres taken from the ground and discuss the feasibility of future ground-based spectroscopy in a broader context. My recently commenced PhD project is under the supervision of Giovanna Tinetti (University College London) and in collaboration with J. P. Beaulieu (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris), Mark Swain and Pieter Deroo (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech).

  3. Design of a flexible and low-power ionospheric sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alex

    Characterizing the structure of the ionosphere has practical applications for telecommunications and scientific applications for studies of the near-Earth space environment. Among several methods for measuring parameters of the ionosphere is ionospheric sounding, a radar technique that determines the electron content of the ionosphere as a function of height. Various research, military, and commercial institutions operate hundreds of ground-based ionosondes throughout the globe, and new ionosondes continue to be deployed in increasingly remote and distant locations. This thesis presents the design of an ionospheric sounder that reduces the power, size, and cost compared to existing systems. Key improvements include the use of an open-source software-defined radio platform and channel-aware dynamic sounding scheduling.

  4. Accuracy assessment of the global ionospheric model over the Southern Ocean based on dynamic observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaowen; Xu, Huajun; Li, Zishen; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Jinyao; Shen, Zhongyan; Yang, Chunguo; Wu, Ziyin

    2017-02-01

    The global ionospheric model based on the reference stations of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) of the International GNSS Services is presently the most commonly used products of the global ionosphere. It is very important to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the model for the reasonable use of this kind of ionospheric product. In terms of receiver station deployment, this work is different from the traditional performance evaluation of the global ionosphere model based on observation data of ground-based static reference stations. The preliminary evaluation and analysis of the the global ionospheric model was conducted with the dynamic observation data across different latitudes over the southern oceans. The validation results showed that the accuracy of the global ionospheric model over the southern oceans is about 5 TECu, which deviates from the measured ionospheric TEC by about -0.6 TECu.

  5. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  6. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of a test of a ground-based lidar of other type. The test was performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The result as an establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided...... by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the wind vanes is also given....

  7. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  8. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  9. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  10. Ionospheric Impacts on UHF Space Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.; Ceron-Gomez, D.; Richards, G.

    2016-09-01

    Earth's atmosphere contains regions of ionized plasma caused by the interaction of highly energetic solar radiation. This region of ionization is called the ionosphere and varies significantly with altitude, latitude, local solar time, season, and solar cycle. Significant ionization begins at about 100 km (E layer) with a peak in the ionization at about 350 km (F2 layer). Above the F2 layer, the atmosphere is mostly ionized but the ion and electron densities are low due to the unavailability of neutral molecules for ionization so the electron density decreases exponentially with height to well over 1000 km. The gradients of these variations in the ionosphere play a significant role in radio wave propagation. These gradients induce variations in the index of refraction and cause some radio waves to refract. The amount of refraction depends on the magnitude and direction of the electron density gradient and the frequency of the radio wave. The refraction is significant at HF frequencies (3-30 MHz) with decreasing effects toward the UHF (300-3000 MHz) range. UHF is commonly used for tracking of space objects in low Earth orbit (LEO). While ionospheric refraction is small for UHF frequencies, it can cause errors in range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle estimation by ground-based radars tracking space objects. These errors can cause significant uncertainty in precise orbit determinations. For radio waves transiting the ionosphere, it is important to understand and account for these effects. Using a sophisticated radio wave propagation tool suite and an empirical ionospheric model, we calculate the errors induced by the ionosphere in a simulation of a notional space surveillance radar tracking objects in LEO. These errors are analyzed to determine correlations with ionospheric variability. Corrections to surveillance radar measurements can be adapted from our simulation capability.

  11. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka

    2017-04-01

    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  12. Conference Proceedings on Ionospheric Modification and Its Potential to Enhance or Degrade the Performance of Military Systems Held in Bergen, Norway on 28-31 May 1990 (La Modification de l’Ionosphere et son Potentiel d’Amelioration ou de Degradation des Performances des Systemes Militaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-31

    ekeavnmgovezc wave (stimlated Runes seanserlng). In addition. the suited electrostatic plasma wae can reach infficienit lefiles so a I uso as pom waives...nelt absorption, for a microwa, e pulse propagating upwards. The model is a fluid rahe than a kinedic one, ignores transport, and usos the iorication...prosagtion V oneSt ostiquela doni l’lowrphkr so afterojct, paiv. arieR VI, Sd . A.R. Jacobson "A moodl f~or canjutatst coup•ling fro Ionospheric dyrnaos

  13. Ionospheric Digital Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ionosphere is that part of the Earth's atmosphere that results mainly from the photo ionization of the upper atmosphere. Traditionally, the following ionospheric...

  14. Signatures of mesospheric particles in ionospheric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Friedrich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of the ionosphere during the 2007 ECOMA/MASS campaign is described by in-situ observations by three sounding rockets launched from the Andøya Rocket Range and by ground based observations. The ground based measurements included the incoherent scatter radar EISCAT near Tromsø (both on UHF and VHF, as well as an MF radar, a meteor radar and an imaging riometer all located in the close vicinity of the rocket range. The pronounced electron density bite-outs seen by two of the rockets could not be detected from the ground, but the associated PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes provide indirect evidence of pronounced perturbations of mesospheric electron densities.

  15. Ionospheric TEC Weather Map Over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Denardini, C. M.; Pádua, M. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Costa, S. M. A.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Monico, J. F. Galera; Ivo, A.; Sant'Anna, N.

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric weather maps using the total electron content (TEC) monitored by ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers over South American continent, TECMAP, have been operationally produced by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais's Space Weather Study and Monitoring Program (Estudo e Monitoramento Brasileiro de Clima Especial) since 2013. In order to cover the whole continent, four GNSS receiver networks, (Rede Brasileiro de Monitoramento Contínuo) RBMC/Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics, Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network, International GNSS Service, and Red Argentina de Monitoreo Satelital Continuo, in total 140 sites, have been used. TECMAPs with a time resolution of 10 min are produced in 12 h time delay. Spatial resolution of the map is rather low, varying between 50 and 500 km depending on the density of the observation points. Large day-to-day variabilities of the equatorial ionization anomaly have been observed. Spatial gradient of TEC from the anomaly trough (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) 80) causes a large ionospheric range delay in the GNSS positioning system. Ionospheric plasma bubbles, their seeding and development, could be monitored. This plasma density (spatial and temporal) variability causes not only the GNSS-based positioning error but also radio wave scintillations. Monitoring of these phenomena by TEC mapping becomes an important issue for space weather concern for high-technology positioning system and telecommunication.

  16. Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Thompson, D. C.; Anderson, D. N.; Codrescu, M.; Minter, C.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Heelis, R. A.; Hairston, M.; Howe, B. M.

    2001-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic medium that can vary significantly from day to day and from hour to hour at a given location, and these variations can have detrimental effects on military and civilian systems. In an effort to minimize or circumvent the detrimental effects, a physics-based data assimilation model of the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere is under development with funding from the DoD MURI program. Two university consortia are involved, with USU and USC as the lead institutions. When completed, the GAIM (Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements) model will provide specifications and forecasts on a spatial grid that can be global, regional, or local (50 km x 50 km). GAIM will use a physics-based ionosphere-plasmasphere model and a Kalman filter as a basis for assimilating a diverse set of real-time (or near real-time) measurements. Some of the data to be assimilated include in situ density measurements from satellites, ionosonde electron density profiles, occultation data, ground-based GPS TECs, TECs between ground stations and LEO satellites with radio beacons, and line-of-sight UV emissions from selected satellites. The resulting specifications and forecasts will be in the form of 3-dimensional electron density distributions from 90 km to geosynchronous altitude (35,000 km). An initial form of GAIM already exists and recent results from the USU consortium will be presented.

  17. On-Board and Ground-Based Complexes for Operating the Science Payload of the CORONAS-F Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A. I.; Lisin, D. V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Afanas'ev, A. N.; Osin, A. I.; Schwarz, J.

    To ensure reliable operation of the science payload of the CORONAS-F satellite and to exercise its flexible control in the course of realization of the research program, an on-board and a specialized ground-based control complexes (GCCs) were designed and manufactured at the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN). A demand for such systems arose because the service facilities of the satellite basic platform were unable to satisfy the requirements of the unique scientific experiments, i.e., an efficient on-line control of the variety of scientific instruments, managing large amounts of scientific information, etc.

  18. Ground-based observations of Kepler asteroseismic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uyttterhoeven , K.; Karoff, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    We present the ground-based activities within the different working groups of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). The activities aim at the systematic characterization of the 5000+ KASC targets, and at the collection of ground-based follow-up time-series data of selected promising...

  19. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  20. Ground-based Optical Observations of Geophysical Phenomena: Aurora Borealis and Meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Marilia

    2010-10-01

    Advances in low-light level imaging technology have enabled significant improvements in the ground based study of geophysical phenomena. In this talk we focus on two such phenomena that occur in the Earth's ionosphere: aurorae and meteors. Imaging the aurora which is created by the interplay of the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere, provides a tool for remote sensing physical processes that are otherwise very difficult to study. By quantifying the intensities, scale sizes and lifetimes of auroral structures, we can gain significant insight into the physics behind the generation of the aurora and the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind. Additionally, the combination of imaging with radars provides complimentary data and therefore more information than either method on its own. Meteor observations are a perfect example of this because the radar can accurately determine only the line-of-sight component of velocity, while imaging provides the direction of motion, the perpendicular velocity and brightness (a proxy for mass), therefore enabling a much more accurate determination of the full velocity vector and mass.

  1. CRRES/Ground-based multi-instrument observations of an interval of substorm activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman

    Full Text Available Observations are presented of data taken during a 3-h interval in which five clear substorm onsets/intensifications took place. During this interval ground-based data from the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, a digital CCD all sky camera, and an extensive array of magnetometers were recorded. In addition data from the CRRES and DMSP spacecraft, whose footprints passed over Scandinavia very close to most of the ground-based instrumentation, are available. The locations and movements of the substorm current system in latitude and longitude, determined from ground and spacecraft magnetic field data, have been correlated with the locations and propagation of increased particle precipitation in the E-region at EISCAT, increased particle fluxes measured by CRRES and DMSP, with auroral luminosity and with ionospheric convection velocities. The onsets and propagation of the injection of magnetospheric particle populations and auroral luminosity have been compared. CRRES was within or very close to the substorm expansion phase onset sector during the interval. The onset region was observed at low latitudes on the ground, and has been confirmed to map back to within L=7 in the magnetotail. The active region was then observed to propagate tailward and poleward. Delays between the magnetic signature of the substorm field aligned currents and field dipolarisation have been measured. The observations support a near-Earth plasma instability mechanism for substorm expansion phase onset.

  2. Propagation of a whistler wave incident from above on the lower nighttime ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bespalov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problems of reflection and transmission of a whistler wave incident in the nighttime ionosphere from above are considered. Numerical solution of the wave equations for a typical condition of the lower ionosphere is found. The solution area comprises both the region of strong wave refraction and a sharp boundary of the nighttime ionosphere (∼ 100 km. The energy reflection coefficient and horizontal wave magnetic field on the ground surface are calculated. The results obtained are important for analysis of the extremely low-frequency and very low-frequency (ELF–VLF emission phenomena observed from both the satellites and the ground-based observatories.

  3. Ionospheric data assimilation with thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model and GPS-TEC during geomagnetic storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.; Lin, C. H.; Matsuo, T.; Chen, W. H.; Lee, I. T.; Liu, J. Y.; Lin, J. T.; Hsu, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of rapid assimilation-forecast cycling on the performance of ionospheric data assimilation during geomagnetic storm conditions. An ensemble Kalman filter software developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), called Data Assimilation Research Testbed, is applied to assimilate ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) observations into a theoretical numerical model of the thermosphere and ionosphere (NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model) during the 26 September 2011 geomagnetic storm period. Effects of various assimilation-forecast cycle lengths: 60, 30, and 10 min on the ionospheric forecast are examined by using the global root-mean-squared observation-minus-forecast (OmF) TEC residuals. Substantial reduction in the global OmF for the 10 min assimilation-forecast cycling suggests that a rapid cycling ionospheric data assimilation system can greatly improve the quality of the model forecast during geomagnetic storm conditions. Furthermore, updating the thermospheric state variables in the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere forecast model in the assimilation step is an important factor in improving the trajectory of model forecasting. The shorter assimilation-forecast cycling (10 min in this paper) helps to restrain unrealistic model error growth during the forecast step due to the imbalance among model state variables resulting from an inadequate state update, which in turn leads to a greater forecast accuracy.

  4. 3 dimensional ionospheric electron density reconstruction based on GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, C.; Schlüter, S.; Jacobi, C.; Jakowski, N.

    When radio waves as sended by the naviagtion system GPS are passing through the ionosphere they are subject to delays in phase, travel time and polarisation which is an effect of the free electrons. The measured integrated value of Total Electron Content can be utilised for three-dimensional reconstruction of electron density patterns in the ionosphere. Here a tomographic approach is represented. Scince the distribution of data is very sparse and patchy we decided for an algebraic iterative algorithm. The ground based GPS data collected by IGS receivers can be combined by space based GPS of radio limb sounding, incoherent scatter radar and ionosondes data. Hereby, radio occultation data improve beside the amount of available data especially the vertical resolution of electron density distribution. Ionosonde peack electron densities are taken as stop criteria determination for iteration. Reconstructed ionospheric scenarios and validations of the system by independent measurements are presented.

  5. Ionospheric effects on terrestrial communications :Working Group 3 overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bourdillon

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunications via ionospheric reflection of radio signals of ground-based transmitters are a traditional area. However, this technique is still in use in telecommunications, broadcasting, etc. Various problems have not yet been solved and some of them were studied in Working Group 3 (WG3. Structure of WG 3 and the terms of reference of its four working packages are described in the introductory paper by Zolesi and Cander (2004. Here we describe the main results achieved in COST 271 in the following areas: i large-scale fluctuations of planetary and gravity waves; ii development of a new type of HF channel simulator; iii geomagnetic storm effects on the F1-region ionosphere; iv the sporadic E-layer and spread-F phenomena; v the HF radio wave propagation over northerly paths; vi how to increase the bit rate in ionospheric radio links. In general, substantial progress was achieved but some problems remain open for future investigations.

  6. Three-dimensional data assimilation for ionospheric reference scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzen, Tatjana; Wilken, Volker; Minkwitz, David; Hoque, Mainul M.; Schlüter, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The reliable estimation of ionospheric refraction effects is an important topic in the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) positioning and navigation domain, especially in safety-of-life applications. This paper describes a three-dimensional ionosphere reconstruction approach that combines three data sources with an ionospheric background model: space- and ground-based total electron content (TEC) measurements and ionosonde observations. First the background model is adjusted by F2 layer characteristics, obtained from space-based ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) profiles and ionosonde data, and secondly the final electron density distribution is estimated by an algebraic reconstruction technique.The method described is validated by TEC measurements of independent ground-based GNSS stations, space-based TEC from the Jason 1 and 2 satellites, and ionosonde observations. A significant improvement is achieved by the data assimilation, with a decrease in the residual errors by up to 98 % compared to the initial guess of the background. Furthermore, the results underpin the capability of space-based measurements to overcome data gaps in reconstruction areas where less GNSS ground-station infrastructure exists.

  7. Model Predictions and Ground-based Observations for Jupiter's Magnetospheric Environment: Application to the JUICE and Juno Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Nicholas; Guio, Patrick; Arridge, Christopher S.; Ray, Licia C.; Yates, Japheth N.; Fossey, Stephen J.; Savini, Giorgio; Pearson, Mick; Fernando, Nathalie; Gerasimov, Roman; Murat, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The advent of new missions to the Jovian system such as Juno (recently arrived) and JUICE (scheduled for 2022 launch) makes timely the provision of model-based predictions for the physical conditions to be encountered by these spacecraft; as well as the planning of simultaneous, ground-based observations of the Jovian system.Using the UCL Jovian magnetodisc model, which calculates magnetic field and plasma distributionsaccording to Caudal's (1986) force-balance formalism, we provide predictions of the following quantities along representative Juno / JUICE orbits through the middle magnetosphere: (i) Magnetic field strength and direction; (ii) Density and / or pressure of the 'cold' and 'hot' particle populations; (iii) Plasma angular velocity.The characteristic variation in these parameters is mainly influenced by the periodic approaches towards and recessions from the magnetodisc imposed on the 'synthetic spacecraft' by the planet's rotating, tilteddipole field. We also include some corresponding predictions for ionospheric / thermospheric conditions at the magnetic footpoint of the spacecraft, using the JASMIN model (Jovian Atmospheric Simulatorwith Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Neutrals).We also present preliminary imaging results from 'IoSpot', a planned, ground-based programme of observations based at the University College London Observatory (UCLO) which targets ionized sulphur emissions from the Io plasma torus. Such programmes, conducted simultaneously with the above missions, will provide valuable context for the overall physical conditions within the Jovian magnetosphere, for which Io's volcanoes are the principal source of plasma.

  8. Equinoctial transitions in the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    Full Text Available Equinoctial summer/winter transitions in the parameters of the F2-region are analyzed using ground-based ionosonde and incoherent scatter observations. Average transition from one type of diurnal NmF2 variation to another takes 20–25 days, but cases of very fast (6–10 days transitions are observed as well. Strong day-time NmF2 deviations of both signs from the monthly median, not related to geomagnetic activity, are revealed for the transition periods. Both longitudinal and latitudinal variations take place for the amplitude of such quiet time NmF2 deviations. The summer-type diurnal NmF2 variation during the transition period is characterized by decreased atomic oxygen concentration [O] and a small equatorward thermospheric wind compared to winter-type days with strong poleward wind and increased [O]. Molecular N2 and O2 concentrations remain practically unchanged in such day-to-day transitions. The main cause of the F2-layer variations during the transition periods is the change of atomic oxygen abundance in the thermosphere related to changes of global thermospheric circulation. A possible relationship with an equinoctial transition of atomic oxygen at the E-region heights is discussed.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere – composition and chemistry – Ionosphere (ionosphere- atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  9. Assimilative modeling of low latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chunining; Hajj, George A.; Rosen, I. Gary; Wilson, Brian D.; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an observation system simulation experiment for modeling low-latitude ionosphere using a 3-dimensional (3-D) global assimilative ionospheric model (GAIM). The experiment is conducted to test the effectiveness of GAIM with a 4-D variational approach (4DVAR) in estimation of the ExB drift and thermospheric wind in the magnetic meridional planes simultaneously for all longitude or local time sectors. The operational Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and the ground-based global GPS receiver network of the International GPS Service are used in the experiment as the data assimilation source. 'The optimization of the ionospheric state (electron density) modeling is performed through a nonlinear least-squares minimization process that adjusts the dynamical forces to reduce the difference between the modeled and observed slant total electron content in the entire modeled region. The present experiment for multiple force estimations reinforces our previous assessment made through single driver estimations conducted for the ExB drift only.

  10. Boost-Phase ballistic missile trajectory estimation with ground based radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yuyan; Huang Peikang

    2006-01-01

    A conditional boost-phase trajectory estimation method based on ballistic missile (BM) information database and classification is developed to estimate and predict boos-phase BM trajectory. The main uncertain factors to describe BM dynamics equation are reduced to the control law of trajectory pitch angle in boost-phase. After the BM mass at the beginning of estimation, the BM attack angle and the modification of engine thrust denoting BM acceleration are modeled reasonably, the boost-phase BM trajectory estimation with ground based radar is well realized. The validity of this estimation method is testified by computer simulation with a typical example.

  11. The advances in airglow study and observation by the ground-based airglow observation network over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiyao; Li, Qinzeng; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Weijun; Sun, Longchang

    2017-04-01

    Ground-based airglow observation networks over China used to study airglow have been established, which contains 15 stations. Some new results were obtained using the networks. For OH airglow observations, firstly, an unusual outbreak of Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events were observed by the first no-gap network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multilevel observations of the CGWs from the troposphere to the mesopause region. Secondly, three-year OH airglow images (2012-2014) from Qujing (25.6°N, 103.7°E) were used to study how orographic features of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) affect the geographical distributions of gravity wave (GW) sources. We find the orographic forcings have a significant impact on the gravity wave propagation features. Thirdly, ground-based observations of the OH (9-4, 8-3, 6-2, 5-1, 3-0) band airglow over Xinglong (40°2N, 117°4E) in northern China from 2012 to 2014 are used to calculate rotational temperatures. By comparing the ground-based OH rotational temperature with SABER's observations, five Einstein coefficient datasets are evaluated. We find rotational temperatures determined using any of the available Einstein coefficient datasets have systematic errors. We have obtained a set of optimal Einstein coefficients ratios for rotational temperature derivation using three years data from ground-based OH spectra and SABER temperatures. For the OI 630.0 nm airglow observations, we used three-year (2011-2013) observations of thermospheric winds (at 250 km) by Fabry-Perot interferometers at Xinglong to study the climatology of atmospheric planetary wave-type oscillations (PWTOs) with periods of 4-19 days. We found these PWTOs occur more frequently in the months from May to October. They are consistent with the summertime preference of middle-latitude ionospheric electron density oscillations noted in other studies. By using an all-sky airglow imager

  12. Comparison of the characteristic energy of precipitating electrons derived from ground-based and DMSP satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashrafi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy maps are important for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling studies, because quantitative determination of field-aligned currents requires knowledge of the conductances and their spatial gradients. By combining imaging riometer absorption and all-sky auroral optical data it is possible to produce high temporal and spatial resolution maps of the Maxwellian characteristic energy of precipitating electrons within a 240240 common field of view. These data have been calibrated by inverting EISCAT electron density profiles into equivalent energy spectra. In this paper energy maps produced by ground-based instruments (optical and riometer are compared with DMSP satellite data during geomagnetic conjunctions. For the period 1995-2002, twelve satellite passes over the ground-based instruments' field of view for the cloud-free conditions have been considered. Four of the satellite conjunctions occurred during moderate geomagnetic, steady-state conditions and without any ion precipitation. In these cases with Maxwellian satellite spectra, there is 71% agreement between the characteristic energies derived from the satellite and the ground-based energy map method.

  13. Review and perspectives: Understanding natural-hazards-generated ionospheric perturbations using GPS measurements and coupled modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Yang, Yu-Ming; Meng, Xing; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Langley, Richard B.

    2016-07-01

    Natural hazards including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis have been significant threats to humans throughout recorded history. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS; including the Global Positioning System (GPS)) receivers have become primary sensors to measure signatures associated with natural hazards. These signatures typically include GPS-derived seismic deformation measurements, coseismic vertical displacements, and real-time GPS-derived ocean buoy positioning estimates. Another way to use GPS observables is to compute the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) to measure, model, and monitor postseismic ionospheric disturbances caused by, e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. In this paper, we review research progress at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and elsewhere using examples of ground-based and spaceborne observation of natural hazards that generated TEC perturbations. We present results for state-of-the-art imaging using ground-based and spaceborne ionospheric measurements and coupled atmosphere-ionosphere modeling of ionospheric TEC perturbations. We also report advancements and chart future directions in modeling and inversion techniques to estimate tsunami wave heights and ground surface displacements using TEC measurements and error estimates. Our initial retrievals strongly suggest that both ground-based and spaceborne GPS remote sensing techniques could play a critical role in detection and imaging of the upper atmosphere signatures of natural hazards including earthquakes and tsunamis. We found that combining ground-based and spaceborne measurements may be crucial in estimating critical geophysical parameters such as tsunami wave heights and ground surface displacements using TEC observations. The GNSS-based remote sensing of natural-hazard-induced ionospheric disturbances could be applied to and used in operational tsunami and earthquake early warning systems.

  14. Ionospheric scintillation detection based on GPS observations, a case study over Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhkhiz Miandehi, Sahar; Alizadeh Elizei, M. Mahdi; Schuh, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) which is used extensively for various purposes such as navigation, surveying, remote sensing and telecommunication, is strongly affected by the earth's upper atmosphere, the ionosphere. Ionosphere is a highly variable region with complex physical characteristics in which the density of free electrons are large enough to have considerable effects on signals' propagation travelling through this dispersive medium. As GPS signals travel through the ionosphere, they may experience rapid amplitude fluctuations or unexpected phase changes. This is referred to as ionospheric scintillation. Ionospheric scintillation which is caused by small scale irregularities in the electron density, is one of the dominant propagation disturbances at radio frequency signals. These irregularities severely affect the accuracy and reliability of GPS measurements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate ionospheric scintillation and its effects on GPS observations. The focus of this paper is to detect ionospheric scintillations over Iran's region, during different periods of solar activity and to investigate these effects on GPS observations in more detail. Furthermore the effects of these irregularities on regional modeling of ionosphere over Iran is also investigated. The results show that effectiveness of this phenomenon depends on geographic location, local time and global geomagnetic storm index (kp index). The required data for this investigation are ground based measurements of permanent GPS stations over Iran, established by the National Cartographic Center of Iran (NCC).

  15. Ionospheric delay gradient monitoring for GBAS by GPS stations near Suvarnabhumi airport, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungraengwajiake, Sarawoot; Supnithi, Pornchai; Saito, Susumu; Siansawasdi, Nattapong; Saekow, Apitep

    2015-10-01

    Ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) is an important augmentation system that provides the differential corrections and integrity information from the reference stations to the aircrafts for precision approach and landing. It is known that the nonuniform ionospheric characteristics called "ionospheric delay gradient" can cause the errors in differential corrections degrading the accuracy and safety level if they are undetected by the reference stations. Since the characteristics of the ionosphere are different for each region, the ionospheric delay gradient observations in equatorial and low-latitude regions are necessary for developing the suitable ionospheric threat models. The purpose of this work is to analyze the ionospheric delay gradients observed by three GPS stations near Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok, Thailand, which is located in the low-latitude region. The ionospheric irregularities in this region are mainly caused by the plasma bubble, which usually occurs after sunset. The GPS data with plasma bubble occurrence during the September equinox 2011 and 2012 are therefore analyzed. In addition, the data analysis procedure utilizing the rate of total electron content change index for this region is proposed. The results show that the ionospheric delay gradients observed in the west-east direction appear higher than the south-north direction, varying from 28 to 178 mm/km during plasma bubble occurrences.

  16. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Networks of ground-based magnetometers now provide the basis for the diagnosis of magnetic disturbances associated with solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling on a truly global scale. Advances in sensor and digitisation technologies offer increases in sensitivity in fluxgate, induction coil, and new micro-sensor technologies - including the promise of hybrid sensors. Similarly, advances in remote connectivity provide the capacity for truly real-time monitoring of global dynamics at cadences sufficient for monitoring and in many cases resolving system level spatio-temporal ambiguities especially in combination with conjugate satellite measurements. A wide variety of the plasmaphysical processes active in driving geospace dynamics can be monitored based on the response of the electrical current system, including those associated with changes in global convection, magnetospheric substorms and nightside tail flows, as well as due to solar wind changes in both dynamic pressure and in response to rotations of the direction of the IMF. Significantly, any changes to the dynamical system must be communicated by the propagation of long-period Alfven and/or compressional waves. These wave populations hence provide diagnostics for not only the energy transport by the wave fields themselves, but also provide a mechanism for diagnosing the structure of the background plasma medium through which the waves propagate. Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves are especially significant in offering a monitor for mass density profiles, often invisible to particle detectors because of their very low energy, through the application of a variety of magneto-seismology and cross-phase techniques. Renewed scientific interest in the plasma waves associated with near-Earth substorm dynamics, including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at substorm onset and their relation to magnetotail flows, as well the importance of global scale ultra-low frequency waves for the energisation, transport

  17. Three methods to retrieve slant total electron content measurements from ground-based GPS receivers and performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baocheng

    2016-07-01

    The high sampling rate along with the global coverage of ground-based receivers makes Global Positioning System (GPS) data particularly ideal for sensing the Earth's ionosphere. Retrieval of slant total electron content measurements (TECMs) constitutes a key first step toward extracting various ionospheric parameters from GPS data. Within the ionospheric community, the interpretation of TECM is widely recognized as the slant total electron content along the satellite receiver line of sight, biased by satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs). The Carrier-to-Code Leveling (CCL) has long been used as a geometry-free method for retrieving TECM, mainly because of its simplicity and effectiveness. In fact, however, the CCL has proven inaccurate as it may give rise to TECM very susceptible to so-called leveling errors. With the goal of attaining more accurate TECM retrieval, we report in this contribution two other methods than the CCL, namely, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and the Array-aided PPP (A-PPP). The PPP further exploits the International GPS Service (IGS) orbit and clock products and turns out to be a geometry-based method. The A-PPP is designed to retrieve TECM from an array of colocated receivers, taking advantage of the broadcast orbit and clock products. Moreover, A-PPP also takes into account the fact that the ionospheric effects measured from one satellite to all colocated receivers ought to be the same, thus leading to the estimability of interreceiver DCB. We perform a comparative study of the formal precision and the empirical accuracy of the TECM that are retrieved, respectively, by three methods from the same set of GPS data. Results of such a study can be used to assess the actual performance of the three methods. In addition, we check the temporal stability in A-PPP-derived interreceiver DCB estimates over time periods ranging from 1 to 3 days.

  18. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saradi Bora

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's ionosphere consists of plasma produced by thephotoionization of thin upper atmospheric gases by UV raysand photons of short wavelength from the sun. The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the readers to the study of ionosphere in the contextof its use as a radio reflector, with particular reference toIndia.

  19. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  20. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  1. Ground-based observations of Saturn's H3+ aurora and ring rain from Keck in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, J.; Melin, H.; Stallard, T.; Provan, G.; Moore, L.; Badman, S. V.; Baines, K. H.; Miller, S.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    2014-12-01

    The ground-based 10-metre Keck telescope was used to probe Saturn's H3+ ionosphere in 2013. The slit on the high resolution near infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC; (R~25,000) was aligned pole-to-pole along Saturn's rotational axis at local noon. This is also aligned (within uncertainties) to the effectively dipolar magnetic field. Four polar/auroral regions of Saturn's ionosphere were measured simultaneously as the planet rotated: 1) the northern noon main auroral oval; 2) the northern midnight main oval; 3) the northern polar cap and 4) the southern main oval at noon. The results here contain twenty-three H3+ temperatures, column densities and total emissions located at the above regions spread over timescales of both hours and days. The main findings of this study are that ionospheric temperatures in the northern main oval are cooler than their southern counterparts by tens of K; supportive of the hypothesis that the total thermospheric heating rate (Joule heating and ion drag) is inversely proportional to magnetic field strength. The main oval H3+ density and emission is lower at northern midnight than at noon, and this is in agreement with an electron influx peaking at 08:00 Saturn local time and having a minimum at midnight. When ordering the northern main oval parameters of H3+ as a function of the oscillation period seen in Saturn's magnetic field - the planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase - we see a large peak in H3+ density and emission at ˜110° phase, with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ˜40°. This seems to indicate that the influx of electrons associated with the PPO phase at 90° is responsible at least in part for the behavior of all H3+ parameters. In addition to the auroral/polar data we also present the latest results from observations of Saturn's mid-to-low latitude H3+ emission. This emission is thought to be modulated by charged water product influx which flows into the planet along magnetic field lines from Saturn's rings, i.e. ring

  2. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  3. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  4. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...

  5. Understanding ionospheric instabilities eludes current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-07-01

    Ionized gases are heavily concentrated in the ionosphere's F zone, the region between 200 and 500 kilometers in altitude, which is critical for transmitting long-distance radio signals on Earth. However, instabilities in the F region plasma, which can last from seconds to hours and can be spread over centimeters to tens of kilometers, disrupt transmission of radio signals. The plasma instabilities, restricted to the equatorial region following sunset, are called equatorial spread F (ESF). Earth-based instruments perceive ESF events as “twinkling” radio signals. ESF events, first detected in the 1930s, affect the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based electronic systems; they can disrupt satellite operations and related communications and navigation systems.

  6. Ionospheric error analysis in gps measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pugliano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the ionosphere on GPS positioning applications are presented in this paper. Specifically, the study, based upon a differential approach, was conducted utilizing GPS measurements acquired by various receivers located at increasing inter-distances. The experimental research was developed upon the basis of two groups of baselines: the first group is comprised of "short" baselines (less than 10 km; the second group is characterized by greater distances (up to 90 km. The obtained results were compared either upon the basis of the geometric characteristics, for six different baseline lengths, using 24 hours of data, or upon temporal variations, by examining two periods of varying intensity in ionospheric activity respectively coinciding with the maximum of the 23 solar cycle and in conditions of low ionospheric activity. The analysis revealed variations in terms of inter-distance as well as different performances primarily owing to temporal modifications in the state of the ionosphere.

  7. Ionospheric measurements during the CRISTA/MAHRSI campaign: their implications and comparison with previous campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovicka

    Full Text Available The CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment on board a space shuttle was accompanied by a broad campaign of rocket, balloon and ground-based measurements. Supporting lower ionospheric ground-based measurements were run in Europe and Eastern Asia between 1 October-30 November, 1994. Results of comparisons with long ionospheric data series together with short-term comparisons inside the interval October-November, 1994, showed that the upper middle atmosphere 
    (h = 80-100 km at middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the interval of the CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment (4-12 November, 1994 was very close to its expected climatological state. In other words, the average results of the experiment can be used as climatological data, at least for the given area/altitudes. The role of solar/geomagnetic and "meteorological" control of the lower ionosphere is investigated and compared with the results of MAP/WINE, MAC/SINE and DYANA campaigns. The effects of both solar/geomagnetic and global meteorological factors on the lower ionosphere are found to be weak during autumn 1994 compared to those in MAP/WINE and DYANA winters, and they are even slightly weaker than those in MAP/SINE summer. The comparison of the four campaigns suggests the following overall pattern: in winter the lower ionosphere at northern middle latitudes appears to be fairly well "meteorologically" controlled with a very weak solar influence. In summer, solar influence is somewhat stronger and dominates the weak "meteorological" influence, but the overall solar/meteorological control is weaker than in winter. In autumn we find the weakest overall solar/meteorological control, local effects evidently dominate.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  8. Development of ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system in Wuhan and its first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    A new digital low-frequency receiver system has been developed at Wuhan University for sensitive reception of low-latitude broadband Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves originating from either natural or artificial sources. These low-frequency radio waves are useful for ionospheric remote sensing, geospace environment monitoring, and submarine communications. This paper presents the principle and architecture of the system framework, including magnetic loop antenna design, low-noise analog front-end and digital receiver with data sampling and transmission. A new structure is adopted in the analog front end to provide high common-mode rejection and to reduce interference. On basis of field programmable gate array (FPGA) device and Universal Serial Bus (USB) architecture, the digital receiver is developed along with time keeping and synchronization module. The validity and feasibility of the self-developed ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system is evaluated by first results of experimental data that show the temporal variation of broadband ELF/VLF wave spectral intensity in Wuhan (30.54 °N, 114.37 °E). In addition to the acquisition of VLF transmitter signals at various frequencies, tweek atmospherics are also clearly captured to occur at multiple modes up to n = 6.

  9. Extreme Ionospheric Gradients Observed in South Korea during the Last Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) support aircraft precision approach and landing by providing differential corrections for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) pseudorange measurements and integrity information to aviation users within several tens of kilometers of GBAS-equipped airports. During the peak of the last solar cycle, extreme ionospheric gradients as large as 412 mm/km at high elevation and 360 mm/km at low elevation were observed in the United States. For a GBAS user at a 200-foot decision height (DH) for Category I precision approach, a spatial gradient of 412 mm/km could cause a residual range error of 8 meters. To predict the maximum position errors that GBAS users might suffer from these ionospheric threats, an ionospheric anomaly "threat model" for GBAS was developed in the Conterminous U.S (CONUS). The threat model issued to simulate worst-case ionospheric errors and develop mitigation strategies under ionospheric disturbances. Ionospheric conditions should be investigated for all regions where GBAS will be fielded in the future. We presents a method to identify ionospheric anomalies that can pose a potential integrity risk to GBAS users and details the study of extreme ionospheric gradients observed in South Korea during the last solar cycle. GPS dual-frequency code and carrier-phase measurements collected from a total of 74 GPS reference stations in South Korea were processed to observe ionospheric anomalies. Precise ionospheric delay estimates are obtained using the simplified truth processing method and ionospheric gradients are computed using the well-known "station pair method". Ionospheric threats can be modeled as a spatially linear semi-infinite wedge moving with constant speed in mid-latitude regions. A total of 22 dates during the last solar maximum period in 2000 - 2004 were investigated to identify ionospheric anomalies occurred in South Korea. Ten of the dates were the days previously chosen to construct the current

  10. Double Star, Cluster, and ground-based observations of magnetic reconnection during an interval of duskward oriented IMF: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wild

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a space- and ground-based study exploiting data from the coordinated Cluster and Double Star missions in order to investigate dayside magnetic reconnection under BY+ dominated IMF conditions. In-situ observations of magnetosheath flux transfer events combined with measurements of pulsed poleward and dawnward directed flows in the pre-noon sector high-latitude northern hemisphere ionosphere are interpreted as indications of pulsed magnetic reconnection during an interval in which the IMF remained relatively steady. Observations of newly-reconnected magnetic flux tubes anchored in the northern hemisphere both at mid-latitudes and in the vicinity of the subsolar point suggests that during BY+ dominated IMF, reconnection is not, as proposed previously, limited to the high-latitude magnetopause.

  11. Key Ground-Based and Space-Based Assets to Disentangle Magnetic Field Sources in the Earth's Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulliat, A.; Matzka, J.; Masson, A.; Milan, S. E.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic field measured on the ground or in space is the addition of several sources: from flows within the Earth's core to electric currents in distant regions of the magnetosphere. Properly separating and characterizing these sources requires appropriate observations, both ground-based and space-based. In the present paper, we review the existing observational infrastructure, from magnetic observatories and magnetometer arrays on the ground to satellites in low-Earth (Swarm) and highly elliptical (Cluster) orbits. We also review the capability of SuperDARN to provide polar ionospheric convection patterns supporting magnetic observations. The past two decades have been marked by exciting new developments in all observation types. We review these developments, focusing on how they complement each other and how they have led or could lead in the near future to improved separation and modeling of the geomagnetic sources.

  12. Electric, Magnetic and Ionospheric Survey of Seismically Active Regions with SWARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echim, Marius M.; Moldovan, Iren; Voiculescu, Mirela; Balasis, George; Lichtenberger, Janos; Heilig, Balazs; Kovacs, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We present a project devoted to the scientific exploitation of SWARM multi-point measurements of the magnetic and electric field, of the electron temperature and density in the ionosphere. These data provide unique opportunities to study in-situ and remotely the electromagnetic and plasma variability due to ionospheric forcing from above and below. The project "Electric, Magnetic and Ionospheric Survey of Seismically Active Regions with SWARM (EMISSARS)" focus on coordinated studies between SWARM and ground based observatories to survey electromagnetic and ionospheric variability at medium latitudes and look for possible correlations with the seismic activity in central Europe. The project is coordinated by the Institute for Space Sciences (INFLPR-ISS) and the National Institute for Earth Physics (INFP) in Bucharest, Romania. In addition to SWARM data the project benefits from support of dedicated ground based measurements provided by the MEMFIS network coordinated by INFP, the MM100 network of magnetic observatories coordinated by the Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary (MFGI) in Budapest. Seismic data are provided by INFP and the European Mediterranean Seismological Center. The mission of the project is to monitor from space and from ground the ionospheric and electromagnetic variability during time intervals prior, during and after seismic activity in (i) the seismic active regions of the central Europe and (ii) in regions unaffected by the seismic activity. The latter will provide reference measurements, free from possible seismogenic signals. The scientific objectives of the project are: (1) Observation of electric, magnetic and ionospheric (electron temperature, density) variability in the ionosphere above or in the close vicinity of seismic active regions, in conjunction with ground based observations from dedicated networks; (2) Investigation of the coupling between the litosphere - atmosphere - ionosphere, during Earthquakes; (3) Quantitative

  13. Geospace ionosphere research with a MF/HF radio instrument on a cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, E. J.; Aikio, A. T.; Alho, M.; Fontell, M.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Kauristie, K.; Kestilä, A.; Koskimaa, P.; Makela, J. S.; Mäkelä, M.; Turunen, E.; Vanhamäki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Modern technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and its ionosphere, using spacecraft and and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We present computational simulation results and measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). We have modelled the propagation of the radio waves, both ground generated man-made waves and space formed space weather related waves, through the 3D

  14. Brief communication "Monitoring ionospheric variations before earthquakes using the vertical and oblique sounding network over China"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of earthquake prediction has stimulated the research for correlation between seismic activity and ionospheric anomaly. Many observations have shown the existence of anomaly of critical frequency of ionospheric F-region, foF2, before earthquake onset. Ionospheric sounding has been conducted routinely for more than 60 years in China by the China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP, and deveoloped a very powerful ability to observe the ionosphere. In this paper, we briefly describe the anomalous variation of the foF2 before Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake (occurred on 12 May 2008 at 14:28 LT; 31.00° N, 103.40° E, which is a sign of the great interest arising in the seismo-ionospheric investigation of Chinese researchers. Furthermore, we introduce the routine work on seismo-ionospheric anomaly by the ground based high-resolution ionospheric observation (GBHIO network comprising 5 vertical and 20 oblique sounding stations.

  15. Study of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms in the European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti Alexandra; Barta, Veronika; Kis, Arpad

    2016-07-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere through different physical and atmospheric processes. The phenomena that can be regarded as a result of these processes, generally is named as "ionospheric storm". The processes depend on altitude, segment of the day, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude, strength of solar activity and the type of the geomagnetic storm. We examine the data of ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding measurements of European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory) in order to determine how and to what extent a geomagnetic disturbance of a certain strength affects the mid-latitude ionospheric regions in winter and in summer. For our analysis we used disturbed time periods between November 2012 and June 2015. Our results show significant changing of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters on strongly disturbed days compared to quiet ones. We show that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase compared to their quiet day value when the ionospheric storm was positive. On the other hand, the critical frequencies become lower, when the storm was negative. In our analysis we determined the magnitude of these changes on the chosen days. For a more complete analysis we compare also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. The results present the evolution of an ionospheric storm over a geographic meridian. Furthermore, we compared the two type of geomagnetic storms, namely the CME caused geomagnetic storm - the so-called Sudden impulse (Si) storms- and the HSS (High Speed Solar Wind Streams) caused geomagnetic storms -the so-called Gradual storms (Gs)- impact on the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2 parameter). The results show a significant difference between the effect of Si and of the Gs storms on the ionospheric F2-layer.

  16. Ionospheric Data Assimilation from a Data Provider's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Bust, G.; Zhang, Y.; Romeo, G.; Comberiate, J.; Gelinas, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ionosphere/Thermosphere system is a very dynamic and complex medium to model. Given sufficient data and proper data handling, assimilative models can give a good representation of this system. One good dataset for this purpose comes from UV imagers on spacecraft. In particular, the Oxygen recombination emission (135.6 nm) and the Nitrogen Lyman-Birge Hopfield band (both 140-150 nm and 165-180 nm) are being collected by instruments on the NASA TIMED/GUVI and DMSP/SSUSI instruments. Similar UV data will also be available in the future from the ICON and GOLD missions. Currently, the Air Force is using the oxygen emission to infer ionospheric electron densities in the USU GAIM model for ionospheric forecasts. We have also been integrating data for the IDA4D model assimilation (Bust et al, 2007). As the data product designer for these UV products, we have an unique perspective on issues related to assimilating this data. These issues concern model resolution scales (Schunk, et al, 2011), filtering of noisy data, and handling of second order effects. We will discuss our experience with these issues and point out some future directions for assimilation of UV data. Bust, G., Crowley, G., Curtis, N., Reynolds, A., Paxton, L., Coker, C., Bernhardt, P. "IDA4D - a new ionospheric imaging algorithm using non-linear ground-based and spaced- based data sources", American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #SA11B-06. Schunk, R.W., Scherliess, L., and Thompson, D.C., 2011 "Ionospheric Data Assimilation: Problems Associated with Missing Physics", Aeronomy of the Earth's Atmosphere and Ionosphere. IAGA Special Sopron Book Series Volume 2, pp 437-442.

  17. Concentric traveling ionosphere disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Meranti (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min Yang; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Tsai, Ho Fang; Sun, Yang Yi; Liu, Jann Yenq; Chen, Chia Hung

    2017-02-01

    Concentric traveling ionosphere disturbances (CTIDs) in total electron content triggered by Super Typhoon Meranti on 13 September 2016 are detected by using the ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems network in Taiwan. The CTIDs emanated outward before the typhoon landfall and lasted for more than 10 h. The characteristics of CTIDs agree with the gravity wave theory and exhibit spatial and temporal scales in wave periods of 8-30 min, horizontal wavelengths of 160-200 km, and horizontal phase velocities of 106-220 m/s. We also observe the CTIDs showing the stationary wave character. Broad spectra of CTIDs are excited after the rainbands of typhoon impinged on Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. The ray-tracing technique confirms that the CTIDs were excited by convective clouds, spiral rainbands, and the eyewall of Typhoon Meranti. This study provides new evidence of typhoon-induced concentric gravity waves in the ionosphere.

