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Sample records for ground water samples

  1. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  2. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  3. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  5. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  6. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  8. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  9. Estimating an appropriate sampling frequency for monitoring ground water well contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 1,500 ground water wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are sampled quarterly to monitor contamination by radionuclides and other hazardous constituents from nearby waste sites. Some 10,000 water samples were collected in 1993 at a laboratory analysis cost of $10,000,000. No widely accepted statistical method has been developed, to date, for estimating a technically defensible ground water sampling frequency consistent and compliant with federal regulations. Such a method is presented here based on the concept of statistical independence among successively measured contaminant concentrations in time

  10. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  11. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  12. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  13. Removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major concerns in many parts of the world including Bangladesh and India. Considering the high toxicity of arsenic, World Health Organization (WHO) has set a provisional guideline value of 10 μg L -1 for arsenic in drinking water. Several methods have been adopted for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Most of the methods fail to remove As(III), the most toxic form of arsenic. An extra oxidative treatment step is essential for effective removal of total arsenic. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) oxidizes As(III) to As(V). Removal of arsenic from water using manganese dioxide has been reported. During this work, removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from arsenic contaminated area of West Bengal, India were carried out using MnO 2

  14. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  15. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. External quality control in ground-water sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Juracich, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, external Quality Control (QC) for ground-water monitoring is extensive and has included routine submittal of intra- and interlaboratory duplicate samples, blind samples, and several kinds of blank samples. Examination of the resulting QC data for nine of the constituents found in ground water at the Hanford Site shows that the quality of analysis has generally been within the expectations of precision and accuracy that have been established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The constituents subjected to review were nitrate, chromium, sodium, fluoride, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, ammonium, trichloroethylene, and cyanide. Of these, the fluoride measurements were notable exceptions and were poor by EPA standards. The review has shown that interlaboratory analysis of duplicate samples yields the most useful QC data for evaluating laboratory performance in determining commonly encountered constituents. For rarely encountered constituents, interlaboratory comparisons may be augmented with blind samples (synthetic samples of known composition). Intralaboratory comparisons, blanks, and spikes should be generally restricted to studies of suspected or known sample contamination and to studies of the adequacy of sampling and analytical procedures

  17. Determination of anionic concentrations in ground water samples using ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathibha, P.; Saradhi, I.V.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ion chromatography is a powerful separation technique for the quantitative measurement of anions in aqueous samples as well as in soil, sediment and air particulate samples leached in aqueous solutions. Ion chromatographic technique is developed by making use of suppressed ion conductivity detection (Small et.al.,1975) and it is a rapid multi ion analysis technique. The time, processing and effort required for the analysis of anions is much less compared to other techniques available such as ion selective electrode technique. In the present paper ground water samples collected around New BARC campus, Visakhapatnam are analyzed for anions using Ion chromatograph. The data generated will establish the current baseline status of the ionic contaminants in the study area. Groundwater samples are collected at 13 locations around BARC Vizag campus covering 30 km radius in September, 2009, April and July, 2010. The water samples include samples from hand pump and open wells in villages. The water samples are analyzed for fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate using Metrohm make Ion chromatograph. The fluoride concentration in samples varied from 0.22 to 1.26 ppm, chloride from 18.7 to 810.9, nitrate from 1.34 to 378.5 ppm and sulphate from 13.29 to 250.69 ppm. No significant seasonal variations are observed in the samples collected from various locations except chloride at two locations. Ions Chromatograph is found to be a useful tool for simultaneous analysis of environmental samples with good accuracy where the concentrations of anions vary within an order of magnitude among them themselves. (author)

  18. Cost-effective sampling of ground water monitoring wells. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridley, M.; Johnson, V.

    1995-11-01

    CS is a systematic methodology for estimating the lowest-frequency sampling schedule for a given groundwater monitoring location which will still provide needed information for regulatory and remedial decision-making. Increases in frequency dictated by remedial actions are left to the judgement of personnel reviewing the recommendations. To become more applicable throughout the life cycle of a ground water cleanup project or for compliance monitoring, several improvements are envisioned, including: chemical signature analysis to identify minimum suites of contaminants for a well, a simple flow and transport model so that sampling of downgradient wells are increased before movement of contamination, and a sampling cost estimation capability. By blending qualitative and quantitative approaches, we hope to create a defensible system while retaining interpretation ease and relevance to decision making

  19. Kape barako (coffea liberica) grounds as adsorbent for the removal of lead in lead-enriched Marikina river water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valera, Florenda S.; Garcia, Jhonard John L.