  18. Ground-based observations of Kepler asteroseismic targets

    CERN Document Server

    Uytterhoeven, K; Southworth, J; Randall, S; Ostensen, R; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Marconi, M; Kurtz, D W; Kiss, L; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Frandsen, S; De Cat, P; Bruntt, H; Briquet, M; Zhang, X B; Telting, J H; Steslicki, M; Ripepi, V; Pigulski, A; Paparo, M; Oreiro, R; Choong, Ngeow Chow; Niemczura, E; Nemec, J; Narwid, A; Mathias, P; Martin-Ruiz, S; Lehman, H; Kopacki, G; Karoff, C; Jackiewicz, J; Henden, A A; Handler, G; Grigachene, A; Green, E M; Garrido, R; Machado, L Fox; Debosscher, J; Creevey, O L; Catanzaro, G; Bognar, Z; Biazzo, K; Bernabei, S

    2010-01-01

    We present the ground-based activities within the different working groups of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). The activities aim at the systematic characterization of the 5000+ KASC targets, and at the collection of ground-based follow-up time-series data of selected promising Kepler pulsators. So far, 35 different instruments at 30 telescopes on 22 different observatories in 12 countries are in use, and a total of more than 530 observing nights has been awarded. (Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope, William Herschel Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Mercator Telescope (La Palma, Spain), and IAC-80 (Tenerife, Spain). Also based on observations taken at the observatories of Sierra Nevada, San Pedro Martir, Vienna, Xinglong, Apache Point, Lulin, Tautenburg, Loiano, Serra la Nave, Asiago, McDonald, Skinakas, Pic du Midi, Mauna Kea, Steward Observatory, Bialkow Observatory of the Wroclaw University, Piszkesteto Mountain Station, Observato...

  19. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  20. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  1. Electrodynamics of ionospheric weather over low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic state of the ionosphere at low latitudes is largely controlled by electric fields originating from dynamo actions by atmospheric waves propagating from below and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction from above. These electric fields cause structuring of the ionosphere in wide ranging spatial and temporal scales that impact on space-based communication and navigation systems constituting an important segment of our technology-based day-to-day lives. The largest of the ionosphere structures, the equatorial ionization anomaly, with global maximum of plasma densities can cause propagation delays on the GNSS signals. The sunset electrodynamics is responsible for the generation of plasma bubble wide spectrum irregularities that can cause scintillation or even disruptions of satellite communication/navigation signals. Driven basically by upward propagating tides, these electric fields can suffer significant modulations from perturbation winds due to gravity waves, planetary/Kelvin waves, and non-migrating tides, as recent observational and modeling results have demonstrated. The changing state of the plasma distribution arising from these highly variable electric fields constitutes an important component of the ionospheric weather disturbances. Another, often dominating, component arises from solar disturbances when coronal mass ejection (CME) interaction with the earth's magnetosphere results in energy transport to low latitudes in the form of storm time prompt penetration electric fields and thermospheric disturbance winds. As a result, drastic modifications can occur in the form of layer restructuring (Es-, F3 layers etc.), large total electron content (TEC) enhancements, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) latitudinal expansion/contraction, anomalous polarization electric fields/vertical drifts, enhanced growth/suppression of plasma structuring, etc. A brief review of our current understanding of the ionospheric weather variations and the

  2. Remote Oxygen Sensing by Ionospheric Excitation (ROSIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kalogerakis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal optical observable emission resulting from ionospheric modification (IM experiments is the atomic oxygen red line at 630 nm, originating from the O(1D–3P transition. Because the O(1D atom has a long radiative lifetime, it is sensitive to collisional relaxation and an observed decay faster than the radiative rate can be attributed to collisions with atmospheric species. In contrast to the common practice of ignoring O-atoms in interpreting such observations in the past, recent experimental studies on the relaxation of O(1D by O(3P have revealed the dominant role of oxygen atoms in controlling the lifetime of O(1D at altitudes relevant to IM experiments. Using the most up-to-date rate coefficients for collisional relaxation of O(1D by O, N2, and O2, it is now possible to analyze the red line decays observed in IM experiments and thus probe the local ionospheric composition. In this manner, we can demonstrate an approach to remotely detect O-atoms at the altitudes relevant to IM experiments, which we call remote oxygen sensing by ionospheric excitation (ROSIE. The results can be compared with atmospheric models and used to study the temporal, seasonal, altitude and spatial variation of ionospheric O-atom density in the vicinity of heating facilities. We discuss the relevance to atmospheric observations and ionospheric heating experiments and report an analysis of representative IM data.

  3. Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  4. Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-20

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  5. Model Predictions and Ground-based Observations for Jupiter's Magnetospheric Environment: Application to the JUICE and Juno Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, N. A.; Guio, P.; Arridge, C. S.; Ray, L. C.; Yates, J. N.; Fossey, S.; Savini, G.; Pearson, M.; Fernando, N.; Gerasimov, R.; Murat, T.

    2016-12-01

    The advent of new missions to the Jovian system such as Juno (recentlyarrived) and JUICE (scheduled for 2022 launch) makes timely the provision of model-based predictions for thephysical conditions to be encountered by these spacecraft; as well as the planning of simultaneous, ground-basedobservations of the Jovian system.Using the UCL Jovian magnetodisc model, which calculates magnetic field and plasma distributionsaccording to Caudal's (1986) force-balance formalism, we provide predictions of the following quantities alongrepresentative Juno / JUICE orbits through the middle magnetosphere: (i) Magnetic field strength and direction; (ii)Density and / or pressure of the 'cold' and 'hot' particle populations; (iii) Plasma angular velocity.The characteristic variation in these parameters is mainly influenced by the periodic approaches towards andrecessions from the magnetodisc imposed on the 'synthetic spacecraft' by the planet's rotating, tilteddipole field. We also include some corresponding predictions for ionospheric / thermospheric conditions at themagnetic footpoint of the spacecraft, using the JASMIN model (Jovian Atmospheric Simulatorwith Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Neutrals).We also present preliminary imaging results from `IoSpot', a planned, ground-based programme of observationsbased at the University College London Observatory (UCLO) which targets ionized sulphur emissions from the Ioplasma torus. Such programmes, conducted simultaneously with the above missions, will provide valuable context forthe overall physical conditions within the Jovian magnetosphere, for which Io's volcanoes are the principal source ofplasma.

  6. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  7. Ground-based phase wind-up and its application in yaw angle determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.; Chen, W.; Dong, D.; Yu, C.; Zheng, Z.; Zhou, F.; Wang, M.; Yue, W.

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based phase wind-up effect (GPWU) is caused by the rotation of receiving antenna. It had been studied and applied in rapidly rotation platforms, such as sounding rocket, guided missile and deep space exploration. In Global Navigation Satellite System high accuracy positioning applications, however, most studies treated it as an error source and focused on eliminating this effect in Precision Point Positioning and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning. The GPWU effect is also sensitive to the rotational status of the antenna, in particular the yaw angle variations. In this paper we explore the feasibility of yaw angle determination of relatively slow rotation platforms based on the GPWU effect. We use the geometry-free carrier phase observations from a RTK base and a moving station receivers to estimate the cumulative yaw angle of the moving platform. Several experiments, including rotating platform tests, vehicle and shipborne tests were carried out. The cumulative errors of rotating platform tests are under 0.38°, indicating good long-term accuracy of the GPWU determined yaw angle. But the RMS are in a range of 11.98° and 17.39°, indicating the errors, such as multipath effect, are not negligible and should be further investigated. The RMS of vehicle and shipborne tests using a base station of 9-11 km are 24.77° and 23.66°. In order to evaluate the influence of the differential ionospheric delay, another vehicle test was carried out using a base station located less than 1 km to the vehicle. The RMS reduces to 15.11°, which gains 39.00 % improvement than before, and demonstrates that the differential ionospheric delay even from a few kilometers long baseline still cannot be neglected. These tests validate the feasibility of GPWU for real-time yaw angle determination. Since this method is able to determine the yaw angle with a minimum one satellite, such a unique feature provides potential applications for attitude determination in the environment with

  8. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  9. Augmenting WFIRST Microlensing with a Ground-Based Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Augmenting the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) microlensing campaigns with intensive observations from a ground-based network of wide-field survey telescopes would have several major advantages. First, it would enable full two-dimensional (2-D) vector microlens parallax measurements for a substantial fraction of low-mass lenses as well as planetary and binary events that show caustic crossing features. For a significant fraction of the free-floating planet (FFP) events and all caustic-crossing planetary/binary events, these 2-D parallax measurements directly lead to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) of the lens object (or lens system). For even more events, the complementary ground-based observations will yield 1-D parallax measurements. Together with the 1-D parallaxes from WFIRST alone, they can probe the entire mass range M > M_Earth. For luminous lenses, such 1-D parallax measurements can be promoted to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) by high-resolution imaging. This would provide crucial information not only about the hosts of planets and other lenses, but also enable a much more precise Galactic model. Other benefits of such a survey include improved understanding of binaries (particularly with low mass primaries), and sensitivity to distant ice-giant and gas-giant companions of WFIRST lenses that cannot be detected by WFIRST itself due to its restricted observing windows. Existing ground-based microlensing surveys can be employed if WFIRST is pointed at lower-extinction fields than is currently envisaged. This would come at some cost to the event rate. Therefore the benefits of improved characterization of lenses must be weighed against these costs.

  10. The STACEE-32 Ground Based Gamma-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hinton, J A; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schütte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tümer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment detector in its initial configuration (STACEE-32). STACEE is a new ground-based gamma ray detector using the atmospheric Cherenkov technique. In STACEE, the heliostats of a solar energy research array are used to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous detectors.

  11. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M; Bramel, D; Carson, J; Covault, C E; Fortin, P; Hanna, D S; Hinton, J A; Jarvis, A; Kildea, J; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Theoret, C G; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) in its complete configuration. STACEE uses the heliostats of a solar energy research facility to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The light is concentrated onto an array of photomultiplier tubes located near the top of a tower. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous ground-based detectors. STACEE is being used to observe pulsars, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts.

  12. Research on target accuracy for ground-based lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Shi, Ruoming

    2009-05-01

    In ground based Lidar system, the targets are used in the process of registration, georeferencing for point cloud, and also can be used as check points. Generally, the accuracy of capturing the flat target center is influenced by scanning range and scanning angle. In this research, the experiments are designed to extract accuracy index of the target center with 0-90°scan angles and 100-195 meter scan ranges using a Leica HDS3000 laser scanner. The data of the experiments are listed in detail and the related results are analyzed.

  13. Ionosphere monitoring and forecast activities within the IAG working group "Ionosphere Prediction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mainul; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Erdogan, Eren; Cueto Santamaría, Marta; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Schmidt, Michael; Wilken, Volker

    2017-04-01

    . Performance tests are being conducted at the moment in order to improve UPC predicted products for 1-, 2-days ahead. In addition, UPC is working to enable short-term predictions based on UPC real-time GIMs (labelled URTG) and implementing an improved prediction approach. TUM developed a forecast method based on a time series analysis of TEC products which are either B-spline coefficients estimated by a Kalman filter or TEC grid maps derived from the B-spline coefficients. The forecast method uses a Fourier series expansion to extract the trend functions from the estimated TEC product. Then the trend functions are carried out to provide predicted TEC products. The forecast algorithm developed by GMV is based on the ionospheric delay estimation from previous epochs using GNSS data and the main dependence of ionospheric delays on solar and magnetic conditions. Since the ionospheric behavior is highly dependent on the region of the Earth, different region-based algorithmic modifications have been implemented in GMV's magicSBAS ionospheric algorithms to be able to estimate and forecast ionospheric delays worldwide. Different TEC prediction approaches outlined here will certainly help to learn about forecasting ionospheric ionization.

  14. A statistical survey of dayside pulsed ionospheric flows as seen by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McWilliams

    Full Text Available Nearly two years of 2-min resolution data and 7- to 21-s resolution data from the CUTLASS Finland HF radar have undergone Fourier analysis in order to study statistically the occurrence rates and repetition frequencies of pulsed ionospheric flows in the noon-sector high-latitude ionosphere. Pulsed ionospheric flow bursts are believed to be the ionospheric footprint of newly reconnected geomagnetic field lines, which occur during episodes of magnetic flux transfer to the terrestrial magnetosphere - flux transfer events or FTEs. The distribution of pulsed ionospheric flows were found to be well grouped in the radar field of view, and to be in the vicinity of the radar signature of the cusp footprint. Two thirds of the pulsed ionospheric flow intervals included in the statistical study occurred when the interplanetary magnetic field had a southward component, supporting the hypothesis that pulsed ionospheric flows are a reconnection-related phenomenon. The occurrence rate of the pulsed ionospheric flow fluctuation period was independent of the radar scan mode. The statistical results obtained from the radar data are compared to occurrence rates and repetition frequencies of FTEs derived from spacecraft data near the magnetopause reconnection region, and to ground-based optical measurements of poleward moving auroral forms. The distributions obtained by the various instruments in different regions of the magnetosphere were remarkably similar. The radar, therefore, appears to give an unbiased sample of magnetopause activity in its routine observations of the cusp footprint.

    Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; plasma convection; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  15. The International Reference Ionosphere: Model Update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Reinisch, Bodo; Galkin, Ivan; Shubin, Valentin; Truhlik, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is recognized as the official standard for the ionosphere (COSPAR, URSI, ISO) and is widely used for a multitude of different applications as evidenced by the many papers in science and engineering journals that acknowledge the use of IRI (e.g., about 11% of all Radio Science papers each year). One of the shortcomings of the model has been the dependence of the F2 peak height modeling on the propagation factor M(3000)F2. With the 2016 version of IRI, two new models will be introduced for hmF2 that were developed directly based on hmF2 measurements by ionosondes [Altadill et al., 2013] and by COSMIC radio occultation [Shubin, 2015], respectively. In addition IRI-2016 will include an improved representation of the ionosphere during the very low solar activities that were reached during the last solar minimum in 2008/2009. This presentation will review these and other improvements that are being implemented with the 2016 version of the IRI model. We will also discuss recent IRI workshops and their findings and results. One of the most exciting new projects is the development of the Real-Time IRI [Galkin et al., 2012]. We will discuss the current status and plans for the future. Altadill, D., S. Magdaleno, J.M. Torta, E. Blanch (2013), Global empirical models of the density peak height and of the equivalent scale height for quiet conditions, Advances in Space Research 52, 1756-1769, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.11.018. Galkin, I.A., B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, and D. Bilitza (2012), Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI, Radio Science, 47, RS0L07, doi:10.1029/2011RS004952. Shubin V.N. (2015), Global median model of the F2-layer peak height based on ionospheric radio-occultation and ground-based Digisonde observations, Advances in Space Research 56, 916-928, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.05.029.

  16. Theory of experimental location of ionospheric inhomogeneities at medium latitudes by satellite radioholography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovoi, A.P.; Sinelnikov, V.M.

    1980-08-01

    A theory is developed for a quasiholographic experiment which uses a differential-phase signal derived from radio signals transmitted at two coherent frequencies to obtain information on ionospheric inhomogeneities in a plane connecting the ground station and a part of the satellite orbit. The method makes it possible to determine the size and location of small-scale inhomogeneities with a radius of 100-500 m from ground-based measurements of spaced satellite signals transmitted at sufficiently high coherent frequencies.

  17. Saturn's ionosphere and plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Luke Edward

    2008-01-01

    A number of puzzling phenomena were revealed when the Voyager spacecraft flew past Saturn in 1981 to measure the ionized portions (ionosphere) of its upper atmosphere (thermosphere). Most of these issues have remained unexplained in the intervening 25 years due to a lack of conclusive observational data. With the arrival of Cassini at Saturn in July 2004, however, a new era of observations began, providing the promise of fresh evidence and demanding the development of a contemporary theoretical framework in order to re-examine old mysteries and understand new discoveries. This dissertation presents studies of Saturn's ionosphere and inner plasmasphere based on new time-dependent photochemical and diffusive transport models that solve the ion equations of continuity in one dimension. Calculations are conducted within the overall framework of a self-consistent, three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of Saturn's thermosphere, and the results of these studies are combined with GCM results to provide the building blocks of a new comprehensive model, the Saturn-Thermosphere- Ionosphere-Model (STIM). The one-dimensional model calculations are used to constrain and investigate a number of unresolved issues and to make testable predictions based on those investigations. Five primary topics are addressed: (1) the additional loss processes required to bring predicted electron densities into agreement with observations, (2) the discrepancy between theory and observations regarding the diurnal variation of peak electron density, (3) the effects of shadowing by Saturn's rings on its ionosphere, (4) the yet unknown electron and ion temperatures at Saturn, and (5) the ionospheric contribution to Saturn's plasmasphere. The models show that a steady influx of water into Saturn's atmosphere--from its rings or icy satellites--is required to explain observed electron densities. Additionally, the time-variability of the water source may be the cause of frequently observed

  18. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  19. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  20. The study of the midlatitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti; Kis, Árpád; Barta, Veronika; Novák, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, causing several physical and chemical atmospheric processes. The changes and phenomena, which can be seen as a result of these processes, generally called ionospheric storm. These processes depend on altitude, term of the day, and the strength of solar activity, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude. The differences between ionospheric regions mostly come from the variations of altitude dependent neutral and ionized atmospheric components, and from the physical parameters of solar radiation. We examined the data of the ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding instruments of the European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory), called ionosonde, to determine how and what extent a given strength of a geomagnetic disturbance affect the middle latitude ionospheric regions in winter. We chose the storm for the research from November 2012 and March 2015. As the main result of our research, we can show significant differences between the each ionospheric (F1 and F2) layer parameters on quiet and strong stormy days. When we saw, that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase from their quiet day value, then the effect of the ionospheric storm was positive, otherwise, if they drop, they were negative. With our analysis, the magnitude of these changes could be determined. Furthermore we demonstrated, how a full strong geomagnetic storm affects the ionospheric foF2 parameter during different storm phases. It has been showed, how a positive or negative ionospheric storm develop during a geomagnetic storm. For a more completed analysis, we compared also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. Therefore we determined, that the data of the ionosonde at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory are appropriate, it detects the same state of ionosphere like the

  1. Improving the atmospheric wind speed measured accuracy by the ground-based airglow imaging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanhe; Yang, Rui; Gao, Haiyang; Zhai, Fengtao; Yu, Yang; Cui, Jin

    2017-02-01

    A prototype ground based airglow imaging interferometer (GBAII) has been constructed to observe the upper atmospheric wind velocity and temperature at an altitude of 90-100 km, but the GBAII's wind speed accuracy was found to be unsatisfactory with a value of 21.0 m/s. Three theoretical aspects have been investigated to improve the accuracy, with the following finding: 1) By replacing the surface coatings of the GBAII's 6 lenses and Michelson interferometer (MI) with a new wind-speed infrared film rather than the original visible light film, the accuracy can be increased by 3.0 m/s. 2) By replacing the original charge-coupled device (CCD) with a quantum efficiency (QE) of 0.38 at the wavelength of approximately 866 nm by an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) with QE of 0.95, the accuracy can be increased by 6.7 m/s. By adding all the factors that improve the accuracy of the GBAII, it can be improved by 15.0 m/s, which realizes the original aim of wind speed accuracy of 6.0 m/s. Experimental results have been obtained for two aspects: 1) By replacing the surface film on the GBAII's 6 lenses and MI interface, the wind speed accuracy has been increased by 3.8 m/s. 2) A new GBAII temperature controller has been constructed to control the environmental temperature in 0.2 K steps. The results obtained by the GBAII on Dec. 6, 2013 show an average atmospheric temperature of 206.5 K, zonal wind speed of -26.8 m/s and meridional wind speed of 28.1 m/s. These results are close to those of the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) satellite Doppler interferometer (TIDI) data collected at almost the same time.

  2. Fine spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emission observed by ground-based radio telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, M.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.

    2014-04-01

    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radio emission in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of a complicated interaction between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying the free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moons. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from few MHz up to 40 MHz. This emission is generated via cyclotron maser mechanism in sources located along Jovian magnetic field lines. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAMexhibits different complex spectral structures. We present the observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN- 2 (Poltava, Ukraine) operated in the decametric frequency range. This telescope is one of the largest low frequency telescopes in Europe equipped with high performance digital radio spectrometers. The antenna array of URAN-2 consists of 512 crossed dipoles with an effective area of 28 000m2 and beam pattern size of 3.5 x 7 deg. (at 25 MHz). The instrument enables continuous observations of the Jovian radio during long period of times. Jovian DAM was observed continuously since Sep. 2012 (depending on Jupiter visibility) with relatively high time-frequency resolution (4 kHz - 100ms) in the broad frequency range (8-32MHz). We have detected a big amount of the fine spectral structures in the dynamic spectra of DAM such as trains of S-bursts, quasi-continuous narrowband emission, narrow-band splitting events and zebra stripe-like patterns. We analyzed mainly the fine structures associated with non-Io controlled DAM. We discuss how the observed narrowband structures which most probably are related to the propagation of the decametric radiation in the Jupiter's ionosphere can be used to study the plasma parameters in the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  3. Ionospheric response to the entry and explosion of the South Ural superbolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Smirnov, V. M.

    2014-09-01

    The South Ural meteoroid (February 15, 2013; near the city of Chelyabinsk) is undoubtedly the best documented meteoroid in history. Its passage through the atmosphere has been recorded on videos and photographs, visually by observers, with ground-based infrasound microphones and seismographs, and by satellites in orbit. In this work, the results are presented of an analysis of the transionospheric GPS sounding data collected in the vicinity of the South Ural meteoroid site, which show a weak ionospheric effect. The ionospheric disturbances are found to be asymmetric about the explosion epicenter. The received signals are compared, both in shape and amplitude, with the reported ionospheric effects of ground level explosions with radio diagnostics. It is shown that the confident registration of ionospheric effects as acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) by means of vertical sounding and GPS technologies for ground explosions in the range of 0.26-0.6 kt casts doubt on the existing TNT equivalent estimates (up to 500 kt) for the Chelyabinsk event. The absence of effects in the magnetic field and in the ionosphere far zone at distances of 1500-2000 km from the superbolide explosion epicenter also raises a question about the possibility of an overestimated TNT equivalent. An alternative explanation is to consider the superposition of a cylindrical ballistic wave (due to the hypersonic motion of the meteoroid) with spherical shock waves caused by the multiple time points of fragmentation (multiple explosions) of the superbolide as a resulting source of the AGW impact on ionospheric layers.

  4. An effect of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator on multiband Pc1 pulsations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prikner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On 2 December 1999, the magnetometer stations in northern Finland registered structured Pc1 activity simultaneously in three distinct frequency bands. Using simultaneous EISCAT radar measurements of the high-latitude ionosphere, we have studied the ionospheric resonator properties during this multiband Pc1 event. The frequencies of the three structured Pc1 bands were found to closely correspond to the second, third and fourth harmonic of the calculated fundamental frequency of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR. In addition, those frequencies of the three pearl bands that were closest to the exact IAR harmonics were found to have the strongest intensities. The results demonstrate that the resonator can have an important role on ground-based Pc1 activity over a notably large frequency range, favoring transmission of waves with frequencies close to the resonator's eigenfrequencies. Since the frequencies of all three bands correspond to the maximum rather than the minimum of the transmission coefficient, the traditional bouncing wave packet model needs to be revised.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere magnetosphere interactions; wave propagation

  5. Strike-slip earthquakes can also be detected in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, Elvira; Rolland, Lucie M.; Sladen, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    It is generally assumed that co-seismic ionospheric disturbances are generated by large vertical static displacements of the ground during an earthquake. Consequently, it is expected that co-seismic ionospheric disturbances are only observable after earthquakes with a significant dip-slip component. Therefore, earthquakes dominated by strike-slip motion, i.e. with very little vertical co-seismic component, are not expected to generate ionospheric perturbations. In this work, we use total electron content (TEC) measurements from ground-based GNSS-receivers to study ionospheric response to six recent largest strike-slip earthquakes: the Mw7.8 Kunlun earthquake of 14 November 2001, the Mw8.1 Macquarie earthquake of 23 December 2004, the Sumatra earthquake doublet, Mw8.6 and Mw8.2, of 11 April 2012, the Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake of 24 September 2013 and the Mw 7.7 Scotia Sea earthquake of 17 November 2013. We show that large strike-slip earthquakes generate large ionospheric perturbations of amplitude comparable with those induced by dip-slip earthquakes of equivalent magnitude. We consider that in the absence of significant vertical static co-seismic displacements of the ground, other seismological parameters (primarily the magnitude of co-seismic horizontal displacements, seismic fault dimensions, seismic slip) may contribute in generation of large-amplitude ionospheric perturbations.

  6. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  7. Ionospheric Feedback Instability in the Coupling of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭宇; 曹晋滨

    2003-01-01

    The ionospheric feedback instability is discussed by using the conductivity argument. We give an exact quantitative description to show that the free energy for this instability comes from the reduction of the Joule dissipation produced by the pre-existing convection electric field through self-consistent changes in ionization and conducactive ionosphere is pumped into the magnetosphere, wlich is contrary to the usual case whereby energy carried electron E × B drift. The electron conductivity is controlled by the ion Perdersen conductivity rather than by the electrons Pedersen conductivity. We also provide a qualitative theoretical explanation to the intense aurora favoured by a lower ambient ionospheric conductivity in the ionospheric feedback instability.

  8. Scintillation and loss of signal lock from poleward moving auroral forms in the cusp ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Oksavik, K; Lorentzen, D A; Baddeley, L J; Moen, J

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples from the cusp ionosphere over Svalbard,where poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs) are causing significant phase scintillation in signals from navigation satellites. The data were obtained using a combination of ground-based optical instruments and a newly installed multiconstellation navigation signal receiver at Longyearbyen. Both events affected signals from GPS and Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). When one intense PMAF appeared, the signal from one GPS spacecraft also experienced a temporary loss of signal lock. Although several polar cap patches were also observed in the area as enhancements in total electron content, the most severe scintillation and loss of signal lock appear to be attributed to very intense PMAF activity. This shows that PMAFs are locations of strong ionospheric irregularities, which at times may cause more severe disturbances in the cusp ionosphere for navigation signals than polar cap patches.

  9. Dynamic properties of ionospheric plasma turbulence driven by high-power high-frequency radiowaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.; Mishin, E. V.; Shindin, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A review is given of the current state-of-the-art of experimental studies and the theoretical understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in the ionospheric F-layer irradiated by high-power high-frequency ground-based transmitters. The main focus is on the dynamic features of high-frequency turbulence (plasma waves) and low-frequency turbulence (density irregularities of various scales) that have been studied in experiments at the Sura and HAARP heating facilities operated in temporal and frequency regimes specially designed with consideration of the characteristic properties of nonlinear processes in the perturbed ionosphere using modern radio receivers and optical instruments. Experimental results are compared with theoretical turbulence models for a magnetized collisional plasma in a high-frequency electromagnetic field, allowing the identification of the processes responsible for the observed features of artificial ionospheric turbulence.

  10. A possible space-based tsunami early warning system using observations of the tsunami ionospheric hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamogawa, Masashi; Orihara, Yoshiaki; Tsurudome, Chiaki; Tomida, Yuto; Kanaya, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Daiki; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    Ionospheric plasma disturbances after a large tsunami can be detected by measurement of the total electron content (TEC) between a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite and its ground-based receivers. TEC depression lasting for a few minutes to tens of minutes termed as tsunami ionospheric hole (TIH) is formed above the tsunami source area. Here we describe the quantitative relationship between initial tsunami height and the TEC depression rate caused by a TIH from seven tsunamigenic earthquakes in Japan and Chile. We found that the percentage of TEC depression and initial tsunami height are correlated and the largest TEC depressions appear 10 to 20 minutes after the main shocks. Our findings imply that Ionospheric TEC measurement using the existing ground receiver networks could be used in an early warning system for near-field tsunamis that take more than 20 minutes to arrive in coastal areas.

  11. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Ken

    2002-04-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a ground-based instrument designed to study astrophysical sources of gamma rays in the energy range from 50 to 500 GeV using an array of heliostat mirrors at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in New Mexico. The mirrors collect Cherenkov light generated by gamma-ray air showers and concentrate it onto cameras composed of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE instrument is now complete, and uses a total of 64 heliostats. Prototype instruments, using smaller numbers of heliostats, have previously detected gamma emission from both the Crab Nebula and the Active Galactic Nucleus Mrk421. The complete instrument has a lower threshold -- approximately 50 GeV -- than those prototypes due to superior triggering and electronics, including flash ADCs for every channel.We will discuss the performance of the complete instrument in its first full season of operation, and present preliminary results of selected observations.

  12. Atmospheric contamination for CMB ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Errard, J; Akiba, Y; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Baccigalupi, C; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Cukierman, A; Delabrouille, J; Dobbs, M; Ducout, A; Elleflot, T; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Feeney, S; Gilbert, A; Goeckner-Wald, N; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Hill, C; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A H; Jeong, O; Katayama, N; Kaufman, J; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leon, D; Linder, E; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Miller, N J; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Okamura, T; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Puglisi, G; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K M; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Tajima, O; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Whitehorn, N; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O

    2015-01-01

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3d-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive an analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the POLARBEAR-I project first season data set. We compare our results to previous st...

  13. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel E; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfectly all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean and, as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources' right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO's observations and electromagnetic follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over $80\\%$ of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to $70\\%$. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can obser...

  14. Progress in the ULTRA 1-m ground-based telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Robert C.; Martin, Robert N.; Twarog, Bruce; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Taghavi, Ray; Hale, Rick; Etzel, Paul; Fesen, Rob; Shawl, Steve

    2006-06-01

    We present the technical status of the Ultra Lightweight Telescope for Research in Astronomy (ULTRA) program. The program is a 3-year Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) program funded by NSF. The MRI is a collaborative effort involving Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA), University of Kansas, San Diego State University and Dartmouth College. Objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite mirror technology for ground-based optical telescopes. CMA is spearheading the development of surface replication techniques to produce the optics, fabricating the 1m glass mandrel, and constructing the optical tube assembly (OTA). Presented will be an overview and status of the 1-m mandrel fabrication, optics development, telescope design and CFRP telescope fabrication by CMA for the ULTRA Telescope.

  15. Ground-based optical observation system for LEO objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2015-08-01

    We propose a ground-based optical observation system for monitoring LEO objects, which uses numerous optical sensors to cover a vast region of the sky. Its potential in terms of detection and orbital determination were examined. About 30 cm LEO objects at 1000 km altitude are detectable using an 18 cm telescope, a CCD camera and the analysis software developed. Simulations and a test observation showed that two longitudinally separate observation sites with arrays of optical sensors can identify the same objects from numerous data sets and determine their orbits precisely. The proposed system may complement or replace the current radar observation system for monitoring LEO objects, like space-situation awareness, in the near future.

  16. Identification of rainy periods from ground based microwave radiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Vittoria Bosisio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the results of a study aiming at detecting rainy data in measurements collected by a dual band ground-based radiometer. The proposed criterion is based on the ratio of the brightness temperatures observed in the 20-30 GHz band without need of any ancillary information. A major result obtained from the probability density of the ratio computed over one month of data is the identification of threshold values between clear sky, cloudy sky and rainy sky, respectively. A linear fit performed by using radiometric data and concurrent rain gauge measurements shows a correlation coefficient equal to 0.56 between the temperature ratio and the observed precipitation.

  17. Optical vortex coronagraphs on ground-based telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The optical vortex coronagraph is potentially a remarkably effective device, at least for an ideal unobstructed telescope. Most ground-based telescopes however suffer from central obscuration and also have to operate through the aberrations of the turbulent atmosphere. This note analyzes the performance of the optical vortex in these circumstances and compares to some other designs, showing that it performs similarly in this situation. There is a large class of coronagraphs of this general type, and choosing between them in particular applications depends on details of performance at small off-axis distances and uniformity of response in the focal plane. Issues of manufacturability to the necessary tolerances are also likely to be important.

  18. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfectly all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean and, as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources' right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO's observations and electromagnetic follow-up. These effects can inform electromagnetic follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  19. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  20. Spatial-angular modeling of ground-based biaxial lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R.

    1997-10-01

    Results of spatial-angular LIDAR modeling based on an efficiency criterion introduced are represented. Their analysis shows that a low spatial-angular efficiency of traditional VIS and NIR systems is a main cause of a low S/BR ratio at the photodetector input. It determines the considerable measurements errors and the following low accuracy of atmospheric optical parameters retrieval. As we have shown, the most effective protection against intensive sky background radiation for ground-based biaxial LIDAR's consist in forming of their angular field according to spatial-angular efficiency criterion G. Some effective approaches to high G-parameter value achievement to achieve the receiving system optimization are discussed.

  1. Local Ionospheric Scintillation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7.  PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MOO 9 PHAHOLYOTHIN RD KM.42 KLONG NUNG PATHUM 12120...carried out as part of the densification and maintenance of the SCINDA network in South East Asia. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS Ionosphere, AOARD 16...Theoretical Physics (ICTP), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Boston College, University of California Los Angeles and AMBER projects

  2. Multiparametric study of polar ionosphere on both hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Giulia; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Spogli, Luca; Cesaroni, Claudio; Sgrigna, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The polar ionosphere is a complex system in which several actors concur to establish the observed medium. Indeed the coupling between the interplanetary magnetic field and the earth magnetic field determines a high degree of complexity of the polar ionosphere, which is directly exposed to the variations of the solar wind. This configuration results in a strong sensitivity of the polar ionosphere to the perturbation phenomena caused by solar events which may result in a wide variety of spatial and temporal dimensions of the plasma electron density irregularities. Polar ionospheric irregularities may seriously jeopardize performance and reliability level of the navigation and positioning technological systems, such as GPS or the nascent Galileo. Therefore, knowledge of the physical state of the upper atmosphere ionized layers becomes essential to predict and mitigate events that may affect the use of modern technology, causing economic damage and, in severe cases, even jeopardizing the safety of human beings. In this context, a careful and thorough investigation that covers a wide range of geospatial different disturbances, observed in circumterrestrial space and on the ground, can provide the necessary basis for a real advance of the current knowledge. In this frame, the aim of this work is to contribute to the study of the effects of perturbation induced by the Sun on the polar ionosphere of both the hemispheres, through the analysis and interpretation of the measures available before, during and after the occurrence of an event of disturbance. We propose a multiparametric approach, that combines the information derived from measurements acquired by ground-based and space-based stations, to have a broad spectrum of information necessary to characterize the ionospheric disturbances on different time scales (from milliseconds to days) and spatial scales (from millimetres to hundreds meters/kilometres). The period chosen for this study is the entire month of March

  3. IONOTOMO: A new approach for ionospheric tomography using OTH radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Corinna; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Boschi, Lapo; Moliné, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Most of the recent methods in ionospheric tomography are based on the inversion of the Total Electron Content (TEC) measured by ground-based GPS receivers [e.g., Garcia et al. 2008]. As a consequence of the high frequency of the GPS, the electron density structure is principally well reconstructed at the F2 region, where the ionosphere reaches the maximum of ionization, neglecting the lower ionosphere. Here, we develop a new 3D ionospheric tomography method based on the full analysis of over-the-horizon (OTH) radar data. Previous studies in ionospheric tomography by OTH radar (Fridman and Fridman, 1994; Ruelle and Landeau, 1994; Landeau et al., 1997; Fridman, 1998) are all based on the inversion of the leading edge echo curve, consequently an important amount of valuable information present in the data is necessarily neglected. To overcome this limit, we set up a new method, based on the ray-tracing tool TDR [Occhipinti, 2006], to invert the propagation time of electromagnetic waves emitted by monostatic OTH radars. The major advance of our methodology is taking into account, numerically and jointly, not only the speed variation of EM wave induced by the electron density variation (solved analytically with a linear inversion) but also the perturbation in the raypath (nonlinear numerical method). As the present problem is an ill posed problem we calculate the matrix inversion numerically, using a regularisation method (Tikhonov, 1963). We determine the best regularisation parameter using the Lcurve method (Hansen, 2000). We present here the originality and the advantage of our method with a full set of synthetic benchmark highlighting the sensitivity of our tomography to the plasma heterogeneities. Some preliminary test on real data will be presented with a full coverage over Europe. Indeed, the ionospheric tomography by OTH radar, jointly with GPS, could open new exciting perspective in the plasma density estimation with a good resolution to the entire ionosphere

  4. Investigation of Rainfall Characteristics Using TRMM PR and Ground Based Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, B.; Lang, T. J.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Cifelli, R.; Rutledge, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    latest release of the data, version 7 (V7). Among other modifications, the attenuation correction algorithm was adjusted to improve retrievals over land. V6 and V7 reflectivity profiles and rain statistics are compared with ground based radar observations from the three field sites in order to understand the impact of the algorithm changes. Differences in rain rate retrievals between V6 and V7 as a function spatial and temporal regimes, such as land and ocean (NAME and Darwin) and large scale wind regimes (LBA and Darwin), are investigated.

  5. Coseismic ionospheric disturbances triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Y.; Tsai, H. F.; Lin, C. H.; Kamogawa, M.; Chen, Y. I.; Lin, C. H.; Huang, B. S.; Yu, S. B.; Yeh, Y. H.

    2010-08-01

    At 17:47 UT on 20 September 1999, a large earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.6 struck the central Taiwan near a small town of Chi-Chi. The ground-based receivers of the global positioning system (GPS) in the Taiwan area detected coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs) in the total electron content (TEC) triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake. When the CIDs travel away from the origin on the Earth surface and then propagate into the ionosphere, their amplitudes and periods generally become smaller and longer, respectively. Moreover, two global grid searches, adapting the ray-tracing and the beam-forming techniques, have been used to analyze the observed GPS TEC. We have not only estimated the average speed of the CIDs propagating in the atmosphere and ionosphere but also determined the location of CID origin on the Earth surface by using the two techniques. The results show that the observed CIDs result from shock-acoustic waves triggered by sudden and large vertical motions of the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  6. Inversion of Ionospheric Electron Density from GPS Beacon Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZouYu-hua; XuJi-sheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the mathematical foundation of time-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) for reconstructing ionospheric electron density, N~, from ground-based GPS beacon observations. After simplifying the relation between N. and time,the time-dependent 3-D inversion in consideration is reduced to a 3-D tomography with incomplete projections. To see clearly the effects of the incompleteness on the quality of reconstruction under 3-D condition, the formula of 3-D parallelbeam tomogtTaphy is deduced theoretically. After establishing the mathematical foundation, simulations based on actual GPS ray paths with the help of the IRI-90 model are performed,and reasonable time-dependent 3-D distribution images of Ne are obtained when taking proper layout of the network and allowing variable resolutions. The quality of the reconstruction is rather good when compared with the images from the IRI-90 model directly. Therefore, results in this paper demonstrate that imaging of the ionospheric electron density distribution from GPS beacon observations is reasonable in theor yand feasible in practice.

  7. Inversion of Ionospheric Electron Density from GPS Beacon Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Yu-hua; Xu Ji-sheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the mathematical foundation of time-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) for reconstructing ionospheric electron density, Ne, from ground-based GPS beacon observations. After simplifying the relation between Ne and time,the time-dependent 3-D inversion in consideration is reduced to a 3-D tomography with incomplete projections.To see clearly the effects of the incompleteness on the quality of reconstruction under 3-D condition, the formula of 3-D parallel-beam tomography is deduced theoretically. After establishing the mathematical foundation, simulations based on actual GPS ray paths with the help of the IRI-90 model are performed,and reasonable time-dependent 3-D distribution images of Neare obtained when taking proper layout of the network and allowing variable resolutions. The quality of the reconstruction is rather good when compared with the images from the IRI-90 model directly. Therefore, results in this paper demon-strate that imaging of the ionospheric electron density distri-bution from GPS beacon observations is reasonable in theory and feasible in practice.

  8. The new IGS ionospheric product - TEC fluctuation maps and their scientific application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankowski, Andrzej; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2017-04-01

    The GPS signals fading due to presence of the plasma irregularities in the ionosphere can decrease an operational availability of navigation systems. This effect can be estimated by measuring its impact on phase of the received GPS signal. The new IGS ionospheric fluctuation maps product is based on estimates of the TEC rapid changes. For an overall representation of the spatial evolution of the ionospheric irregularities, which caused the GPS signal fluctuations over the Northern Hemisphere in middle and high latitudes, a daily map of the ROTI index is produced basing on data derived from a representative set of 700 permanent GPS stations. We use the corrected geomagnetic (CGM) coordinates with DGRF/IGRF models. For daily ROTI maps, we averaged and binned all ROTI values collected during 00-24 UT period of a considered day. The grid size is 8 min MLT by 2° MLAT, with the latter covering 50° - 90°. The averaged ROTI value in each MLAT-MLT bin corresponds to probability of the GPS signals phase fluctuations caused by passing of radio signals through the ionospheric irregularities. The resulted ionospheric fluctuation product is represented in the ASCII IONEX-like data format and can be visualized. This data format is described in details. We demonstrate the IGS ionospheric fluctuation map product performance for scientific research application on set of test-cases (geomagnetic storms occurred in the years 2013-2015) for comparative analysis of the resulted daily ROTI maps for quiet and geomagnetically disturbed periods. The intense phase scintillations depicted in the diurnal ROTI maps can provide an important information about development of the severe storm-induced gradients in the ionospheric plasma density, both caused by auroral particle precipitation and plasma flows. It is possible to conclude that IGS ionospheric fluctuation maps product can be effectively used for monitoring of the plasma irregularities with different origin. The independent ground-based

  9. Multimodel comparison of the ionosphere variability during the 2009 sudden stratosphere warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Fang, T.-W.; Jin, H.; Sassi, F.; Schmidt, H.; Chau, J. L.; Siddiqui, T. A.; Goncharenko, L.

    2016-07-01

    A comparison of different model simulations of the ionosphere variability during the 2009 sudden stratosphere warming (SSW) is presented. The focus is on the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere simulated by the Ground-to-topside model of the Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy (GAIA), Whole Atmosphere Model plus Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere (WAM+GIP), and Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model eXtended version plus Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (WACCMX+TIMEGCM). The simulations are compared with observations of the equatorial vertical plasma drift in the American and Indian longitude sectors, zonal mean F region peak density (NmF2) from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites, and ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) total electron content (TEC) at 75°W. The model simulations all reproduce the observed morning enhancement and afternoon decrease in the vertical plasma drift, as well as the progression of the anomalies toward later local times over the course of several days. However, notable discrepancies among the simulations are seen in terms of the magnitude of the drift perturbations, and rate of the local time shift. Comparison of the electron densities further reveals that although many of the broad features of the ionosphere variability are captured by the simulations, there are significant differences among the different model simulations, as well as between the simulations and observations. Additional simulations are performed where the neutral atmospheres from four different whole atmosphere models (GAIA, HAMMONIA (Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere), WAM, and WACCMX) provide the lower atmospheric forcing in the TIME-GCM. These simulations demonstrate that different neutral atmospheres, in particular, differences in the solar migrating semidiurnal tide, are partly responsible for the differences in the simulated

  10. Structure and dynamics of the Earth's polar ionosphere: recent results inferred from incoherent scatter sounders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Dominique [CETP-CNRS, 10-12 Avenue de l' Europe, 78140 Velizy (France)

    2002-08-01

    For 20 years, a large part of ionospheric research has been devoted to high latitudes and in particular to the range 60-70 deg. where an oval of auroras permanently encircles each pole. The auroral light emissions are accompanied by the production of ionization, electric currents and fields. Indeed, the auroral latitudes play a dominant role in the ionospheric electrodynamics because electric fields and currents reach thus at their largest intensities. Observations from low-altitude satellites and from ground-based facilities have contributed to the analysis and modelling of the structure and dynamics of the auroral ionosphere. The results illustrated here are inferred from observations of the European Japanese incoherent scatter radars (EISCAT) based in North Scandinavia. Recently, the field of view of the EISCAT facilities has been extended toward the pole with two radars built in 1996 and 2000 at Spitzbergen (78 deg. N): the EISCAT Svalbard radars. Other ground-based instruments (magnetometers, photometers, etc) have also been deployed at the same location. At first sight, the ionization production in the polar ionosphere is expected to be weak because of the reduced solar illumination. The first observations reveal, in contrast, the presence of intense and variable structures, which are still under investigation. To develop our understanding of these events, we discuss the theoretical results given by the particle penetration from solar origin, and of its effects into the dayside polar ionosphere.

  11. Positive ionospheric storm effects at Latin America longitude during the superstorm of 20–22 November 2003: revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive ionospheric storm effects that occurred during the superstorm on 20 November 2003 are investigated using a combination of ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS total electron content (TEC, and the meridian chain of ionosondes distributed along the Latin America longitude of ~280° E. Both the ground-based GPS TEC and ionosonde electron density profile data reveal significant enhancements at mid-low latitudes over the 280° E region during the main phase of the November 2003 superstorm. The maximum enhancement of the topside ionospheric electron content is 3.2–7.7 times of the bottomside ionosphere at the locations of the ionosondes distributed around the mid- and low latitudes. Moreover, the height of maximum electron density exceeds 400 km and increases by 100 km compared with the quiet day over the South American area from middle to low latitudes, which might have resulted from a continuous eastward penetration electric field and storm-generated equatorward winds. Our results do not support the conclusions of Yizengaw et al. (2006, who suggested that the observed positive storm over the South American sector was mainly the consequence of the changes of the bottomside ionosphere. The so-called "unusual" responses of the topside ionosphere for the November 2003 storm in Yizengaw et al. (2006 are likely associated with the erroneous usage of magnetometer and incomplete data.

  12. Numerical analysis of global ionospheric current system including the effect of equatorial enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsunomura

    Full Text Available A modeling method is proposed to derive a two-dimensional ionospheric layer conductivity, which is appropriate to obtain a realistic solution of the polar-originating ionospheric current system including equatorial enhancement. The model can be obtained by modifying the conventional, thin shell conductivity model. It is shown that the modification for one of the non-diagonal terms (Σθφ in the conductivity tensor near the equatorial region is very important; the term influences the profile of the ionospheric electric field around the equator drastically. The proposed model can reproduce well the results representing the observed electric and magnetic field signatures of geomagnetic sudden commencement. The new model is applied to two factors concerning polar-originating ionospheric current systems. First, the latitudinal profile of the DP2 amplitude in the daytime is examined, changing the canceling rate for the dawn-to-dusk electric field by the region 2 field-aligned current. It is shown that the equatorial enhancement would not appear when the ratio of the total amount of the region 2 field-aligned current to that of region 1 exceeds 0.5. Second, the north-south asymmetry of the magnetic fields in the summer solstice condition of the ionospheric conductivity is examined by calculating the global ionospheric current system covering both hemispheres simultaneously. It is shown that the positive relationship between the magnitudes of high latitude magnetic fields and the conductivity is clearly seen if a voltage generator is given as the source, while the relationship is vague or even reversed for a current generator. The new model, based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, can be applied to further investigations in the quantitative analysis of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling problems.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere

  13. Limits on the validity of the thin-layer model of the ionosphere for radio interferometric calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Poppy L; Scaife, Anna M M

    2016-01-01

    For a ground-based radio interferometer observing at low frequencies, the ionosphere causes propagation delays and refraction of cosmic radio waves which result in phase errors in the received signal. These phase errors can be corrected using a calibration method that assumes a two-dimensional phase screen at a fixed altitude above the surface of the Earth, known as the thin-layer model. Here we investigate the validity of the thin-layer model and provide a simple equation with which users can check when this approximation can be applied to observations for varying time of day, zenith angle, interferometer latitude, baseline length, ionospheric electron content and observing frequency.

  14. Limits on the validity of the thin-layer model of the ionosphere for radio interferometric calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Poppy L.; Bray, Justin D.; Scaife, Anna M. M.

    2016-07-01

    For a ground-based radio interferometer observing at low frequencies, the ionosphere causes propagation delays and refraction of cosmic radio waves which result in phase errors in the received signal. These phase errors can be corrected using a calibration method that assumes a two-dimensional phase screen at a fixed altitude above the surface of the Earth, known as the thin-layer model. Here, we investigate the validity of the thin-layer model and provide a simple equation with which users can check when this approximation can be applied to observations for varying time of day, zenith angle, interferometer latitude, baseline length, ionospheric electron content and observing frequency.

  15. Coordinated ground-based and Cluster observations of large amplitude global magnetospheric oscillations during a fast solar wind speed interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Mann

    Full Text Available We present magnetospheric observations of very large amplitude global scale ULF waves, from 9 and 10 December 2000 when the upstream solar wind speed exceeded 600 km/s. We characterise these ULF waves using ground-based magnetometer, radar and optical instrumentation on both the dawn and dusk flanks; we find evidence to support the hypothesis that discrete frequency field line resonances (FLRs were being driven by magnetospheric waveguide modes. During the early part of this interval, Cluster was on an outbound pass from the northern dusk side magnetospheric lobe into the magnetosheath, local-time conjugate to the Canadian sector. In situ magnetic fluctuations, observed by Cluster FGM, show evidence of quasi-periodic motion of the magnetosheath boundary layer with the same period as the ULF waves seen on the ground. Our observations represent the first simultaneous magnetometer, radar and optical observations of the characteristics of FLRs, and confirm the potential importance of ULF waves for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, particularly via the generation and modulation of electron precipitation into the ionosphere. The in situ Cluster measurements support the hypothesis that, during intervals of fast solar wind speed, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI can excite magnetospheric waveguide modes which bathe the flank magnetosphere with discrete frequency ULF wave power and drive large amplitude FLRs. 

    Paper submitted to the special issue devoted to "Cluster: First scientific results", Ann. Geophysicae, 19, 10/11/12, 2001.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  16. Probing Pluto's Atmosphere Using Ground-Based Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Rio de Janeiro Occultation Team, Granada Team, International Occultation and Timing Association, Royal Astronomical Society New Zealand Occultation Section, Lucky Star associated Teams

    2016-10-01

    Over the last three decades, some twenty stellar occultations by Pluto have been monitored from Earth. They occur when the dwarf planet blocks the light from a star for a few minutes as it moves on the sky. Such events led to the hint of a Pluto's atmosphere in 1985, that was fully confirmed during another occultation in 1988, but it was only in 2002 that a new occultation could be recorded. From then on, the dwarf planet started to move in front of the galactic center, which amplified by a large factor the number of events observable per year.Pluto occultations are essentially refractive events during which the stellar rays are bent by the tenuous atmosphere, causing a gradual dimming of the star. This provides the density, pressure and temperature profiles of the atmosphere from a few kilometers above the surface up to about 250 km altitude, corresponding respectively to pressure levels of about 10 and 0.1 μbar. Moreover, the extremely fine spatial resolution (a few km) obtained through this technique allows the detection of atmospheric gravity waves, and permits in principle the detection of hazes, if present.Several aspects make Pluto stellar occultations quite special: first, they are the only way to probe Pluto's atmosphere in detail, as the dwarf planet is far too small on the sky and the atmosphere is far too tenuous to be directly imaged from Earth. Second, they are an excellent example of participative science, as many amateurs have been able to record those events worldwide with valuable scientific returns, in collaboration with professional astronomers. Third, they reveal Pluto's climatic changes on decade-scales and constrain the various seasonal models currently explored.Finally, those observations are fully complementary to space exploration, in particular with the New Horizons (NH) mission. I will show how ground-based occultations helped to better calibrate some NH profiles, and conversely, how NH results provide some key boundary conditions

  17. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  18. Validation of Atmosphere/Ionosphere Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes by Multi-Instrument Space-Borne and Ground Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Parrot, Michel; Liu, J. Y.; Yang, T. F.; Arellano-Baeza, Alonso; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    regions of the atmosphere and the modifications, by dc electric fields, in the ionosphere-atmosphere electric circuit. We retrospectively analyzed temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters (gas/radon counting rate, lineaments change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) characterizing the state of the lithosphere/atmosphere coupling several days before the onset of the earthquakes. Validation processes consist in two phases: A. Case studies for seven recent major earthquakes: Japan (M9.0, 2011), China (M7.9, 2008), Italy (M6.3, 2009), Samoa (M7, 2009), Haiti (M7.0, 2010) and, Chile (M8.8, 2010) and B. A continuous retrospective analysis was preformed over two different regions with high seismicity- Taiwan and Japan for 2003-2009. Satellite, ground surface, and troposphere data were obtained from Terra/ASTER, Aqua/AIRS, POES and ionospheric variations from DEMETER and COSMIC-I data. Radon and GPS/TEC were obtaining from monitoring sites in Taiwan, Japan and Italy and from global ionosphere maps (GIM) respectively. Our analysis of ground and satellite data during the occurrence of 7 global earthquakes has shown the presence of anomalies in the atmosphere. Our results for Tohoku M9.0 earthquake show that on March 7th, 2011 (4 days before the main shock and 1 day before the M7.2 foreshock of March 8, 2011) a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed by the satellite data and an anomaly was developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. From March 3 to 11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground-based ionosondes, which returned to normal after the main earthquake. Similar approach for analyzing atmospheric and ionospheric parameters has been applied for China (M7.9, 2008), Italy (M6.3, 2009), Samoa (M7, 2009), Haiti (M7.0, 2010) and Chile (M8.8, 2010

  19. Tissue Engineering of Cartilage on Ground-Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Egli, Marcel; Wehland, Markus; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Investigations under simulated microgravity offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the influence of altered gravity on cells and the scaffold-free three-dimensional (3D) tissue formation. To investigate the short-term influence, human chondrocytes were cultivated for 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h on a 2D Fast-Rotating Clinostat (FRC) in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with 10 % FCS. We detected holes in the vimentin network, perinuclear accumulations of vimentin after 2 h, and changes in the chondrocytes shape visualised by F-actin staining after 4 h of FRC-exposure. Scaffold-free cultivation of chondrocytes for 7 d on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), the FRC and the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) resulted in spheroid formation, a phenomenon already known from spaceflight experiments with chondrocytes (MIR Space Station) and thyroid cancer cells (SimBox/Shenzhou-8 space mission). The experiments enabled by the ESA-CORA-GBF programme gave us an optimal opportunity to study gravity-related cellular processes, validate ground-based facilities for our chosen cell system, and prepare long-term experiments under real microgravity conditions in space

  20. Theoretical validation of ground-based microwave ozone observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ricaud

    Full Text Available Ground-based microwave measurements of the diurnal and seasonal variations of ozoneat 42±4.5 and 55±8 km are validated by comparing with results from a zero-dimensional photochemical model and a two-dimensional (2D chemical/radiative/dynamical model, respectively. O3 diurnal amplitudes measured in Bordeaux are shown to be in agreement with theory to within 5%. For the seasonal analysis of O3 variation, at 42±4.5 km, the 2D model underestimates the yearly averaged ozone concentration compared with the measurements. A double maximum oscillation (~3.5% is measured in Bordeaux with an extended maximum in September and a maximum in February, whilst the 2D model predicts only a single large maximum (17% in August and a pronounced minimum in January. Evidence suggests that dynamical transport causes the winter O3 maximum by propagation of planetary waves, phenomena which are not explicitly reproduced by the 2D model. At 55±8 km, the modeled yearly averaged O3 concentration is in very good agreement with the measured yearly average. A strong annual oscillation is both measured and modeled with differences in the amplitude shown to be exclusively linked to temperature fields.

  1. Atmospheric Refraction Path Integrals in Ground-Based Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mathar, R J

    2004-01-01

    The basic effect of the earth's atmospheric refraction on telescope operation is the reduction of the true zenith angle to the apparent zenith angle, associated with prismatic aberrations due to the dispersion in air. If one attempts coherent superposition of star images in ground-based interferometry, one is in addition interested in the optical path length associated with the refracted rays. In a model of a flat earth, the optical path difference between these is not concerned as the translational symmetry of the setup means no net effect remains. Here, I evaluate these interferometric integrals in the more realistic arrangement of two telescopes located on the surface of a common earth sphere and point to a star through an atmosphere which also possesses spherical symmetry. Some focus is put on working out series expansions in terms of the small ratio of the baseline over the earth radius, which allows to bypass some numerics which otherwise is challenged by strong cancellation effects in building the opti...

  2. Experiments on a Ground-Based Tomographic Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoonyol Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and experiment of three-dimensional image formation by using a ground-based tomographic synthetic aperture radar (GB-TomoSAR system. GB-TomoSAR formulates two-dimensional synthetic aperture by the motion of antennae, both in azimuth and vertical directions. After range compression, three-dimensional image focusing is performed by applying Deramp-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithms, both in azimuth and vertical directions. Geometric and radiometric calibrations were applied to make an image cube, which is then projected into range-azimuth and range-vertical cross-sections for visualization. An experiment with a C-band GB-TomoSAR system with a scan length of 2.49 m and 1.86 m in azimuth and vertical-direction, respectively, shows distinctive three-dimensional radar backscattering of stable buildings and roads with resolutions similar to the theoretical values. Unstable objects such as trees and moving cars generate severe noise due to decorrelation during the eight-hour image-acquisition time.

  3. A comparative study of satellite and ground-based phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, S; Stöckli, R; Appenzeller, C; Vidale, P L

    2007-05-01

    Long time series of ground-based plant phenology, as well as more than two decades of satellite-derived phenological metrics, are currently available to assess the impacts of climate variability and trends on terrestrial vegetation. Traditional plant phenology provides very accurate information on individual plant species, but with limited spatial coverage. Satellite phenology allows monitoring of terrestrial vegetation on a global scale and provides an integrative view at the landscape level. Linking the strengths of both methodologies has high potential value for climate impact studies. We compared a multispecies index from ground-observed spring phases with two types (maximum slope and threshold approach) of satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS) metrics. We focus on Switzerland from 1982 to 2001 and show that temporal and spatial variability of the multispecies index correspond well with the satellite-derived metrics. All phenological metrics correlate with temperature anomalies as expected. The slope approach proved to deviate strongly from the temporal development of the ground observations as well as from the threshold-defined SOS satellite measure. The slope spring indicator is considered to indicate a different stage in vegetation development and is therefore less suited as a SOS parameter for comparative studies in relation to ground-observed phenology. Satellite-derived metrics are, however, very susceptible to snow cover, and it is suggested that this snow cover should be better accounted for by the use of newer satellite sensors.

  4. Satellite Type Estination from Ground-based Photometric Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, T.; Ono, H.; Suzuki, J.; Ando, T.; Takanezawa, T.

    2016-09-01

    The optical photometric observation is potentially a powerful tool for understanding of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) objects. At first, we measured in laboratory the surface reflectance of common satellite materials, for example, Multi-layer Insulation (MLI), mono-crystalline silicon cells, and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP). Next, we calculated visual magnitude of a satellite by simplified shape and albedo. In this calculation model, solar panels have dimensions of 2 by 8 meters, and the bus area is 2 meters squared with measured optical properties described above. Under these conditions, it clarified the brightness can change the range between 3 and 4 magnitudes in one night, but color index changes only from 1 to 2 magnitudes. Finally, we observed the color photometric data of several GEO satellites visible from Japan multiple times in August and September 2014. We obtained that light curves of GEO satellites recorded in the B and V bands (using Johnson filters) by a ground-base optical telescope. As a result, color index changed approximately from 0.5 to 1 magnitude in one night, and the order of magnitude was not changed in all cases. In this paper, we briefly discuss about satellite type estimation using the relation between brightness and color index obtained from the photometric observation.

  5. Ground-based measurements of UV Index (UVI at Helwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Farouk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On October 2010 UV Index (UVI ground-based measurements were carried out by weather station at solar laboratory in NRIAG. The daily variation has maximum values in spring and summer days, while minimum values in autumn and winter days. The low level of UVI between 2.55 and 2.825 was found in December, January and February. The moderate level of UVI between 3.075 and 5.6 was found in March, October and November. The high level of UVI between 6.7 and 7.65 was found in April, May and September. The very high level of UVI between 8 and 8.6 was found in June, July and August. High level of radiation over 6 months per year including 3 months with a very high level UVI. According to the equation {UVI=a[SZA]b} the UVI increases with decreasing SZA by 82% on a daily scale and 88% on a monthly scale. Helwan exposure to a high level of radiation over 6 months per year including 3 months with a very high level UVI, so it is advisable not to direct exposure to the sun from 11 am to 2:00 pm.

  6. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on stimulated radiation during ionospheric second electron gyroharmonic heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordikar, M. R.; Scales, W. A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Kim, H.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Redmon, R.; Samimi, A. R.; Brizcinski, S.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, narrowband emissions ordered near the H+ (proton) gyrofrequency (fcH) were reported in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum during active geomagnetic conditions. This work presents new observations and theoretical analysis of these recently discovered emissions. These emission lines are observed in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum when the transmitter is tuned near the second electron gyroharmonic frequency (2fce) during recent ionospheric modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research (HAARP) facility near Gakona, Alaska. The spectral lines are typically shifted below and above the pump wave frequency by harmonics of a frequency roughly 10% less than fcH (≈ 800 Hz) with a narrow emission bandwidth less than the O+ gyrofrequency (≈ 50 Hz). However, new observations and analysis of emission lines ordered by a frequency approximately 10% greater than fcH are presented here for the first time as well. The interaction altitude for the heating for all the observations is in the range of 160 km up to 200 km. As described previously, proton precipitation due to active geomagnetic conditions is considered as the reason for the presence of H+ ions known to be a minor background constituent in this altitude region. DMSP satellite observations over HAARP during the heating experiments and ground-based magnetometer and riometer data validate active geomagnetic conditions. The theory of parametric decay instability in multi-ion component plasma including H+ ions as a minority species described in previous work is expanded in light of simultaneously observed preexisting SEE features to interpret the newly reported observations. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on the SEE spectrum as a diagnostic tool for proton precipitation event characterization is discussed.

  7. Assimilative Mapping of Interhemispheric Polar Ionospheric Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T.; Richmond, A. D.; Knipp, D. J.; McGranaghan, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's main magnetic field is asymmetric between hemispheres due to its non-dipolar component, leading to various hemispherical differences in the coupling among the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. Manifestation of the asymmetric coupling through different electrodynamic parameters reported in past studies is considerably diverse. To fill the gap in our current understanding, obtained so far by analyzing individual parameters separately and comparing statistical behaviors of the parameters, we quantify the degree of instantaneous inter-hemispheric imbalance of electromagnetic energy deposition (Poynting flux), field-aligned currents, and convection electric fields though global and self-consistent analysis of electrodynamic variables at both polar regions, by means of data assimilation. Inter-hemispheric assimilative maps of different high-latitude electrodynamical parameters are obtained from simultaneous analysis of multiple types of space-based and ground-based observations made available though the AMPERE, SuperDARN, SuperMAG and DMSP programs with rigorous consideration of the uncertainty associated with each observation.

  8. Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachakhidze, Manana; Kachakhidze, Nino; Kaladze, Tamaz

    2014-06-01

    Modern ground-based and satellite methods of viewing enables to reveal those multiple anomalous geophysical phenomena which become evident in the period preceding earthquake and are directly connected with the process of its preparation. Lately special attention is attributed to the electromagnetic emissions fixed during large earthquake, and has already been successfully detected in Japan, America and Europe. Unfortunately there is no electromagnetic emissions detection network in Georgia, but the offered work, based on experimental data of foreign researchers and electrodynamics, presents an important theory about the electromagnetic emissions generation fixed in the earthquake preparation period. The extremely interesting methodology of possible prediction of earthquake is created and all anomalous geophysical phenomena are interpreted which take place some months, days or hours before earthquake in the lithosphereatmosphere-ionosphere coupling system. Most interesting is the idea of the authors to consider the electromagnetic radiation as the main earthquake precursor for the purpose of earthquake prediction, because of its informative nature and to consider all other anomalous geophysical phenomena which accompany the process of earthquake preparation as earthquake indicators. The offered work is the completely novel approach in earthquake problem searching with the view of earthquake prediction. It can form the base for creation of principally new trend in seismology, to be called conditionally "Earthquake Predictology".

  9. Nonlinear Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we saw a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  10. Observational study of ionospheric irregularities and GPS scintillations associated with the 2012 tropical cyclone Tembin passing Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Liu, Zhizhao

    2016-05-01

    This study presents the ionospheric responses observed in Hong Kong to a Typhoon, namely, Tembin, from the aspects of the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities and scintillations, using Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from a ground-based GPS scintillation monitoring station in Hong Kong and from GPS receivers on board the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites. The ionospheric irregularities and scintillations are characterized by the rate of total electron content variation index (ROTI) and the amplitude scintillation index S4, respectively. The typhoon Tembin formed over the western North Pacific during 18-30 August 2012 and approached Hong Kong during 24-27 August 2012 with the closest distance 290 km from Hong Kong at around 17 universal time (UT) on 25 August 2012. The ground-based observations indicate that in the nighttime period of 20:00-02:00 local time (LT = UT + 8 h) on 26 August when Tembin passed closely to Hong Kong, the ionospheric irregularities and scintillations of GPS signals were observed in the south of Hong Kong, over the area of 13°N ~ 23°N in latitude and 110°E ~ 120°E in longitude. From the COSMIC observations, it shows that the number of radio occultation scintillation events peaks on 26 August 2012 during the passage of Tembin. Without the presence of strong geomagnetic or solar activity, it is suspected that gravity waves might be generated in the lower atmosphere and likely seed the formation of ionospheric plasma irregularities. This work for the first time from Hong Kong observes the sign of coupling between the lower atmosphere and ionosphere in a tropical cyclone event, combining both ground- and space-based GPS observation data.

  11. Resonance between coherent whistler mode waves and electrons in the topside ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, T.; Bell, T. F.; Storey, L. R. O.

    1987-01-01

    Landau resonance and cyclotron resonance of coherent whistler mode waves and energetic electrons are explored for magnetoplasmas with appreciable gradients in the plasma density and magnetic field strength. It is shown that in the topside ionosphere of the earth near the ion transition height the gradients in plasma density and magnetic field strength along a magnetic field line may match in a way which enhances both Landau and cyclotron interactions between waves and electrons at the loss cone pitch angle. The pitch angle scattering induced by a signal from a ground-based VLF transmitter in the ionosphere above the transmitter has been estimated and compared to the pitch angle scattering induced by naturally occurring ELF hiss through cyclotron resonance. It is found that the expected scattering due to plasmapheric hiss is an order of magnitude larger than that due to Landau resonance in the topside ionosphere. Pitch angle scattering due to cyclotron resonance in the topside ionosphere, however, may be larger by a factor of 2. It is suggested that the 'fast Trimpi' effect may be caused by a cyclotron resonance interaction in the topside ionosphere.

  12. High resolution surface solar radiation patterns over Eastern Mediterranean: Satellite, ground-based, reanalysis data and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, G.; Georgoulias, A.; Meleti, C.; Balis, D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface solar radiation (SSR) and its long and short term variations play a critical role in the modification of climate and by extent of the social and financial life of humans. Thus, SSR measurements are of primary importance. SSR is measured for decades from ground-based stations for specific spots around the planet. During the last decades, satellite observations allowed for the assessment of the spatial variability of SSR at a global as well as regional scale. In this study, a detailed spatiotemporal view of the SSR over Eastern Mediterranean is presented at a high spatial resolution. Eastern Mediterranean is affected by various aerosol types (continental, sea, dust and biomass burning particles) and encloses countries with significant socioeconomical changes during the last decades. For the aims of this study, SSR data from satellites (Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility - CM SAF) and our ground station in Thessaloniki, a coastal city of ~1 million inhabitants in northern Greece, situated in the heart of Eastern Mediterranean (Eppley Precision pyranometer and Kipp & Zonen CM-11 pyranometer) are used in conjunction with radiative transfer simulations (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - SBDART). The CM SAF dataset used here includes monthly mean SSR observations at a high spatial resolution of 0.03x0.03 degrees for the period 1983-2005. Our ground-based SSR observations span from 1983 until today. SBDART radiative transfer simulations were implemented for a number of spots in the area of study in order to calculate the SSR. High resolution (level-2) aerosol and cloud data from MODIS TERRA and AQUA satellite sensors were used as input, as well as ground-based data from the AERONET. Data from other satellites (Earth Probe TOMS, OMI, etc) and reanalysis projects (ECMWF) were used where needed. The satellite observations, the ground-based measurements and the model estimates are validated against each other. The good agreement

  13. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel E.; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  14. Ground-based Measurements of Next Generation Spectroradiometric Standard Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, radiometric standards are essential to the future of ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics. While astronomers tend to think of “standard stars” as available calibration sources, progress at NIST to accurately calibrate inexpensive, easy to use photodiode detectors as spectroradiometric standards from 200 nm to 1800 nm allows referencing astronomical measurements to these devices. Direction-, time-, and wavelength-dependent transmission of Earth’s atmosphere is the single largest source of error for ground-based radiometric measurement of astronomical objects. Measurements and impacts of atmospheric extinction - scattering and absorption - on imaging radiometric and spectroradiometric measurements are described. The conclusion is that accurate real-time measurement of extinction in the column of atmosphere through which standard star observations are made, over the spectral region being observed and over the field of view of the telescope are required. New techniques to directly and simultaneously measure extinction in the column of atmosphere through which observations are made are required. Our direct extinction measurement solution employs three small facility-class instruments working in parallel: a lidar to measure rapidly time variable transmission at three wavelengths with uncertainty of 0.25% per airmass, a spectrophotometer to measure rapidly wavelength variable extinction with sub-1% precision per nanometer resolution element from 350 to 1050nm, and a wide-field camera to measure angularly variable extinction over the field of view. These instruments and their operation will be described. We assert that application of atmospheric metadata provided by this instrument suite corrects for a significant fraction of systematic errors currently limiting radiometric precision, and provides a major step towards measurements that are provably dominated by random noise.

  15. Ozone profiles above Kiruna from two ground-based radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Niall J.; Walker, Kaley A.; Raffalski, Uwe; Kivi, Rigel; Gross, Jochen; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents new atmospheric ozone concentration profiles retrieved from measurements made with two ground-based millimetre-wave radiometers in Kiruna, Sweden. The instruments are the Kiruna Microwave Radiometer (KIMRA) and the Millimeter wave Radiometer 2 (MIRA 2). The ozone concentration profiles are retrieved using an optimal estimation inversion technique, and they cover an altitude range of ˜ 16-54 km, with an altitude resolution of, at best, 8 km. The KIMRA and MIRA 2 measurements are compared to each other, to measurements from balloon-borne ozonesonde measurements at Sodankylä, Finland, and to measurements made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. KIMRA has a correlation of 0.82, but shows a low bias, with respect to the ozonesonde data, and MIRA 2 shows a smaller magnitude low bias and a 0.98 correlation coefficient. Both radiometers are in general agreement with each other and with MLS data, showing high correlation coefficients, but there are differences between measurements that are not explained by random errors. An oscillatory bias with a peak of approximately ±1 ppmv is identified in the KIMRA ozone profiles over an altitude range of ˜ 18-35 km, and is believed to be due to baseline wave features that are present in the spectra. A time series analysis of KIMRA ozone for winters 2008-2013 shows the existence of a local wintertime minimum in the ozone profile above Kiruna. The measurements have been ongoing at Kiruna since 2002 and late 2012 for KIMRA and MIRA 2, respectively.

  16. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  17. Quasi-thermal noise and shot noise spectroscopy on a CubeSat in Earth's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Ronald; Cairns, Iver H.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the practicality of using quasi-thermal noise (QTN) and shot noise spectroscopy on a CubeSat in the Earth's ionosphere and constrain the satellite antenna length for optimal detection of these signals. The voltage spectra predicted for thermal Langmuir waves (QTN) and particle "shot noise" are modeled, and it is shown that the signals detected can provide two very good, independent, passive, in situ methods of measuring the plasma density and temperature in the ionosphere. The impact of the antenna potential ϕ is also discussed, and we show that the negative potential calculated for the ionosphere due to natural current flows has a significant impact on the voltage power level of the shot noise spectrum. The antenna configuration is also shown to play an important role in the shot noise, with a monopole configuration enhancing the spectrum significantly compared with a dipole. Antenna lengths on the order of 20-40 cm are found to be ideal for ionospheric plasma conditions, nicely matching CubeSat sizes and producing detectable thermal Langmuir waves and shot noise at the microvolt level. Further, with a continuous stream of data points at different latitudes and longitudes an orbiting CubeSat can produce a global picture for the ionospheric plasma density and temperature using QTN and shot noise signals. If implemented, especially in a constellation, these data would be more frequent and cover a much greater domain than current ground-based or single-satellite methods. This could lead to improved ionospheric models, such as the empirically based International Reference Ionosphere.

  18. Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios - project overview and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzen, Tatjana; Mainul Hoque, M.; Wilken, Volker; Minkwitz, David; Schlüter, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is the European Satellite Based Augmentation Service (SBAS) that provides value added services, in particular to Safety of Live (SoL) users of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In the frame of the European GNSS Evolution Programme (EGEP), ESA has launched several activities, which are aiming to support the design, development and qualification of the future operational EGNOS infrastructure and associated services. The ionosphere is the part of the upper Earth's atmosphere between about 50 km and 1000 km above the Earth's surface, which contains sufficient free electrons to cause strong impact on radio signal propagation. Therefore, treatment of the ionosphere is a critical issue to guarantee the EGNOS system performance. In order to conduct the EGNOS end-to-end performance simulations and to assure the capability for maintaining integrity of the EGNOS system especially during ionospheric storm conditions, Ionospheric Reference Scenarios (IRSs) are introduced by ESA. The project Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios (DAIS) - aims to generate improved EGNOS IRSs by combining space borne and ground based GNSS observations. The main focus of this project is to demonstrate that ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) measurements can significantly contribute to fill data gaps in GNSS ground networks (particularly in Africa and over the oceans) when generating the IRSs. The primary tasks are the calculation and validation of time series of IRSs (i.e. TEC maps) by a 3D assimilation approach that combines IRO and ground based GNSS measurements with an ionospheric background model in an optimal way. In the first phase of the project we selected appropriate test periods, one presenting perturbed and the other one - nominal ionospheric conditions, collected and filtered the corresponding data. We defined and developed an applicable technique for the 3D assimilation and applied

  19. Project ORION: Orbital Debris Removal Using Ground-Based Sensors and Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    About 100,000 pieces of 1 to 10-cm debris in low-Earth orbit are too small to track reliably but large enough to cripple or destroy spacecraft. The ORION team studied the feasibility of removing the debris with ground-based laser impulses. Photoablation experiments were surveyed and applied to likely debris materials. Laser intensities needed for debris orbit modification call for pulses on the order of lOkJ or continuous wave lasers on the order of 1 MW. Adaptive optics are necessary to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Wavelength and pulse duration windows were found that limit beam degradation due to nonlinear atmospheric processes. Debris can be detected and located to within about 10 microrads with existing radar and passive optical technology. Fine targeting would be accomplished with laser illumination, which might also be used for detection. Bistatic detection with communications satellites may also be possible. We recommend that existing technology be used to demonstrate the concept at a loss of about $20 million. We calculate that an installation to clear altitudes up to 800 km of 1 to 10-cm debris over 2 years of operation would cost about $80 million. Clearing altitudes up to 1,500 km would take about 3 years and cost about $160 million.

  20. Ground-Based Robotic Sensing of an Agricultural Sub-Canopy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A.; Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing is a useful method for measuring agricultural crop parameters over large areas; however, the approach becomes limited to above-canopy characterization as a crop matures due to reduced visual access of the sub-canopy environment. During the growth cycle of an agricultural crop, such as soybeans, the micrometeorology of the sub-canopy environment can significantly impact pod development and reduced yields may result. Larger-scale environmental conditions aside, the physical structure and configuration of the sub-canopy matrix will logically influence local climate conditions for a single plant; understanding the state and development of the sub-canopy could inform crop models and improve best practices but there are currently no low-cost methods to quantify the sub-canopy environment at a high spatial and temporal resolution over an entire growth cycle. This work describes the modification of a small tactical and semi-autonomous, ground-based robotic platform with sensors capable of mapping the physical structure of an agricultural row crop sub-canopy; a soybean crop is used as a case study. Point cloud data representing the sub-canopy structure are stored in LAS format and can be used for modeling and visualization in standard GIS software packages.

  1. Ground-based infrared surveys: imaging the thermal fields at volcanoes and revealing the controlling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Temperature monitoring is a widespread procedure in the frame of volcano hazard monitoring. Indeed temperature changes are expected to reflect changes in volcanic activity. We propose a new approach, within the thermal monitoring, which is meant to shed light on the parameters controlling the fluid pathways and the fumarole sites by using infrared measurements. Ground-based infrared cameras allow one to remotely image the spatial distribution, geometric pattern and amplitude of fumarole fields on volcanoes at metre to centimetre resolution. Infrared mosaics and time series are generated and interpreted, by integrating geological field observations and modeling, to define the setting of the volcanic degassing system at shallow level. We present results for different volcano morphologies and show that lithology, structures and topography control the appearance of fumarole field by the creation of permeability contrasts. We also show that the relative importance of those parameters is site-dependent. Deciphering the setting of the degassing system is essential for hazard assessment studies because it would improve our understanding on how the system responds to endogenous or exogenous modification.

  2. Multi-point ground-based ULF magnetic field observations in Europe during seismic active periods in 2004 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prattes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of ground-based Ultra Low Frequency (ULF magnetic field measurements observed from June to August 2004 during the Bovec earthquake on 12 July 2004. Further we give information about the seismic activity in the local observatory region for an extended time span 2004 and 2005. ULF magnetic field data are provided by the South European Geomagnetic Array (SEGMA where the experience and heritage from the CHInese MAGnetometer (CHIMAG fluxgate magnetometer comes to application. The intensities of the horizontal H and vertical Z magnetic field and the polarization ratio R of the vertical and horizontal magnetic field intensity are analyzed taking into consideration three SEGMA observatories located at different close distances and directions from the earthquake epicenter. We observed a significant increase of high polarization ratios during strong seismic activity at the observatory nearest to the Bovec earthquake epicenter. Apart from indirect ionospheric effects electromagnetic noise could be emitted in the lithosphere due to tectonic effects in the earthquake focus region causing anomalies of the vertical magnetic field intensity. Assuming that the measured vertical magnetic field intensities are of lithospheric origin, we roughly estimate the amplitude of electromagnetic noise in the Earths crust considering an average electrical conductivity of <σ>=10−3 S/m and a certain distance of the observatory to the earthquake epicenter.

  3. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics observations in the African and American longitudinal sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R. F.; Zesta, E.; Valladares, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent ground- and space-based observations have shown dramatic longitudinal differences in equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics, such as enhanced generation of F-region plasma irregularities and the super fountain effect at low latitudes. For example, satellite observations have shown very unique equatorial ionospheric density structures in the African region. The African region is the longitude sector where the peak in large scale plasma depletion activity (zonal width, depletion level, and spacing) is maximal, in which no other region of the globe showed similar characteristics. Indeed, the most recent in situ density observations from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite also reveal similar maximal density depletion activities in Africa. However, the dearth of ground-based instrumentation in the region makes it difficult to confirm the ground-based signatures of these unique equatorial ionospheric structures, ultimately leading the investigation of their physics into speculation. This initiated several open questions, which include: What are the possible governing mechanisms that create unique equatorial structures in Africa? In order to answer such open questions, recently limited progress has been made and very few ground-based instruments, including the AMBER magnetometers network, have been deployed in the region. One of many objectives of AMBER magnetometers network, in coordination with ground- and space-based GPS receiver observations, is to understand the fundamental electrodynamics that govern equatorial ionospheric motion, which includes the evolution and formation of equatorial anomaly. This paper presents initial results from the AMBER magnetometer network and compares electrodynamics results in the Africa sector with similar observations in the American sector. The electron density structure in response to the electrodynamics is also investigated using the available ground-based GPS receivers in the region as

  4. Experimentally investigate ionospheric depletion chemicals in artificially created ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yu; Cao Jinxiang; Wang Jian; Zheng Zhe; Xu Liang; Du Yinchang [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-09-15

    A new approach for investigating ionosphere chemical depletion in the laboratory is introduced. Air glow discharge plasma closely resembling the ionosphere in both composition and chemical reactions is used as the artificially created ionosphere. The ionospheric depletion experiment is accomplished by releasing chemicals such as SF{sub 6}, CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} into the model discharge. The evolution of the electron density is investigated by varying the plasma pressure and input power. It is found that the negative ion (SF{sub 6}{sup -}, CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}{sup -}) intermediary species provide larger reduction of the electron density than the positive ion (CO{sub 2}{sup +}) intermediary species. The negative ion intermediary species are also more efficient in producing ionospheric holes because of their fast reaction rates. Airglow enhancement attributed to SF{sub 6} and CO{sub 2} releases agrees well with the published data. Compared to the traditional methods, the new scheme is simpler to use, both in the release of chemicals and in the electron density measurements. It is therefore more efficient for investigating the release of chemicals in the ionosphere.

  5. Ground Based Investigation of Electrostatic Accelerometer in HUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Zhou, Z.

    2013-12-01

    High-precision electrostatic accelerometers with six degrees of freedom (DOF) acceleration measurement were successfully used in CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions which to measure the Earth's gravity field. In our group, space inertial sensor based on the capacitance transducer and electrostatic control technique has been investigated for test of equivalence principle (TEPO), searching non-Newtonian force in micrometer range, and satellite Earth's field recovery. The significant techniques of capacitive position sensor with the noise level at 2×10-7pF/Hz1/2 and the μV/Hz1/2 level electrostatic actuator are carried out and all the six servo loop controls by using a discrete PID algorithm are realized in a FPGA device. For testing on ground, in order to compensate one g earth's gravity, the fiber torsion pendulum facility is adopt to measure the parameters of the electrostatic controlled inertial sensor such as the resolution, and the electrostatic stiffness, the cross couple between different DOFs. A short distance and a simple double capsule equipment the valid duration about 0.5 second is set up in our lab for the free fall tests of the engineering model which can directly verify the function of six DOF control. Meanwhile, high voltage suspension method is also realized and preliminary results show that the horizontal axis of acceleration noise is about 10-8m/s2/Hz1/2 level which limited mainly by the seismic noise. Reference: [1] Fen Gao, Ze-Bing Zhou, Jun Luo, Feasibility for Testing the Equivalence Principle with Optical Readout in Space, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(8) (2011) 080401. [2] Z. Zhu, Z. B. Zhou, L. Cai, Y. Z. Bai, J. Luo, Electrostatic gravity gradiometer design for the advanced GOCE mission, Adv. Sp. Res. 51 (2013) 2269-2276. [3] Z B Zhou, L Liu, H B Tu, Y Z Bai, J Luo, Seismic noise limit for ground-based performance measurements of an inertial sensor using a torsion balance, Class. Quantum Grav. 27 (2010) 175012. [4] H B Tu, Y Z Bai, Z B Zhou, L Liu, L

  6. Ground-Based Observing Campaign of Briz-M Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Matney, M.; Anz-Meador, P.

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) completed the installation of the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island. MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope designed with a fast tracking capability for observing orbital debris at all orbital regimes (Low-Erath orbits to Geosyncronous (GEO) orbits) from a low latitude site. This new asset is dedicated year-round for debris observations, and its location fills a geographical gap in the Ground-based Electro Optical Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network. A commercial off the shelf (COTS) research grade 0.4m telescope (named the Benbrook telescope) will also be installed on Ascension at the end of 2016. This smaller version is controlled by the same master software, designed by Euclid Research, and can be tasked to work independently or in concert with MCAT. Like MCAT, it has a the same suite of filters, a similar field of view, and a fast-tracking Astelco mount, and is also capable of tracking debris at all orbital regimes. These assets are well suited for targeted campagins or surveys of debris. Since 2013, NASA's ODPO has also had extensive access to the 3.8m infrared UKIRT telescope, located on Mauna Kea. At nearly 14,000-ft, this site affords excellent conditions for collecting both photometery and spectroscopy at near-IR (0.9 - 2.5 micrometers SWIR) and thermal-IR (8 - 25 micrometers; LWIR) regimes, ideal for investigating material properties as well as thermal characteristics and sizes of debris. For the purposes of understanding orbital debris, taking data in both survey mode as well as targeting individual objects for more in-depth characterizations are desired. With the recent break-ups of Briz-M rocket bodies, we have collected a suite of data in the optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared of in-tact objects as well as those classified as debris. A break-up at GEO of a Briz-M rocket occurred in January, 2016, well timed for the first remote observing survey-campaign with MCAT. Access to

  7. Models of Titan's Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, I. P.; Cravens, T. E.; Waite, J. H.; Wahlund, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Coates, A.; Magee, B.; Gell, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    During the TA and T18 encounters with Titan, in situ measurements were made of Titan's atmosphere and ionosphere by several instruments on board the Cassini Orbiter, including the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS), the Langmuir probe on the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (RPWS), and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Subsystem (CAPS). Both of these encounters were on the day as well as the night side of Titan. The model uses neutral densities measured by the INMS instrument and the electron temperature was measured by the RPWS instrument. The model also includes energetic electron fluxes measured by the CAPS instrument, which act as an important source of ionization on the night side. The modeled ion densities are compared with densities measured by INMS in its Open Source mode.

  8. HAARP-based Investigations of Lightning-induced Nonlinearities within the D-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is well-documented that energetic lightning can produce fantastical events with the lower ionosphere. Although the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter is not as powerful as lightning, it can be used to investigate the nonlinear interactions that occur within the lower ionosphere, many of which also occur during lightning-induced ionospheric events. This paper presents the best experimental results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the HAARP observatory between 2007 and 2014, including ELF/VLF wave generation experiments, wave-wave mixing experiments, and cross-modulation experiments. We emphasize the physical processes important for lightning-ionosphere interactions that can be directly investigated using HAARP.

  9. Interaction of plasma cloud with external electric field in lower ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Dimant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the auroral lower-E and upper-D region of the ionosphere, plasma clouds, such as sporadic-E layers and meteor plasma trails, occur daily. Large-scale electric fields, created by the magnetospheric dynamo, will polarize these highly conducting clouds, redistributing the electrostatic potential and generating anisotropic currents both within and around the cloud. Using a simplified model of the cloud and the background ionosphere, we develop the first self-consistent three-dimensional analytical theory of these phenomena. For dense clouds, this theory predicts highly amplified electric fields around the cloud, along with strong currents collected from the ionosphere and circulated through the cloud. This has implications for the generation of plasma instabilities, electron heating, and global MHD modeling of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling via modifications of conductances induced by sporadic-E clouds.

  10. Ground-based monitoring of solar radiation in Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Integrated measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev, Moldova have been started by Atmospheric Research Group (ARG) at the Institute of Applied Physics from 2003. Direct, diffuse and total components of solar and atmospheric long-wave radiation are measured by using of the radiometric complex at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station. Measurements are fulfilled at the stationary and moving platforms equipped with the set of 9 broadband solar radiation sensors overlapping wavelength range from UV-B to IR. Detailed description of the station can be found at the site http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E). Summary of observation data acquired at the station in the course of short-term period from 2004 to 2009 are presented below. Solar radiation measurements were fulfilled by using CM11(280-3000 nm) and CH1 sensors (Kipp&Zonen). In the course of a year maximum and minimum of monthly sums of total radiation was ~706.4 MJm-2 in June and ~82.1MJm-2 in December, respectively. Monthly sums of direct solar radiation (on horizontal plane) show the maximum and minimum values of the order ~456.9 MJm-2 in July and ~25.5MJm-2 in December, respectively. In an average, within a year should be marked the predominance of direct radiation over the scattered radiation, 51% and 49%, respectively. In the course of a year, the percentage contribution of the direct radiation into the total radiation is ~55-65% from May to September. In the remaining months, the percentage contribution decreases and takes the minimum value of ~ 28% in December. In an average, annual sum of total solar radiation is ~4679.9 MJm-2. For the period from April to September accounts for ~76% of the annual amount of total radiation. Annual sum of sunshine duration accounts for ~2149 hours, which is of ~ 48% from the possible sunshine duration. In an average, within a year maximum and minimum of sunshine duration is ~ 304 hours in

  11. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  12. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  13. The ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM) and its application to determining the ionospheric delay for GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Y.; Tscherning, C.C.; Knudsen, Per

    2006-01-01

    A new method for modeling the ionospheric delay using global positioning system (GPS) data is proposed, called the ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM). It is based on establishing a concept referred to as the ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) lambda of the ionospheric pierce point (IPP...

  14. Effect of ray and speed perturbations on Ionospheric Tomography by Over-the-horizon radar: A new method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C.; Occhipinti, G.; Boschi, L.; Molinié, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Most recent methods in ionospheric tomography are based on the inversion of the Total Electron Content (TEC) measured by ground-based GPS receivers. As a consequence of the high frequency of the GPS signal and the absence of horizontal ray paths, the electron density structure is mainly reconstructed in the F2 region (300 km), where the ionosphere reaches the maximum of ionization, and is not sensitive to the lower ionospheric structure. We propose here a new tomographic method of the lower ionosphere, based on the full inversion of over-the-horizon (OTH) radar data. Previous studies using OTH radar for ionospheric tomography inverted only the leading edge echo curve of backscatter ionograms. The major advantage of our methodology is taking into account, numerically and jointly, the effect that the electron density perturbations induce not only in the speed of electromagnetic waves, but also on the ray-path geometry. This last point is extremely critical for OTH radar inversions as the emitted signal propagates through the ionosphere between a fixed starting-point (the radar) and an unknown end-point on the Earth surface where the signal is backscattered. We detail our ionospheric tomography method with the aid of benchmark tests. Having proved the necessity to take into account both effects simultaneously, we apply our method to real data. This is the first time that the effect of the ray-path deflection has been quantified and that the ionospheric plasma density has been estimated over the entirety of Europe with an OTH radar.

  15. Multi-instrument observations of the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 and its effects on the ionosphere over Belgium and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Stanimir M.; Bergeot, Nicolas; Berghmans, David; Bolsée, David; Bruyninx, Carine; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Clette, Frédéric; De Backer, Hugo; De Keyser, Johan; D'Huys, Elke; Dominique, Marie; Lemaire, Joseph F.; Magdalenić, Jasmina; Marqué, Christophe; Pereira, Nuno; Pierrard, Viviane; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Seaton, Daniel B.; Stegen, Koen; Van der Linden, Ronald; Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; West, Matthew J.

    2017-08-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on 20 March 2015, with a totality path passing mostly above the North Atlantic Ocean, which resulted in a partial solar eclipse over Belgium and large parts of Europe. In anticipation of this event, a dedicated observational campaign was set up at the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The objective was to perform high-quality observations of the eclipse and the associated effects on the geospace environment by utilising the advanced space- and ground-based instrumentation available to the STCE in order to further our understanding of these effects, particularly on the ionosphere. The study highlights the crucial importance of taking into account the eclipse geometry when analysing the ionospheric behaviour during eclipses and interpreting the eclipse effects. A detailed review of the eclipse geometry proves that considering the actual obscuration level and solar zenith angle at ionospheric heights is much more important for the analysis than at the commonly referenced Earth's surface or at the plasmaspheric heights. The eclipse occurred during the recovery phase of a strong geomagnetic storm which certainly had an impact on (some of) the ionospheric characteristics and perhaps caused the omission of some "low-profile" effects. However, the analysis of the ionosonde measurements, carried out at unprecedented high rates during the eclipse, suggests the occurrence of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Also, the high temporal and spatial resolution measurements proved very important in revealing and estimating some finer details of the delay in the ionospheric reaction and the ionospheric disturbances.

  16. Satellite Observations of Ionospheric Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimal'Skij, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. N.; Lizunov, G. V.