    2015-01-01

    Kape Barako (Coffee liberica) grounds (residue left after brewing ground coffee) were used as adsorbent for the removal of lead in Marikina River water samples. The sundried coffee grounds showed 9.30% moisture after drying in the oven. The coffee grounds were determined using Shimadzu AA-6501S Atomic Adsorption Spectrometer. The lead concentration was determined to be 4.7 mg/kg in coffee grounds and below detection limit in the Marikina River water samples. The adsorption studies were done at room temperature, and the optimized parameters were a contact time of 3 hours, an adsorbent dose of 3.0 g/L and 4.0 mg/L Pb-enriched water samples. The maximum uptake capacity was found to be 14.2 mg of lead/g adsorbent. The adsorption studies were done at room temperature, and the optimized parameters were a contact time of 3 hours, an adsorbent dose of 3.0 g/L and 4.0 mg/L Pb-enriched water samples. Analyses of the coffee grounds before and after lead adsorption using Shimadzu IR-Affinity-I Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer showed marked difference in the spectra, indicating interaction between Pb and the functional groups of the coffee grounds. (author)

  20. Ground-water sampling of the NNWSI (Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation) water table test wells surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, N.A.

    1988-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) study of the water table in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, completed 16 test holes on the Nevada Test Site and Bureau of Land Management-administered lands surrounding Yucca Mountain. These 16 wells are monitored by the USGS for water-level data; however, they had not been sampled for ground-water chemistry or isotropic composition. As part of the review of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) sampled six of these wells. The goal of this sampling program was to measure field-dependent parameters of the water such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen, and to collect samples for major and minor element chemistry and isotopic analysis. This information will be used as part of a program to geochemically model the flow direction between the volcanic tuff aquifers and the underlying regional carbonate aquifer

  1. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  2. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  3. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiological and chemical studies of the ground water at Enewetak Atoll. 1. Sampling, field measurements, and analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Wong, K.M.; Holladay, G.; Noshkin, V.E.; Buddemeier, R.

    1975-01-01

    A research program to study the ground water on several of the islets in the Enewetak Atoll is being conducted jointly by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and the University of Hawaii under the sponsorship of ERDA Division of Biology and Environmental Research. The purpose is to provide data characterizing the ground water for possible use by returning Marshallese and to investigate the hydrology and recycling of radionuclides in an atoll environment. This first of a series of reports describes the sampling locations, field operations, and methods of analysis

  5. Studies on radiation dose due to radioactive elements present in ground water and soil samples around Mysore city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, M S; Veda, S M; Paramesh, L

    2012-04-01

    A systematic study of the ground water and soil samples collected from different locations around Mysore city (12(°)N and 76(°)E) has been carried out. (226)Ra activity concentration in water samples varies from 0.28 to 189 mBq l(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 4.75 mBq l(-1) and (222)Rn concentration in ground water varies from 4.25 to 435 Bq l(-1) with a GM of 25.9 Bq l(-1). The GM of inhalation and ingestion doses due to (222)Rn in water is 65.2 and 5.43, µSv y(-1), respectively. The measured GM gamma dose rate in air is 85.4 nGy h(-1) and absorbed dose rate estimated from the measured activity of radionuclides is 92.6 nGy h(-1).

  6. PASSIVE SAMPLING OF GROUND WATER MONITORING WELLS WITHOUT PURGING MULTILEVEL WELL CHEMISTRY AND TRACER DISAPPEARANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is essential that the sampling techniques utilized in groundwater monitoring provide data that accurately depicts the water quality of the sampled aquifer in the vicinity of the well. Due to the large amount of monitoring activity currently underway in the U.S.A. it is also im...

  7. Defining an optimum pumping-time requirement for sampling ground-water wells on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharnhorst, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    The objective was to determine the optimum time period necessary to pump water from a well before a representative sample of the ground water can be obtained. It was assumed that a representative sample has been collected if the concentration of chemical parameters is the same in a number of samples taken consecutively, so that the concentration of parameters does not vary with time of collection. Ground-water samples used in this project were obtained by pumping selected wells on the Hanford Site. At each well, samples were taken at two minute intervals, and on each sample various chemical analyses were performed. Samples were checked for pH, sulfate, iron, specific conductivity, chloride, nitrate and alkalinity. The data showed that pH, alkalinity, sulfate and specific conductivity levels stabilized almost immediately after pumping of the well began. In many wells, the chloride and nitrate levels were unstable throughout the 38-minute sampling period. Iron levels, however, did not behave in either fashion. The concentration of iron in the samples was high when pumping began but dropped rapidly as pumping continued. The best explanation for this is that iron is flushed from the sides of the casing into the well when pumping begins. After several minutes of pumping, most of the dissolved iron is washed from the well casing and the iron concentration reaches a stable plateau representative of the iron concentration in the ground water.Since iron concentration takes longest to stabilize, the optimum pumping time for a well is based on the iron stabilization time for that well