    The authors review satellite observations of seismogenic phenomena in the ionosphere. Based on literature data, hypothetical patterns of seismogenic phenomena were reconstructed. The authors discuss the reasons which allow the ionospheric "anomalies" to be correlated with eartquake precursors.

  17. GNSS ionospheric scintillation and TEC at high latitudes: INGV monitoring and studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, L.; de Franceschi, G.; Spogli, L.; Romano, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is monitoring the high latitude ionospheric irregularities causing GNSS signals corruption since 2003 when a GISTM receiver (GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitor) was deployed in Ny Alesund (Svalbard). Currently, INGV manages three GISTMs at Svalbard (two in Ny Alesund, another one in Longyearbyen) and two receivers in Antarctica at Concordia and Mario Zucchelli Stations. The GISTM receivers consist of NovAtel OEM4 dual-frequency receivers with special firmware specifically able to compute in near real time the amplitude and the phase scintillation from the GPS L1 frequency signals, and the ionospheric TEC (Total Electron Content) from the GPS L1 and L2 carrier phase signals. From this ground-based network, we are able to capture the dynamics of ionospheric plasma in a wide latitudinal range, from auroral to cusp/cap regions, considering the contribution of both hemispheres, in a bi-polar framework. The data collected are structured and archived in a dedicated database: www.eswua.ingv.it. The INGV activities in the field of the observation and the investigation of the ionospheric irregularities are included in several international collaborations addressing scientific issues as well as technological applications. This paper would like to give an overview of our recent activities about polar ionospheric imaging, scintillation climatology and scintillation mitigation matured also under the umbrella of the SCAR ICESTAR community and, currently, part of the initiatives of the SCAR Action Group “GPS Weather and Space Weather Forecast”chaired by INGV.

  18. Ionospheric detection and localization of volcano eruptions on the example of the April 2015 Calbuco events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ksenia; Astafyeva, Elvira; Adourian, Sévan

    2016-10-01

    Using data from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers located in southern Chile, we study the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) response to two eruptions of the Calbuco volcano that occurred on 22-23 April 2015. In both cases, the TEC response showed quasi-periodic signals with several consecutive wave trains. The averaged amplitude of the observed covolcanic TEC perturbations amounted 0.45 total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) for the first eruption and 0.16 TECU for the second one. We compare amplitudes of the TEC response to volcano eruptions of different intensity from our and previously published data, and we show that both the intensity and the background ionospheric conditions define the amplitude of ionospheric covolcanic disturbances. The relative contribution, however, scales with the eruption intensity. The traveltime diagrams allowed to estimate the propagation speed of the observed covolcanic TEC perturbations as 900-1200 m/s, which is close to the acoustic (or shock acoustic) waves speed at the ionospheric height. The spectrograms are consistent with the conclusion on the acoustic nature of the observed TEC perturbations. Finally, we use the approximation of a spherical wave propagating at a constant velocity from a point source, and for the first time, we calculate the location of the volcanic source and the onset time of the volcano eruption from ionospheric measurements. We show that even from 30 s ionospheric GPS data it is possible to "localize" the eruptive source within several degrees of latitude/longitude.

  19. Responses of the Equatorial Ionosphere to High Intensity Long Duration Continuous Auroral Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Gonzalez, A. C.; Tsurutani, B.; Daniela, D. C.; Arruda, C. S.

    This work focus the responses of the equatorial ionosphere over South America to intense substorms and, on the other hand, in the absence of magnetic storms. The substorms here concerned are related to what is known as High Intensity Long Duration Continuous Auroral Activity HILDCAA's. The analysis of these responses are carried out by means of ground-based ionosonde data from Fortaleza (3° 53'S 38° 25'W dip 2.7S for the epoch 1978-1979) and Cachoeira Paulista (22° 41'S , 45° 00W, dip 25.6S for 1978-1979)and ISEE-3 (Interplanetary Sun-Earth Explorer) satellite data during the 1978-1979 time frame. The substorm disturbed days are compared with the averages of quiet days. The ionospheric height variations are analyzed in the light of satellite data and intercomparisons of the two stations.

  20. Real-time imaging of density ducts between the plasmasphere and ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H; Menk, Frederick W; Waters, Colin L; Erickson, Philip J; Trott, Cathryn M; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Morgan, John; Lenc, Emil; Offringa, Andre R; Bell, Martin E; Ekers, Ronald D; Gaensler, B M; Lonsdale, Colin J; Feng, Lu; Hancock, Paul J; Kaplan, David L; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Deshpande, A A; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Johnston-Hollitt, M; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Ord, S M; Prabu, T; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2015-01-01

    Ionization of the Earth's atmosphere by sunlight forms a complex, multi-layered plasma environment within the Earth's magnetosphere, the innermost layers being the ionosphere and plasmasphere. The plasmasphere is believed to be embedded with cylindrical density structures (ducts) aligned along the Earth's magnetic field, but direct evidence for these remains scarce. Here we report the first direct wide-angle observation of an extensive array of field-aligned ducts bridging the upper ionosphere and inner plasmasphere, using a novel ground-based imaging technique. We establish their heights and motions by feature-tracking and parallax analysis. The structures are strikingly organized, appearing as regularly-spaced, alternating tubes of overdensities and underdensities strongly aligned with the Earth's magnetic field. These findings represent the first direct visual evidence for the existence of such structures.

  1. A new algorithm of ionospheric tomography——two-step solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Debao

    The inherent non-ideal geometry of ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observation stations distribution results in limited-angle tomographic inverse problems that are ill-posed. To cope with the above problem, a new tomographic algorithm, which is called two-step solution (TSS), is presented in this paper. In the new method, the electron density can be estimated by using two steps: 1) Phillips smoothing method (PSM) is first used to resolve the ill-posed problem in ionospheric tomography system; 2) The "coarse" solution of PSM is then input as the initial value of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) and improved by iterative mode. Numerical simulation experiment demonstrates that the two-step solution is feasible to GNSS-based ionospheric tomography and superior to PSM or MART alone.

  2. Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios - project overview and achieved outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzen, Tatjana; Wilken, Volker; Hoque, Mainul; Minkwitz, David; Schlueter, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The ionosphere is the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere, where sufficient free electrons exist to affect the propagation of radio waves. Therefore, the treatment of the ionosphere is a critical issue for many applications dealing with trans-ionospheric signals such as GNSS positioning, GNSS related augmentation systems (e.g. EGNOS and WAAS) and remote sensing. The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is the European Satellite Based Augmentation Service (SBAS) that provides value added services, in particular to safety critical GNSS applications, e.g. aviation and maritime traffic. In the frame of the European GNSS Evolution Programme (EGEP), ESA has launched several activities, supporting the design, development and qualification of the operational EGNOS infrastructure and associated services. Ionospheric Reference Scenarios (IRSs) are used by ESA in order to conduct the EGNOS performance simulations and to assure the capability for maintaining accuracy, integrity and availability of the EGNOS system, especially during ionospheric storm conditions. The project Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios (DAIS) - aims the provision of improved EGNOS IRSs. The main tasks are the calculation and validation of time series of IRSs by a 3D assimilation approach that combines space borne and ground based GNSS observations as well as ionosonde measurements with an ionospheric background model. The special focus thereby is to demonstrate that space-based measurements can significantly contribute to fill data gaps in GNSS ground networks (particularly in Africa and over the oceans) when generating the IRSs. In this project we selected test periods of perturbed and nominal ionospheric conditions and filtered the collected data for outliers. We defined and developed an applicable technique for the 3D assimilation and applied this technique for the generation of IRSs covering the EGNOS V3 extended service area. Afterwards the

  3. Re-visit of ionosphere storm morphology with TEC data in the current solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cander, Ljiljana R.

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (M-I-T) storm effects, with emphasis on 15 major geomagnetic storms in the current solar cycle as far as May 2015. It is an ionosphere storm response-case analysis based on the vertical total electron content (VTEC) observations at mid-latitude Global Positioning System (GPS) ground-based station HERS (0.33°E, 50.86°N). The time dependent features of ionospheric storms are examined with ∆VTEC defined as the percent change of VTEC during storm time relative to quiet time represented by its monthly median value at the same UT. During a specific event of April 2010 storm, the F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) data at collocated Chilton (358.67°E, 51.70°N) ionosonde station are used for comparison. The seasonal dependence of the storms is identified and the strength of both positive and negative storms phases is correlated with the intensity of the geomagnetic storms. The focus is on localized characteristics of these solar-terrestrial disturbances and the relative roles of inherent physical and chemical processes that appear to be so changeable from one event to the other generating significant variability in ionospheric responses. The implications of these results for the persistence, certainty and consequently predictability of ionosphric storms are discussed and conclusions drown.

  4. The ionospheric response to flux transfer events: the first few minutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    Full Text Available We utilise high-time resolution measurements from the PACE HF radar at Halley, Antarctica to explore the evolution of the ionospheric response during the first few minutes after enhanced reconnection occurs at the magnetopause. We show that the plasma velocity increases associated with flux transfer events (FTEs occur first ~100–200 km equatorward of the region to which magnetosheath (cusp precipitation maps to the ionosphere. We suggest that these velocity variations start near the ionospheric footprint of the boundary between open and closed magnetic field lines. We show that these velocity variations have rise times ~100 s and fall times of ~10 s. When these velocity transients reach the latitude of the cusp precipitation, sometimes the equatorward boundary of the precipitation begins to move equatorward, the expected and previously reported ionospheric signature of enhanced reconnection. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the velocity variations. It involves the rapid outflow of magnetospheric electrons into the magnetosheath along the most recently reconnected field lines. Several predictions are made arising from the proposed explanation which could be tested with ground-based and space-based observations.

  5. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  6. Large-scale plasma bubbles in the low-latitude ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, J.A.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P.R.; Takahashi, H.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma irregularities in the low-latitude ionospheric F-layer resulting from plasma instability processes have been the subject of intensive experimental and theoretical research in the past few years. The morphology and dynamics of transequatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles and smaller scale plasma irregularities can be monitored through observations of the intensities of the 630.0 nm and 777.4 nm atomic oxygen nightglow emissions arising from ionospheric recombination processes. Simultaneous north-south meridional scanning observations of these OI emissions, using ground-based scanning filter photometers, as well as observations of the OI 630.0 nm emission using an all-sky imaging system, have been made at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7 deg S, 45.0 deg W, dip latitude 15.8 deg S) during both quiet and magnetically disturbed conditions, as well as in the presence of large scale field-aligned ionospheric plasma depletions. Some results of this long series of photometer and all-sky imaging observations are presented and their significant features are analyzed and discussed.

  7. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2016-04-01

    Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC) predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM). Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007-2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Ionosphere Models for Reproducing Regional TEC During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Kuznetsova, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Bilitza, D.; Codrescu, M.; Coster, A. J.; Emery, B.; Foster, B.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Huba, J.; Mitchell, C. N.; Ridley, A. J.; Fedrizzi, M.; Scherliess, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Zhu, L.

    2015-12-01

    TEC (Total Electron Content) is one of the key parameters in description of the ionospheric variability that has influence on the accuracy of navigation and communication systems. To assess current TEC modeling capability of ionospheric models during geomagnetic storms and to establish a baseline against which future improvement can be compared, we quantified the ionospheric models' performance by comparing modeled vertical TEC values with ground-based GPS TEC measurements and Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS) TEC. The comparison focused on North America and Europe sectors during selected two storm events: 2006 AGU storm (14-15 Dec. 2006) and 2013 March storm (17-19 Mar. 2013). The ionospheric models used for this study range from empirical to physics-based, and physics-based data assimilation models. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of TEC during the storms. In addition, we considered several parameters to quantify storm impacts on TEC: TEC changes compared to quiet time, rate of TEC change, and maximum increase/decrease during the storms. In this presentation, we focus on preliminary results of the comparison of the models performance in reproducing the storm-time TEC variations using the parameters and skill scores. This study has been supported by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Model outputs and observational data used for the study will be permanently posted at the CCMC website (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) for the space science communities to use.

  9. Imaging of structures in the high-latitude ionosphere: model comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Idenden

    Full Text Available The tomographic reconstruction technique generates a two-dimensional latitude versus height electron density distribution from sets of slant total electron content measurements (TEC along ray paths between beacon satellites and ground-based radio receivers. In this note, the technique is applied to TEC values obtained from data simulated by the Sheffield/UCL/SEL Coupled Thermosphere/Ionosphere/Model (CTIM. A comparison of the resulting reconstructed image with the 'input' modelled data allows for verification of the reconstruction technique. All the features of the high-latitude ionosphere in the model data are reproduced well in the tomographic image. Reconstructed vertical TEC values follow closely the modelled values, with the F-layer maximum density (NmF2 agreeing generally within about 10%. The method has also been able successfully to reproduce underlying auroral-E ionisation over a restricted latitudinal range in part of the image. The height of the F2 peak is generally in agreement to within about the vertical image resolution (25 km.

    Key words. Ionosphere (modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere · Radio Science (instruments and techniques

  10. Ionospheric Sounding Opportunities Using Signal Data From Preexisting Amateur Radio And Other Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushley, A. C.; Noel, J. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Amateur radio and other transmissions used for dedicated purposes, such as the Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B), are signals that exist for another reason, but can be used for ionospheric sounding. Whether mandated and government funded or voluntarily constructed and operated, these networks provide data that can be used for scientific and operational purposes which rely on space weather data. Given the current state of the global economic environment and fiscal consequences to scientific research funding in Canada, these types of networks offer an innovative solution with preexisting hardware for more real-time and archival space-weather data to supplement current methods, particularly for data assimilation, modelling and forecasting. Furthermore, mobile ground-based transmitters offer more flexibility for deployment than stationary receivers. Numerical modelling has demonstrated that APRS and ADS-B signals are subject to Faraday rotation (FR) as they pass through the ionosphere. Ray tracingtechniques were used to determine the characteristics of individual waves, including the wave path and the state of polarization. The modelled FR was computed and converted to total electron content (TEC) along the raypaths. TEC data can be used as input for computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) in order to reconstruct electron density maps of the ionosphere.

  11. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics observations in the African sector using recently deployed magnetometer and GPS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke

    Recent ground-and space-based observations have shown that geomagnetic storms can have dramatic longitudinal differences in equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics, such as enhanced generation of F-region plasma irregularities and super fountain effect at low latitudes. For example, satellite observations have shown very unique equatorial ionospheric density struc-tures in the African region. The African region is the longitude sector where the peak in large scale bubble activity (zonal width, depletion level, and spacing) is maximum. No other region in the globe shows similar characteristics. Most recent in situ density observations from C/NOFS also reveal similar maximal bubble activities in Africa. However, the dearth of ground-based in-strumentation in the region makes it impossible to confirm these unique equatorial ionospheric structures from the ground and that leads the investigation of the physics into speculative dead ends. This initiated several open questions, which include: What are the possible governing mechanisms that create unique equatorial structures in Africa? In order to answer such open questions, recently limited progress has been made and very few ground-based instruments, including AMBER magnetometers and ACORN GPS network, have been either deployed in the region or in process. Some of many objectives of AMBER magnetometers network, in coordination with ground-and space-based GPS receiver observations, is to understand the fundamental electrodynamics that govern equatorial ionospheric motion and the penetration of ULF Pc5 wave into equatorial latitudes and its impact on the equatorial electrodynamics. This paper presents initial results from AMBER magnetometer network. The initial electro-dynamics result in Africa is also compared with similar observations in the American sector. The electron density structure in response to the electrodynamics is also investigated using the available ground-based GPS receivers in the region as well as data

  12. Towards the Implementation of GPS-based Tsunami Early Warning System Using Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. M.; Komjathy, A.; Meng, X.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Natural hazards and solid Earth events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are actual sources that may trigger acoustic and gravity waves resulting in traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) in the upper atmosphere. Trans-ionospheric radio wave measurements sense the total electron content (TEC) along the signal propagation path. In this research, we introduce a novel GPS-based detection and estimation technique for remote sensing of atmospheric wave-induced TIDs including space weather phenomena induced by major natural hazard events, using TEC time series collected from worldwide ground-based dual-frequency GNSS receiver networks. We will demonstrate the ability of using ground-based dual-frequency GPS measures to detect and monitor tsunami wave propagations from previous great earthquake and tsunami events including: 2011 Tohoku and 2010 Chile earthquakes and tsunamis. Two major TIDs with different propagation speeds and wavelengths were identified through analysis of the GPS remote sensing observations. Dominant physical characteristics of atmospheric wave-induced TIDs are found to be associated with specific tsunami propagations and oceanic Rayleigh waves. We compared GPS-based observations, corresponding model simulations and other geophysical measurements. Our results lead to a better understanding of the tsunami-induced ionosphere responses. In addition, we investigate ionospheric signatures caused by the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and tsunami using the GPS-based method. Based on current distribution of Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS stations, the simulated results indicate that tsunami-induced TIDs may be detected about 60 minutes prior to tsunamis arriving at the US west coast. It is expected that this GPS-based technology becomes an integral part of future early-warning systems.

  13. Low-latitude ionospheric effects on SBAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, J.; Sardón, E.; Sainz, A.; Ochoa, B.; Magdaleno, S.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) provide augmentation to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) users in three areas: (1) broadcasting accurate corrections to GNSS satellite ephemeris, (2) providing a real-time empirical ionospheric model in the service area, and (3) providing integrity information in the form of estimates of the confidence of the ephemeris corrections and ionospheric delays. Ionospheric effects on SBAS are twofold: (a) the input data used by the SBAS will be affected by ionospheric effects, and (b) the more perturbed the ionosphere is, the more difficult it will be to provide accurate and reliable ionospheric information to the users. The ionosphere at low latitudes presents larger variability and more intense phenomena than at midlatitudes. Therefore, SBAS providing service to low-latitude regions will be more affected than those at other latitudes. From the different low-latitude ionospheric effects, this paper will focus on those having the largest impact on SBAS, which are total electron content temporal and spatial gradients, ionospheric scintillations, and depletions. This paper will present the impact of these effects on EGNOS (European Global Navigation Overlay System), the European SBAS. Although EGNOS can be considered as a midlatitude SBAS, it has to provide coverage down to rather low latitudes, so sometimes low-latitude ionospheric effects are observed in the EGNOS data. It will be shown how EGNOS performs under nominal conditions and how its performance is degraded when low-latitude ionospheric phenomena occur. Real EGNOS data affected by low-latitude ionospheric phenomena will be used.

  14. Phenomena in the ionosphere-magnetosphere system induced by injection of powerful HF radio waves into nightside auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results from three ionospheric HF pumping experiments in overdense E or F regions are summarized. The experiments were conducted by the use of the EISCAT HF Heating facility located near Tromsø, Norway, allowing HF pumping the ionosphere in a near geomagnetic field-aligned direction. Distinctive features related to auroral activations in the course of the experiments are identified. Typical features observed in all experiments are the following: generation of scattered components in dynamic HF radio scatter Doppler spectra; strong increase of ion temperatures Ti and local ionospheric electric field E0; modification of the auroral arc and local spiral-like formation. However, some effects were observed only when the HF pump wave was reflected from the F2 layer. Among them are the generation of intense field-aligned ion outflows, and a strong increase in the electron temperature Te with altitude. A possible scenario for the substorm triggering due to HF pumping into an auroral ionosphere is discussed. The authors present their interpretation of the data as follows. It is suggested that two populations of charged particles are at play. One of them is the runaway population of electrons and ions from the ionosphere caused by the effects of the powerful HF radio wave. The other is the population of electrons that precipitate from the magnetosphere. It is shown that the hydrodynamical equilibrium was disrupted due to the effects of the HF pumping. We estimate that the parallel electric field can reach values of the order of 30mV/m during substorm triggering.

  15. Global Dayside Ionospheric Uplift and Enhancement Associated with Interplanetary Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Mannucci, Anthony; Iijima, Byron; Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali; Sobral, Jose Humberto A.; Gonzalez, Walter; Guarnieri, Fernando; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Saito, Akinori; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Fejer, Bela; Fuller-Rowell, Timothy J.; Kozyra, Janet; Foster, John C.; Coster, Anthea; Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.

    2004-01-01

    The interplanetary shock/electric field event of 5-6 November 2001 is analyzed using ACE interplanetary data. The consequential ionospheric effects are studied using GPS receiver data from the CHAMP and SAC-C satellites and altimeter data from the TOPEX/ Poseidon satellite. Data from 100 ground-based GPS receivers as well as Brazilian Digisonde and Pacific sector magnetometer data are also used. The dawn-to-dusk interplanetary electric field was initially 33 mV/m just after the forward shock (IMF BZ = -48 nT) and later reached a peak value of 54 mV/m 1 hour and 40 min later (BZ = -78 nT). The electric field was 45 mV/m (BZ = -65 nT) 2 hours after the shock. This electric field generated a magnetic storm of intensity DST = -275 nT. The dayside satellite GPS receiver data plus ground-based GPS data indicate that the entire equatorial and midlatitude (up to +/-50(deg) magnetic latitude (MLAT)) dayside ionosphere was uplifted, significantly increasing the electron content (and densities) at altitudes greater than 430 km (CHAMP orbital altitude). This uplift peaked 2 1/2 hours after the shock passage. The effect of the uplift on the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) lasted for 4 to 5 hours. Our hypothesis is that the interplanetary electric field ''promptly penetrated'' to the ionosphere, and the dayside plasma was convected (by E x B) to higher altitudes. Plasma upward transport/convergence led to a 55-60% increase in equatorial ionospheric TEC to values above 430 km (at 1930 LT). This transport/convergence plus photoionization of atmospheric neutrals at lower altitudes caused a 21% TEC increase in equatorial ionospheric TEC at 1400 LT (from ground-based measurements). During the intense electric field interval, there was a sharp plasma ''shoulder'' detected at midlatitudes by the GPS receiver and altimeter satellites. This shoulder moves equatorward from -54(deg) to -37(deg) MLAT during the development of the main phase of the magnetic storm. We presume this to

  16. Ground-based Infrared Observations of Water Vapor and Hydrogen Peroxide in the Atmosphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, T.; Greathouse, T. K.; Bitner, M.; Kruger, A.; Richter, M. J.; Lacy, J. H.; Bézard, B.; Fouchet, T.; Lefevre, F.; Forget, F.; Atreya, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    Ground-based observations of water vapor and hydrogen peroxide have been obtained in the thermal infrared range, using the TEXES instrument at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, for different times of the seasonal cycle.

  17. Informing hydrological models with ground-based time-lapse relative gravimetry: potential and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Christiansen, Lars; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Coupled hydrogeophysical inversion emerges as an attractive option to improve the calibration and predictive capability of hydrological models. Recently, ground-based time-lapse relative gravity (TLRG) measurements have attracted increasing interest because there is a direct relationship between ...

  18. Changes in ground-based solar ultraviolet radiation during fire episodes: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available about the relationship between fires and solar UVR without local high-quality column or ground-based ambient air pollution (particulate matter in particular) data; however, the threat to public health from fires was acknowledged....

  19. System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator Jae-Jun Kim∗ and Brij N. Agrawal † Department of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...and Dynamics, Vol. 20, No. 4, July-August 1997, pp. 625-632. 6Schwartz, J. L. and Hall, C. D., “ System Identification of a Spherical Air-Bearing

  20. A joint Cluster and ground-based instruments study of two magnetospheric substorm events on 1 September 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Draper

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a coordinated ground- and space-based multi-instrument study of two magnetospheric substorm events that occurred on 1 September 2002, during the interval from 18:00 UT to 24:00 UT. Data from the Cluster and Polar spacecraft are considered in combination with ground-based magnetometer and HF radar data. During the first substorm event the Cluster spacecraft, which were in the Northern Hemisphere lobe, are to the west of the main region affected by the expansion phase. Nevertheless, substorm signatures are seen by Cluster at 18:25 UT (just after the expansion phase onset as seen on the ground at 18:23 UT, despite the ~5 RE} distance of the spacecraft from the plasma sheet. The Cluster spacecraft then encounter an earthward-moving diamagnetic cavity at 19:10 UT, having just entered the plasma sheet boundary layer. The second substorm expansion phase is preceded by pseudobreakups at 22:40 and 22:56 UT, at which time thinning of the near-Earth, L=6.6, plasma sheet occurs. The expansion phase onset at 23:05 UT is seen simultaneously in the ground magnetic field, in the magnetotail and at Polar's near-Earth position. The response in the ionospheric flows occurs one minute later. The second substorm better fits the near-Earth neutral line model for substorm onset than the cross-field current instability model.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphereionosphere interactions; Magnetic reconnection; Auroral phenomenon

  1. Distinct responses of the low-latitude ionosphere to CME and HSSWS: The role of the IMF Bz oscillation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zuluaga, J.; Radicella, S. M.; Nava, B.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Mora-Páez, H.; Alazo-Cuartas, K.

    2016-11-01

    In this work an attempt to identify the role of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the response of the ionosphere to different solar phenomena is presented. For this purpose, the day-to-day variability of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) and the main ionospheric disturbances are analyzed during one coronal mass ejection (CME) and two high-speed solar wind streams (HSSWSs). The EIA parameters considered are the zonal electric field and both the strength and position of its northern crest. The disturbances being the prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric field (PPMEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF) are studied using the magnetic response of their equivalent current systems. In accordance, ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems receivers and magnetometers at geomagnetic low latitudes in the American sector are used. During both phenomena, patterns of PPMEF related to fluctuations of the IMF are observed. Diurnal and semidiurnal magnetic oscillations are found to be likely related to DDEF. Comparisons among the EIA parameters and the DDEF magnetic response exhibit poor relation during the CME in contrast to good relation during the HSSWSs. It is concluded that the response of the low-latitude ionosphere to solar phenomena is largely determined through the oscillation frequency of the IMF Bz by affecting the generation of the PPMEF and DDEF differently. This is seen as an effect of how the energy from the solar wind is transferred into the magnetosphere-ionosphere system.

  2. Real-Time Detection of Tsunami Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that tsunamis can produce gravity waves that propagate up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a tsunami typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time tsunami MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) model produced by the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the tsunami waves.

  3. Real-Time Detection of Tsunami Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that tsunamis can produce gravity waves that propagate up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a tsunami typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time tsunami MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) model produced by the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the tsunami waves. PMID:28429754

  4. Characterising the Ionosphere (La caracterisation de l’ionosphere)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical Journal, 76, 2, pp. 123-140, 1971. Garcia-Fernandez, M., M. Hernandez-Pajares, J.M. Juan , J. Sanz, Improvement of ionospheric electron density...Katlenburg- Lindau , ProduServ GmbH Verlagsservice, Berlin, pp. 371-390, 1996. Jakowski, N., A. Wehrenpfennig, S. Heise, C. Reigber, H. Luehr, L

  5. Ionosphere correction algorithm for spaceborne SAR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yang; Mengdao Xing; Guangcai Sun

    2016-01-01

    For spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ima-ging, the dispersive ionosphere has significant effects on the pro-pagation of the low frequency (especial y P-band) radar signal. The ionospheric effects can be a significant source of the phase error in the radar signal, which causes a degeneration of the image quality in spaceborne SAR imaging system. The background ionospheric effects on spaceborne SAR through modeling and simulation are analyzed, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the spatio-temporal variability of the ionosphere is given. A novel ionosphere correction algorithm (ICA) is proposed to deal with the ionospheric effects on the low frequency spaceborne SAR radar signal. With the proposed algorithm, the degradation of the image quality caused by the ionosphere is corrected. The simulation re-sults show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Opgenoorth

    Full Text Available On 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern magnetospheric mantle in close conjunction to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and approached the post-noon dayside magnetopause over Green-land between 13:00 and 14:00 UT. During that interval, a sudden reorganisation of the high-latitude dayside convection pattern occurred after 13:20 UT, most likely caused by a direction change of the Solar wind magnetic field. The result was an eastward and poleward directed flow-channel, as monitored by the SuperDARN radar network and also by arrays of ground-based magnetometers in Canada, Greenland and Scandinavia. After an initial eastward and later poleward expansion of the flow-channel between 13:20 and 13:40 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft, and the field line footprints covered by the eastward looking scan cycle of the Söndre Strömfjord incoherent scatter radar were engulfed by cusp-like precipitation with transient magnetic and electric field signatures. In addition, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar detected strong transient effects of the convection reorganisation, a poleward moving precipitation, and a fast ion flow-channel in association with the auroral structures that suddenly formed to the west and north of the radar. From a detailed analysis of the coordinated Cluster and ground-based data, it was found that this extraordinary transient convection pattern, indeed, had moved the cusp precipitation from its former pre-noon position into the late post-noon sector, allowing for the first and quite unexpected encounter of the cusp by the Cluster spacecraft. Our findings illustrate the large amplitude of cusp dynamics even in response to moderate solar wind forcing. The global ground-based data proves to be an invaluable tool to monitor the dynamics and width of the affected magnetospheric regions.

    Key words. Magnetospheric cusp, ionosphere, reconnection, convection flow-channel, Cluster, ground-based observations

  7. Ground and Space-Based Measurement of Rocket Engine Burns in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Bhatt, A.; Boyd, I. D.; Burt, J. M.; Caton, R. G.; Coster, A.; Erickson, P. J.; Huba, J. D.; Earle, G. D.; Kaplan, C. R.; Foster, J. C.; Groves, K. M.; Haaser, R. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Hunton, D. E.; Hysell, D. L.; Klenzing, J. H.; Larsen, M. F.; Lind, F. D.; Pedersen, T. R.; Pfaff, R. F.; Stoneback, R. A.; Roddy, P. A.; Rodriguez, S. P.; San Antonio, G. S.; Schuck, P. W.; Siefring, C. L.; Selcher, C. A.; Smith, S. M.; Talaat, E. R.; Thomason, J. F.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Varney, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    On-orbit firings of both liquid and solid rocket motors provide localized disturbances to the plasma in the upper atmosphere. Large amounts of energy are deposited to ionosphere in the form of expanding exhaust vapors which change the composition and flow velocity. Charge exchange between the neutral exhaust molecules and the background ions (mainly O+) yields energetic ion beams. The rapidly moving pickup ions excite plasma instabilities and yield optical emissions after dissociative recombination with ambient electrons. Line-of-sight techniques for remote measurements rocket burn effects include direct observation of plume optical emissions with ground and satellite cameras, and plume scatter with UHF and higher frequency radars. Long range detection with HF radars is possible if the burns occur in the dense part of the ionosphere. The exhaust vapors initiate plasma turbulence in the ionosphere that can scatter HF radar waves launched from ground transmitters. Solid rocket motors provide particulates that become charged in the ionosphere and may excite dusty plasma instabilities. Hypersonic exhaust flow impacting the ionospheric plasma launches a low-frequency, electromagnetic pulse that is detectable using satellites with electric field booms. If the exhaust cloud itself passes over a satellite, in situ detectors measure increased ion-acoustic wave turbulence, enhanced neutral and plasma densities, elevated ion temperatures, and magnetic field perturbations. All of these techniques can be used for long range observations of plumes in the ionosphere. To demonstrate such long range measurements, several experiments were conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory including the Charged Aerosol Release Experiment, the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust experiments, and the Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments.

  8. Daytime Ionosphere Retrieval Algorithm for the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew W.; Korpela, Eric J.; Sirk, Martin M.; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2017-07-01

    The NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer Extreme Ultraviolet spectrograph, ICON EUV, will measure altitude profiles of the daytime extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) OII emission near 83.4 and 61.7 nm that are used to determine density profiles and state parameters of the ionosphere. This paper describes the algorithm concept and approach to inverting these measured OII emission profiles to derive the associated O+ density profile from 150-450 km as a proxy for the electron content in the F-region of the ionosphere. The algorithm incorporates a bias evaluation and feedback step, developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory using data from the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) missions, that is able to effectively mitigate the effects of systematic instrument calibration errors and inaccuracies in the original photon source within the forward model. Results are presented from end-to-end simulations that convolved simulated airglow profiles with the expected instrument measurement response to produce profiles that were inverted with the algorithm to return data products for comparison to truth. Simulations of measurements over a representative ICON orbit show the algorithm is able to reproduce hmF2 values to better than 5 km accuracy, and NmF2 to better than 12% accuracy over a 12-second integration, and demonstrate that the ICON EUV instrument and daytime ionosphere algorithm can meet the ICON science objectives which require 20 km vertical resolution in hmF2 and 18% precision in NmF2.

  9. The multi-instrumental radio diagnostics of the ionosphere for Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankowski, Andrzej; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Pulinets, Sergey; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help to solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. In addition to the in-situ space plasma measurements the topside sounders will be installed onboard the "Ionosphere" spacecrafts to retrieve the vertical distribution of electron concentration in the topside ionosphere. The first two satellites are scheduled for launch at the first half of 2016. These two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. In order to improve and validate the large scale and small scale ionospheric structures we will also use the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN: global and regional TEC maps created with high special and temporal resolution, ROTI maps over the Northern Hemisphere and the data retrieved from

  10. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1° E, 37.7° S, geographic; 49° S magnetic. The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly west-ward during the evening to early morning, and weakly east-ward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR at Millstone Hill (71.5° W, 42.6° N; 57° N. There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  11. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-12-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dststorm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3-6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow.

  12. Calibrating for Ionospheric Phase Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Technique determines ionospheric phase delay on real-time universally applicable basis in terms of electrons per meter squared by coherently modulating two L-band carrier frequencies received from two Global Positioning System satelites. Two pseudorandom number sequences cross-correlated to derive delay time.

  13. The New IGS Ionospheric Fluctuation Maps Product and its Scientific Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, I.; Andrzej, K.; Zakharenkova, I.

    2016-12-01

    The GPS signals fading due to presence of the plasma irregularities in the ionosphere can decrease an operational availability of navigation systems. This effect can be estimated by measuring of its impact on phase of the received GPS signal. The new IGS ionospheric fluctuation maps product is based on estimates of the TEC rapid changes. For an overall representation of the spatial evolution of the ionospheric irregularities, which caused the GPS signal fluctuations over the Northern Hemisphere middle and high latitudes, there is produced a daily map of the ROTI index basing on data derived from a representative set of 700 permanent GPS stations. We use the corrected geomagnetic (CGM) coordinates with DGRF/IGRF models. For daily ROTI maps, we averaged and binned all ROTI values collected during 00-24 UT period of a considered day. The grid size is 8 min MLT by 2° MLAT, with the latter covering 50° - 90°. The averaged ROTI value in each MLAT-MLT bin corresponds to probability of the GPS signals phase fluctuations caused by passing of radio signals through the ionospheric irregularities. The resulted ionospheric fluctuation product is represented in the ASCII IONEX-like data format and can be visualized. This data format is described in details. We demonstrate the IGS ionospheric fluctuation map product performance for scientific research application on set of test-cases (geomagnetic storms occurred in the years 2013-2015) for comparative analysis of the resulted daily ROTI maps for quite and geomagnetically disturbed periods. The intense phase scintillations depicted in the diurnal ROTI maps can provide an important information about development of the severe storm-induced gradients in the ionospheric plasma density, both caused by auroral particle precipitation and plasma flows. It is possible to conclude that IGS ionospheric fluctuation maps product can be effectively used for monitoring of the plasma irregularities with different origin. The independent ground-based

  14. On the dynamics of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over Europe on 20 November 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borries, Claudia; Jakowski, Norbert; Kauristie, Kirsti; Amm, Olaf; Mielich, Jens; Kouba, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric disturbances, often associated with geomagnetic storms, may cause threats to radio systems used for communication and navigation. One example is the super storm on 20 November 2003, when plenty of strong and unusual perturbations were reported. This paper reveals additional information on the dynamics in the high-latitude ionosphere over Europe during this storm. Here analyses of wavelike traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) over Europe are presented, based on estimates of the total electron content (TEC) derived from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. These TIDs are ionospheric signatures of thermospheric surges initiated by space weather events. The source region of these TIDs is characterized by enhanced spatial gradients, TEC depression, strong uplift of the F2 layer, the vicinity of the eastward auroral electrojet, and strong aurora E layers. Joule heating is identified as the most probable driver for the TIDs observed over Europe during 20 November 2003. The sudden heating of the thermosphere leads to strong changes in the pressure and thermospheric wind circulation system, which in turn generates thermospheric wind surges observed as TID signatures in the TEC. Either the dissipation of the eastward auroral electrojet or particle precipitation are considered as the source mechanism for the Joule heating. In the course of the storm, the TEC observations show a southward shift of the source region of the TIDs. These meridional dislocation effects are obviously related to a strong compression of the plasmasphere. The presented results demonstrate the complex interaction processes in the thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system during this extreme storm.

  15. Variations in the microwave radiation of the mesophere during heating of the ionosphere with high-power radiowaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Yu. Yu.; Grigor'ev, G. I.; Krasil'nikov, A. A.; Frolov, V. L.

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of microwave observations of ozone radiation in the middle atmosphere during modification of the ionosphere by high-power short radio waves on March 27-28, 2011. The modification was performed on the "Sura" heating facility of the Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) by using two ozone meters oriented towards different regions in the sky. The effect of a decrease in the radiation intensity in the ozone line when the ionosphere is heated with high-power short-wave radio emission, which was discovered earlier, has been confirmed, and new data related to its characteristic have been obtained. A possible interpretation of this phenomenon is discussed.

  16. Ionospheric Modification at Twice the Electron Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    experiment by the High- 0 fFrequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP). The emissions are n from forbidden transitions in atomic oxygen colliding ...Collaboration) Nuclear Physics Correlated Emission of Hadrons from Recombination of Correlated Partons ........................................ 122301 R.J...Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider .................................................................................. 122303 B. B. Back et al. (Continued on Third

  17. Anomalous absorption and reflection in ionospheric radio modification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjolhus, E.

    1985-05-01

    The anomalous absorption of an ordinary polarized radio wave due to magnetic field aligned short-scale striations is studied. By the method of averaging, a correction term to the cold plasma dielectric tensor can be derived. The correction term behaves singularly at the upper hybrid level, inducing new cutoff and resonance. A situation analogous to the Budden tunneling problem arises. Thus the anomalous absorption is necessarily accompanied by partial reflection at the upper hybrid level. A consequence is that the absorption coefficient has a maximum at a certain striation intensity, with reflection dominating at higher intensities. This is expected to be important for the saturation of the process generating the striations.

  18. Study of the thermospheric and ionospheric response to the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming using TIME-GCM and GSM TIP models: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Bessarab, F. S.; Korenkov, Yu N.; Liu, Hanli; Goncharenko, L. P.; Tolstikov, M. V.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a study of mesosphere and low thermosphere influence on ionospheric disturbances during 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. This period was characterized by extremely low solar and geomagnetic activity. The study was performed using two first principal models: thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) and global self-consistent model of thermosphere, ionosphere, and protonosphere (GSM TIP). The stratospheric anomalies during SSW event were modeled by specifying the temperature and density perturbations at the lower boundary of the TIME-GCM (30 km altitude) according to data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Then TIME-GCM output at 80 km was used as lower boundary conditions for driving GSM TIP model runs. We compare models' results with ground-based ionospheric data at low latitudes obtained by GPS receivers in the American longitudinal sector. GSM TIP simulation predicts the occurrence of the quasi-wave vertical structure in neutral temperature disturbances at 80-200 km altitude, and the positive and negative disturbances in total electron content at low latitude during the 2009 SSW event. According to our model results the formation mechanisms of the low-latitude ionospheric response are the disturbances in the n(O)/n(N2) ratio and thermospheric wind. The change in zonal electric field is key mechanism driving the ionospheric response at low latitudes, but our model results do not completely reproduce the variability in zonal electric fields (vertical plasma drift) at low latitudes.

  19. Ionospheric Modelling using GPS to Calibrate the MWA. II: Regional ionospheric modelling using GPS and GLONASS to estimate ionospheric gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, B S; Ord, S M; Tingay, S J; Bell, M; Callingham, J R; Dwarakanath, K S; For, B -Q; Hancock, P; Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kapinska, A D; Lenc, E; McKinley, B; Offringa, A R; Procopio, P; Staveley-Smith, L; Wayth, R B; Wu, C; Zheng, Q

    2016-01-01

    We estimate spatial gradients in the ionosphere using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLONASS (Russian global navigation system) observations, utilising data from multiple GPS stations in the vicinity of Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO). In previous work the ionosphere was characterised using a single-station to model the ionosphere as a single layer of fixed height and this was compared with ionospheric data derived from radio astronomy observations obtained from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Having made improvements to our data quality (via cycle slip detection and repair) and incorporating data from the GLONASS system, we now present a multi-station approach. These two developments significantly improve our modelling of the ionosphere. We also explore the effects of a variable-height model. We conclude that modelling the small-scale features in the ionosphere that have been observed with the MWA will require a much denser network of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) statio...

  20. Investigating the effect of geomagnetic storm and equatorial electrojet on equatorial ionospheric irregularity over East African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seba, Ephrem Beshir; Nigussie, Melessew

    2016-11-01

    The variability of the equatorial ionosphere is still a big challenge for ionospheric dependent radio wave technology users. To mitigate the effect of equatorial ionospheric irregularity on trans-ionospheric radio waves considerable efforts are being done to understand and model the equatorial electrodynamics and its connection to the creation of ionospheric irregularity. However, the effect of the East-African ionospheric electrodynamics on ionospheric irregularity is not yet well studied due to lack of multiple ground based instruments. But, as a result of International Heliophysical Year (IHY) initiative, which was launched in 2007, some facilities are being deployed in Africa since then. Therefore, recently deployed instruments, in the Ethiopian sector, such as SCINDA-GPS receiver (2.64°N dip angle) for TEC and amplitude scintillation index (S4) data and two magnetometers, which are deployed on and off the magnetic equator, data collected in the March equinoctial months of the years 2011, 2012, and 2015 have been used for this study in conjunction with geomagnetic storm data obtained from high resolution OMNI WEB data center. We have investigated the triggering and inhibition mechanisms for ionospheric irregularities using, scintillation index (S4), equatorial electrojet (EEJ), interplanetary electric field (IEFy), symH index, AE index and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz on five selected storm and two storm free days. We have found that when the eastward EEJ fluctuates in magnitude due to storm time induced electric fields at around noontime, the post-sunset scintillation is inhibited. All observed post-sunset scintillations in equinox season are resulted when the daytime EEJ is non fluctuating. The strength of noontime EEJ magnitude has shown direct relation with the strength of the post-sunset scintillations. This indicates that non-fluctuating EEJ stronger than 20 nT, can be precursor for the occurrence of the evening time ionospheric irregularities

  1. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  2. Ground-based follow-up in relation to Kepler Asteroseismic Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Uytterhoeven, K; Bruntt, H; De Cat, P; Frandsen, S; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Kiss, L; Kurtz, D W; Marconi, M; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Ostensen, R; Randall, S; Southworth, J; Szabo, R

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler space mission, successfully launched in March 2009, is providing continuous, high-precision photometry of thousands of stars simultaneously. The uninterrupted time-series of stars of all known pulsation types are a precious source for asteroseismic studies. The Kepler data do not provide information on the physical parameters, such as effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and vsini, which are crucial for successful asteroseismic modelling. Additional ground-based time-series data are needed to characterize mode parameters in several types of pulsating stars. Therefore, ground-based multi-colour photometry and mid/high-resolution spectroscopy are needed to complement the space data. We present ground-based activities within KASC on selected asteroseismic Kepler targets of several pulsation types. (Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope, William Herschel Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Mercator Telescope (La Palma, Spain), and IAC-...

  3. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  4. Comparing Dawn, Hubble Space Telescope, and Ground-Based Interpretations of (4) Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Scully, Jennifer E C; Gaskell, Robert; Russell, Christopher T; Park, Ryan S; Nathues, Andreas; Raymond, Carol; Gaffey, Michael J; Sierks, Holger; Becker, Kris J; McFadden, Lucy A

    2013-01-01

    Observations of asteroid 4 Vesta by NASA's Dawn spacecraft are interesting because its surface has the largest range of albedo, color and composition of any other asteroid visited by spacecraft to date. These hemispherical and rotational variations in surface brightness and composition have been attributed to impact processes since Vesta's formation. Prior to Dawn's arrival at Vesta, its surface properties were the focus of intense telescopic investigations for nearly a hundred years. Ground-based photometric and spectroscopic observations first revealed these variations followed later by those using Hubble Space Telescope. Here we compare interpretations of Vesta's rotation period, pole, albedo, topographic, color, and compositional properties from ground-based telescopes and HST with those from Dawn. Rotational spectral variations observed from ground-based studies are also consistent with those observed by Dawn. While the interpretation of some of these features was tenuous from past data, the interpretati...

  5. Ka-band bistatic ground-based SAR using noise signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, K.; Mogyla, A.; Vyplavin, P.; Palamarchuk, V.; Zemlyaniy, O.; Tarasenko, V.; Zaets, N.; Skretsanov, V.; Shubniy, A.; Glamazdin, V.; Natarov, M.; Nechayev, O.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, one of the actual problems is remote monitoring of technical state of large objects. Different methods can be used for that purpose. The most promising of them relies on application of ground based synthetic aperture radars (SAR) and differential interferometry. We have designed and tested Ground Based Noise Waveform SAR based on noise radar technology [1] and synthetic aperture antennas [2]. It enabled to build an instrument for precise all-weather monitoring of large objects in real-time. We describe main performance of ground-based interferometric SAR which uses continuous Ka-band noise waveform as a probe signal. Besides, results of laboratory trials and evaluation of its main performance are presented as well.

  6. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  7. Ionospheric effects of thunderstorms and lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Erin H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Tropospheric thunderstorms have been reported to disturb the lower ionosphere (~65-90 km) by convective atmospheric gravity waves and by electromagnetic field changes produced by lightning discharges. However, due to the low electron density in the lower ionosphere, active probing of its electron distribution is difficult, and the various perturbative effects are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that by using remotely-detected ?me waveforms of lightning radio signals it is possible to probe the lower ionosphere and its fluctuations in a spatially and temporally-resolved manner. Here we report evidence of gravity wave effects on the lower ionosphere originating from the thunderstorm. We also report variations in the nighttime ionosphere atop a small thunderstorm and associate the variations with the storm’s electrical activity. Finally, we present a data analysis technique to map ionospheric acoustic waves near thunderstorms.

  8. Attenuation of Scintillation of Discrete Cosmic Sources during Nonresonant HF Heating of the Upper Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrodny, V. G.; Watkins, B.; Charkina, O. V.; Yampolski, Y. M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the work is to experimentally investigate the response of scintillation spectra and indices of discrete cosmic sources (DCS) to modification of the ionospheric F-region by powerful electromagnetic fields with frequencies exceeding the Langmuir and upper hybrid ones. The results of a special experiment on the scintillations of radiation from DCS Cygnus A observed with using the 64-beam imaging riometer located near the Gakona village (Alaska, USA) are here presented. The ionosphere was artificially disturbed by powerful HAARP heater. Under the studied conditions of nonresonant heating of the ionospheric plasma, an earlier unknown effect of reducing the level of DCS scintillation was discovered. The theoretical interpretation has been given for the discovered effect, which using allowed the proposed technique of solving the inverse problem (recovery deviations of average electron density and temperature in the modified region from their unperturbed values).

  9. First ground-based FTIR-observations of methane in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Petersen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Total column concentrations and volume mixing ratio profiles of methane have been retrieved from ground-based solar absorption FTIR spectra in the near-infrared recorded in Paramaribo (Suriname. The methane FTIR observations are compared with TM5 model simulations and satellite observations from SCIAMACHY, and represent the first validation of SCIAMACHY retrievals in the tropics using ground-based remote sensing techniques. Apart from local biomass burning features, our methane FTIR observations agree well with the SCIAMACHY retrievals and TM5 model simulations.

  10. Status of advanced ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave detection

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Katherine L; Dwyer, Sheila; Puppo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave (GW) detection were first constructed starting 20 years ago and as of 2010 collection of several years' worth of science data at initial design sensitivities was completed. Upgrades to the initial detectors together with construction of brand new detectors are ongoing and feature advanced technologies to improve the sensitivity to GWs. This conference proceeding provides an overview of the common design features of ground-based laser interferometric GW detectors and establishes the context for the status updates of each of the four gravitational-wave detectors around the world: Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, GEO600 and KAGRA.

  11. Asteroseismology of solar-type stars with Kepler: III. Ground-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Molenda-Żakowicz , J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than a thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study by the Kepler Asteroseis......We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than a thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study by the Kepler...

  12. Estimation of solar irradiance using ground-based whole sky imagers

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, Soumyabrata; Lee, Yee Hui; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Ground-based whole sky imagers (WSIs) can provide localized images of the sky of high temporal and spatial resolution, which permits fine-grained cloud observation. In this paper, we show how images taken by WSIs can be used to estimate solar radiation. Sky cameras are useful here because they provide additional information about cloud movement and coverage, which are otherwise not available from weather station data. Our setup includes ground-based weather stations at the same location as the imagers. We use their measurements to validate our methods.

  13. Ionospheric disturbances in D-layer recorded by VLF receiver at Tashkent IHY station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    Tashkent International Heliophysical Year (IHY) station is a member of Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System for Observation, Modeling and Education (AWESOME) network being operated globally to study the ionosphere and the magnetosphere with the help of electromagnetic waves in Very Low Frequency (VLF) band. Regular monitoring of the D- and F-layers of ionosphere over Central Asia territory is being performed on the permanent basis starting year 2008. Solar flare events are permanently observed and the analysis showed that there is simultaneous correlation between the times of change of amplitude of the waves and the Solar flares. Features of the lightning discharge generated by radio atmospherics are studied and its effectiveness in D-region ionosphere diagnostics is explained. We have studied VLF amplitude anomalies related to the earthquakes (EQs) occurred in the recent years with magnitude more than 5 on the path way from the VLF transmitters to the Tashkent station assuming that propagation of VLF ground-based transmitters signals can be perturbed by EQ preparation can be detectable from the ground-based measurements in the VLF bands. For analyzing narrowband data we have used the Nighttime Fluctuation (NF) method paying attention to the data obtained during the local nighttime (20:00 LT-04:00 LT). The mean nighttime amplitude (or trend) and nighttime fluctuation are found to increase significantly before the EQ occurred on the path way from the transmitters to the receiver. The obtained results have revealed an agreement with VLF amplitude anomalies observed in Tashkent VLF station during the strong EQs occurred on the path way from the transmitters to the receiver. Some results are presented to show the probing potentiality of VLF waves to predict short term EQs with high magnitude.

  14. Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Silina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.

  15. Jovian Equatorial H Lyman-alpha and the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Gilda E.

    An excess of H Ly alpha emission has been a persistent feature in Jupiter's equatorial upper atmosphere since its discovery in 1978. This Ly alpha 'bulge' was found by high-resolution IUE observations to be due to broadening of the Jovian line increasing the resonant scattering of the solar Ly alpha, rather than from a local enhancement in the H density. The line broadening implies that the H column at the bulge is disturbed by a localized, non-thermal process, and two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this: one by the generation of turbulence from strong thermospheric winds or jets meeting at the bulge region and originating in the active Jovian auroral zones, the other involving a superthermal population of H atoms produced by a process analogous to the equatorial anomaly and tropical arcs on the Earth. Some line broadening was also observed in the off-bulge region while modelling of the usual bulge profile does not predict this behavior, but these observations may have been performed at a time of an unusually large extension of the bulge. We propose to make a series of high-dispersion observations (of improved S/N) for a detailed longitudinal study of the line profile which would be of benefit independently of the particular bulge conditions (to be determined with low-dispersion exposures). In addition, new insight will be gained with simultaneous ground-based observations of the newly discovered global ionospheric H3+ emissions. These emissions are diagnostic of the ionospheric temperature and ion density, and have already shown very particular characteristics in the H Ly alpha bulge region. Coordinated observations of the whole longitudinal range should therefore set new constraints on the mechanisms operating in the Jovian equatorial upper atmosphere.

  16. HF-induced airglow structure as a proxy for ionospheric irregularity detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility allows scientists to test current theories of plasma physics to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms at work in the lower ionosphere. One powerful technique for diagnosing radio frequency interactions in the ionosphere is to use ground-based optical instrumentation. High-frequency (HF), heater-induced artificial airglow observations can be used to diagnose electron energies and distributions in the heated region, illuminate natural and/or artificially induced ionospheric irregularities, determine ExB plasma drifts, and measure quenching rates by neutral species. Artificial airglow is caused by HF-accelerated electrons colliding with various atmospheric constituents, which in turn emit a photon. The most common emissions are 630.0 nm O(1D), 557.7 nm O(1S), and 427.8 nm N2+(1NG). Because more photons will be emitted in regions of higher electron energization, it may be possible to use airglow imaging to map artificial field-aligned irregularities at a particular altitude range in the ionosphere. Since fairly wide field-of-view imagers are typically deployed in airglow campaigns, it is not well-known what meter-scale features exist in the artificial airglow emissions. Rocket data show that heater-induced electron density variations, or irregularities, consist of bundles of ~10-m-wide magnetic field-aligned filaments with a mean depletion depth of 6% [Kelley et al., 1995]. These bundles themselves constitute small-scale structures with widths of 1.5 to 6 km. Telescopic imaging provides high resolution spatial coverage of ionospheric irregularities and goes hand in hand with other observing techniques such as GPS scintillation, radar, and ionosonde. Since airglow observations can presumably image ionospheric irregularities (electron density variations), they can be used to determine the spatial scale variation, the fill factor, and the lifetime characteristics of

  17. Excitation of the ionospheric resonance cavity by neutral winds at middle latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Surkov

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mechanism for the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR excitation at middle latitudes is considered. It is shown that the ionosphere wind system in this region is capable of sustaining the generation of geomagnetic perturbations that can be detected by ground magnetometers. The general IAR dispersion relation describing the linear coupling of the shear Alfvén and fast magnetosonic/compressional modes is obtained. The dependence of the IAR eigenfrequencies and damping rates on the perpendicular wave number and on the ground conductivity during the day- and nighttime conditions is analyzed both analytically and numerically. In order to demonstrate the IAR excitation by neutral winds the power spectra of the geomagnetic perturbation on the ground surface are calculated. Furthermore, it is found that Kolmogorov spectra of the ionospheric turbulent neutral winds and the IAR eigenfrequencies lie in the same frequency range that make it possible to enhance the IAR excitation. The relevance of the developed theoretical model to the ground-based observations is stressed.

  18. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Nepartak (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min-Yang; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Chang, Loren C.; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Two remarkable typhoon-induced traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) with concentric and northwest-southeast (NW-SE) alignments, respectively, associated with concentric gravity waves (CGWs) and ionosphere instabilities possibly seeded by CGWs, were observed in total electron content (TEC) derived from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System networks in Taiwan and Japan when the Category 5 Super Typhoon Nepartak approached Taiwan on 7 July 2016. The concentric TIDs (CTIDs) first appear with horizontal phase velocities of 161-200 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of 160-270 km, and periods of 15-22 min during 08:00-11:20 UT. Following the CTIDs, the NW-SE aligned nighttime medium-scale TIDs (MSTIDs) are formed on the west edge of the CTIDs over the Taiwan Strait during 11:30-14:00 UT. It is suggested that the MSTIDs are produced by the electrodynamical coupling of Perkins instability and CGW-induced polarization electric fields. This study proposes connections of typhoon-induced CTIDs and subsequently occurring MSTIDs in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  19. Analysis of rocket beacon transmissions for computerized reconstruction of ionospheric densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Chaturvedi, P. K.; Fulford, J. A.; Forsyth, P. A.; Anderson, D. N.; Zalesak, S. T.

    1993-08-01

    Three methods are described to obtain ionospheric electron densities from transionospheric, rocket-beacon TEC data. First, when the line-of-sight from a ground receiver to the rocket beacon is tangent to the flight trajectory, the electron concentration can be obtained by differentiating the TEC with respect to the distance to the rocket. A similar method may be used to obtain the electron-density profile if the layer is horizontally stratified. Second, TEC data obtained during chemical release experiments may be interpreted with the aid of physical models of the disturbed ionosphere to yield spatial maps of the modified regions. Third, computerized tomography (CT) can be used to analyze TEC data obtained along a chain of ground-based receivers aligned along the plane of the rocket trajectory. CT analysis of TEC data is used to reconstruct a 2D image of a simulated equatorial plume. TEC data is computed for a linear chain of nine receivers with adjacent spacings of either 100 or 200 km. The simulation data are analyzed to provide an F region reconstruction on a grid with 15 x 15 km pixels. Ionospheric rocket tomography may also be applied to rocket-assisted measurements of amplitude and phase scintillations and airglow intensities.

  20. Radio occultation measurements of the lunar ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Salerno, E.; Pupillo, G.; Maccaferri, G.; Cassaro, P.

    Radio occultation measurements by using interplanetary probes is a well known technique to obtain information on planetary atmospheres. To further understand the morphology of the lunar ionosphere we performed radio occultation experiments by using the radio sounding technique. This method mainly consists in the analisys of the effects produced on the radio wave transmitted from the spacecraft to the Earth when it crosses the atmosphere. The wave amplitude and phase undergo modifications that are correlated to the physical parameters - i.e. electron density - of the crossed medium. The first data set was obtained during the lunar occultations of the European probe SMART-1 shortly before impacting the lunar soil on September 3rd, 2006. During this experiment several radio occultation measurements of the signal transmitted by the spacecraft were performed in S and X band by using the 32 meters radiotelescopes (at Medicina and Noto) of the Istituto di Radioastronomia - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. Further experiments were performed during lunar occultations of Saturn and Venus. On May 22nd and June 18th 2007 the Cassini spacecraft, orbiting Saturn, and the Venus Express spacecraft, orbiting Venus, respectively were occulted by the Moon. The variation of the Total Electron Content (TEC) measured by our instruments (˜ 1013 el/m2) on this occasion is in agreement with values of the electron number density acquired by in situ measuments of the US Apollo missions and the USSR Luna 19 and 22 probes.

  1. TRACKER: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, P. E.; Delapp, D.; Sutherland, C. D.; Farrer, R. G.

    TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the 'Jones Code' were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user's interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton's equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat's principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or 'real') pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.

  2. Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.

  3. High time resolution observations of HF cross-modulation within the D region ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, J.; Moore, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    High-frequency cross-modulation is employed to probe the D region ionosphere during HF heating experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory. We have adapted Fejer's well-known cross-modulation probing method to determine the extent of ionospheric conductivity modification in the D region ionosphere with high (5 μsec) time resolution. We demonstrate that the method can be used to analyze D region conductivity changes produced by HF heating both during the initial stages of heating and under steady state conditions. The sequence of CW probe pulses used allow the separation of cross-modulation effects that occur as the probe pulse propagates upward and downward through the heated region. We discuss how this probing technique can be applied to benefit ELF/VLF wave generation experiments and ionospheric irregularities experiments at higher altitudes. We demonstrate that large phase changes equivalent to Doppler shift velocities >60 km/s can be imposed on HF waves propagating through the heated D region ionosphere.

  4. Ground-Based VIS/NIR Reflectance Spectra of 25143 Itokawa: What Hayabusa will See and How Ground-Based Data can Augment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Abell, P. A.; Jarvis, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    Planning for the arrival of the Hayabusa spacecraft at asteroid 25143 Itokawa includes consideration of the expected spectral information to be obtained using the AMICA and NIRS instruments. The rotationally-resolved spatial coverage the asteroid we have obtained with ground-based telescopic spectrophotometry in the visible and near-infrared can be utilized here to address expected spacecraft data. We use spectrophotometry to simulate the types of data that Hayabusa will receive with the NIRS and AMICA instruments, and will demonstrate them here. The NIRS will cover a wavelength range from 0.85 m, and have a dispersion per element of 250 Angstroms. Thus, we are limited in coverage of the 1.0 micrometer and 2.0 micrometer mafic silicate absorption features. The ground-based reflectance spectra of Itokawa show a large component of olivine in its surface material, and the 2.0 micrometer feature is shallow. Determining the olivine to pyroxene abundance ratio is critically dependent on the attributes of the 1.0- and 2.0 micrometer features. With a cut-off near 2,1 micrometer the longer edge of the 2.0- feature will not be obtained by NIRS. Reflectance spectra obtained using ground-based telescopes can be used to determine the regional composition around space-based spectral observations, and possibly augment the longer wavelength spectral attributes. Similarly, the shorter wavelength end of the 1.0 micrometer absorption feature will be partially lost to the NIRS. The AMICA filters mimic the ECAS filters, and have wavelength coverage overlapping with the NIRS spectral range. We demonstrate how merging photometry from AMICA will extend the spectral coverage of the NIRS. Lessons learned from earlier spacecraft to asteroids should be considered.

  5. Detection of ionospheric Alfvén resonator signatures in the equatorial ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Fernando; Klenzing, Jeffrey; Ivanov, Stoyan; Pfaff, Robert; Freudenreich, Henry; Bilitza, Dieter; Rowland, Douglas; Bromund, Kenneth; Liebrecht, Maria Carmen; Martin, Steven; Schuck, Peter; Uribe, Paulo; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro

    2012-11-01

    The ionosphere response resulting from minimum solar activity during cycle 23/24 was unusual and offered unique opportunities for investigating space weather in the near-Earth environment. We report ultra low frequency electric field signatures related to the ionospheric Alfvén resonator detected by the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite in the equatorial region. These signatures are used to constrain ionospheric empirical models and offer a new approach for monitoring ionosphere dynamics and space weather phenomena, namely aeronomy processes, Alfvén wave propagation, and troposphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms.

  6. New Applications for Detecting Natural Hazards Using Ground and Space-Based GNSS-Derived Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, A.; Butala, M.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Wilson, B. D.; Iijima, B.; Akopian, V.; Mannucci, A.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and University of Southern California (USC) have jointly developed the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) to monitor space weather, study storm effects, and provide ionospheric calibration for various customers including NASA flight projects. JPL/USC GAIM is a physics-based 3D data assimilation model using 4DVAR and Kalman filter approaches to solve for ion and electron density states and other key ionospheric drivers. The JPL/USC GAIM technologies, now operating in real-time and post-processing modes, can routinely accept as input ground GPS TEC data from 1200+ sites including streaming and hourly GPS stations, occultation links from CHAMP, SAC-C, COSMIC and C/NOFS satellites, UV limb and nadir scans. In the presentation, first we will discuss recent advances in our assimilating ground-based GPS, C/NOFS and COSMIC occultation measurements using our GAIM system characterizing the ionosphere in 3D. We will elaborate on our improved space-based bias estimation techniques to generate high precision calibrated TEC measurements to be assimilated into GAIM. We will discuss the benefits of adding GLONASS measurements to our GIM and GAIM processing technologies. New and upcoming applications and first results will be shown for estimating very high precision TEC perturbations using real-time and post-processed GNSS observations from GEONET and IGS networks. We will demonstrate initial steps on how to integrate this GNSS ionosphere-based technology into a global tsunami warning system. Additional potential applications might include the remote sensing of ionospheric TEC perturbations generated by other natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and human-made events such as nuclear tests.

  7. On relation between mid-latitude ionospheric ionization and quasi-trapped energetic electrons during 15 December 2006 magnetic storm

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorova, A V; Dmitriev, A V

    2011-01-01

    We report simultaneous observations of intense fluxes of quasi-trapped energetic electrons and substantial enhancements of ionospheric electron concentration (EC) at low and middle latitudes over Pacific region during geomagnetic storm on 15 December 2006. Electrons with energy of tens of keV were measured at altitude of ~800 to 900 km by POES and DMSP satellites. Experimental data from COSMIC/FS3 satellites and global network of ground-based GPS receivers were used to determine height profiles of EC and vertical total EC, respectively. A good spatial and temporal correlation between the electron fluxes and EC enhancements was found. This fact allows us to suggest that the quasi-trapped energetic electrons can be an important source of ionospheric ionization at middle latitudes during magnetic storms.

  8. On reconciling ground-based with spaceborne normalized radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Francois; Munk, Jens; Jezek, K C

    2002-01-01

    This study examines differences in the normalized radar cross section, derived from ground-based versus spaceborne radar data. A simple homogeneous half-space model, indicates that agreement between the two improves as 1) the distance from the scatterer is increased; and/or 2) the extinction...

  9. Precision simulation of ground-based lensing data using observations from space

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Leauthaud, Alexie; Massey, Richard J; Rhodes, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current and upcoming wide-field, ground-based, broad-band imaging surveys promise to address a wide range of outstanding problems in galaxy formation and cosmology. Several such uses of ground-based data, especially weak gravitational lensing, require highly precise measurements of galaxy image statistics with careful correction for the effects of the point-spread function (PSF). In this paper, we introduce the SHERA (SHEar Reconvolution Analysis) software to simulate ground-based imaging data with realistic galaxy morphologies and observing conditions, starting from space-based data (from COSMOS, the Cosmological Evolution Survey) and accounting for the effects of the space-based PSF. This code simulates ground-based data, optionally with a weak lensing shear applied, in a model-independent way using a general Fourier space formalism. The utility of this pipeline is that it allows for a precise, realistic assessment of systematic errors due to the method of data processing, for example in extracting weak len...

  10. Analysis of the substorm trigger phase using multiple ground-based instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauristie, K.; Pulkkinen, T.I.; Pellinen, R.J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The authors discuss in detail the observation of an event of auroral activity fading during the trigger, or growth phase of a magnetic storm. This event was observed by all-sky cameras, EISCAT radar and magnetometers, riometers, and pulsation magnetometers, from ground based stations in Finland and Scandanavia. Based on their detailed analysis, they present a possible cause for the observed fading.

  11. Simulation of the imaging quality of ground-based telescopes affected by atmospheric disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yubin; Kou, Songfeng; Gu, Bozhong

    2014-08-01

    Ground-based telescope imaging model is developed in this paper, the relationship between the atmospheric disturbances and the ground-based telescope image quality is studied. Simulation of the wave-front distortions caused by atmospheric turbulences has long been an important method in the study of the propagation of light through the atmosphere. The phase of the starlight wave-front is changed over time, but in an appropriate short exposure time, the atmospheric disturbances can be considered as "frozen". In accordance with Kolmogorov turbulence theory, simulating atmospheric disturbances of image model based on the phase screen distorted by atmospheric turbulences is achieved by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Geiger mode avalanche photodiode array (APD arrays) model is used for atmospheric wave-front detection, the image is achieved by inversion method of photon counting after the target starlight goes through phase screens and ground-based telescopes. Ground-based telescope imaging model is established in this paper can accurately achieve the relationship between the quality of telescope imaging and monolayer or multilayer atmosphere disturbances, and it is great significance for the wave-front detection and optical correction in a Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO).

  12. Ground-based LIDAR: a novel approach to quantify fine-scale fuelbed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.L. Loudermilk; J.K. Hiers; J.J. O’Brien; R.J. Mitchell; A. Singhania; J.C. Fernandez; W.P. Cropper; K.C. Slatton

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based LIDAR (also known as laser ranging) is a novel technique that may precisely quantify fuelbed characteristics important in determining fire behavior. We measured fuel properties within a south-eastern US longleaf pine woodland at the individual plant and fuelbed scale. Data were collected using a mobile terrestrial LIDAR unit at sub-cm scale for individual...

  13. Use of neural networks in ground-based aerosol retrievals from multi-angle spectropolarimetric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Noia, A.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Harten, G. van; Rietjens, J.H.H.; Smit, J.M.; Snik, F.; Henzing, J.S.; Boer, J. de; Keller, C.U.; Volten, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the use of a neural network algorithm for the retrieval of the aerosol properties from ground-based spectropolarimetric measurements is discussed. The neural network is able to retrieve the aerosol properties with an accuracy that is almost comparable to that of an iterative retrieval

  14. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  15. Ground-based remote sensing scheme for monitoring aerosol–cloud interactions (discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarna, K.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    A method for continuous observation of aerosol–cloud interactions with ground-based remote sensing instruments is presented. The main goal of this method is to enable the monitoring of cloud microphysical changes due to the changing aerosol concentration. We use high resolution measurements from lid

  16. Ground-based remote sensing scheme for monitoring aerosol-cloud interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarna, K.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for continuous observation of aerosol–cloud interactions with ground-based remote sensing instruments is presented. The main goal of this method is to enable the monitoring of the change of the cloud droplet size due to the change in the aerosol concentration. We use high-resolution mea

  17. Low Power Ground-Based Laser Illumination for Electric Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven R.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of low power, ground-based laser powered electric propulsion systems is presented. A review of available and near-term laser, photovoltaic, and adaptive optic systems indicates that approximately 5-kW of ground-based laser power can be delivered at an equivalent one-sun intensity to an orbit of approximately 2000 km. Laser illumination at the proper wavelength can double photovoltaic array conversion efficiencies compared to efficiencies obtained with solar illumination at the same intensity, allowing a reduction in array mass. The reduced array mass allows extra propellant to be carried with no penalty in total spacecraft mass. The extra propellant mass can extend the satellite life in orbit, allowing additional revenue to be generated. A trade study using realistic cost estimates and conservative ground station viewing capability was performed to estimate the number of communication satellites which must be illuminated to make a proliferated system of laser ground stations economically attractive. The required number of satellites is typically below that of proposed communication satellite constellations, indicating that low power ground-based laser beaming may be commercially viable. However, near-term advances in low specific mass solar arrays and high energy density batteries for LEO applications would render the ground-based laser system impracticable.

  18. Asteroseismology of solar-type stars with Kepler: III. Ground-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Molenda-Żakowicz , J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than a thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study by the Kepler Asteroseis...

  19. A Fast Method for Embattling Optimization of Ground-Based Radar Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.

    A growing number of space activities have created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems and human space flight. For the safety of in-orbit spacecraft, a lot of observation facilities are needed to catalog space objects, especially in low earth orbit. Surveillance of Low earth orbit objects are mainly rely on ground-based radar, due to the ability limitation of exist radar facilities, a large number of ground-based radar need to build in the next few years in order to meet the current space surveillance demands. How to optimize the embattling of ground-based radar surveillance network is a problem to need to be solved. The traditional method for embattling optimization of ground-based radar surveillance network is mainly through to the detection simulation of all possible stations with cataloged data, and makes a comprehensive comparative analysis of various simulation results with the combinational method, and then selects an optimal result as station layout scheme. This method is time consuming for single simulation and high computational complexity for the combinational analysis, when the number of stations increases, the complexity of optimization problem will be increased exponentially, and cannot be solved with traditional method. There is no better way to solve this problem till now. In this paper, target detection procedure was simplified. Firstly, the space coverage of ground-based radar was simplified, a space coverage projection model of radar facilities in different orbit altitudes was built; then a simplified objects cross the radar coverage model was established according to the characteristics of space objects orbit motion; after two steps simplification, the computational complexity of the target detection was greatly simplified, and simulation results shown the correctness of the simplified results. In addition, the detection areas of ground-based radar network can be easily computed with the

  20. Ground-Based Lidar Measurements During the CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, Timothy; Qian, Li; Kleidman, Richard; Stewart, Sebastian; Welton, Ellsworth; Li, Zhu; Holbem, Brent

    2008-01-01

    The CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) field campaign was carried out between June 26th and August 29th of 2007 in the multi-state Maryland-Virginia-Pennsylvania region of the U.S. to study aerosol properties and cloud-aerosol interactions during overpasses of the CALIPSO satellite. Field work was conducted on selected days when CALIPSO ground tracks occurred in the region. Ground-based measurements included data from multiple Cimel sunphotometers that were placed at intervals along a segment of the CALIPSO ground-track. These measurements provided sky radiance and AOD measurements to enable joints inversions and comparisons with CALIPSO retrievals. As part of this activity, four ground-based lidars provided backscatter measurements (at 523 nm) in the region. Lidars at University of Maryland Baltimore County (Catonsville, MD) and Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, MD) provided continuous data during the campaign, while two micro-pulse lidar (MPL) systems were temporarily stationed at various field locations directly on CALIPSO ground-tracks. As a result, thirteen on-track ground-based lidar observations were obtained from eight different locations in the region. In some cases, nighttime CALIPSO coincident measurements were also obtained. In most studies reported to date, ground-based lidar validation efforts for CALIPSO rely on systems that are at fixed locations some distance away from the satellite ground-track. The CATZ ground-based lidar data provide an opportunity to examine vertical structure properties of aerosols and clouds both on and off-track simultaneously during a CALIPSO overpass. A table of available ground-based lidar measurements during this campaign will be presented, along with example backscatter imagery for a number of coincident cases with CALIPSO. Results indicate that even for a ground-based measurements directly on-track, comparisons can still pose a challenge due to the differing spatio-temporal properties of the ground and satellite

  1. Vertical coupling between troposphere and lower ionosphere by electric currents and fields at equatorial latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonev, P. T.; Velinov, P. I. Y.

    2016-04-01

    Thunderstorms play significant role in the upward electrical coupling between the troposphere and lower ionosphere by quasi-static (QS) electric fields generated by quiet conditions (by slow variations of electric charges), as well as during lightning discharges when they can be strong enough to produce in the nighttime lower ionosphere sprites. Changes are caused in lower ionosphere by the QS electric fields before a sprite-producing lightning discharge which can play role in formation of the stronger sprite-driving transient QS electric fields due to lightning. These changes include electron heating, modifications of conductivity and electron density, etc. We demonstrate that such changes depend on the geomagnetic latitude determining the magnetic field lines inclination, and thus, the anisotropic conductivity. Our previous results show that the QS electric fields in the lower ionosphere above equatorial thunderstorms are much bigger and have larger horizontal extension than those generated at high and middle altitudes by otherwise same conditions. Now we estimate by modeling the electric currents and fields generated in lower ionosphere above equatorial thunderstorms of different horizontal dimensions during quiet periods and of their self-consistent effects to conductivity whose modifications can play role in formation of post-lightning sprite-producing electric fields. Specific electric currents configurations and distributions of related electric fields are estimated first by ambient conductivity. Then, these are evaluated self-consistently with conductivity modification. The electric currents are re-oriented above ~85 km and flow in a narrow horizontal layer where they dense. Respectively, the electric fields and their effect on conductivity have much larger horizontal scale than at middle latitudes (few hundred of kilometers). Horizontally large sources, such as mesoscale convective structures, cause enhancements of electric fields and their effects. These

  2. Nonlinear phenomena arising from radio wave heating of the lower ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, A. A.

    1981-08-01

    This document describes a theoretical and experimental study of the interaction of high power, high frequency radio waves with the lower ionosphere. The theoretical calculations presented here show that the electron temperature of the ionospheric plasma can be greatly enhanced when the plasma is irradiated by a powerful groundbased HF transmitter with an effective radiated power of the order of 100 MW. If this plasma heating is maintained for times exceeding a few seconds, the composition of the plasma can also be altered. These temperature and composition modifications cause significant changes in the plasma conductivity and wave absorption in the medium. Two experiments were conducted in order to test for the predicted absorption and conductivity modifications: a vertical incidence plus absorption experiment and a nonlinear demodulation experiment. Data from the absorption experiment clearly show a large (9 dB) increase in wave absorption at 2.4 MHz due to a high power (60 MW ERP) HF heating of the ionosphere. The nonlinear demodulation experiment generated strong VLF radiation when the ionosphere was irradiated by a powerful modulated HF wave. These VLF signals are believed to be due to HF heating induced conductivity modulation of the dynamo current system.

  3. Interplanetary Charged Dust Magnetic Clouds Striking the Magnetosphere: Coordinated Space-based and Ground-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Chi, Peter; Lai, Hairong

    In general, asteroids, meteoroids and dust do not interact with the plasma structures in the solar system, but after a collision between fast moving bodies the debris cloud contains nanoscale dust particles that are charged and behave like heavy ions. Dusty magnetic clouds are then accelerated to the solar wind speed. While they pose no threat to spacecraft because of the particle size, the coherency imposed by the magnetization of the cloud allows the cloud to interact with the Earth’s magnetosphere as well as the plasma in the immediate vicinity of the cloud. We call these clouds Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs). These IFEs are a unique class of interplanetary field structures that feature cusp-shaped increases and decreases in the interplanetary magnetic field and a thin current sheet. The occurrence of IFEs is attributed to the interaction between the solar wind and dust particles produced in inter-bolide collisions. Previous spacecraft observations have confirmed that IFEs move with the solar wind. When IFEs strike the magnetosphere, they may distort the magnetosphere in several possible ways, such as producing a small indentation, a large scale compression, or a glancing blow. In any event if the IFE is slowed by the magnetosphere, the compression of the Earth’s field should be seen in the ground-based magnetic records that are continuously recorded. Thus it is important to understand the magnetospheric response to IFE arrival. In this study, we investigate the IFE structure observed by spacecraft upstream of the magnetosphere and the induced magnetic field perturbations observed by networks of ground magnetometers, including the THEMIS, CARISMA, McMAC arrays in North America and the IMAGE array in Europe. We find that, in a well-observed IFE event on December 24, 2006, all ground magnetometer stations observed an impulse at approximately 1217 UT when the IFE was expected to arrive at the Earth’s magnetopause. These ground stations spread across

  4. Ionospheric control of the magnetosphere: conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the ionosphere plays a role in determining the global state of the magnetosphere. The ionosphere allows magnetospheric currents to close, thereby allowing magnetospheric convection to occur. The amount of current which can be carried through the ionosphere is mainly determined by the ionospheric conductivity. This paper starts to quantify the nonlinear relationship between the ionospheric conductivity and the global state of the magnetosphere. It is found that the steady-state magnetosphere acts neither as a current nor as a voltage generator; a uniform Hall conductance can influence the potential pattern at low latitudes, but not at high latitude; the EUV generated conductance forces the currents to close in the sunlight, while the potential is large on the nightside; the solar generated Hall conductances cause a large asymmetry between the dawn and dusk potential, which effects the pressure distribution in the magnetosphere; a uniform polar cap potential removes some of this asymmetry; the potential difference between solar minimum and maximum is ∼11%; and the auroral precipitation can be related to the local field-aligned current through an exponential function.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere

  5. The fine structure of the ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul

    1967-01-01

    We consider in this note the excitation of ion-acoustic waves by vertical gradients of density in the ionosphere. The conclusion is reached that the fine structure of the ionosphere is probably affected by the resulting instability, as comparison with observations seems to indicate. Recently, Liu...

  6. Ionospheric Modeling for Precise GNSS Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memarzadeh, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a procedure for modeling and predicting ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) for high precision differential GNSS applications. As the ionosphere is a highly dynamic medium, we believe that to have a reliable procedure it is necessary to transfer t

  7. Artificial neural network applications in ionospheric studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cander

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ionosphere of Earth exhibits considerable spatial changes and has large temporal variability of various timescales related to the mechanisms of creation, decay and transport of space ionospheric plasma. Many techniques for modelling electron density profiles through entire ionosphere have been developed in order to solve the "age-old problem" of ionospheric physics which has not yet been fully solved. A new way to address this problem is by applying artificial intelligence methodologies to current large amounts of solar-terrestrial and ionospheric data. It is the aim of this paper to show by the most recent examples that modern development of numerical models for ionospheric monthly median long-term prediction and daily hourly short-term forecasting may proceed successfully applying the artificial neural networks. The performance of these techniques is illustrated with different artificial neural networks developed to model and predict the temporal and spatial variations of ionospheric critical frequency, f0F2 and Total Electron Content (TEC. Comparisons between results obtained by the proposed approaches and measured f0F2 and TEC data provide prospects for future applications of the artificial neural networks in ionospheric studies.

  8. Probing ionospheric structure using LOFAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, M.; Van Der Tol, S.; Pandey, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain high quality images with the Lofar low frequency radio telescope, accurate ionospheric characterization and calibration is essential. The large field of view of LOFAR (several 10s of square degrees) requires good knowledge of the spatial variation of the ionosphere. In this work to probe t

  9. Ionospheric Anomaly before Kyushu|Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GIM data released by IGS is used in the article and a new method of combining the Sliding Time Window Method and the Ionospheric TEC correlation analysis method of adjacent grid points is proposed to study the relationship between pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies and earthquake. By analyzing the abnormal change of TEC in the 5 grid points around the seismic region, the abnormal change of ionospheric TEC is found before the earthquake and the correlation between the TEC sequences of lattice points is significantly affected by earthquake. Based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of TEC anomaly, anomalies of 6 h, 12 h and 6 h were found near the epicenter three days before the earthquake. Finally, ionospheric tomographic technology is used to do tomographic inversion on electron density. And the distribution of the electron density in the ionospheric anomaly is further analyzed.

  10. Plasma interactions in the Martian Nightside Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Fowler, C. M.; Ergun, R.; Weber, T. D.; Andrews, D. J.; Morooka, M. W.; Delory, G. T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Mitchell, D. L.; McFadden, J. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurements from a number of missions at Mars the nightside ionosphere is patchy. The new mission MAVEN dedicated to observe the upper atmosphere and the plasma interactions provides the first comprehensive observations of the low altitude nightside ionosphere. Observations show that at density gradients the plasma is unstable and significant wave power, heated/accelerated electrons, and heated ions are co-located. Below 300 km, thermal electrons (>3 eV) are observed at the gradients to low density regions. The nightside ionosphere below 180 km is thought to be maintained by electron impact ionization and therefore these regions with thermal electrons may be the primary energy source for the low altitude ionosphere. Outside of the low density regions the plasma is cold. These observations suggest that the wave heating might be the primary process in the Matrian nightside ionosphere. The characteristics of these regions associated with density gradients will be presented and discussed in this presentation.

  11. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, A. W.; Whalen, B. A.; Harris, F. R.; Gattinger, R. L.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of plasma depletion, ion composition modification, and airglow emissions in the Waterhole experiments are presented. The detailed ion chemistry and airglow emission processes related to the ionospheric hole formation in the experiment are examined, and observations are compared with computer simulation results. The latter indicate that the overall depletion rates in different parts of the depletion region are governed by different parameters.

  12. Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sachchida

    2010-05-01

    Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere Marykutty Michael1, Sachchida Nand Tripathi1,2,3, Pratima Arya1 1Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 2Oak Ridge Associated Universities 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Observations by two instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft, Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and CAssini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS), revealed the existence of heavy hydrocarbon and nitrile species with masses of several thousand atomic mass units at altitudes of 950 - 1400 km in the atmosphere of Titan (Waite et al., 2007; Crary et al., 2009). Though these particles were believed to be molecules, they are most likely aerosols formed by the clumping of smaller molecules (Waite et al., 2009). These particles were estimated to have a density of 10-3 kg m-3 and a size of up to 256 nm. The existence of very heavy ions has also been observed by the CAPS components with a mass by charge ratio of up to 10000 (Coates et al., 2007, 2009; Sittler et al., 2009). The goal of this paper is to find out whether the so called heavy ions (or charged particles) are generated by the charge transfer of ions and electrons to the particles. The charging of these particles has been studied by using the charge balance equations that include positive ions, negative ions, electrons, neutral and charged particles. Information on the most abundant ion clusters are obtained from Vuitton et al., (2009) and Wilson and Atreya, (2004). Mass by charge ratio thus calculated will be compared with those observed by Coates et al. (2007). References: Coates AJ, et al., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L22103, 2007. Coates AJ, et al., Heavy negative ions in titan's ionosphere: altitude and latitude dependence. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.05.009, 2009. Crary F.J., et al., Heavy ions, temperatures and winds in titan's ionosphere: Combined cassini caps and inms observations. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.006, 2009

  13. Ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Alex T.; Matsuo, Tomoko; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Collins, Nancy; Hoar, Timothy J.; Lu, Gang; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Coster, Anthea J.; Paxton, Larry J.; Bust, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionospheric storms can have important effects on radio communications and navigation systems. Storm time ionospheric predictions have the potential to form part of effective mitigation strategies to these problems. Ionospheric storms are caused by strong forcing from the solar wind. Electron density enhancements are driven by penetration electric fields, as well as by thermosphere-ionosphere behavior including Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and changes to the neutral composition. This study assesses the effect on 1 h predictions of specifying initial ionospheric and thermospheric conditions using total electron content (TEC) observations under a fixed set of solar and high-latitude drivers. Prediction performance is assessed against TEC observations, incoherent scatter radar, and in situ electron density observations. Corotated TEC data provide a benchmark of forecast accuracy. The primary case study is the storm of 10 September 2005, while the anomalous storm of 21 January 2005 provides a secondary comparison. The study uses an ensemble Kalman filter constructed with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. Maps of preprocessed, verticalized GPS TEC are assimilated, while high-latitude specifications from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics and solar flux observations from the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment are used to drive the model. The filter adjusts ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, making use of time-evolving covariance estimates. The approach is effective in correcting model biases but does not capture all the behavior of the storms. In particular, a ridge-like enhancement over the continental USA is not predicted, indicating the importance of predicting storm time electric field behavior to the problem of ionospheric forecasting.

  14. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  15. Observing Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Caused by Tsunamis Using GPS TEC Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael; Foster, James; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following two recent seismic events: the American Samoa earthquake of September 29, 2009, and the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Fluctuations in TEC correlated in time, space, and wave properties with these tsunamis were observed in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with wavelengths and periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the tsunamis in certain locations, but not in others. Where variations are observed, the typical amplitude tends to be on the order of 1% of the background TEC value. Variations with amplitudes 0.1 - 0.2 TECU are observable with periods and timing affiliated with the tsunami. These observations are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement in some locations, though there are cases when the model predicts an observable tsunami-driven signature and none is observed. These TEC variations are not always seen when a tsunami is present, but in these two events the regions where a strong ocean tsunami was observed did coincide with clear TEC observations, while a lack of clear TEC observations coincided with smaller tsunami amplitudes. There exists the potential to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for early warning systems.

  16. Observing Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Caused by Tsunamis Using GPS TEC Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael; Foster, James; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following two recent seismic events: the American Samoa earthquake of September 29, 2009, and the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Fluctuations in TEC correlated in time, space, and wave properties with these tsunamis were observed in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with wavelengths and periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the tsunamis in certain locations, but not in others. Where variations are observed, the typical amplitude tends to be on the order of 1% of the background TEC value. Variations with amplitudes 0.1 - 0.2 TECU are observable with periods and timing affiliated with the tsunami. These observations are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement in some locations, though there are cases when the model predicts an observable tsunami-driven signature and none is observed. These TEC variations are not always seen when a tsunami is present, but in these two events the regions where a strong ocean tsunami was observed did coincide with clear TEC observations, while a lack of clear TEC observations coincided with smaller tsunami amplitudes. There exists the potential to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for early warning systems.

  17. Long-term trends in the ionospheric E and F1 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bremer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground based ionosonde measurements are the most essential source of information about long-term variations in the ionospheric E and F1 regions. Data of such observations have been derived at many different ionospheric stations all over the world some for more than 50 years. The standard parameters foE, h'E, and foF1 are used for trend analyses in this paper. Two main problems have to be considered in these analyses. Firstly, the data series have to be homogeneous, i.e. the observations should not be disturbed by artificial steps due to technical reasons or changes in the evaluation algorithm. Secondly, the strong solar and geomagnetic influences upon the ionospheric data have carefully to be removed by an appropriate regression analysis. Otherwise the small trends in the different ionospheric parameters cannot be detected.

    The trends derived at individual stations differ markedly, however their dependence on geographic or geomagnetic latitude is only small. Nevertheless, the mean global trends estimated from the trends at the different stations show some general behaviour (positive trends in foE and foF1, negative trend in h'E which can at least qualitatively be explained by an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect (increase of CO2 content and other greenhouse gases and decreasing ozone values. The positive foE trend is also in qualitative agreement with rocket mass spectrometer observations of ion densities in the E region. First indications could be found that the changing ozone trend at mid-latitudes (before about 1979, between 1979 until 1995, and after about 1995 modifies the estimated mean foE trend.

  18. Hydromagnetic Waves in the Magnetosphere and the Ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Alperovich, Leonid S

    2007-01-01

    The book deals with Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF)-electromagnetic waves observed on Earth and in Space. These are so-called geomagnetic variations or pulsations. Alfvén's discovery related to the influence of the strong magnetic field on the conducting fluids (magnetohydrodynamics) led to development of the concept that the ULF-waves are magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-waves. MHD-waves at their propagation gather information about the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and the ground. There are two applied aspects based on using the ULF electromagnetic oscillations. The first one is the ground-based diagnostics of the magnetosphere. This is an attempt to monitor in the real time the magnetosphere size, distance to the last closed field-lines, distribution of the cold plasma, etc. The second one is the deep electromagnetic sounding of the Earth. The basis for these studies is the capability of any electromagnetic wave to penetrate a conductor to a finite depth. The ULF-waves can reach the depth of a few hundred ...

  19. Ionospheric characteristics prior to the greatest earthquake in recorded history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, C. U.; Bravo, M. A.; Ovalle, E. M.; Foppiano, A. J.

    2016-03-01

    Although several reports on the variations of some radio observed ionospheric properties prior to the very large Chile earthquakes of 21-22 May 1960 have been published, no one up to now has reported on the variations of simultaneous E- and F-region characteristics observed at Concepción (36.8°S; 73.0°W) using a ground based ionosonde. This paper analyses values of the NmE, NmEs, h'E, NmF2, h'F, M3000F2 and fmin. Possible solar and geomagnetic activity effects are first identified and then anomalies are calculated for all characteristics using reference values (15-day running medians ± interquartile range). Occasions when anomalies are larger than an upper threshold and less than a lower threshold are discussed and compared, whenever possible, with other published studies. Further study is suggested to unambiguously associate some found possible Es-layer and M3000F2 anomalies with very strong earthquakes.

  20. Investigation of ionospheric disturbances and associated diagnostic techniques. Final report, 1 January 1992-31 December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, L.M.

    1995-12-12

    The objectives of this research and development program were to conduct simulation modeling of the generation and propagation of atmospheric acoustic signals associated with surface and subsurface ground disturbances; to construct an experimental measurement system for exploratory research studies of acoustic generated ionospheric disturbances; to model high power radio wave propagation through the ionosphere, including nonlinear wave plasma interaction effects; and to assist in the assessment of diagnostic systems for observation of ionospheric modification experiments using existing and planned high latitude high power RF transmitting facilities. A computer simulation of ionospheric response to ground launched acoustic pulses was constructed and results compared to observational data associated with HF and incoherent scatter radar measurements of ionospheric effects produced by earthquakes and ground level explosions. These results were then utilized to help define the design, construct and test for an HF Doppler radar system. In addition, an assessment was conducted of ionospheric diagnostic instruments proposed for the Air Force/Navy High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP).

  1. Ionospheric activity and possible connection with seismicity: Contribution from the analysis of long time series of GNSS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesco; Galeandro, Angelo; De Giglio, Michaela; Barbarella, Maurizio

    The modifications of some atmospheric physical properties prior to a high magnitude earthquake were debated in the frame of the Lithosphere Atmosphere Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model. In this work, among the variety of involved phenomena, the ionisation of air at the ionospheric levels triggered by the leaking of gases from the Earth's crust was investigated through the analysis of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signals. In particular, the authors analysed a 5 year (2008-2012) long series of GNSS based ionospheric TEC to produce maps over an area surrounding the epicentre of the L'Aquila (Italy, Mw = 6.3) earthquake of April 6th, 2009. The series was used to detect and quantify amplitude and duration of episodes of ionospheric disturbances by a statistical approach and to discriminate local and global effects on the ionosphere comparing these series with TEC values provided by the analysis of GNSS data from international permanent trackers distributed over a wider region. The study found that during this time interval only three statistically meaningful episodes of ionospheric disturbances were observed. One of them, occurring during the night of 16th of March 2009, anticipated the main shock by 3 weeks and could be connected with the strong earthquake of 6th of April. The other two significant episodes were detected within periods that were not close to the main seismic events and are more likely due to various and global reasons.

  2. High Power Radio Wave Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we have seen a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We have identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  3. Ionospheric Challenges for GNSS Based Augmentation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.; Valladares, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic physical phenomenon that presents a variable source of error for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS based operational systems. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was designed to enhance the GNSS standard positioning service by providing additional accuracy, availability and integrity that is sufficient for use in commercial aviation. It is the first of a number of planned regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). Other systems in development include the European EGNOS system, the MSAS system in Japan and the GAGAN system in India. In addition, the South American countries are investigating the feasibility of operating an SBAS system in this region. Much of the WAAS ionospheric research and development focused on defining and mitigating ionospheric challenges characteristic of the mid-latitude regions, where the ionosphere is well studied and relatively quiescent. The EGNOS and MSAS systems will primarily operate under a similarly quiescent mid-latitude ionosphere. SBAS system development in South America, India and other low-latitude regions, however, will have to contend with much more extreme conditions. These conditions include strong spatial and temporal gradients, plasma depletions and scintillation. All of these conditions have a potential to limit SBAS performance in the low latitude regions. This presentation will review the effects that the ionosphere has on the mid-latitude WAAS system. It will present the techniques that are used to mitigate ionospheric disturbances induced on the system during severe geomagnetic activity and it will quantify the effect that this activity has on system performance. The presentation will then present data from the South American Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) that can be used to infer the ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in the most challenging low-latitude ionospheric environment

  4. Global, real-time ionosphere specification for end-user communication and navigation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Carlson, H. C.; Schunk, R. W.; Thompson, D. C.; Sojka, J. J.; Scherliess, L.; Zhu, L.; Gardner, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Space weather’s effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun’s photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects communication and navigation systems. The Utah State University (USU) Space Weather Center (SWC) is a developer and producer of commercial space weather applications. A key system-level component for providing timely information about the effects of space weather is the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system. GAIM, operated by SWC, improves real-time communication and navigation systems by continuously ingesting up to 10,000 slant TEC measurements every 15-minutes from approximately 500 stations. Using a Kalman filter, the background output from the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM) is adjusted to more accurately represent the actual ionosphere. An improved ionosphere leads to more useful derivative products. For example, SWC runs operational code, using GAIM, to calculate and report the global radio high frequency (HF) signal strengths for 24 world cities. This product is updated every 15 minutes at http://spaceweather.usu.edu and used by amateur radio operators. SWC also developed and provides through Apple iTunes the widely used real-time space weather iPhone app called SpaceWx for public space weather education. SpaceWx displays the real-time solar, heliosphere, magnetosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere drivers to changes in the total electron content, for example. This smart phone app is tip of the “iceberg” of automated systems that provide space weather data; it permits instant understanding of the environment surrounding Earth as it dynamically changes. SpaceWx depends upon a distributed network that connects satellite and ground-based data streams with algorithms to quickly process the measurements into geophysical data, incorporate those

  5. Entry Dispersion Analysis for the Hayabusa Spacecraft using Ground Based Optical Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, T; Yagi, M; Tholen, D J

    2011-01-01

    Hayabusa asteroid explorer successfully released the sample capsule to Australia on June 13, 2010. Since the Earth reentry phase of sample return was critical, many backup plans for predicting the landing location were prepared. This paper investigates the reentry dispersion using ground based optical observation as a backup observation for radiometric observation. Several scenarios are calculated and compared for the reentry phase of the Hayabusa to evaluate the navigation accuracy of the ground-based observation. The optical observation doesn't require any active reaction from a spacecraft, thus these results show that optical observations could be a steady backup strategy even if a spacecraft had some trouble. We also evaluate the landing dispersion of the Hayabusa only with the optical observation.

  6. Ground-based walking training improves quality of life and exercise capacity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; McKeough, Zoe J; Jenkins, Sue; Hill, Kylie; Eastwood, Peter R; Hillman, David R; Cecins, Nola; Spencer, Lissa M; Jenkins, Christine; Alison, Jennifer A

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ground-based walking training on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with COPD were randomised to either a walking group that received supervised, ground-based walking training two to three times a week for 8-10 weeks, or a control group that received usual medical care and did not participate in exercise training. 130 out of 143 participants (mean±sd age 69±8 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 43±15% predicted) completed the study. Compared to the control group, the walking group demonstrated greater improvements in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (mean difference -6 points (95% CI -10- -2), pimproves quality of life and endurance exercise capacity in people with COPD.

  7. Nulling interferometry: performance comparison between space and ground-based sites for exozodiacal disc detection

    CERN Document Server

    Defrère, D; Foresto, V Coudé du; Danchi, W C; Hartog, R den

    2008-01-01

    Characterising the circumstellar dust around nearby main sequence stars is a necessary step in understanding the planetary formation process and is crucial for future life-finding space missions such as ESA's Darwin or NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). Besides paving the technological way to Darwin/TPF, the space-based infrared interferometers Pegase and FKSI (Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer) will be valuable scientific precursors in that respect. In this paper, we investigate the performance of Pegase and FKSI for exozodiacal disc detection and compare the results with ground-based nulling interferometers. Besides their main scientific goal (characterising hot giant extrasolar planets), Pegase and FKSI are very efficient in assessing within a few minutes the level of circumstellar dust in the habitable zone around nearby main sequence stars. They are capable of detecting exozodiacal discs respectively 5 and 1 time as dense as the solar zodiacal cloud and they outperform any ground-based instrumen...

  8. Techniques to extend the reach of ground based gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Sheila

    2016-03-01

    While the current generation of advanced ground based detectors will open the gravitational wave universe to observation, ground based interferometry has the potential to extend the reach of these observatories to high redshifts. Several techniques have the potential to improve the advanced detectors beyond design sensitivity, including the use of squeezed light, upgraded suspensions, and possibly new optical coatings, new test mass materials, and cryogenic suspensions. To improve the sensitivity by more than a factor of 10 compared to advanced detectors new, longer facilities will be needed. Future observatories capable of hosting interferometers 10s of kilometers long have the potential to extend the reach of gravitational wave astronomy to cosmological distances, enabling detection of binary inspirals from throughout the history of star formation.

  9. Ground-based near-infrared imaging of the HD141569 circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Boccaletti, A; Marchis, F; Hanh, J

    2003-01-01

    We present the first ground-based near-infrared image of the circumstellar disk around the post-Herbig Ae/Be star HD141569A initially detected with the HST. Observations were carried out in the near-IR (2.2 $\\mu$m) at the Palomar 200-inch telescope using the adaptive optics system PALAO. The main large scale asymmetric features of the disk are detected on our ground-based data. In addition, we measured that the surface brightness of the disk is slightly different than that derived by HST observations (at 1.1 $\\mu$m and 1.6 $\\mu$m). We interpret this possible color-effect in terms of dust properties and derive a minimal

  10. Validation of Aura OMI by Aircraft and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, R. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Kroon, M.

    2006-12-01

    Both aircraft-based and ground-based measurements have been used to validate ozone measurements by the OMI instrument on Aura. Three Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) flights have been conducted, in November 2004 and June 2005 with the NASA WB57, and in January/February 2005 with the NASA DC-8. On these flights, validation of OMI was primarily done using data from the CAFS (CCD Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer) instrument, which is used to measure total column ozone above the aircraft. These measurements are used to differentiate changes in stratospheric ozone from changes in total column ozone. Also, changes in ozone over high clouds measured by OMI were checked in a flight over tropical storm Arlene on a flight on June 11th. Ground-based measurements were made during the SAUNA campaign in Sodankyla, Finland, in March and April 2006. Both total column ozone and the ozone vertical distribution were validated.

  11. REMOTE SENSING OF WATER VAPOR CONTENT USING GROUND-BASED GPS DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Spatial and temporal resolution of water vapor content is useful in improving the accuracy of short-term weather prediction.Dense and continuously tracking regional GPS arrays will play an important role in remote sensing atmospheric water vapor content.In this study,a piecewise linear solution method was proposed to estimate the precipitable water vapor (PWV) content from ground-based GPS observations in Hong Kong.To evaluate the solution accuracy of the water vapor content sensed by GPS,the upper air sounding data (radiosonde) that are collected locally was used to calculate the precipitable water vapor during the same period.One-month results of PWV from both ground-based GPS sensing technique and radiosonde method are in agreement within 1~2 mm.This encouraging result will motivate the GPS meteorology application based on the establishment of a dense GPS array in Hong Kong.

  12. DEM extraction and its accuracy analysis with ground-based SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Yue, J. P.; Li, L. H.

    2014-03-01

    Two altimetry models extracting DEM (Digital Elevation Model) with the GBSAR (Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology are studied and their accuracies are analyzed in detail. The approximate and improved altimetry models of GBSAR were derived from the spaceborne radar altimetry based on the principles of the GBSAR technology. The error caused by the parallel ray approximation in the approximate model was analyzed quantitatively, and the results show that the errors cannot be ignored for the ground-based radar system. For the improved altimetry model, the elevation error expression can be acquired by simulating and analyzing the error propagation coefficients of baseline length, wavelength, differential phase and range distance in the mathematical model. By analyzing the elevation error with the baseline and range distance, the results show that the improved altimetry model is suitable for high-precision DEM and the accuracy can be improved by adjusting baseline and shortening slant distance.

  13. Connecting Stratospheric and Ionospheric Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggs, M. E.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Zhang, S.; Coster, A. J.; Benkevitch, L. V.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates any relationship between lunar phases and ionospheric anomalies that appear at low latitudes concurrently with sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). The study utilizes World-wide GPS Receiver Network Total Electron Content (TEC) data spanning 13 years (2001-2014) and focuses on the changes in the equatorial ionization anomaly the Western hemisphere. TEC is highly variable due to the influences of solar flux, geomagnetic activity, and seasonal variation and these influences are removed by the use of model. This empirical TEC model is a combination of linear dependencies of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap3) with a third degree polynomial dependency for day-of-year (DOY). With such dependencies removed, the remaining TEC variation could be resolved and attributed to an appropriate mechanism. Lunar phase and apside was investigated in particular, especially the new and full moon phases during perigees when tidal forcing would be most powerful. Lunar tidal forcing on planetary waves is also examined as being physically responsible for setting up conditions that may give rise to SSWs and ionospheric anomalies. Preliminary results suggest that such anomalies may be enhanced in intensity during the full or new moon and even more so during perigee by different amounts depending on whether the SSW is a major (40-60%) or minor (20-45%) event.

  14. Investigating the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profiles applying ground-based FTIR spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    García, O.E.; Schneider, M; A. Redondas; Y. González; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Sepúlveda, E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profile time series (1999–2010) obtained from ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) spectrometry at the Izaña Observatory ozone super-site. Different ozone retrieval strategies are examined, analysing the influence of an additional temperature retrieval and different constraints. The theoretical assessment reveals that the FTIR system is able to resolve four independent ozone layers with a precision of better than 6...

  15. Space Fence Ground-Based Radar System Increment 1 (Space Fence Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-438 Space Fence Ground-Based Radar System Increment 1 (Space Fence Inc 1) As of FY 2017...11 Track to Budget 17 Cost and Funding 18 Low Rate Initial Production 23 Foreign Military Sales 24 Nuclear Costs 24 Unit Cost...Document CLIN - Contract Line Item Number CPD - Capability Production Document CY - Calendar Year DAB - Defense Acquisition Board DAE - Defense Acquisition

  16. Particle production during inflation and gravitational waves detectable by ground-based interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Jessica L.; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Inflation typically predicts a quasi scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational waves. In models of slow-roll inflation, the amplitude of such a background is too small to allow direct detection without a dedicated space-based experiment such as the proposed BBO or DECIGO. In this paper we note that particle production during inflation can generate a feature in the spectrum of primordial gravitational waves. We discuss the possibility that such a feature might be detected by ground-based laser...

  17. NASA Requirements for Ground-Based Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems (PVS). Revision C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Owen Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to ensure the structural integrity of PVS through implementation of a minimum set of requirements for ground-based PVS in accordance with this document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 8710.5, NASA Safety Policy for Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements, applicable Federal Regulations, and national consensus codes and standards (NCS).

  18. Comparison of NO2 vertical profiles from satellite and ground based measurements over Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Pavan; Bortoli, Daniele; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The Intercomparison of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical profiles, derived from the satellite based HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements and from the ground based UV-VIS spectrometer GASCOD (Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences) observations at the Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS), in Antarctica, are done for the first time. It is shown here that both datasets are in good agreement showing the same features in terms of magnitude, profile structure, a...

  19. The Gaia Era: synergy between space missions and ground based surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Vallenari, A

    2008-01-01

    The Gaia mission is expected to provide highly accurate astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic measurements for about $10^9$ objects. Automated classification of detected sources is a key part of the data processing. Here a few aspects of the Gaia classification process are presented. Information from other surveys at longer wavelengths, and from follow-up ground based observations will be complementary to Gaia data especially at faint magnitudes, and will offer a great opportunity to understand our Galaxy.

  20. Multiple ground-based observations at Zhongshan Station during the April/May 1998 solar events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Ruiyuan(刘瑞源); HU; Hongqiao(胡红桥); HE; Longsong(贺龙松); LIU; Yonghua(刘勇华); LIU; Shunlin(刘顺林); LI; Shenggui(李胜桂); N.; Sato; B.; J.; Fraser

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous observations at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica, during May 1-7, 1998 are presented to show the responses of the polar ionosphere to the April/May 1998 solar events. One of the main geo-effects of the solar events resulted in the major magnetic storm on May 4. At the storm onset on May 2 the ionosphere F2 layer abruptly increased in altitude, the geomagnetic H-component started negative deviation and the spectral amplitude of the ULF wave intensified. Both large isolated riometer absorption and large negative deviation of the geomagnetic H-component occurred at about 0639UT. There was a time lag of about one hour and ten minutes between the storm onset and the IMF southward turning, as measured by the WIND satellite. The polar ionosphere was highly disturbed, as shown by frequent large deviations of the geomagnetic H-component, large riometer absorption events and strong ULF waves in all the courses of the storm. The absorption increased greatly causing the digisonde to be blackout most of the time. However, the data still showed a substantial decrease in the F2 electron density and oscillation of the F2 layer peak height with an amplitude exceeding 200 km.

  1. Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field. The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km−1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981.

  2. Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances) and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field). The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km-1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current) in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981).

  3. EUV measurement of ionospheric oxygen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaka, Y.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.; Tashiro, S.; Miyake, W.; Nakamura, M.

    2001-12-01

    We have measured the OII emission from the F-layer ionosphere by the sounding rocket SS-520-2, which was launched from the Svalbard Rocket Experiment Site, Ny Aalesund in Norway, last December. This was the first in situ EUV observation of the ionospheric Oxygen ions. Oxygen ion is the main component of the ionospheric F layer. We have studied the oxygen ions distribution in the ionosphere by means of optical observation. Oxygen ions resonantly scatter the solar OII(83.4nm) line. We have built an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) scanner, which is sensitive to the OII 83.4-nm emission and contamination free from the Lyman-alpha line, especially for the sounding rocket SS-520-2. The rocket flew along the magnetospheric cusp region, and 600 sec after the launch it reached its apex at 1108 km in altitude, and its total operation time was 1100sec. In the downleg of the flight, below 350 km in altitude (900-1100sec after the launch), XUV observed very high intensity (200~300 Rayleigh) of OII emissions from the ionospheric F layer. We have estimated the column density of the oxygen ion along the XUV_fs line-of-sight from the measured OII intensity. In this presentation, we will discuss the density profile of the oxygen ions in the ionospheric F region, i.e., the dependence on the altitude, longitude and latitude. We will compare the obtained distribution with the model of the ionosphere.

  4. First-generation Science Cases for Ground-based Terahertz Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Satoki; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Nakamura, Masanori; Asada, Keiichi; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Urata, Yuji; Wang, Ming-Jye; Wang, Wei-Hao; Takahashi, Satoko; Tang, Ya-Wen; Chang, Hsian-Hong; Huang, Kuiyun; Morata, Oscar; Otsuka, Masaaki; Lin, Kai-Yang; Tsai, An-Li; Lin, Yen-Ting; Srinivasan, Sundar; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Pu, Hung-Yi; Kemper, Francisca; Patel, Nimesh; Grimes, Paul; Huang, Yau-De; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yen-Ru; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Burgos, Roberto; Chen, Ming-Tang; Inoue, Makoto; Ho, Paul T P

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based observations at terahertz (THz) frequencies are a newly explorable area of astronomy for the next ten years. We discuss science cases for a first-generation 10-m class THz telescope, focusing on the Greenland Telescope as an example of such a facility. We propose science cases and provide quantitative estimates for each case. The largest advantage of ground-based THz telescopes is their higher angular resolution (~ 4 arcsec for a 10-m dish), as compared to space or airborne THz telescopes. Thus, high-resolution mapping is an important scientific argument. In particular, we can isolate zones of interest for Galactic and extragalactic star-forming regions. The THz windows are suitable for observations of high-excitation CO lines and [N II] 205 um lines, which are scientifically relevant tracers of star formation and stellar feedback. Those lines are the brightest lines in the THz windows, so that they are suitable for the initiation of ground-based THz observations. THz polarization of star-forming...

  5. Interactive dynamic three-dimensional scene for the ground-based three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peining; Sang, Xinzhu; Guo, Nan; Chen, Duo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) displays provides valuable tools for many fields, such as scientific experiment, education, information transmission, medical imaging and physical simulation. Ground based 360° 3D display with dynamic and controllable scene can find some special applications, such as design and construction of buildings, aeronautics, military sand table and so on. It can be utilized to evaluate and visualize the dynamic scene of the battlefield, surgical operation and the 3D canvas of art. In order to achieve the ground based 3D display, the public focus plane should be parallel to the camera's imaging planes, and optical axes should be offset to the center of public focus plane in both vertical and horizontal directions. Virtual cameras are used to display 3D dynamic scene with Unity 3D engine. Parameters of virtual cameras for capturing scene are designed and analyzed, and locations of virtual cameras are determined by the observer's eye positions in the observing space world. An interactive dynamic 3D scene for ground based 360° 3D display is demonstrated, which provides high-immersion 3D visualization.

  6. Intercomparison of ground-based ozone and NO2 measurements during the MANTRA 2004 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Strong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The MANTRA (Middle Atmosphere Nitrogen TRend Assessment 2004 campaign took place in Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, Canada (52° N, 107° W from 3 August to 15 September, 2004. In support of the main balloon launch, a suite of five zenith-sky and direct-Sun-viewing UV-visible ground-based spectrometers was deployed, primarily measuring ozone and NO2 total columns. Three Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs that were part of the balloon payload also performed ground-based measurements of several species, including ozone. Ground-based measurements of ozone and NO2 differential slant column densities from the zenith-viewing UV-visible instruments are presented herein. They are found to partially agree within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change standards for instruments certified for process studies and satellite validation. Vertical column densities of ozone from the zenith-sky UV-visible instruments, the FTSs, a Brewer spectrophotometer, and ozonesondes are compared, and found to agree within the combined error estimates of the instruments (15%. NO2 vertical column densities from two of the UV-visible instruments are compared, and are also found to agree within combined error (15%.

  7. Limitation of Ground-based Estimates of Solar Irradiance Due to Atmospheric Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.; Holben, Brent N.

    2003-01-01

    The uncertainty in ground-based estimates of solar irradiance is quantitatively related to the temporal variability of the atmosphere's optical thickness. The upper and lower bounds of the accuracy of estimates using the Langley Plot technique are proportional to the standard deviation of aerosol optical thickness (approx. +/- 13 sigma(delta tau)). The estimates of spectral solar irradiance (SSI) in two Cimel sun photometer channels from the Mauna Loa site of AERONET are compared with satellite observations from SOLSTICE (Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) on UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) for almost two years of data. The true solar variations related to the 27-day solar rotation cycle observed from SOLSTICE are about 0.15% at the two sun photometer channels. The variability in ground-based estimates is statistically one order of magnitude larger. Even though about 30% of these estimates from all Level 2.0 Cimel data fall within the 0.4 to approx. 0.5% variation level, ground-based estimates are not able to capture the 27-day solar variation observed from SOLSTICE.

  8. Kepler and Ground-based Transits of the Exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Jackson, Brian; Peterson, Steven W; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A; Jennings, Donald E; Haase, Flynn; Bays, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B-band) and near-IR (J-band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields Rp=4.31 +/-0.06 Earth-radii, and Rs = 0.683 +/-0.009 solar radii, both about 3-sigma smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler tr...

  9. Structure and evolution of Pluto's Atmosphere from ground-based stellar occultations between 2002 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Erick; Sicardy, Bruno; Rio de Janeiro occultation team, Granada occultation team, International Occultation and Timing Association

    2016-10-01

    Ground-Based stellar occultations probe Pluto's atmosphere from about 3 km altitude (~ 10 μbar pressure level) up to 260 km altitude (~0.1 μbar). Our main goal is to derive Pluto's atmosphere evolution using thirteen ground-based occultations observed between 2002 and 2015 (plus 2016, if available). We consistently analyze the light curves using the Dias et al. (ApJ 811, 53, 2015) model, and confirm the general pressure increase by a factor of about 1.5 between 2002 and 2015 and a factor of almost three between 1988 and 2015. Implications for Pluto's seasonal evolution will be briefly discussed in the context of the New Horizons (NH) findings.Ground-based-derived temperature profiles will be compared with NH's results, where we use new temperature boundary conditions in our inversion procedures, as given by NH near 260 km altitude. Although the profiles reasonably agree, significant discrepancies are observed both in the deeper stratospheric zone (altitude topographic features revealed by NH.Finally, possible correlations between spike activity in the occultation light-curves and local underlying presence of free nitrogen ice terrains will be investigated.Part of the research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's H2020 (2014-2020/ ERC Grant Agreement n 669416 "LUCKY STAR").

  10. Flow Characteristics of Tidewater Glaciers in Greenland and Alaska using Ground-Based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, D. C.; Stearns, L. A.; Hamilton, G. S.; O'Neel, S.

    2010-12-01

    LiDAR scanning systems have been employed to characterize and quantify multi-temporal glacier and ice sheet changes for nearly three decades. Until recently, LiDAR scanning systems were limited to airborne and space-based platforms which come at a significant cost to deploy and are limited in spatial and temporal sampling capabilities necessary to compare with in-situ field measurements. Portable ground-based LiDAR scanning systems are now being used as a glaciological tool. We discuss research efforts to employ ground-based near-infrared LiDAR systems at two differing tidewater glacier systems in the spring of 2009; Helheim Glacier in southeast Greenland and Columbia Glacier in southeast Alaska. Preliminary results allow us to characterize short term displacement rates and detailed observations of calving processes. These results highlight the operational limitations and capabilities of commercially available LiDAR systems, and allow us to identify optimal operating characteristics for monitoring small to large-scale tidewater glaciers in near real-time. Furthermore, by identifying the operational limitations of these sensors it allows for optimal design characteristics of new sensors necessary to meet ground-based calibration and validation requirements of ongoing scientific missions.

  11. Phase-coherent mapping of gravitational-wave backgrounds using ground-based laser interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Joseph D; Cornish, Neil J; Gair, Jonathan; Mingarelli, Chiara M F; van Haasteren, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    We extend the formalisms developed in Gair et al. and Cornish and van Haasteren to create maps of gravitational-wave backgrounds using a network of ground-based laser interferometers. We show that in contrast to pulsar timing arrays, which are insensitive to half of the gravitational-wave sky (the curl modes), a network of ground-based interferometers is sensitive to both the gradient and curl components of the background. The spatial separation of a network of interferometers, or of a single interferometer at different times during its rotational and orbital motion around the Sun, allows for recovery of both components. We derive expressions for the response functions of a laser interferometer in the small-antenna limit, and use these expressions to calculate the overlap reduction function for a pair of interferometers. We also construct maximum-likelihood estimates of the + and x-polarization modes of the gravitational-wave sky in terms of the response matrix for a network of ground-based interferometers, e...

  12. Multi-instrument observations of the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 and its effects on the ionosphere over Belgium and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Stanimir M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total solar eclipse occurred on 20 March 2015, with a totality path passing mostly above the North Atlantic Ocean, which resulted in a partial solar eclipse over Belgium and large parts of Europe. In anticipation of this event, a dedicated observational campaign was set up at the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE. The objective was to perform high-quality observations of the eclipse and the associated effects on the geospace environment by utilising the advanced space- and ground-based instrumentation available to the STCE in order to further our understanding of these effects, particularly on the ionosphere. The study highlights the crucial importance of taking into account the eclipse geometry when analysing the ionospheric behaviour during eclipses and interpreting the eclipse effects. A detailed review of the eclipse geometry proves that considering the actual obscuration level and solar zenith angle at ionospheric heights is much more important for the analysis than at the commonly referenced Earth’s surface or at the plasmaspheric heights. The eclipse occurred during the recovery phase of a strong geomagnetic storm which certainly had an impact on (some of the ionospheric characteristics and perhaps caused the omission of some “low-profile” effects. However, the analysis of the ionosonde measurements, carried out at unprecedented high rates during the eclipse, suggests the occurrence of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs. Also, the high temporal and spatial resolution measurements proved very important in revealing and estimating some finer details of the delay in the ionospheric reaction and the ionospheric disturbances.

  13. Testing Ionospheric Faraday Rotation Corrections in CASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Jason E.; Moellenbrock, George

    2015-04-01

    The Earth’s ionosphere introduces direction- and time-dependent effects over a range of physical and temporal scales and so is a major source for unmodeled phase offsets for low frequency radioastronomical observations. Ionospheric effects are often the limiting factor to making sensitive radioastronomical measurements to probe the solar corona or coronal mass ejections at low frequencies (CASA) package. CASA, which was developed to meet the data post-processing needs of next generation telescopes such as the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), did not previously have the capability to mitigate ionospheric effects. This algorithm uses GPS-based global ionosphere maps to mitigate the first and second order ionospheric effects (dispersion delay and Faraday rotation, respectively). We investigated several data centers as potential sources for global ionospheric models and chose the International Global Navigation Satellite System Service data product because data from other sources are generally too sparse to use without additional interpolation schemes. This implementation of ionospheric corrections in CASA has been tested on several sets of VLA observations and all of them showed a significant reduction of the dispersion delay. In order to rigorously test CASA’s ability to mitigate ionospheric Faraday rotation, we made VLA full-polarization observations of the standard VLA phase calibrators J0359+5057 and J0423+4150 in August 2014, using L band (1 - 2 GHz), S band (2 - 4 GHz), and C band (4 - 6 GHz) frequencies in the D array configuration. The observations were 4 hours in duration, beginning near local sunrise. In this paper, we give a general description of how these corrections are implemented as well as discussion of the code’s ability to mitigate the ionospheric effects present in these test observations over a range of times and elevation angles. This work was supported at the University of Iowa by grant ATM09-56901.

  14. Parameters of seismic source as deduced from 1Hz ionospheric GPS data: Ionospheric Seismology or Ionosphere as a natural indicator of numerous geophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, Elvira

    2013-04-01

    The Earth's ionosphere is known to be highly responsive to a large variety of geophysical phenomena coming from above (solar-driven variations, solar flares, magnetospheric events, etc) and from below (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcano eruptions, explosions). Therefore, study of ionospheric response to these events sheds light on the interplanetary/ionosphere and lithosphere/atmosphere/ionosphere couplings. Apart from the pure scientific interests in ionospheric studies, knowledge on the storm-time and quiet-time ionospheric behavior is vitally important for all GNSS users, since the ionosphere changes the amplitude and phase of transionospheric radio signals. The purpose of the ERC Starting Grant project "SIREAL" is to perform a wide spectrum of ionosphere-related research, from ionospheric seismology to ionospheric storms and GNSS/GPS performance during extreme ionospheric and space weather events. The main focus of the project is made on such rare and interdisciplinary subject as ionospheric seismology. Ionospheric seismology is a sufficiently new branch of geophysics, aiming to study ionospheric response to large earthquakes and to investigate the main properties of various ionospheric disturbances generated by quake-like events, including shallow earthquakes, tsunamis and volcano eruptions. Recent work by Astafyeva et al. (2011, Geophys. Res. Lett., L22104, DOI:10.1029/2011GL049623),showed that in some cases, use of high-precision GPS data can provide ionospheric images of seismic fault (its location and dimensions) about ~7-8 min after an earthquake, which opens new opportunities for short-time tsunami warnings. On the example of the Tohoku-oki earthquake on 11 March 2011, here we will show first results of the ERC project, on how the use of 1 Hz ionospheric GPS measurements can provide information on seismic parameters.

  15. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) – a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    OpenAIRE

    Ferencz Csaba; Lizunov Georgii; Crespon François; Price Ivan; Bankov Ludmil; Przepiórka Dorota; Brieß Klaus; Dudkin Denis; Girenko Andrey; Korepanov Valery; Kuzmych Andrii; Skorokhod Tetiana; Marinov Pencho; Piankova Olena; Rothkaehl Hanna

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight...

  16. Preprocessing of ionospheric echo Doppler spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; ZHAO Zhengyu; WANG Feng; SU Fanfan

    2007-01-01

    The real-time information of the distant ionosphere can be acquired by using the Wuhan ionospheric oblique backscattering sounding system(WIOBSS),which adopts a discontinuous wave mechanism.After the characteristics of the ionospheric echo Doppler spectra were analyzed,the signal preprocessing was developed in this paper,which aimed at improving the Doppler spectra.The results indicate that the preprocessing not only makes the system acquire a higher ability of target detection but also suppresses the radio frequency interference by 6-7 dB.

  17. Advances in regional ionospheric mapping over europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cander

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years significant advances have been made in all areas of ionospheric modelling and mapping studies. Ionospheric models and maps of varying complexity have been formulated from analytic and simple numerical models that are user friendly" calculations to complete general circulation models that require hours on today’s supercomputers. All have their place and are used in different applications. This review describes progress in regional ionospheric mapping over Europe in the frame of the COST 238 and 251 projects.

  18. Comparison of Thermal Structure Results from Venus Express and Ground Based Observations since Vira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    An international team was formed in 2013 through the International Space Studies Institute (Bern, Switzerland) to compare recent results of the Venus atmospheric thermal structure from spacecraft and ground based observations made since the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) was developed (Kliore et al., 1985, Keating et al., 1985). Five experiments on European Space Agency's Venus Express orbiter mission have yielded results on the atmospheric structure during is operational life (April 2006 - November 2014). Three of these were from occultation methods: at near infrared wavelengths from solar occultations, (SOIR, 70 - 170 km), at ultraviolet wavelengths from stellar occultations (SPICAV, 90-140 km), and occultation of the VEx-Earth radio signal (VeRa, 40-90 km). In-situ drag measurements from three different techniques (accelerometry, torque, and radio tracking, 130 - 200 km) were also obtained using the spacecraft itself while passive infrared remote sensing was used by the VIRTIS experiment (70 - 120 km). The only new data in the -40-70 km altitude range are from radio occultation, as no new profiles of the deep atmosphere have been obtained since the VeGa 2 lander measurements in 1985 (not included in VIRA). Some selected ground based results available to the team were also considered by team in the inter comparisons. The temperature structure in the lower thermosphere from disk resolved ground based observations (except for one ground based investigation), is generally consistent with the Venus Express results. These experiments sampled at different periods, at different locations and at different local times and have different vertical and horizontal resolution and coverage. The data were therefore binned in latitude and local time bins and compared, ignoring temporal variations over the life time of the Venus Express mission and assumed north-south symmetry. Alternating warm and cooler layers are present in the 120-160 altitude range in results

  19. Ionospheric turbulence from ground-based and satellite VLF/LF transmitter signal observations for the Simushir earthquake (November 15, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Francesco Biagi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Signals from very low frequency (VLF/ low frequency (LF transmitters recorded on the ground station at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and on board the French DEMETER satellite were analyzed for the Simushir earthquake (M 8.3; November 15, 2006. The period of analysis was from October 1, 2006, to January 31, 2007. The ground and satellite data were processed by a method based on the difference between the real signal at night-time and the model signal. The model for the ground observations was the monthly averaged signal amplitudes and phases, as calculated for the quiet days of every month. For the satellite data, a two-dimensional model of the signal distribution over the selected area was constructed. Preseismic effects were found several days before the earthquake, in both the ground and satellite observations.

     

  20. A qualitative study of the seismo-ionospheric precursors prior to the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Tsolis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use the Cross Correlation analysis method in conjunction with the Empirical Mode Decomposition to analyze foF2 signals collected from Rome, Athens and San Vito ionospheric stations, in order to verify the existence of seismo-ionospheric precursors prior to M=6.3 L'Aquila earthquake in Italy. The adaptive nature of EMD allows for removing the geophysical noise from the foF2 signals, and then to calculate the correlation coefficient between them. According to the cross correlation coefficient theory, we expect the stations which located inside the earthquake preparation area, as evaluated using Dobrovolsky equation, to capture the ionospheric disturbances generated by the seismic event. On the other hand the stations outside of this area are expected to remain unaffected. The results of our study are in accordance with the theoretical model, evidencing ionospheric modification prior to L'Aquila earthquake in a certain area around the epicenter. However, it was found that the selection of stations at the limits of the theoretically estimated earthquake preparation area is not the best choice when the cross correlation method is applied, since the modification of the ionosphere over these stations may not be enough for the ionospheric precursors to appear. Our experimental results also show that when a seismic event constitutes the main shock after a series of pre-seismic activity, precursors may appear as early as 22 days prior to the event.

  1. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  2. Space weather. Ionospheric control of magnetotail reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotko, William; Smith, Ryan H; Zhang, Binzheng; Ouellette, Jeremy E; Brambles, Oliver J; Lyon, John G

    2014-07-11

    Observed distributions of high-speed plasma flows at distances of 10 to 30 Earth radii (R(E)) in Earth's magnetotail neutral sheet are highly skewed toward the premidnight sector. The flows are a product of the magnetic reconnection process that converts magnetic energy stored in the magnetotail into plasma kinetic and thermal energy. We show, using global numerical simulations, that the electrodynamic interaction between Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere produces an asymmetry consistent with observed distributions in nightside reconnection and plasmasheet flows and in accompanying ionospheric convection. The primary causal agent is the meridional gradient in the ionospheric Hall conductance which, through the Cowling effect, regulates the distribution of electrical currents flowing within and between the ionosphere and magnetotail.

  3. The magnetohydrodynamic description of Earth's ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, B P

    2016-01-01

    The wave propagation in the partially ionized ionosphere plays an important role in the magnetosphere ionosphere coupling. For example, the ionosphere may supports very low-frequency Alfven wave which can be caused by a balance between the bulk fluid inertia (mostly due to neutrals in the lower and middle E region) and the deformation of the magnetic field. The plasma neutral collisional momentum exchange facilitates the transfer of the magnetic stress (felt directly by the ions) to the neutrals. Therefore, in the low-frequency (with respect to the neutral ion collision frequency) limit, waves through the ionosphere can propagate with very little damping. In the vanishing plasma inertia limit, waves can be excited due to the loading of neutral inertia on the field lines and thus may have very long wavelength and can easily couple to the magnetosphere. The frequency of these waves are below few Hz.

  4. On the Ionospheric Holes of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G.; Fedorov, A.; Futaana, Y.; Masunaga, K.; Hartle, R. E.; Stenberg, G.; Budnik, E.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Holmstrom, M.; andre, N.; Barabash, S. V.; Zhang, T.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most intriguing unsolved mysteries that endures from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is that of ~1000km wide ``Holes" in the nightside Ionosphere. The phenomena remains unexplained, despite their frequent observation during the first three years of the mission, and more than thirty years having elapsed since their first description in the literature. We present new observations by the ESA Venus Express of Ionospheric Holes at very high altitudes, providing us with the opportunity to study this fascinating phenomena with modern instrumentation. We discuss the insight that these new data give us into the effect of Ionospheric Holes on atmospheric escape, and the evidence that suggests that Ionospheric Holes are due to an internal planetary magnetic field.

  5. SHOCK WAVE IN IONOSPHERE DURING EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kuznetsov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally new model of the shock wave (SW generation in atmosphere and ionosphere during earthquake is proposed. The model proceeds from the idea of cooperative shock water crystallization in a cloud

  6. Measurement of ionospheric large-scale irregularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文焌; 郑怡嘉; 张喜镇

    1996-01-01

    Based on the observations of a meter-wave aperture synthesis radio telescope,as the scale length of ionospheric irregularity is greatly larger than the baseline length of interferometer,the phase error induced by the output signal of interferometer due to ionosphere is proportional to the baseline length and accordingly the expressions for extracting the information about ionosphere are derived.By using the ray theory and considering that the antenna is always tracking to the radio source in astronomical observation,the wave motion expression of traveling ionospheric disturbance observed in the total electron content is also derived,which is consistent with that obtained from the conception of thin-phase screen;then the Doppler velocity due to antenna tracking is introduced.Finally the inversion analysis for the horizontal phase velocity of TID from observed data is given.

  7. The Earth's ionosphere plasma physics and electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework.

  8. Ubiquitin modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Swatek, Kirby N.; Komander, David

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic multifaceted post-translational modification involved in nearly all aspects of eukaryotic biology. Once attached to a substrate, the 76-amino acid protein ubiquitin is subjected to further modifications, creating a multitude of distinct signals with distinct cellular outcomes, referred to as the 'ubiquitin code'. Ubiquitin can be ubiquitinated on seven lysine (Lys) residues or on the N-terminus, leading to polyubiquitin chains that can encompass complex top...

  9. Results of ionospheric parameters measurements during injections of exhaust streams of TSC "Progress" OMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakhinov, Vitaly; Alsatkin, Sergey; Medvedev, Andrey; Kushnarev, Dmitriy; Lebedev, Valentin; Potekhin, Alexander; Ratovsky, Konstantin; Shpynev, Boris

    Since 2006 we have carried out active space experiments using the transport spacecraft (TSC) "Progress" and the ground-base Radio-Optic Complex of ISTP SB RAS including Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar (IISR). Engine burns of TSC orbital maneuvering subsystem (OMS) were used as a source of ionospheric disturbances and changing radar signature characteristics of TSC. The flight altitudes were about 340 km. The amount of engine exhaust products was varied from 2 to 11 kg. The flow directions relative to IISR and amount of injected exhaust products were changed from flight to flight. The flows directed to IISR were almost parallel to the geomagnetic field line. For these cases the most pronounced effects were observed, the electron density depletion reached 20-40

  10. Remote Sensing of Ionosphere by IONOLAB Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Feza

    2016-07-01

    Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. Electron density is a complex function of spatial and temporal variations of solar, geomagnetic, and seismic activities. Ionosphere is the main source of error for navigation and positioning systems and satellite communication. Therefore, characterization and constant monitoring of variability of the ionosphere is of utmost importance for the performance improvement of these systems. Since ionospheric electron density is not a directly measurable quantity, an important derivable parameter is the Total Electron Content (TEC), which is used widely to characterize the ionosphere. TEC is proportional to the total number of electrons on a line crossing the atmosphere. IONOLAB is a research group is formed by Hacettepe University, Bilkent University and Kastamonu University, Turkey gathered to handle the challenges of the ionosphere using state-of-the-art remote sensing and signal processing techniques. IONOLAB group provides unique space weather services of IONOLAB-TEC, International Reference Ionosphere extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) model based IRI-Plas-MAP, IRI-Plas-STEC and Online IRI-Plas-2015 model at www.ionolab.org. IONOLAB group has been working for imaging and monitoring of ionospheric structure for the last 15 years. TEC is estimated from dual frequency GPS receivers as IONOLAB-TEC using IONOLAB-BIAS. For high spatio-temporal resolution 2-D imaging or mapping, IONOLAB-MAP algorithm is developed that uses automated Universal Kriging or Ordinary Kriging in which the experimental semivariogram is fitted to Matern Function with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). For 3-D imaging of ionosphere and 1-D vertical profiles of electron density, state-of-the-art IRI-Plas model based IONOLAB-CIT algorithm is developed for regional reconstruction that employs Kalman Filters for state

  11. Artificial Aurora and Ionospheric Heating by HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavandkhani, S.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Ghazimaghrebi, F.

    2016-08-01

    A recent experiment was achieved at HAARP to study the scaling of the ionospherically generated ELF signal with power transmitted from the high frequency (HF) array. The results were in excellent agreement with computer simulations. The outcomes approving that the ELF power increases with the square of the incident HF power. This paper present a review on the situation of the ionized particles in Ionospheric layer when stimulated by artificial an ELF and VLF external high energy radio waves.

  12. Modeling Weather in the Ionosphere using the Navy's Highly Integrated Thermosphere and Ionosphere Demonstration System (HITIDES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S. E.; Sassi, F.; Zawdie, K.; McCormack, J. P.; Coker, C.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has recently developed a ground-to-space atmosphere-ionosphere prediction capability, the Highly Integrated Thermosphere and Ionosphere Demonstration System (HITIDES). HITIDES is the U.S. Navy's first coupled, physics-based, atmosphere-ionosphere model, one in which the atmosphere extends from the ground to the exobase ( 500 km altitude) and the ionosphere reaches several 10,000 km in altitude. HITIDES has been developed by coupling the extended version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM-X) with NRL's ionospheric model, Sami3 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI3). Integrated into this model are the effects of drivers from atmospheric weather (day-to-day meteorology), the Sun, and the changing high altitude composition. To simulate specific events, HITIDES can be constrained by data analysis products or observations. We have performed simulations of the ionosphere during January-February 2010 in which lower atmospheric weather patterns have been introduced using the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System-Advanced Level Physics High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) data assimilation products. The same time period has also been simulated using the new atmospheric forecast model, the NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), which has replaced NOGAPS-ALPHA. The two simulations are compared with each other and with observations of the low latitude ionosphere. We will discuss the importance of including lower atmospheric meteorology in ionospheric simulations to capture day-to-day variability as well as large-scale longitudinal structure in the low-latitude ionosphere. In addition, we examine the effect of the variability on HF radio wave propagation by comparing simulated ionograms calculated from the HITIDES ionospheric specifications to ionosonde measurements.

  13. Photometric instrument for studies of ionospheric artificial airglow emission caused by antropogenous disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasyrov, Igor; Gumerov, Rustam; Nasyrov, Albert; Nikonenkov, Andrey

    One of informative methods of ionospheric processes data acquisition is based on registration of artificial airglow emission. In fact, artificial modifications of the ionosphere by powerful decameter radiowaves cause airglow emission on waves lengths 1270, 630, 557.7, 427.8 nm. In these experiments airglow emission were found at long expositions only as the registration systems of low sensitivity were used. It has allowed investigating the stages when developing of thermal parametric instabilities mechanism contribute mainly into the electron acceleration. The increase of artificial airglow emission at 557.7 nm was caused by impulses with 5 ms duration that corresponds to times of development of pondermotive parametric instability of ionosphere. That effect was found for the first time at the Kazan State University in collabora-tion with NIRFI (N. Novgorod) [Gumerov R.I., Kapkov V.B. et al. //Radiophysics and Quant. Electronics. 1999. Vol 42. P. 463.]. A new mobile photometric instrument equipped with a high-sensitive photometer and CCD-camera, system of GPS time-synchronization, system of "SURA"-channel review by HF-receiver, and systems of experimental data automatic registration by computer was engineered in the Kazan University. One makes possible the investigation of physical processes at the ionosphere disturbed by powerful radioemission, injections of chemically active substances and plasmas beams. The authors gratefully acknowledge Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No 08-02-01188) for the financial support.

  14. A new version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, B.; Coïsson, P.; Radicella, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    NeQuick is a three-dimensional and time dependent ionospheric electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy and at the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly tailored for trans-ionospheric applications that allows one to calculate the electron concentration at any given location in the ionosphere and thus the total electron content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite ray-path by means of numerical integration. Taking advantage of the increasing amount of available data, the model formulation is continuously updated to improve NeQuick capabilities to provide representations of the ionosphere at global scales. Recently, major changes have been introduced in the model topside formulation and important modifications have also been introduced in the bottomside description. In addition, specific revisions have been applied to the computer package associated to NeQuick in order to improve its computational efficiency. It has therefore been considered appropriate to finalize all the model developments in a new version of the NeQuick. In the present work the main features of NeQuick 2 are illustrated and some results related to validation tests are reported.

  15. Ionospheric Weather and Climate—— A Review on Chinese Works From 2004 to 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Weixing; XIAO Zuo

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent studies on the ionospheric weather and climate. As a national report prepared for COSPAR, the works concerned here are limited to those made by Chinese scientists during 2004-2006. The main contents include the sudden ionospheric disturbances, the ionospheric storms, the traveling ionospheric disturbances, ionospheric variability, the annual and semiannual ionospheric variations, the solar cycle ionospheric variations, and the long term ionospheric changes.

  16. Investigation of ionospheric TEC precursors related to the M7.8 Nepal and M8.3 Chile earthquakes in 2015 based on spectral and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ikonomouE, Christina; Haralambous, Haris; Muslim, Buldan

    2016-10-01

    Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations prior to 2 large earthquakes in Nepal (M = 7.8) and Chile (M = 8.3) in 2015 were analyzed using measurements from global navigation satellite system network with the aim to detect possible ionospheric anomalies associated to these seismic events and describe their main features, by applying statistical and spectral analysis. It was shown that abnormal TEC variations appeared few days up to few hours before the events lasting up to 8 h, whereas intensified TEC wave-like oscillations with periods 20 and 2-5 min were also identified that could be linked to the impending earthquakes. An unusual modification of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly 5 days before the main shock was also detected. Spectral analysis on TEC satellite measurements proved an effective method for the discrimination between seismically induced ionospheric waves and those of different origin such as the solar terminator transition and geomagnetic storms

  17. Ionospheric Response Due to Seismic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Signatures of the seismic activity in the ionospheric F2 region have been studied by analyzing the measurement of electron and ion temperatures during the occurrence of earthquake. The ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data recorded by the RPA payload aboard the Indian SROSS-C2 satellite during the period from January 1995 to December 2000 were used for the altitude range 430-630 km over Indian region. The normal day's electron and ion temperatures have been compared to the temperatures recorded during the seismic activity. The details of seismic events were obtained from USGS earthquake data information website. It has been found that the average electron temperature is enhanced during the occurrence of earthquakes by 1.2 to 1.5 times and this enhancement was for ion temperature ranging from 1.1to 1.3 times over the normal day's average temperatures. The above careful quantitative analysis of ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data shows the consistent enhancement in the ionospheric electron and ion temperatures. It is expected that the seismogenic vertical electrical field propagates up to the ionospheric heights and induces Joule heating that may cause the enhancement in ionospheric temperatures.

  18. Computerized ionospheric tomography with the IRI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Orhan; Arikan, Feza; Erol, Cemil B.

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) is a method to estimate ionospheric electron density distribution by using the global positioning system (GPS) signals recorded by the GPS receivers. Ionospheric electron density is a function of latitude, longitude, height and time. A general approach in CIT is to represent the ionosphere as a linear combination of basis functions. In this study, the model of the ionosphere is obtained from the IRI in latitude and height only. The goal is to determine the best representing basis function from the set of Squeezed Legendre polynomials, truncated Legendre polynomials, Haar Wavelets and singular value decomposition (SVD). The reconstruction algorithms used in this study can be listed as total least squares (TLS), regularized least squares, algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and a hybrid algorithm where the reconstruction from the TLS algorithm is used as the initial estimate for the ART. The error performance of the reconstruction algorithms are compared with respect to the electron density generated by the IRI-2001 model. In the investigated scenario, the measurements are obtained from the IRI-2001 as the line integral of the electron density profiles, imitating the total electron content estimated from GPS measurements. It has been observed that the minimum error between the reconstructed and model ionospheres depends on both the reconstruction algorithm and the basis functions where the best results have been obtained for the basis functions from the model itself through SVD.

  19. Computerized ionospheric tomography based on geosynchronous SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Tian, Ye; Dong, Xichao; Wang, Rui; Long, Teng

    2017-02-01

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an emerging technique to construct the three-dimensional (3-D) image of ionosphere. The current studies are all based on the Low Earth Orbit synthetic aperture radar (LEO SAR) which is limited by long repeat period and small coverage. In this paper, a novel ionospheric 3-D CIT technique based on geosynchronous SAR (GEO SAR) is put forward. First, several influences of complex atmospheric environment on GEO SAR focusing are detailedly analyzed, including background ionosphere and multiple scattering effects (induced by turbulent ionosphere), tropospheric effects, and random noises. Then the corresponding GEO SAR signal model is constructed with consideration of the temporal-variant background ionosphere within the GEO SAR long integration time (typically 100 s to 1000 s level). Concurrently, an accurate total electron content (TEC) retrieval method based on GEO SAR data is put forward through subband division in range and subaperture division in azimuth, obtaining variant TEC value with respect to the azimuth time. The processing steps of GEO SAR CIT are given and discussed. Owing to the short repeat period and large coverage area, GEO SAR CIT has potentials of covering the specific space continuously and completely and resultantly has excellent real-time performance. Finally, the TEC retrieval and GEO SAR CIT construction are performed by employing a numerical study based on the meteorological data. The feasibility and correctness of the proposed methods are verified.

  20. Development of a Ground-Based Analog to the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathaniel J.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.; Caldwell, E.; DeWitt, J.K.; Fincke, R.; Peters, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and Wyle engineers constructed a Horizontal Exercise Fixture (HEF) that was patented in 2006. Recently modifications were made to HEF with the goal of creating a device that mimics squat exercise on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and can be used by bed rest subjects who must remain supine during exercise. This project posed several engineering challenges, such as how best to reproduce the hip motions (we used a sled that allowed hip motion in the sagittal plane), how to counterweight the pelvis against gravity (we used a pulley and free-weight mechanism), and how to apply large loads (body weight plus squat load) to the shoulders while simultaneously supporting the back against gravity (we tested a standard and a safety bar that allowed movement in the subject s z-axis, both of which used a retractable plate for back support). METHODS An evaluation of the HEF was conducted with human subjects (3F, 3M), who performed sets of squat exercises of increasing load from 10-repetition maximum (RM) up to 1-RM. Three pelvic counterweight loads were tested along with each of the two back-support squat bars. Data collection included 3-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF), muscle activation (EMG), body motion (video-based motion capture), and subjective comments. These data were compared with previous ground-based ARED study data. RESULTS All subjects in the evaluation were able to perform low- to high-loading squats on the HEF. Four of the 6 subjects preferred a pelvic counterweight equivalent to 60 percent of their body weight. Four subjects preferred the standard squat bar, whereas 2 female subjects preferred the safety bar. EMG data showed muscle activation in the legs and low back typical of squat motion. GRF trajectories and eccentric-concentric loading ratios were similar to ARED. CONCLUSION: Squat exercise performed on HEF approximated squat exercise on ARED.

  1. Stimulation of whistler activity by an artificial ground-based low frequency acoustic wave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Silvestr; Kim, Vitaly; Khegay, Valery; Kalita, Bogdan

    This paper presents some results of an active experiment aimed to impact the ionosphere with low frequency acoustic waves artificially generated in the near-ground atmosphere. The main goal of the experiment was checking if the artificially generated acoustic waves could affect whistler occurrence at middle latitudes. As a source of acoustic waves we used twin powerful sonic speakers. One of which produced acoustic waves at a frequency of 600 Hz while the other one at a frequency of 624 Hz with intensity of 160 dB at a distance of 1 m away from end of the horn. The duration of sonic pulse was one minute. As a result of acoustic wave interference above the acoustic wave source there appears some kind of a virtual sonic antenna that radiates lower frequency acoustic waves at a frequency being equal to the difference of the two initially generated frequencies (624 Hz - 600 Hz = 24 Hz). The resulting acoustic wave is capable to penetrate to higher altitudes than the initially generated waves do because of its lower frequency. A whistler detector was located at about 100 m far away from the acoustic wave source. We performed the 50 experiments at Lviv (49.50° N, 24.00° E) with acoustic influence on the atmosphere-ionosphere system. The obtained results indicate that the emitted low frequency acoustic waves were clearly followed by enhanced whistler occurrence. We suggest that the observations could be interpreted how increase of transparency of ionosphere and upward refraction of VLF spherics resulted from modulation of local atmospheric parameters by the acoustic waves. These two effects produce to the increase of amount of the whistlers.

  2. A generalized trigonometric series function model for determining ionospheric delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun

    2004-01-01

    A generalized trigonometric series function (GTSF) model, with an adjustable number of parameters, is proposed and analyzed to study ionosphere by using GPS, especially to provide ionospheric delay correction for single frequency GPS users. The preliminary results show that, in comparison with the trigonometric series function (TSF) model and the polynomial (POLY) model, the GTSF model can more precisely describe the ionospheric variation and more efficiently provide the ionospheric correction when GPS data are used to investigate or extract the earth's ionospheric total electron content. It is also shown that the GTSF model can further improve the precision and accuracy of modeling local ionospheric delays.

  3. Kepler and Ground-Based Transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Sada, Pedro V.; Jackson, Brian; Peterson, Steven W.; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A.; Jennings, Donald E.; Haase, Plynn; Bays, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B band) and near-IR (J band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields Rp = 4.31 R xor 0.06 R xor and Rs = 0.683 R solar mass 0.009 R solar mass, both about 3 sigma smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ 436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler transit data. We develop and apply a methodology to correct the planetary radius for the presence of both crossed and uncrossed star spots. Star spot crossings are concentrated at phases 0.002 and +0.006. This is consistent with inferences from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements that the planet transits nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. We identify the dominant phases of star spot crossings with active latitudes on the star, and infer that the stellar rotational pole is inclined at about 12 deg 5 deg to the plane of the sky. We point out that precise transit measurements over long durations could in principle allow us to construct a stellar Butterfly diagram to probe the cyclic evolution of magnetic activity on this active K-dwarf star.

  4. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  5. Estimation of Antarctic ozone loss from Ground-based total column measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuttippurath

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The passive ozone method is used to estimate ozone loss from ground-based measurements in the Antarctic. A sensitivity study shows that the O3 loss can be estimated within an accuracy of ~4%. The method is then applied to the observations from Amundsen-Scott/South Pole, Arrival Heights, Belgrano, Concordia, Dumont d'Urville, Faraday, Halley, Marambio, Neumayer, Rothera, Syowa and Zhongshan for the diagnosis of ozone loss in the Antarctic. On average, the five-day running mean of the vortex averaged ozone column loss deduced from the ground-based stations shows about 53% in 2009, 59% in 2008, 55% in 2007, 56% in 2006 and 61% in 2005. The observed O3 loss and loss rates are in very good agreement with the satellite observations (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Sciamachy and are well reproduced by the model (Reprobus and SLIMCAT calculations.

    The historical ground-based total ozone measurements show that the depletion started in the late 1970s, reached a maximum in the early 1990s, stabilising afterwards at this level until present, with the exception of 2002, the year of an early vortex break-up. There is no indication of significant recovery yet.

    At southern mid-latitudes, a total ozone reduction of 40–50% is observed at the newly installed station Rio Gallegos and 25–35% at Kerguelen in October–November of 2008–2009 and 2005–2009 (except 2008 respectively, and of 10–20% at Macquarie Island in July–August of 2006–2009. This illustrates the significance of measurements at the edges of Antarctica.

  6. Comparison of OMI UV observations with ground-based measurements at high northern latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on board NASA's Aura spacecraft provides estimates of erythemal (sunburning ultraviolet (UV dose rates and erythemal daily doses. These data were compared with ground-based measurements at 13 stations located throughout the Arctic and Scandinavia from 60 to 83° N. The study corroborates results from earlier work, but is based on a longer time series (eight vs. two years and considers additional data products, such as the erythemal dose rate at the time of the satellite overpass. Furthermore, systematic errors in satellite UV data resulting from inaccuracies in the surface albedo climatology used in the OMI UV algorithm are systematically assessed. At times when the surface albedo is correctly known, OMI data typically exceed ground-based measurements by 0–11%. When the OMI albedo climatology exceeds the actual albedo, OMI data may be biased high by as much as 55%. In turn, when the OMI albedo climatology is too low, OMI data can be biased low by up to 59%. Such large negative biases may occur when reflections from snow and ice, which increase downwelling UV irradiance, are misinterpreted as reflections from clouds, which decrease the UV flux at the surface. Results suggest that a better OMI albedo climatology would greatly improve the accuracy of OMI UV data products even if year-to-year differences of the actual albedo cannot be accounted for. A pathway for improving the OMI albedo climatology is discussed. Results also demonstrate that ground-based measurements from the center of Greenland, where high, homogenous surface albedo is observed year round, are ideally suited to detect systematic problems or temporal drifts in estimates of surface UV irradiance from space.

  7. Ground-based microwave measuring of middle atmosphere ozone and temperature profiles during sudden stratospheric warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, A. M.; Shvetsov, A. A.; Krasilnikov, A. A.; Kulikov, M. Y.; Karashtin, D. A.; Mukhin, D.; Bolshakov, O. S.; Fedoseev, L. I.; Ryskin, V. G.; Belikovich, M. V.; Kukin, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    We carried out the experimental campaign aimed to study the response of middle atmosphere on a sudden stratospheric warming in winter 2011-2012 above Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (56N, 44E). We employed the ground-based microwave complex for remote sensing of middle atmosphere developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science. The complex combines two room-temperature radiometers, i.e. microwave ozonometer and the stratospheric thermometer. Ozonometer is a heterodyne spectroradiometer, operating in a range of frequencies that include the rotation transition of ozone molecules with resonance frequency 110.8 GHz. Operating frequency range of the stratospheric thermometer is 52.5-5.4 GHz and includes lower frequency edge of 5 mm molecular oxygen absorption bands and among them two relatively weak lines of O2 emission. Digital fast Fourier transform spectrometers developed by "Acqiris" are employed for signal spectral analysis. The spectrometers have frequency range 0.05-1 GHz and realizes the effective resolution about 61 KHz. For retrieval vertical profiles of ozone and temperature from radiometric data we applied novel method based on Bayesian approach to inverse problem solution, which assumed a construction of probability distribution of the characteristics of retrieved profiles with taking into account measurement noise and available a priori information about possible distributions of ozone and temperature in the middle atmosphere. Here we introduce the results of the campaign in comparison with Aura MLS data. Presented data includes one sudden stratospheric warming event which took place in January 13-14 and was accompanied by temperature increasing up to 310 K at 45 km height. During measurement period, ozone and temperature variations were (almost) anti-correlated, and total ozone abundance achieved a local maxima during the stratosphere cooling phase. In general, results of ground-based measurements are in good agreement with

  8. Ground-Based Network and Supersite Observations to Complement and Enrich EOS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites - the Earth Observing System (EOS) - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Space-borne remote sensing observations, however, are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite datasets. Through numerous participations, particularly but not limited to the EOS remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, NASA/GSFC has developed and continuously refined ground-based networks and mobile observatories that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement and enrich the satellite observations. These are: the AERO NET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) a federation of ground-based globally distributed network of spectral sun-sky photometers; the MPLNET (Micro-Pulse Lidar NETwork, a similarly organized network of micro-pulse lidar systems measuring aerosol and cloud vertical structure continuously; and the SMART-COMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere, mobile observatories, a suite of spectral radiometers and in-situ probes acquiring supersite measurements. Most MPLNET sites are collocated with those of AERONET, and both networks always support the deployment of SMART-COMMIT worldwide. These data products follow the data structure of EOS conventions: Level-0, instrument archived raw data; Level-1 (or 1.5), real-time data with no (or limited) quality assurance; Level-2, not real high temporal and spectral resolutions. In this talk, we will present NASA/GSFC groundbased facilities, serving

  9. Ground-based SMART-COMMIT Measurements for Studying Aerosol and Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2008-01-01

    From radiometric principles, it is expected that the retrieved properties of extensive aerosols and clouds from reflected/emitted measurements by satellite (and/or aircraft) should be consistent with those retrieved from transmitted/emitted radiance observed at the surface. Although space-borne remote sensing observations cover large spatial domain, they are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite data sets. The development and deployment of SMARTCOMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile facilities are aimed for the optimal utilization of collocated ground-based observations as constraints to yield higher fidelity satellite retrievals and to determine any sampling bias due to target conditions. To quantify the energetics of the surface-atmosphere system and the atmospheric processes, SMART-COMMIT instruments fall into three categories: flux radiometer, radiance sensor and in-situ probe. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of SMART-COMMIT in recent field campaigns (e.g., CRYSTAL-FACE, UAE 2, BASEASIA, NAMMA) that were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in temporal scale of both anthropogenic and natural aerosols (e.g., biomass-burning smoke, airborne dust) and cirrus clouds. We envision robust approaches in which well-collocated ground-based measurements and space-borne observations will greatly advance our knowledge of extensive aerosols and clouds.

  10. Multi-component ground-based observation of ULF waves: goals and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fedorov

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A revival of the combined magnetic and telluric electric measurements at magnetic observatories is suggested.A number of problems, where such observations might be very helpful, are outlined: 1 the account for the resonance structure of the ULF field during the magnetotelluric probing of low-conductive geoelectrical structures; 2 the hydromagnetic diagnostics of the magnetospheric plasma distribution; 3 the discrimination of ionospheric and seismic contributions in anomalous ULF signals possibly related with earthquakes. The experimental apparatus for telluric current measurements, which has recently been installed at the observatories of Borok (Russia and L'Aquila (Italy, is described.

  11. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbin Chen; Xiangao Xia; Pucai Wang; Wenxing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain an insight into the aerosol properties and their climatic effect over the continental source regions of China, it is of significance to carry out long-term ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. A couple of temporary and permanent Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and three comprehensive radiative sites were established in China as a result of international cooperation in recent years. Heavy aerosol loading and significant temporal and spatial variation over North China are revealed by the AERONET data.Aerosol-induced reductions in surface radiation budget are examined on the basis of collocated observations by sun photometers and pyranometers.

  12. Estimation of above ground biomass in boreal forest using ground-based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriazad, L.; Moghadas, H.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, A.

    2017-05-01

    Assessing above ground biomass of forest is important for carbon storage monitoring in boreal forest. In this study, a new model is developed to estimate the above ground biomass using ground based Lidar data. 21 trees were measured and scanned across the plot area study in boreal forests of Alberta, Canada. The study area was scanned in the summer season 2014 to quantify the green biomass. The average of total crown biomass and green biomass in this study was 377 kg (standard deviation, S.D. = 243 kg) and 6.42 kg (S.D. = 2.69 m), respectively.

  13. Synergetic ground-based methods for remote measurements of ozone vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyev, Yuriy; Kostsov, Vladimir; Virolainen, Yana

    2013-05-01

    The technique of combining ground-based measurements in infrared and microwave spectral regions in order to achieve higher accuracy of ozone profile retrieval in extensive altitude ranges is described and analyzed. The information content, errors, altitude ranges and vertical resolution of ozone profile retrieval have been studied on the basis of numerical simulation of synergetic experiments. Optimal conditions of measurements are defined and requirements to additional information are formulated. The first results on ozone vertical profile retrieval using groundbased measurements of FTIR-spectrometer and microwave radiometer are given.

  14. Solar diameter, eclipses and transits: the importance of ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    According to satellite measurements the difference between polar and equatorial radius does not exceed 10 milliarcsec. These measurements are differential, and the absolute value of the solar diameter is not precisely known to a level of accuracy needed for finding variations during years or decades. Moreover the lifetime of a satellite is limited, and its calibration is not stable. This shows the need to continue ground-based observations of the Sun exploiting in particular the methods less affected by atmospheric turbulence, as the planetary transits and the total and annular eclipses. The state of art, the advantages and the limits of these two methods are here considered.

  15. Asteroseismology of Solar-type stars with Kepler III. Ground-based Data

    CERN Document Server

    Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Sousa, Sergio; Frasca, Antonio; Biazzo, Katia; Huber, Daniel; Ireland, Mike; Bedding, Tim; Stello, Dennis; Uytterhoeven, Katrien; Dreizler, Stefan; De Cat, Peter; Briquet, Maryline; Catanzaro, Giovanni; Karoff, Chistoffer; Frandsen, Soeren; Spezzi, Loredana; Catala, Claude

    2010-01-01

    We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium Working Group 1 (KASC WG-1). The main goal of this coordinated research is the determination of the fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters, which are used for the computing of their asteroseismic models, as well as for the verification of the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC).

  16. Integrated interpretation of helicopter and ground-based geophysical data recorded within the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Green, Alan G.; Kalscheuer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ) data recorded across most of the delta, (ii) 2D models and images derived from ground-based electrical resistance tomographic, transient electromagnetic, and high resolution seismic reflection/refraction tomographic data acquired at four selected sites in western and north-central regions of the delta...... resistivities and very low to low P-wave velocities. Except for images of several buried abandoned river channels, it is non-reflective. The laterally extensive underlying unit of low resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and subhorizontal reflectors very likely contains saline-water-saturated sands and clays...... reflectivity. The interface between the POM unit and basement is a prominent seismic reflector....

  17. Hypergravity Facilities in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Program - Current Research Activities and Future Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frett, Timo; Petrat, Guido; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Research on Artificial Gravity (AG) created by linear acceleration or centrifugation has a long history and could significantly contribute to realize long-term human spaceflight in the future. Employing centrifuges plays a prominent role in human physiology and gravitational biology. This article gives a short review about the background of Artificial Gravity with respect to hypergravity (including partial gravity) and provides information about actual ESA ground-based facilities for research on a variety of biosystems such as cells, plants, animals or, particularly, humans.

  18. Images of Neptune's ring arcs obtained by a ground-based telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, B.; Roddier, F.; Roddier, C.; Perozzi, E.; Graves, J. E.; Guyon, O.; Northcott, M. J.

    1999-08-01

    Neptune has a collection of incomplete narrow rings, known as ring arcs, which should in isolation be destroyed by differential motion in a matter of months. Yet since first discovered by stellar occultations in 1984, they appear to have persisted, perhaps through a gravitational resonance effect involving the satellite Galatea. Here we report ground-based observations of the ring arcs, obtained using an adaptive optics system. Our data, and those obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope (reported in a companion paper), indicate that the ring arcs are near, but not within the resonance with Galatea, in contrast to what is predicted by some models.

  19. SCENARIO AND TARGET SIMULATION FOR A GROUND BASED MULTIFUNCTION PHASED ARRAY RADAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario and target simulation which operates in non real-time to provide full closed-loop operation of the ground based multifunction phased array radar simulation system in support of ballistic missile defence experiments against countermeasure.By simulating the target scattering signature and dynamical signature,this scenario and target simulation provide re- alistic scenario source to evaluate the system performance of multifunction phased array radar,and the key algorithms verification and validation such as target tracking,multi-target imaging and target recognition.

  20. Improved ground-based FTS measurement for column abundance CO2 retrievals(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute of Meteorological Sciences has operated a ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Anmyeondo, Korea since December 2012. Anmyeondo FTS site is a designated operational station of Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and belongs to regional Global Atmosphere Watch observatory. A Bruker IFS-125HR model, which has a significantly high spectral resolution by 0.02 cm-1, is employed and instrument specification is almost same as the TCCON configuration. such as a spectrum range of 3,800 16,000 cm-1, a resolution of 1 cm-1, InGaAs and Si-Diode detectors and CaF2 beam splitter. It is found that measured spectra have a good agreement with simulated spectra. In order to improve the spectral accuracy and stability, The Operational Automatic System for Intensity of Sunray (OASIS) has been developed. The OASIS can provide consistent photon energy optimized to detector range by controlling the diameter of solar beam reflected from the mirror of suntracker. As a result, monthly modulation efficiency (ME), which indicates the spectral accuracy of FTS measurement, has been recorded the vicinity of 99.9% since Feb 2015. The ME of 98% is regarded as the error of 0.1% in the ground-based in-situ CO2 measurement. Total column abundances of CO2 and CH4 during 2015 are estimated by using GGG v14 and compared with ground-based in-situ CO2 and CH4 measurements at the height of 86 m above sea level. The seasonality of CO2 is well captured by both FTS and in-situ measurements while there is considerable difference on the amplitude of CO2 seasonal variation due to the insensitivity of column CO2 to the surface carbon cycle dynamics in nature as well as anthropogenic sources. Total column CO2 and CH4 approximately vary from 395 ppm to 405 ppm and from 1.82 ppm to 1.88 ppm, respectively. It should be noted that few measurements obtained in July to August because of a lot of cloud and fog. It is found that enhancement of CH4 from the FTS at Anmyeondo

  1. The laser calibration system for the STACEE ground-based gamma ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the laser system used for calibration monitoring of components of the STACEE detector. STACEE is a ground based gamma ray detector which uses the heliostats of a solar power facility to collect and focus Cherenkov light onto a system of secondary optics and photomultiplier tubes. To monitor the gain and check the linearity and timing properties of the phototubes and associated electronics, a system based on a dye laser, neutral density filters and optical fibres has been developed. In this paper we describe the system and present some results from initial tests made with it.

  2. Ground-Based Gas-Liquid Flow Research in Microgravity Conditions: State of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, J.; Colin, C.; Fabre, J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade, ground-based microgravity facilities have been utilized in order to obtain predictions for spacecraft system designers and further the fundamental understanding of two-phase flow. Although flow regime, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient data has been obtained for straight tubes and a limited number of fittings, measurements of the void fraction, film thickness, wall shear stress, local velocity and void information are also required in order to develop general mechanistic models that can be utilized to ascertain the effects of fluid properties, tube geometry and acceleration levels. A review of this research is presented and includes both empirical data and mechanistic models of the flow behavior.

  3. Ground-based and spaceborn observations of the type II burst with developed fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorovskyy, V.; Melnik, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Rucker, H.; Stanislavskyy, A.; Panchenko, M.

    2012-09-01

    The combination of two huge ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2 and URAN-2) operated in decameter wavelengths with three spatially separated spacecrafts (SOHO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B) equipped with white light coronagraphs, UV telescopes and decameter-hectometer band radio telescopes created a unique opportunity to investigate the high energy solar transients, such as CMEs and their manifestations in radio bands - type II bursts. In this paper we made detailed analysis of the powerful and complex event occurred on 7 June 2011 consisted of Halo-CME and type II burst with rich fine structure.

  4. Advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors' potential to detect generic deviations from general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Narikawa, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the prediction of General Relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess how much magnitude of the deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters by using a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order.

  5. Measurements of ionospheric TEC in the direction of GPS satellites and comparison with three ionospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zuccheretti

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEN Galileo Ferraris uses GPS for time and frequency synchronization. To obtain high performance it is important to reduce the error due to the ionospheric time-delay in GPS measurements. Evaluations of TEC in the direction of GPS satellites, obtained from three different ionospheric models, have been compared with corresponding measurements by GPS signal.

  6. First in situ observations of equatorial ionospheric bubbles by Indian satellite SROSS-C2 and simultaneous multisatellite scintillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.; Ray, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Garg, S. C.

    2002-10-01

    The first observation of equatorial ionospheric irregularities by RPA probe of the Indian low Earth orbiting satellite SROSS-C2 is presented in this paper. Amplitude scintillations of medium Earth orbiting Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and geostationary FLEETSATCOM (244 MHz, 73°E) and INMARSAT (1.5 GHz, 65°E) signals recorded simultaneously at Calcutta (lat: 22.97° N, long: 88.50°E geographic; dip: 32°N) are used for a coordinated study of equatorial F region irregularities in the Indian zone. Cases of ionospheric irregularities identified from the SROSS-C2 records obtained during the initial one-and-a-half years since its launch in May 1994 have been analyzed. Some events of in situ ion density irregularities are compared with scintillations simultaneously observed on the transionospheric satellite links. Intense bite-outs of ion density (maximum relative irregularity amplitude ΔN/N ˜ 65%) were detected on one occasion (October 29, 1994) coupled with deep fadings (S4 ˜ 1 at VHF, ˜0.52 at L-band, and ˜0.69 at GPS L1 frequency) on ground-based satellite links. An estimate of scintillation indices from the observed in situ density deviations compares well with the ground-based measurements. The development of intense equatorial bubbles even on a day like October 29, 1994, under low solar activity conditions, may be attributed to a prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric field equatorwards during the main phase of a magnetic storm in progress [maximum negative excursion of Dst ˜ -127 nT at 1600UT (2100MLT) with a dDst/dt rate -37 nT/hr at 1300-1400UT (1800-1900MLT)]. The drift velocity and spatial extent of these irregularities have been estimated from ground-based observations.

  7. A Radio Propagation Technique for Geolocating Ionospheric Irregularities along Radio Occultation Ray-Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Rino, C. L.; McNeil, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Radio occultations (RO) with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signas have been widely used for remote sensing of tropospheric parameters and to provide ionospheric electron density profiles for the purpose of improving terrestrial and space weather forecasts. Radio occultations have also been used to investigate the morphology of irregularities that cause radio wave scintillation. Spaced-based monitoring of ionospheric irregularities is advantageous because it can be performed continuously and globally, including over ocean regions not easily monitored with ground-based instruments. Nevertheless, the radio propagation path of an occultation through the ionosphere can be very long (up to several thousand km), such that it can be challenging to infer the geographic location and extent of the irregularities from the scintillations they produce. Unlike RO retrievals of slant TEC which are dominated by the contribution near the tangent point, scintillations can be generated by irregularities distributed anywhere along the propagation path between transmitting and receiving satellites. In this paper, we propose a new technique for characterizing and geolocating ionospheric irregularities using radio occultation observations of amplitude scintillation. The approach taken is to solve an inverse problem for the propagation of radio waves through a phase changing screen. Referred to as Irregularity Parameter Estimation (Carrano and Rino, Radio Sci, 2016), this inverse technique estimates the irregularity turbulence strength, spectral index, and Fresnel frequency from measurements of amplitude scintillation. A new model for the effective velocity at which the radio occultation ray-path scans through the irregularity region is used to map the estimated Fresnel frequency to Fresnel spatial scale, which yields the distance from the receiver to the irregularities. Additional geophysical factors such as apex altitude and background electron density along the ray-path can

  8. Exploring the relationship between monitored ground-based and satellite aerosol measurements over the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project studied the relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra satellite, and ground-based monitored particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations measured...

  9. Evaluation of Ionospheric Densities Using Coincident OII 83.4 nm Airglow and the Millstone Hill Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ewan S; Stephan, Andrew W; Cashman, Lauren; Bishop, Rebecca L; Budzien, Scott A; Christensen, Andrew B; Hecht, James H; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    We test the utility of the OII 83.4 nm emission feature as a measure of ionospheric parameters. Observed with the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph on the International Space Station (ISS), limb profiles of 83.4 nm emissions are compared to predicted dayglow emission profiles from a theoretical model incorporating ground-based electron density profiles measured by the Millstone Hill radar and parameterized by a best-fit Chapman-{\\alpha} function. Observations and models are compared for periods of conjunction between Millstone Hill and the RAIDS fields-of-view. These RAIDS observations show distinct differences in topside morphology between two days, 15 January and 10 March 2010, closely matching the forward model morphology and demonstrating that 83.4 nm emission is sensitive to changes in the ionospheric density profile from the 340 km altitude of the ISS during solar minimum. We find no significant difference between 83.4 nm emission profiles model...

  10. Multi-instrument observations of the ionospheric counterpart of a bursty bulk flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grocott

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On 07 September 2001 the Cluster spacecraft observed a "bursty bulk flow" event in the near-Earth central plasma sheet. This paper presents a detailed study of the coincident ground-based observations and attempts to place them within a simple physical framework. The event in question occurs at ~22:30 UT, some 10min after a southward turning of the IMF. IMAGE and SAMNET magnetometer measurements of the ground magnetic field reveal perturbations of a few tens of nT and small amplitude Pi2 pulsations. CUTLASS radar observations of ionospheric plasma convection show enhanced flows out of the polar cap near midnight, accompanied by an elevated transpolar voltage. Optical data from the IMAGE satellite also show that there is a transient, localised ~1 kR brightening in the UV aurora. These observations are consistent with the earthward transport of plasma in the tail, but also indicate the absence of a typical "large-scale" substorm current wedge. An analysis of the field-aligned current system implied by the radar measurements does suggest the existence of a small-scale current "wedgelet", but one which lacks the global scale and high conductivities observed during substorm expansions.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheremagnetosphere interactions; plasma convection

  11. The location of the open-closed magnetic field line boundary in the dawn sector auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wild

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available As a measure of the degree of coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere systems, the rate at which the size of the polar cap (the region corresponding to ionospheric termini of open magnetic flux tubes varies is of prime importance. However, a reliable technique by which the extent of the polar cap might be routinely monitored has yet to be developed. Current techniques provide particularly ambiguous indications of the polar cap boundary in the dawn sector. We present a case study of space- and ground-based observations of the dawn-sector auroral zone and attempt to determine the location of the polar cap boundary using multi-wavelength observations of the ultraviolet aurora (made by the IMAGE FUV imager, precipitating particle measurements (recorded by the FAST, DMSP, and Cluster 1 and 3 satellites, and SuperDARN HF radar observations of the ionospheric Doppler spectral width boundary. We conclude that in the dawn sector, during the interval presented, neither the poleward edge of the wideband auroral UV emission (140-180nm nor the Doppler spectral width boundary were trustworthy indicators of the polar cap boundary location, while narrow band UV emissions in the range 130-140nm appear to be much more reliable.

  12. A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat Ronald L. Cypert Scientific...units, along with coordination at the state and federal agency level, a dynamic process modeling capability was chosen to chart the myriad...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against

  13. In-situ Observations of the Ionospheric F2-Region from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Wright, Kenneth H.; Minow, Joseph I.; Chandler, Michael O.; Parker, Linda N.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station orbit provides an ideal platform for in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on the ISS since Aug 2006, is a suite of plasma instruments: a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). This instrument package provides a new opportunity for collaborative multi-instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. This presentation first describes the operational parameters for each of the FPMU probes and shows examples of an intra-instrument validation. We then show comparisons with the plasma density and temperature measurements derived from the TIMED GUVI ultraviolet imager, the Millstone Hill ground based incoherent scatter radar, and DIAS digisondes, Finally we show one of several observations of night-time equatorial density holes demonstrating the capabilities of the probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes.

  14. Impact of Ionospheric Scintillation on Spaceborne SAR Observations Studied Using GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Meyer, Franz J.; Chotoo, Kancham; Freeman, Anthony; Caton, Ronald G.; Bridgewood, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of artifacts seen in JAXA's Phase Array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) data over South America during a low solar activity year is reported in this paper. A significant impact on the radar data is revealed: about 14% of the surveyed PALSAR images (totally 2779) are affected by the artifacts during a month and the artifacts occur on 74.2% of the surveyed days. The characteristics of the artifacts have led to a consideration that the artifacts are the effects of ionospheric scintillation. This raises not only a concern about scintillation effects on radar but also a question about active scintillation conditions during a low solar activity year. To assess and verify the scintillation conditions, GPS data collected from the constellation of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites and three ground-based GPS networks are processed and analyzed. The GPS data provides a global context and regional dense converge, respectively, of ionospheric irregularity and scintillation measurements. It is concluded tat even during a low solar activity year, L-band scintillation at low latitudes can occur frequently and affect L-band SAR significantly.

  15. Studies of the ionospheric turbulence excited by the fourth gyroharmonic at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, A.; Milikh, G.; Yampolski, Y. M.; Koloskov, A. V.; Sopin, A. A.; Zalizovski, A.; Bernhardt, P.; Briczinski, S.; Siefring, C.; Chiang, K.; Morton, Y.; Taylor, S.; Mahmoudian, A.; Bristow, W.; Ruohoniemi, M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2015-08-01

    A study is presented of artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) induced by HF heating at High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) using frequencies close to the fourth electron gyroharmonic, in a broad range of radiated powers and using a number of different diagnostics. The diagnostics include GPS scintillations, ground-based stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE), the HAARP ionosonde, Kodiak radar, and signals received at the Ukrainian Antarctic Station (UAS). The latter allowed analysis of waves scattered by the AIT into the ionospheric waveguide along Earth's terminator, 15.6 mm from the HAARP facility. For the first time, the amplitudes of two prominent SEE features, the downshifted maximum and broad upshifted maximum, were observed to saturate at ~50% of the maximum HAARP effective radiated power. Nonlinear effects in slant total electron content, SEE, and signals received at UAS at different transmitted frequencies and intensities of the pump wave were observed. The correlations between the data from different detectors demonstrate that the scattered waves reach UAS by the waveguide along the Earth's terminator, and that they were injected into the waveguide by scattering off of artificial striations produced by AIT above HAARP, rather than via direct injection from sidelobe radiation.

  16. Ionospheric Response during the Equinox and the Solstice Periods over Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Ali; Arikan, Feza; Karatay, Secil

    2016-07-01

    Ionosphere is a layer of the atmosphere which is an integral part of whole geomagnetic and geological framework. Ionosphere responds to solar EUV radiation by varying within the diurnal 24-hour period, seasonal periods and annually and over the 11-year cycle of solar activity. Therefore, relying on the evidence that there have been variations observed in the VLF, LF and HF signals, magnetic field of the earth and in the local electric field, a unified theory, that would explain the mechanism and cause of the disturbance in the layers of atmosphere, is a widely investigated research topic. In this study, the behavior of the IONOLAB- Total Electron Content (TEC) estimates obtained from dual frequency ground-based GPS receivers are examined using Symmetric Kullback Leibler Distance (SKLD) and L2 Norm (L2N) methods both for the periods that include the equinox and solstice between 2010 and 2012 for Turkey. The solstice and equinox periods within the same year and the solstice periods and the equinox periods from 2010 to 2012 are compared with each other for 18 Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN-Active) stations. It is observed that the difference between solstice and equinox periods increases related to the upgrading geomagnetic activity. SKLD and L2N values in the solstice are larger than those in the equinox. This study is supported by TUBITAK EEEAG 114E541 a part of the Scientific and Technological Research Projects Funding Program.

  17. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  18. Potential use of ground-based sensor technologies for weed detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Weis, Martin; Andújar, Dionisio; Rueda Ayala, Victor; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Site-specific weed management is the part of precision agriculture (PA) that tries to effectively control weed infestations with the least economical and environmental burdens. This can be achieved with the aid of ground-based or near-range sensors in combination with decision rules and precise application technologies. Near-range sensor technologies, developed for mounting on a vehicle, have been emerging for PA applications during the last three decades. These technologies focus on identifying plants and measuring their physiological status with the aid of their spectral and morphological characteristics. Cameras, spectrometers, fluorometers and distance sensors are the most prominent sensors for PA applications. The objective of this article is to describe-ground based sensors that have the potential to be used for weed detection and measurement of weed infestation level. An overview of current sensor systems is presented, describing their concepts, results that have been achieved, already utilized commercial systems and problems that persist. A perspective for the development of these sensors is given. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J H; Wichmann, R

    2001-08-02

    All 'solar-like' stars are surrounded by coronae, which contain magnetically confined plasma at temperatures above 106 K. (Until now, only the Sun's corona could be observed in the optical-as a shimmering envelope during a total solar eclipse.) As the underlying stellar 'surfaces'-the photospheres-are much cooler, some non-radiative process must be responsible for heating the coronae. The heating mechanism is generally thought to be magnetic in origin, but is not yet understood even for the case of the Sun. Ultraviolet emission lines first led to the discovery of the enormous temperature of the Sun's corona, but thermal emission from the coronae of other stars has hitherto been detectable only from space, at X-ray wavelengths. Here we report the detection of emission from highly ionized iron (Fe XIII at 3,388.1 A) in the corona of the red-dwarf star CN Leonis, using a ground-based telescope. The X-ray flux inferred from our data is consistent with previously measured X-ray fluxes, and the non-thermal line width of 18.4 km s-1 indicates great similarities between solar and stellar coronal heating mechanisms. The accessibility and spectral resolution (45,000) of the ground-based instrument are much better than those of X-ray satellites, so a new window to the study of stellar coronae has been opened.

  20. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Ground-based Observations of the Solar Sources of Space Weather (Invited Review)

    CERN Document Server

    Veronig, Astrid M

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and its activity is a task of growing importance in the frame of space weather research and awareness. Major space weather disturbances at Earth have their origin in energetic outbursts from the Sun: solar flares, coronal mass ejections and associated solar energetic particles. In this review we discuss the importance and complementarity of ground-based and space-based observations for space weather studies. The main focus is drawn on ground-based observations in the visible range of the spectrum, in particular in the diagnostically manifold H$\\alpha$ spectral line, which enables us to detect and study solar flares, filaments, filament eruptions, and Moreton waves. Existing H$\\alpha$ networks such as the GONG and the Global High-Resolution H$\\alpha$ Network are discussed. As an example of solar observations from space weather research to operations, we present the system of real-time detection of H$\\alpha$ flares and filaments established at Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory (KSO; Austria) in the...

  2. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Modelling systematics of ground-based transit photometry I. Implications on transit timing variations

    CERN Document Server

    von Essen, C; Mallonn, M; Tingley, B; Marcussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The transit timing variation technique (TTV) has been widely used to detect and characterize multiple planetary systems. Due to the observational biases imposed mainly by the photometric conditions and instrumentation and the high signal-to-noise required to produce primary transit observations, ground-based data acquired using small telescopes limit the technique to the follow-up of hot Jupiters. However, space-based missions such as Kepler and CoRoT have already revealed that hot Jupiters are mainly found in single systems. Thus, it is natural to question ourselves if we are properly using the observing time at hand carrying out such follow-ups, or if the use of medium-to-low quality transit light curves, combined with current standard techniques of data analysis, could be playing a main role against exoplanetary search via TTVs. The purpose of this work is to investigate to what extent ground-based observations treated with current modelling techniques are reliable to detect and characterize additional pla...

  4. Pc5 Oscillation Analysis by the Satellite and Ground-Based Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Potapov; T. Polyushkina; T. L. Zhang; H. Zhao; A. Guglielmi; J. Kultima

    2005-01-01

    Large amplitude Pc5 event was observed in the space and on ground on August 3, 2001, about three hours after contact of the strong discontinuity in the solar wind with the magnetosphere according to data from ACE and Wind satellites. The Pc5 amplitude was as high as 15 nT in the tail of magnetosphere and about 5 nT at the ground based stations. In the magnetosphere Pc5 waves were observed by Cluster and Polar satellites, which occupied positions in the morning part of the near tail at the close field lines but were parted by distance of 11.5 Re, mainly along the x-axis of the GSM coordinate system. Both compressional and transverse components of the Pc5 wave activity were observed in the space, with the transverse component having the larger amplitude. Time delay between the Cluster and Polar satellites was about 8 minutes, which could be interpreted as a wave propagation from the geomagnetic tail to the Earth with the 150km/s group velocity.The ground-based Pc5 activity was analysed by using data from the Image magnetometer network. Doubtless demonstrations of a field line resonant structure were found in variations of amplitude and polarization with latitude. Finnish chain of search coil magnetometers observed modulated Pc1 emission simultaneously with the Pc5 wave train. A possibility of non-linear impact of Pc5 wave energy on the plasma and waves in the magnetosphere is discussed.

  5. Towards the development of tamper-resistant, ground-based mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Mobile sensor nodes hold great potential for collecting field data using fewer resources than human operators would require and potentially requiring fewer sensors than a fixed-position sensor array. It would be very beneficial to allow these mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended with a minimum of human intervention. In order to allow mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended in a field environment, it is imperative that they be capable of identifying and responding to external agents that may attempt to tamper with, damage or steal the mobile sensor nodes, while still performing their data collection mission. Potentially hostile external agents could include animals, other mobile sensor nodes, or humans. This work will focus on developing control policies to help enable a mobile sensor node to identify and avoid capture by a hostile un-mounted human. The work is developed in a simulation environment, and demonstrated using a non-holonomic, ground-based mobile sensor node. This work will be a preliminary step toward ensuring the cyber-physical security of ground-based mobile sensor nodes that operate unattended in potentially unfriendly environments.

  6. a Universal De-Noising Algorithm for Ground-Based LIDAR Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Xiang, Chengzhi; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Ground-based lidar, working as an effective remote sensing tool, plays an irreplaceable role in the study of atmosphere, since it has the ability to provide the atmospheric vertical profile. However, the appearance of noise in a lidar signal is unavoidable, which leads to difficulties and complexities when searching for more information. Every de-noising method has its own characteristic but with a certain limitation, since the lidar signal will vary with the atmosphere changes. In this paper, a universal de-noising algorithm is proposed to enhance the SNR of a ground-based lidar signal, which is based on signal segmentation and reconstruction. The signal segmentation serving as the keystone of the algorithm, segments the lidar signal into three different parts, which are processed by different de-noising method according to their own characteristics. The signal reconstruction is a relatively simple procedure that is to splice the signal sections end to end. Finally, a series of simulation signal tests and real dual field-of-view lidar signal shows the feasibility of the universal de-noising algorithm.

  7. Understanding the Laminar Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone from Ground-Based, Airborne, Spaceborne, and Modeling Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, Mike; Johnson, Matthew S.; Huang, Guanyu; Kuang, Shi; Wang, Lihua; Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Laminar ozone structure is a ubiquitous feature of tropospheric-ozone distributions resulting from dynamic and chemical atmospheric processes. Understanding the characteristics of these ozone laminae and the mechanisms responsible for producing them is important to outline the transport pathways of trace gases and to quantify the impact of different sources on tropospheric background ozone. In this study, we present a new method to detect ozone laminae to understand their climatological characteristics of occurrence frequency in terms of thickness and altitude. We employ both ground-based and airborne ozone lidar measurements and other synergistic observations and modeling to investigate the sources and mechanisms such as biomass burning transport, stratospheric intrusion, lightning-generated NOx, and nocturnal low-level jets that are responsible for depleted or enhanced tropospheric ozone layers. Spaceborne (e.g., OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument), TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution)) measurements of these laminae will observe greater horizontal extent and lower vertical resolution than balloon-borne or lidar measurements will quantify. Using integrated ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations in a modeling framework affords insight into how to gain knowledge of both the vertical and horizontal evolution of these ubiquitous ozone laminae.

  8. Ground Based Retrievals of Small Ice Crystals and Water Phase in Arctic Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Subhashree; Mitchell, David L.; DeSlover, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    The microphysical properties of cirrus clouds are uncertain due to the problem of ice particles shattering at the probe inlet upon sampling. To facilitate better estimation of small ice crystal concentrations in cirrus clouds, a new ground-based remote sensing technique has been used in combination with in situ aircraft measurements. Data from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted at the north slope of Alaska (winter 2004), have been used to test a new method for retrieving the liquid water path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) in mixed phase clouds. The framework of the retrieval algorithm consists of the modified anomalous diffraction approximation or MADA (for mixed phase cloud optical properties), a radar reflectivity-ice microphysics relationship and a temperature-dependent ice particle size distribution (PSD) scheme. Cloud thermal emission measurements made by the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) yield information on the total water path (TWP) while reflectivity measurements from the Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) are used to derive the IWP. The AERI is also used to indicate the concentration of small ice crystals (DBeer's law absorption. While this is still a work in progress, the anticipated products from this AERI-radar retrieval scheme are the IWP, LWP, small-to-large ice crystal number concentration ratio and effective diameter for cirrus, as well as the ice particle number concentration for a given ice water content (IWC).

  9. Synchronized observations by using the STEREO and the largest ground-based decametre radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.; Mann, G.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Kaiser, M. L.; Briand, C.; Zarka, P.; Abranin, E. P.; Dorovsky, V. V.; Koval, A. A.; Mel'nik, V. N.; Mukha, D. V.; Panchenko, M.

    2013-08-01

    We consider the approach to simultaneous (synchronous) solar observations of radio emission by using the STEREO-WAVES instruments (frequency range 0.125-16 MHz) and the largest ground-based low-frequency radio telescope. We illustrate it by the UTR-2 radio telescope implementation (10-30 MHz). The antenna system of the radio telescope is a T-shape-like array of broadband dipoles and is located near the village Grakovo in the Kharkiv region (Ukraine). The third observation point on the ground in addition to two space-based ones improves the space-mission performance capabilities for the determination of radio-emission source directivity. The observational results from the high sensitivity antenna UTR-2 are particularly useful for analysis of STEREO data in the condition of weak event appearances during solar activity minima. In order to improve the accuracy of flux density measurements, we also provide simultaneous observations with a large part of the UTR-2 radio telescope array and its single dipole close to the STEREO-WAVES antennas in sensitivity. This concept has been studied by comparing the STEREO data with ground-based records from 2007-2011 and shown to be effective. The capabilities will be useful in the implementation of new instruments (LOFAR, LWA, MWA, etc.) and during the future Solar Orbiter mission.

  10. Ground-based and spacecraft observations of lightning activity on Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, V.; Mylostna, C.; Konovalenko, A.; Zarka, P.; Fischer, G.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Litvinenko, G.; Rucker, H.; Sidorchuk, M.; Ryabov, B.; Vavriv, D.; Ryabov, V.; Cecconi, B.; Coffre, A.; Denis, L.; Fabrice, C.; Pallier, L.; Schneider, J.; Kozhyn, R.; Vinogradov, V.; Mukha, D.; Weber, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Nikolaenko, V.

    2012-02-01

    In late 2007, Saturn electrostatic discharges (SED) were simultaneously observed at the radio telescope UTR-2 and with the Cassini spacecraft. Observations at UTR-2 were performed with a multichannel receiver in the frequency range 12-33 MHz, and those performed on Cassini-with a swept frequency receiver that is part of the RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) instrument in the frequency band 1.8-16 MHz. We got a very good coincidence between data of UTR-2 and Cassini. It is shown for the first time that ground-based radio astronomy lets us detect Saturn's lightning with a high degree of reliability despite terrestrial interferences. This is the necessary basis for further detailed study of the temporal and spectral characteristics of the SEDs with ground based radio telescopes. Based on six observation sessions, several parameters of SEDs were determined, in particularly a correlation of 0.77±0.15 between the average intensity of storms and the e-folding time.

  11. Nighttime Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements Using a Ground-based Lunar Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, Tim; Omar, Ali; Haggard, Charles; Pippin, Margaret; Tasaddaq, Aasam; Stone, Tom; Rodriguez, Jon; Slutsker, Ilya; Eck, Tom; Holben, Brent; hide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was proposed to combine AERONET network photometer capabilities with a high precision lunar model used for satellite calibration to retrieve columnar nighttime AODs. The USGS lunar model can continuously provide pre-atmosphere high precision lunar irradiance determinations for multiple wavelengths at ground sensor locations. When combined with measured irradiances from a ground-based AERONET photometer, atmospheric column transmissions can determined yielding nighttime column aerosol AOD and Angstrom coefficients. Additional demonstrations have utilized this approach to further develop calibration methods and to obtain data in polar regions where extended periods of darkness occur. This new capability enables more complete studies of the diurnal behavior of aerosols, and feedback for models and satellite retrievals for the nighttime behavior of aerosols. It is anticipated that the nighttime capability of these sensors will be useful for comparisons with satellite lidars such as CALIOP and CATS in additional to ground-based lidars in MPLNET at night, when the signal-to-noise ratio is higher than daytime and more precise AOD comparisons can be made.

  12. Evaluation of brightness temperature from a forward model of ground-based microwave radiometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rambabu; J S Pillai; A Agarwal; G Pandithurai

    2014-06-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers are getting great attention in recent years due to their capability to profile the temperature and humidity at high temporal and vertical resolution in the lower troposphere. The process of retrieving these parameters from the measurements of radiometric brightness temperature () includes the inversion algorithm, which uses the background information from a forward model. In the present study, an algorithm development and evaluation of this forward model for a ground-based microwave radiometer, being developed by Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER) of India, is presented. Initially, the analysis of absorption coefficient and weighting function at different frequencies was made to select the channels. Further the range of variation of for these selected channels for the year 2011, over the two stations Mumbai and Delhi is discussed. Finally the comparison between forward-model simulated s and radiometer measured s at Mahabaleshwar (73.66°E and 17.93°N) is done to evaluate the model. There is good agreement between model simulations and radiometer observations, which suggests that these forward model simulations can be used as background for inversion models for retrieving the temperature and humidity profiles.

  13. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  14. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  15. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. De-mystifying earned value management for ground based astronomy projects, large and small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Timothy; Brennan, Patricia; Mueller, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The scale and complexity of today's ground based astronomy projects have justifiably required Principal Investigator's and their project teams to adopt more disciplined management processes and tools in order to achieve timely and accurate quantification of the progress and relative health of their projects. Earned Value Management (EVM) is one such tool. Developed decades ago and used extensively in the defense and construction industries, and now a requirement of NASA projects greater than $20M; EVM has gained a foothold in ground-based astronomy projects. The intent of this paper is to de-mystify EVM by discussing the fundamentals of project management, explaining how EVM fits with existing principles, and describing key concepts every project can use to implement their own EVM system. This paper also discusses pitfalls to avoid during implementation and obstacles to its success. The authors report on their organization's most recent experience implementing EVM for the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) project. G-CLEF is a fiber-fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), planned for construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama Desert region.

  19. Augmenting WFIRST Microlensing with a Ground-based Optical Telescope Network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Augmenting the WFIRST microlensing campaigns with intensive observations from a ground-based network of wide-field survey telescopes would have several major advantages. First, it would enable one-dimensional (1-D) microlens parallax measurements over the entire mass range $M\\gtrsim M_\\oplus$. For luminous lenses, such 1-D parallax measurements can be promoted to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) by high-resolution imaging a few years after the observations. This would provide crucial information not only about the hosts of planets and other lenses, but also enable a much more precise Galactic model. The addition of such a ground-based survey would also yield full 2-D vector parallax measurements, with largest sensitivity to low-mass lenses, which (being non-luminous) are not subject to followup imaging. These 2-D parallax measurements will directly yield mass and distance measurements for most planetary and binary events. It would also yield additional complete solutions for single-len...

  20. Which future for electromagnetic Astronomy: Ground Based vs Space Borne Large Astrophysical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    The combined use of large ground based facilities and large space observatories is playing a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum, allowing high sensitivity observations from the lower radio wavelength to the higher energy gamma rays.It is nowadays clear that a forward steps in the understanding of the Universe evolution and large scale structure formation is essential and only possible with the combined use of multiwavelength imaging and spectral high resolution instruments.The increasing size, complexity and cost of large ground and space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. If the present set of astronomical facilities is impressive and complete, with nicely complementary space and ground based telescopes, the scenario becomes worrisome and critical in the next two decades. In fact, only a few ‘Large’ main space missions are planned and there is a need to ensure proper ground facility coverage: the synergy Ground-Space is not escapable in the timeframe 2020-2030.The scope of this talk is to review the current astronomical instrumentation panorama also in view of the recent major national agencies and international bodies programmatic decisions.This Division B meeting give us a unique opportunity to review the current situation and discuss the future perspectives taking advantage of the large audience ensured by the IAU GA.

  1. Large-Scale Ionospheric Effects Related to Electron-Gyro Harmonics: What We Have Learned from HAARP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Secan, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The HAARP ionospheric modification facility has unique capabilities that enable a wide range of HF frequencies with transmit powers ranging from very low to very high values. We will review a range of experiment results that illustrate large-scale ionospheric effects when the HF frequencies used are close to electron gyro-harmoncs and we focus mainly on the 3rd and 4th harmonics. The data are primarily from the UHF diagnosticc radar and total electron content (TEC) observations through the heated topside ionosphere. Radar data for HF frequencies just above and just below gyro harmoncs show significant differences in radar scatter cross-section that suggest differing plasma processes, and this effect is HF power dependent with some effects only observable with full HF power. For the production of artificial ionization in the E-region when the HF frequency is near gyro-harmoncs the results differ significantly for relatively small (50 kHz) variations in the HF frequency. We show how slow FM scans in conjunction with gyro-harmonic effects are effective in producing artificial ionization in the lower ionosphere.In the topside ionosphere enhanced density and upward fluxes have been observed and these may act as effective ducts for the propagation of VLF waves upward into the magneosphere. Experimental techniques have been developed that may be used to continuously maintain these effects in the topside ionossphere.

  2. Ground-based Magnetometer Array Science for IHY: Opportunities for an Array in Africa within the UNBSS Developing Nations Small Instrument Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Milling, D. K.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.

    2005-12-01

    Arrays of ground-based magnetometers provide the capability for the meso- and global-scale monitoring of current systems and waves in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Recent advances in the processing of multiple time series magnetometer array data allows the inversion of standing Alfven eigenfrequencies for the purposes of monitoring density depletion and refilling dynamics in the plasmasphere, plasmapause and plasmatrough regions. In addition, mid-latitude magnetometer arrays can also allow the monitoring of the ULF waves which are implicated in the transport and acceleration of MeV energy electrons in the radiation belts, as well as monitoring the penetration of asymmetric ring current and substorm current systems to mid- and low-latitudes during storms. Fluxgate magnetometer technology is relatively inexpensive, and the data sets are small allowing relatively easy collection of data through the low-band-width internet connections. However, the accumulation of magnetometer data into nation-, continental- and global-scale array coverage provides a powerful tool for pursuing IHY science objectives. We present examples of how these concepts might be exploited through the UN Developing Nations Small Instrument program with the creation, coordination and operation of an IHY Magnetometer Array (IHYMag). The IHY science focus on storms also ensures that mid-latitude and even equatorial developing nations coverage would ensure IHYMag data is a valuable resource for IHY scientists. African locations offer a prime opportunity to expand the global magnetometer coverage into this region during IHY. Technology being developed for instrument development and data collection for the CARISMA formerly CANOPUS) magnetometer array expansion, including planned use of solar and/or wind turbine power at the remote BACK magnetometer site in the CARISMA array, might also form a basis for the hardware development which could be used to support a Developing Nations Small

  3. Detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with Japanese earthquakes on the basis of reception of LF transmitter signals on the satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recently reported a lot of electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes (EQs. Among these, the ground-based reception of subionospheric waves from VLF/LF transmitters, is recognized as a promising tool to investigate the ionospheric perturbations associated with EQs. This paper deals with the corresponding whistler-mode signals in the upper ionosphere from those VLF/LF transmitters, which is the counterpart of subionospheric signals. The whistler-mode VLF/LF transmitter signals are detected on board the French satellite, DEMETER launched on 29 June 2004. We have chosen several large Japanese EQs including the Miyagi-oki EQ (16 August 2005; M=7.2, depth=36 km, and the target transmitter is a Japanese LF transmitter (JJY whose transmitter frequency is 40 kHz. Due to large longitudinal separation of each satellite orbit (2500 km, we have to adopt a statistical analysis over a rather long period (such as 3 weeks or one month to have reliable data set. By analyzing the spatial distribution of JJY signal intensity (in the form of signal to noise ratio SNR during a period of 4 months including the Miyagi-oki EQ, we have found significant changes in the intensity; generally the SNR is significantly depleted before the EQ, which is considered to be a precursory ionospheric signature of the EQ. This abnormal effect is reasonably explained in terms of either (1 enhanced absorption of whistler-mode LF signals in the lower ionosphere due to the lowering of the lower ionosphere, or (2 nonlinear wave-wave scattering. Finally, this analysis suggests an important role of satellite observation in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  4. Geomagnetic and ionospheric response to the arrival of interplanetary shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakhovsky, Vladimir; Pilipenko, Vjacheslav; Kozyreva, Olga; Baddeley, Lisa; Sakharov, Yaroslav; Samsonov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    The magnetosphere and ionosphere response to the arrival of interplanetary shock wave at 24 January 2012 caused by CME was investigated using complex of spacecraft and ground-based instruments. The SSC produce strong increase of the density, temperature, energetic particles fluxes with energies from 40 keV to >2 MeV inside the magnetosphere as seen from the THEMIS, GOES spacecrafts data. The interplanetary shock wave which produce SSC is a not shock wave in the outer magnetosphere (Mf ≈ 0.4) according the THEMIS spacecraft data. SSC produce the substorm development on the night side during prolonged positive Bz-component of IMF and generation of Pc4-5 pulsations on the morning side. On the evening side SSC cause the increase of the TEC (ΔTEC≈ 8-9%), determined by the GPS receivers in Scandinavia. The response was accompanied by the increase of the electron density at the altitudes 100-200 km as seen from the VHF EISCAT radar in Tromso. So the main contribution to TEC increase has the lower part of the ionosphere. Obviously the TEC response is caused the particle precipitation into the ionosphere. It testified by the strong increase of the aurora intensity at different spectrum lines (400-700 nm) which registered by hyperspectral imager NARUSSCA II of the Polar Geophysical institute in Svalbard. The increase of the CNA in Scandinavia and in Svalbard was also registered during SSC. The SSC produce strong increase of the GIC (geomagnetically induced currents) at electric power lines of the Kola Peninsula and Karelia ( 30 A).

  5. Ionospheric and boundary contributions to the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula for Dst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula for the disturbance magnetic field averaged over the Earth's surface, universally used to interpret the geomagnetic Dst index, can be generalized, by using the well known method of deriving it from the virial theorem, to include the effects of ionospheric currents. There is an added term proportional to the global integral of the vertical mechanical force that balances the vertical component of the Lorentz force J×B/c in the ionosphere; a downward mechanical force reduces, and an upward increases, the depression of the magnetic field. If the vertical component of the ionospheric Ohm's law holds exactly, the relevant force on the plasma is the collisional friction between the neutral atmosphere and the vertically flowing plasma. An equal and opposite force is exerted on the neutral atmosphere and thus appears in its virial theorem. The ionospheric effect on Dst can then be related to the changes of kinetic and gravitational energy contents of the neutral atmosphere; since these changes are brought about by energy input from the magnetosphere, there is an implied upper limit to the effect on Dst which in general is relatively small in comparison to the contribution of the plasma energy content in the magnetosphere. Hence the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula can be applied without major modification, even in the case of strong partial ring currents; the ionospheric closure currents implied by the local time asymmetry have only a relatively small effect on the globally averaged disturbance field, comparable to other sources of uncertainty. When derived from the virial theorem applied to a bounded volume (e.g. the magnetosphere bounded by the magnetopause and a cross-section of the magnetotail, the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula contains also several boundary surface terms which can be identified as contributions of the magnetopause (Chapman-Ferraro and of the magnetotail currents.

  6. Experimental evidence of electromagnetic pollution of ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis

    The Earth’s ionosphere responds to external perturbations originated mainly in the Sun, which is the primary driver of the space weather (SW). But solar activity influences on the ionosphere and the Earth's atmosphere (i.e., the energy transfer in the direction of the Sun-magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere-surface of the Earth), though important, is not a unique factor affecting its state - there is also a significant impact of the powerful natural and anthropogenic processes, which occur on the Earth’s surface and propagating in opposite direction along the Earth’s surface-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere chain. Numerous experimental data confirm that the powerful sources and consumers of electrical energy (radio transmitters, power plants, power lines and industrial objects) cause different ionospheric phenomena, for example, changes of the electromagnetic (EM) field and plasma in the ionosphere, and affect on the state of the Earth atmosphere. Anthropogenic EM effects in the ionosphere are already observed by the scientific satellites and the consequences of their impact on the ionosphere are not currently known. Therefore, it is very important and urgent task to conduct the statistically significant research of the ionospheric parameters variations due to the influence of the powerful man-made factors, primarily owing to substantial increase of the EM energy production. Naturally, the satellite monitoring of the ionosphere and magnetosphere in the frequency range from tens of hertz to tens of MHz with wide ground support offers the best opportunity to observe the EM energy release, both in the global and local scales. Parasitic EM radiation from the power supply lines, when entering the ionosphere-magnetosphere system, might have an impact on the electron population in the radiation belt. Its interaction with trapped particles will change their energy and pitch angles; as a result particle precipitations might occur. Observations of EM emission by

  7. Ionospheric Scintillation Effects on GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenburgh, R. A.; Smithtro, C.; Groves, K.

    2007-12-01

    . Ionospheric scintillation of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals threatens navigation and military operations by degrading performance or making GPS unavailable. Scintillation is particularly active, although not limited to, a belt encircling the earth within 20 degrees of the geomagnetic equator. As GPS applications and users increases, so does the potential for detrimental impacts from scintillation. We examined amplitude scintillation data spanning seven years from Ascension Island, U.K.; Ancon, Peru; and Antofagasta, Chile in the Atlantic/Americas longitudinal sector at as well as data from Parepare, Indonesia; Marak Parak, Malaysia; Pontianak, Indonesia; Guam; and Diego Garcia, U.K.; in the Pacific longitudinal sector. From these data, we calculate percent probability of occurrence of scintillation at various intensities described by the S4 index. Additionally, we determine Dilution of Precision at one minute resolution. We examine diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics and make spatial comparisons. In general, activity was greatest during the equinoxes and solar maximum, although scintillation at Antofagasta, Chile was higher during 1998 rather than at solar maximum.

  8. Charge Balance in the Martian Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esman, Teresa; Yelle, Roger V.; Stone, Shane W.; Andersson, Laila; Fowler, Christopher Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Eparvier, Francis; Mahaffy, Paul; Ergun, Bob; Elrod, Meredith K.; MAVEN

    2016-10-01

    We present empirical models of the Martian ionosphere in conjunction with data from the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW), Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS), and Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor (EUVM) instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission (MAVEN) spacecraft. Among the data provided by MAVEN are electron densities and temperatures, ion and neutral densities, and solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. We explore a number of contributors to the CO2 photoionization rate, with a specific focus on the role of electron temperatures, which, prior to MAVEN, were not well-known. We compare our results with expectations of the ionospheric structure and behavior to confirm our understanding of the basic structure of the Martian ionosphere in the photochemical region. We show that the ionosphere of Mars is well matched by photochemical equilibrium to within the accuracy of the measurements. These results will aid in the development of more complex ionospheric and escape models and lead to a comprehensive and global scale picture of thermal ion escape on Mars.

  9. Effects of a solar wind dynamic pressure increase in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Juusola

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available On 17 July 2005, an earthward bound north-south oriented magnetic cloud and its sheath were observed by the ACE, SoHO, and Wind solar wind monitors. A steplike increase of the solar wind dynamic pressure during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions was related to the leading edge of the sheath. A timing analysis between the three spacecraft revealed that this front was not aligned with the GSE y-axis, but had a normal (−0.58,0.82,0. Hence, the first contact with the magnetosphere occurred on the dawnside rather than at the subsolar point. Fortunately, Cluster, Double Star 1, and Geotail happened to be distributed close to the magnetopause in this region, which made it possible to closely monitor the motion of the magnetopause. After the pressure front had impacted the magnetosphere, the magnetopause was perceived first to move inward and then immediately to correct the overshoot by slightly expanding again such that it ended up between the Cluster constellation with Double Star 1 inside the magnetosphere and Geotail in the magnetosheath. Coinciding with the inward and subsequent outward motion, the ground-based magnetic field at low latitudes was observed to first strengthen and then weaken. As the magnetopause position stabilised, so did the ground-based magnetic field intensity, settling at a level slightly higher than before the pressure increase. Altogether the magnetopause was moving for about 15 min after its first contact with the front. The high latitude ionospheric signature consisted of two parts: a shorter (few minutes and less intense preliminary part comprised a decrease of AL and a negative variation of PC. A longer (about ten minutes and more intense main part of the signature comprised an increase of AU and a positive variation of PC. Measurements from several ground-based magnetometer networks (210 MM CPMN, CANMOS, CARISMA, GIMA, IMAGE, MACCS, SuperMAG, THEMIS, TGO were used to obtain information on the

  10. Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions in Australian landscapes: Comparing ground based mobile surveying data to GOSAT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, S.; Iverach, C.; Kelly, B. F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is threatening the health and stability of the natural world and human society. Such concerns were emphasized at COP21 conference in Paris 2015 which highlighted the global need to improve our knowledge of sources of greenhouse gas and to develop methods to mitigate the effects of their emissions. Ongoing spatial and temporal measurements of greenhouse gases at both point and regional scales is important for clarification of climate change mechanisms and accounting. The Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from orbit. As existing ground monitoring stations are limited and still unevenly distributed, satellite observations provide important frequent, spatially extensive, but low resolution observations. Recent developments in portable laser based greenhouse gas measurement systems have enabled the rapid measurement of greenhouse gases in ppb at the ground surface. This study was conducted to map major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the eastern states of Australia at the landscape scale and to compare the results to GOSAT observations. During April 2016 we conducted a regional CH4 and CO2 mobile survey, using an LGR greenhouse gas analyzer. Measurements were made along a 4000 KM circuit through major cities, country towns, dry sclerophyll forests, coastal wetlands, coal mining regions, coal seam gas developments, dryland farming and irrigated agricultural landscapes. The ground-based survey data were then compared with the data (L2) from GOSAT. Ground-based mobile surveys showed that there are clear statistical differences in the ground level atmospheric concentration of CH4 and CO2 associated with all major changes in land use. These changes extend for kilometers, and cover one or more GOSAT pixels. In the coal mining districts the ground-level atmospheric concentration of CH4 exceeded 2 ppm for over 40 km, yet this was not discernable in the retrieved data (L2

  11. Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo retrieved from ground-based measurements in the UV-visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buchard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo (SSA from ground-based spectral measurements in the UV-visible are conducted at Villeneuve d'Ascq (VdA in France. In order to estimate this parameter, measurements of global and diffuse UV-visible solar irradiances performed under cloud-free conditions since 2003 with a spectroradiometer operated by the Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique (LOA are used. The technique consists in comparing the measured irradiance values to modelled irradiances computed for various SSA. The retrieval is restricted to the 330–450 nm range to avoid ozone influence.

    For validation purpose, the retrieved values of SSA at 440 nm are compared to the ones obtained from sunphotometer measurements of the AERONET/PHOTONS network available on the LOA site. The results are rather satisfying: in 2003 and 2005–2006 the Root Mean Square (RMS of the differences are about 0.05, these values are within the uncertainty domain of retrieval of both products. Distinction between days characterized by different aerosol content, by means of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT retrieved from ground-based measurements at the same wavelength, shows that the comparisons between both products are better when AOT are higher. Indeed in case AOT are greater than 0.2, the RMS is 0.027 in 2003 and 0.035 in 2005–2006. The SSA estimated at 340 and 380 nm from ground-based spectra are also studied, though no validation can be carried out with sunphotometer data (440 nm is the shortest wavelength at which the SSA is provided by the network. The good comparisons observed at 440 nm can let assume that the SSA retrieved from spectroradiometer measurements at the two other wavelengths are also obtained with a good confidence level. Thus these values in the UV range can be used to complete aerosol data provided by AERONET/PHOTONS at VdA. Moreover they can be used for a best knowledge of the aerosol absorption that is necessary to quantify the

  12. Ground-based Observations of the Solar Sources of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronig, A. M.; Pötzi, W.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and its activity is a task of growing importance in the frame of space weather research and awareness. Major space weather disturbances at Earth have their origin in energetic outbursts from the Sun: solar flares, coronal mass ejections and associated solar energetic particles. In this review we discuss the importance and complementarity of ground-based and space-based observations for space weather studies. The main focus is drawn on ground-based observations in the visible range of the spectrum, in particular in the diagnostically manifold Hα spectral line, which enables us to detect and study solar flares, filaments (prominences), filament (prominence) eruptions, and Moreton waves. Existing Hα networks such as the GONG and the Global High-Resolution Hα Network are discussed. As an example of solar observations from space weather research to operations, we present the system of real-time detection of Hα flares and filaments established at Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO; Austria) in the frame of the space weather segment of the ESA Space Situational Awareness programme (swe.ssa.esa.int). An evaluation of the system, which is continuously running since July 2013 is provided, covering an evaluation period of almost 2.5 years. During this period, KSO provided 3020 hours of real-time Hα observations at the ESA SWE portal. In total, 824 Hα flares were detected and classified by the real-time detection system, including 174 events of Hα importance class 1 and larger. For the total sample of events, 95 % of the automatically determined flare peak times lie within ±5 min of the values given in the official optical flares reports (by NOAA and KSO), and 76 % of the start times. The heliographic positions determined are better than ±5°. The probability of detection of flares of importance 1 or larger is 95 %, with a false alarm rate of 16 %. These numbers confirm the high potential of automatic flare detection and alerting from ground-based

  13. Ground-based follow-up in relation to Kepler asteroseismic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uytterhoeven, K.; Briquet, M.; Bruntt, H.; De Cat, P.; Frandsen, S.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Kiss, L.; Kurtz, D. W.; Marconi, M.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Østensen, R.; Randall, S.; Southworth, J.; Szabó, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Kepler space mission, successfully launched in March 2009, is providing continuous and high-precision photometry of thousands of stars simultaneously. The uninterrupted time-series of stars of all known pulsation types are a precious source for asteroseismic studies. The Kepler data do not provide information on the physical parameters, such as T_eff, log g, metallicity, and v sin i, which are crucial for successful asteroseismic modelling. Additional ground-based time-series data are needed to characterize mode parameters in several types of pulsating stars. Therefore, ground-based multi-colour photometry and mid/high-resolution spectroscopy are needed to complement the space data. We present ground-based activities within KASC on selected asteroseismic Kepler targets of several pulsation types. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope and William Herschel Telescope operated by the Isaac Newton Group, with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica), and with the Mercator telescope, operated by the Flemish Community, all on the island of La Palma at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). Based on observations made with the IAC-80 operated on the island of Tenerife by the IAC at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. Also based on observations taken at the observatories of Sierra Nevada, San Pedro Mártir, Vienna, Xinglong, Apache Point, Lulin, Tautenburg, McDonald, Skinakas, Pic du Midi, Mauna Kea, Steward Observatory, Mt. Wilson, Białków Observatory of the Wrocław University, Piszkésteto Mountain Station, and Observatoire de Haute Provence. Based on spectra taken at the Loiano (INAF - OA Bologna), Serra La Nave (INAF - OA Catania) and Asiago (INAF - OA Padova) observatories. Also

  14. Overview and Initial Results from the DEEPWAVE Airborne and Ground-Based Measurement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep-propagating gravity wave experiment (DEEPWAVE) was performed on and over New Zealand, the Tasman Sea, and the Southern Ocean with core airborne measurements extending from 5 June to 21 July 2014 and supporting ground-based measurements spanning a longer interval. The NSF/NCAR GV employed standard flight-level measurements and new airborne lidar and imaging measurements of gravity waves (GWs) from sources at lower altitudes throughout the stratosphere and into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The new GV lidars included a Rayleigh lidar measuring atmospheric density and temperature from ~20-60 km and a sodium resonance lidar measuring sodium density and temperature at ~75-105 km. An airborne Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper (AMTM) and two IR "wing" cameras imaged the OH airglow temperature and/or intensity fields extending ~900 km across the GV flight track. The DLR Falcon was equipped with its standard flight-level instruments and an aerosol Doppler lidar measuring radial winds below the Falcon. DEEPWAVE also included extensive ground-based measurements in New Zealand, Tasmania, and Southern Ocean Islands. DEEPWAVE performed 26 GV flights and 13 Falcon flights, and ground-based measurements occurred whether or not the aircraft were flying. Collectively, many diverse cases of GW forcing, propagation, refraction, and dissipation spanning altitudes of 0-100 km were observed. Examples include strong mountain wave (MW) forcing and breaking in the lower and middle stratosphere, weak MW forcing yielding MW penetration into the MLT having very large amplitudes and momentum fluxes, MW scales at higher altitudes ranging from ~10-250 km, large-scale trailing waves from orography refracting into the polar vortex and extending to high altitudes, GW generation by deep convection, large-scale GWs arising from jet stream sources, and strong MWs in the MLT arising from strong surface flow over a small island. DEEPWAVE yielded a number of surprises, among

  15. System-level view of geospace dynamics: Challenges for high-latitude ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, research programs including GEM, CEDAR, GEMSIS, GO Canada, and others are focusing on how geospace works as a system. Coupling sits at the heart of system level dynamics. In all cases, coupling is accomplished via fundamental processes such as reconnection and plasma waves, and can be between regions, energy ranges, species, scales, and energy reservoirs. Three views of geospace are required to attack system level questions. First, we must observe the fundamental processes that accomplish the coupling. This "observatory view" requires in situ measurements by satellite-borne instruments or remote sensing from powerful well-instrumented ground-based observatories organized around, for example, Incoherent Scatter Radars. Second, we need to see how this coupling is controlled and what it accomplishes. This demands quantitative observations of the system elements that are being coupled. This "multi-scale view" is accomplished by networks of ground-based instruments, and by global imaging from space. Third, if we take geospace as a whole, the system is too complicated, so at the top level we need time series of simple quantities such as indices that capture important aspects of the system level dynamics. This requires a "key parameter view" that is typically provided through indices such as AE and DsT. With the launch of MMS, and ongoing missions such as THEMIS, Cluster, Swarm, RBSP, and ePOP, we are entering a-once-in-a-lifetime epoch with a remarkable fleet of satellites probing processes at key regions throughout geospace, so the observatory view is secure. With a few exceptions, our key parameter view provides what we need. The multi-scale view, however, is compromised by space/time scales that are important but under-sampled, combined extent of coverage and resolution that falls short of what we need, and inadequate conjugate observations. In this talk, I present an overview of what we need for taking system level research to its next level, and how

  16. Model Studies of Electrical Coupling Processes in Equatorial Mesosphere and Lower Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonev, Peter; Velinov, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The quasi-electrostatic response of equatorial lower ionosphere and mesosphere to forcing from below by electrical sources located in the troposphere (e.g. thunderclouds) or at surface (e.g. related to earthquakes) is studied. Such sources generate quasi-static (QS) electric fields in the lower ionosphere and mesosphere which can be large enough in nighttime conditions to cause electron heating, modifications of conductivity and electron density, etc. We demonstrate that this response to the forcing from below highly depends on the geomagnetic latitude determining the magnetic field lines inclination, and thus, the tensor of anisotropic conductivity. Our previous results show that the QS electric fields in the lower nighttime ionosphere above tropospheric sources are much bigger and have larger horizontal extension than those generated at high latitudes by otherwise same conditions. Now we estimate by modeling the electric currents and fields generated at equatorial latitudes in lower ionosphere and mesosphere above electrical charges located in the troposphere or at ground which can have different horizontal dimensions during quiet periods and of their self-consistent effects to electron heating and conductivity. Specific configurations of electric currents and distributions of related electric fields are estimated first by constant (ambient) conductivity. Then, these are evaluated self-consistently with conductivity modification. The electric currents are re-oriented above ~85 km and flow in a narrow horizontal layer where they dense. Respectively, the electric fields and their effect on conductivity have much larger horizontal scale than at middle latitudes (few hundred of kilometers). Sources of large horizontal dimensions, such as mesoscale convective structures and complexes or earthquakes, cause enhancements of electric fields and their effects due to superposition of horizontally reoriented electric currents well above 70 km. In case of thunderstorms these

  17. An Initial Investigation of Ionospheric Gradients for Detection of Ionospheric Disturbances over Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Meltem; Arikan, Feza; Koroglu, Ozan

    2015-04-01

    Ionosphere is an ionized layer of earth's atmosphere which affect the propagation of radio signals due to highly varying electron density structure. Total Electron Content (TEC) and Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) are convenient measures of total electron density along a ray path. STEC model is given by the line integral of the electron density between the receiver and GPS satellite. TEC and STEC can be estimated by observing the difference between the two GPS signal time delays that have different frequencies L1 (1575 MHz) and L2 (1227 MHz). During extreme ionospheric storms ionospheric gradients becomes larger than those of quiet days since time delays of the radio signals becomes anomalous. Ionosphere gradients can be modeled as a linear semi-infinite wave front with constant propagation speed. One way of computing the ionospheric gradients is to compare the STEC values estimated between two neighbouring GPS stations. In this so-called station-pair method, ionospheric gradients are defined by dividing the difference of the time delays of two receivers, that see the same satellite at the same time period. In this study, ionospheric gradients over Turkey are computed using the Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN-Active) between May 2009 and September 2012. The GPS receivers are paired in east-west and north-south directions with distances less than 150 km. GPS-STEC for each station are calculated using IONOLAB-TEC and IONOLAB-BIAS softwares (www.ionolab.org). Ionospheric delays are calculated for each paired station for both L1 and L2 frequencies and for each satellite in view with 30 s time resolution. During the investigation period, different types of geomagnetic storms, Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TID), Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID) and various earthquakes with magnitudes between 3 to 7.4 have occured. Significant variations in the structure of station-pair gradients have been observed depending on location of station-pairs, the

  18. Representation of the Auroral and Polar Ionosphere in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2013-01-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research presents a selection of papers that document the progress in developing and improving the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), a widely used standard for the parameters that describe the Earths ionosphere. The core set of papers was presented during the 2010 General Assembly of the Committee on Space Research in Bremen, Germany in a session that focused on the representation of the auroral and polar ionosphere in the IRI model. In addition, papers were solicited and submitted from the scientific community in a general call for appropriate papers.

  19. Atmospheric effects assessment program: Ionospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    This document reports efforts on two main goals: to study the short-term ionospheric variability and to study the effects of this variability on high frequency (HF) skywave field strength. To achieve the first goal, ionospheric soundings are being done at 5-minute intervals at San Diego, CA, and at Logan, UT. This time interval was chosen to adequately resolve variations produced by locally generated gravity waves. To study the effects of short-term ionospheric variability on high frequency communications, a circuit is being established to measure the variability of the received HF signal strength. The chosen circuit will have the transmitter located in Forsyth, MT, and the receiver in Imperial Beach, CA (approximately 20 miles south of NRaD).

  20. Ground-Based Sub-Millimagnitude CCD Photometry of Bright Stars using Snapshot Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Andrew W; Aldering, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ground-based sub-millimagnitude (10^7 electrons) to be acquired in a single integration; (iii) pointing the telescope so that all stellar images fall on the same detector pixels; and (iv) using a region of the CCD detector that is free of non-linear or aberrant pixels. We describe semi-automated observations with the Supernova Integrated Field Spectrograph (SNIFS) on the University of Hawaii 2.2m telescope on Mauna Kea, with which we achieved photometric precision as good as 5.2x10^-4 (0.56 mmag) with a 5 minute cadence over a two hour interval. In one experiment, we monitored 8 stars, each separated by several degrees, and achieved sub-mmag precision with a cadence (per star) of ~17 min. Our snapshot technique is suitable for automated searches for planetary transits among multiple, bright-stars.

  1. Global impacts of a Foreshock Bubble: Magnetosheath, magnetopause and ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Archer, Martin; Eastwood, Jonathan; Schwartz, Steven; Horbury, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Using multipoint observations we show, for the first time, that Foreshock Bubbles (FBs) have a global impact on Earth's magnetosphere. We show that an FB, a transient kinetic phenomenon due to the interaction of backstreaming suprathermal ions with a discontinuity, modifies the total pressure upstream of the bow shock showing a decrease within the FB's core and sheath regions. Magnetosheath plasma is accelerated towards the the intersection of the FB's current sheet with the bow shock resulting in fast, sunward, flows as well as outward motion of the magnetopause. Ground-based magnetometers also show signatures of this magnetopause motion simultaneously across at least 7 hours of magnetic local time, corresponding to a distance of 21.5 RE transverse to the Sun-Earth line along the magnetopause. These observed global impacts of the FB are in agreement with previous simulations and in stark contrast to the known localised, smaller scale effects of Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs).

  2. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient.

  3. Chlorine oxide in the stratospheric ozone layer Ground-based detection and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, A.; De Zafra, R. L.; Solomon, P. M.; Barrett, J. W.; Carlson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Stratospheric chlorine oxide, a significant intermediate product in the catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic chlorine, has been detected and measured by a ground-based 204 GHz, millimeter-wave receiver. Data taken at latitude 42 deg N on 17 days between January 10 and February 18, 1980 yield an average chlorine oxide column density of approximately 1.05 x 10 to the 14th/sq cm or approximately 2/3 that of the average of eight in situ balloon flight measurements (excluding the anomalously high data of July 14, 1977) made over the past four years at 32 deg N. Less chlorine oxide below 35 km and a larger vertical gradient than predicted by theoretical models of the stratospheric ozone layer are found.

  4. Autonomous landing of a helicopter UAV with a ground-based multisensory fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dianle; Zhong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Daibing; Shen, Lincheng; Yan, Chengping

    2015-02-01

    In this study, this paper focus on the vision-based autonomous helicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing problems. This paper proposed a multisensory fusion to autonomous landing of an UAV. The systems include an infrared camera, an Ultra-wideband radar that measure distance between UAV and Ground-Based system, an PAN-Tilt Unit (PTU). In order to identify all weather UAV targets, we use infrared cameras. To reduce the complexity of the stereovision or one-cameral calculating the target of three-dimensional coordinates, using the ultra-wideband radar distance module provides visual depth information, real-time Image-PTU tracking UAV and calculate the UAV threedimensional coordinates. Compared to the DGPS, the test results show that the paper is effectiveness and robustness.

  5. Optical turbulence forecast: toward a new era of ground-based astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of the optical turbulence (OT) for astronomical applications obtained with non-hydrostatic atmospherical models at meso-scale presents, with respect to measurements, some advantages. The future of the ground-based astronomy relies upon the potentialities and feasibility of the ELTs. Our ability in knowing, controlling and 'managing' the effects of the turbulence on such a new generation telescopes and facilities are determinant to assure their competitiveness with respect to the space astronomy. In the past several studies have been carried out proving the feasibility of the simulation of realistic Cn2 profiles above astronomical sites. The European Community (FP6 Program) decided recently to fund a Project aiming, from one side, to prove the feasibility of the OT forecasts and the ability of meso-scale models in discriminating astronomical sites from optical turbulence point of view and, from the other side, to boost the development of this discipline at the borderline between the astrophysics...

  6. (21) Lutetia spectrophotometry from Rosetta-OSIRIS images and comparison to ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Massironi, M.; Ferri, F.; da Deppo, V.; Barbieri, C.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    Here we present some preliminary results on surface variegation found on (21) Lutetia from ROSETTA-OSIRIS images acquired on 2010-07-10. The spectrophotometry obtained by means of the two cameras NAC and WAC (Narrow and Wide Angle Cameras) is consistent with ground based observations, and does not show surface diversity above the data error bars. The blue and UV images (shortward 500 nm) may, however, indicate a variegation of the optical properties of the asteroid surface on the Baetica region (Sierks et al., 2011). We also speculate on the contribution due to different illumination and to different ground properties (composition or, more probably, grain size diversity). In particular a correlation with geologic units independently defined by Massironi et al. (2012) is evident, suggesting that the variegation of the ground optical properties is likely to be real.

  7. DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS TOOLS BASED ON GROUND-BASED SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crosetto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ground-Based SAR (GBSAR is a terrestrial remote sensing technique used to measure and monitor deformation. In this paper we describe two complementary approaches to derive deformation measurements using GBSAR data. The first approach is based on radar interferometry, while the second one exploits the GBSAR amplitude. In this paper we consider the so-called discontinuous GBSAR acquisition mode. The interferometric process is not always straightforward: it requires appropriate data processing and analysis tools. One of the main critical steps is phase unwrapping, which can critically affect the deformation measurements. In this paper we describe the procedure used at the CTTC to process and analyse discontinuous GBSAR data. In the second part of the paper we describe the approach based on GBSAR amplitude images and an image-matching method.

  8. Quantitative analysis results of CE-1 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ground base experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xing-Zhu; GAO Min; YANG Jia-Wei; WANG Huan-Yu; ZHANG Cheng-Mo; CHEN Yong; ZHANG Jia-Yu; PENG Wen-Xi; CAO Xue-Lei; LIANG Xiao-Hua; WANG Jin-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    As the nearest celestial body to the earth, the moon has become a hot spot again in astronomy field recently. The element analysis is a much important subject in many lunar projects. Remote X-ray spectrometry plays an important role in the geochemical exploration of the solar bodies. Because of th equasi-vacuum atmosphere on the moon, which has no absorption of X-ray, the X-ray fluorescence analysis is an effective way to determine the elemental abundance of lunar surface. The CE-1 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (CE-1/XFS) aims to map the major elemental compositions on the lunar surface. This paper describes a method for quantitative analysis of elemental compositions. A series of ground base experiments are done to examine the capability of XFS. The obtained results, which show a reasonable agreement with the certified values at a 30% uncertainty level for major elements, are presented.

  9. A 14-day ground-based hypokinesia study in nonhuman primates: A compilation of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, L.; Cann, C. E.; Parfitt, M.; Simmons, D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1981-01-01

    A 14 day ground based hypokinesia study with rhesus monkeys was conducted to determine if a spaceflight of similar duration might affect bone remodeling and calcium homeostatis. The monkeys were placed in total body casts and sacrificed either immediately upon decasting or 14 days after decasting. Changes in vertebral strength were noted and further deterioration of bone strength continued during the recovery phase. Resorption in the vertebrae increased dramatically while formation decreased. Cortical bone formation was impaired in the long bones. The immobilized animals showed a progressive decrease in total serum calcium which rebounded upon remobilization. Most mandibular parameters remained unchanged during casting except for retardation of osteon birth or maturation rate and density distribution of matrix and mineral moieties.

  10. Ground-based Gamma-Ray Observations of Pulsars and their Nebulae: Towards a New Order

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, O C

    2005-01-01

    The excellent sensitivity and high resolution capability of wide FoV ground-based imaging atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes allow us for the first time to resolve the morphological structures of pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) which are older and more extended than the Crab Nebula. VHE gamma-ray observations of such extended nebulae (with field strengths below ~ 20 micro Gauss) probe the electron component corresponding to the unseen extreme ultraviolet (EUV) synchrotron component, which measures electron injection from earlier evolutionary epochs. VHE observations of PWN therefore introduce a new window on PWN research. This review paper also identifies conditions for maximal VHE visbility of PWN. Regarding pulsar pulsed emission, it is becoming clear that the threshold energies of current telescopes are not sufficient to probe the pulsed gamma-ray component from canonical pulsars. Theoretical estimates of pulsed gamma-ray emission from millisecond pulsars seem to converge and it becomes clear that such detections w...

  11. On the Interpretation of Gravity Wave Measurements by Ground-Based Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Dörnbrack

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper asks the simple question: How can we interpret vertical time series of middle atmosphere gravity wave measurements by ground-based temperature lidars? Linear wave theory is used to show that the association of identified phase lines with quasi-monochromatic waves should be considered with great care. The ambient mean wind has a substantial effect on the inclination of the detected phase lines. The lack of knowledge about the wind might lead to a misinterpretation of the vertical propagation direction of the observed gravity waves. In particular, numerical simulations of three archetypal atmospheric mountain wave regimes show a sensitivity of virtual lidar observations on the position relative to the mountain and on the scale of the mountain.

  12. Concurrent aerial and ground-based optical turbulence measurements along a long elevated path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlin, Scott R.; Hahn, Ila L.; Hugo, Ronald J.; Bishop, Kenneth P.

    1999-08-01

    We report concurrent ground-based scintillator/airborne constant-current anemometer (CCA) measurements made along a 51.4 km-long slant path between Salinas and North Oscura peaks, NM. Simultaneous path-averaged refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) measurements from the CCA and the scintillometer show good agreement, with deviations apparently due to localized effects of underlying topography and metrology. Statistics from both data sets are presented in the form of histograms and cumulative distribution functions. CCA Cn2 point measurements are compared to underlying surface topography. We discuss possible effects of instruments anomalies, analysis methods, and atmospheric velocity fluctuation levels. We present conclusions and made recommendations for future similar experimental efforts.

  13. Space life sciences: ground-based iron-ion biology and physics, including shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This session of the 35th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR focuses on recent advances in ground-based studies of high-energy (mainly 1 GeV/nucleon) iron ions. The theme is interdisciplinary in nature and encompasses both physics and biology reports. Manned space missions, including those of the International Space Station and the planned Mars mission, will require the extended presence of crew members in space. As such, a better understanding in shielding design--in radiation detection as well as radio-protection based on simulating studies--is much needed. On the other hand, a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that modulate radiation sensitivity; in determining DNA double strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and the induction of apoptosis, will provide important information for an interventional approach.

  14. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  15. Ground-based testing of the dynamics of flexible space structures using band mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. F.; Chew, Meng-San