  8. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    purging and sampling protocol. Analytes that were measured at the Pease site included total and dissolved concentrations of arsenic (As), calcium ...samples remain in the original bottle in which they were collected, presumably losses of volatiles and changes in concentrations of dissolved gases or...because of excavation and removal. This has resulted in hydraulically interconnected bedrock and overburden water- bearing zones in much of this area

  9. Evaluation of the toxicological properties of ground- and surface-water samples from the Aral Sea Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, K.; Erdinger, L.; Ingel, F.; Khussainova, S.; Utegenova, E.; Bresgen, N.; Eckl, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine whether there is a potential health risk associated with the water supply in the Aral Sea Basin, ground- and surface-water samples were collected in and around Aralsk and from the Aral Sea in 2002. Water samples from Akchi, a small town close to Almaty, served as controls. Bioassays with different toxicological endpoints were employed to assess the general toxicological status. Additionally, the samples were analysed for microbial contamination. The samples were tested in the primary hepatocyte assay for their potential to induce micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations as cumulative indicators for genotoxicity. In parallel, the effects on cell proliferation evidenced by mitotic index and cytotoxicity such as the appearance of necrotic and apoptotic cells, were determined. Furthermore, samples were examined using the Microtox assay for general toxicity. Chemical analysis according to European regulations was performed and soil and water samples were analysed for DDT and DDE. The results obtained indicated no increased cyto- or genotoxic potential of the water samples, nor levels of DDT or DDE exceeding the thresholds levels suggested by WHO. Our data therefore do not support the hypothesis that the contamination of the drinking water in and around Aralsk is responsible for the health effects previously described such as increased rates of liver disease and in particular liver cancer. Microbiological analysis, however, revealed the presence of contamination in most samples analysed

  10. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Because alcohols are miscible or highly soluble in water, alcohols are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for analysis....

  11. Analysis of ground water and soil samples from severely arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Biswas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of groundwater and soil by arsenic is a serious threat to existence of mankind on the globe. Arsenic contaminates soil and groundwater by natural biogeochemical cycles. However, due to anthropogenic activities like indiscriminant use of arsenic in disinfectants, weedicides, medicines and fertilizers, arsenic toxicity is a severe environmental issue, both at national and global level. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization prescribed the permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water to be 10 µg/l. Exposure to arsenic at higher levels over a considerable period of time leads to skin lesions and cancer, disorders of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal systems. Murshidabad is one of the severely arsenic affected districts of West Bengal. We have analyzed soil and groundwater samples from some of the highly arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district. Both the soil and groundwater samples have an alkaline pH, a characteristic of the presence of arsenic in the tested samples. Unfortunately, the socio-economic conditions of these villages force the residents to use groundwater as the source of drinking water. Presence of considerably high amount of total dissolved solids in water samples make them further unfit for consumption. High amount of phosphate and iron present in some of the water samples takes a toll on the detoxification and excretory system of the body, if those water samples are consumed on a regular manner. Contamination of soil by the aforesaid contaminants results in biomagnification of these pollutants in the food chain. We could also isolate certain potentially arsenic resistant bacteria from the contaminated soil and water samples. At the next level we have surveyed an arsenic affected village to analyze the clinical manifestation of arsenic poisoning. In this village subjects developed rampant skin lesions throughout the body due to exposure to arsenic

  12. UMTRA ground water sampling techniques: Comparison of the traditional and low flow methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the potential changes in water quality data that may occur with the conversion from MBV (multiple bore volume) to LF (low flow) sampling and provides two examples of how such a change might impact Project decisions. The existing scientific literature on LF sampling is reviewed and the new LF data from three UMTRA Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites are evaluated seeking answers to the questions posed above. Several possible approaches, that the UMTRA Project may take to address issues unanswered by the literature are presented and compared, and a recommendation is offered for the future direction of the LF conversion effort

  13. Analysis of nitrates and nitrites in subsoil and ground water samples in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fadiran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen (NO3–N in mg/L and nitrite as nitrogen (NO2–N in µg/L were determined in water samples from 60 boreholes, 21 shallow wells and 7 springs located in the four regions of the country. For all the 88 sampling points nitrate levels vary within 0.05 plus or minus 0.00 – 28.44 plus or minus 0.80 mg/L NO3–N, out of which 10.22% have mg/L NO3–N ≥ MCL (maximum contaminant level of 10 mg/L NO3–N. Shallow wells recorded the highest NO3–N% ≥ MCL of 20.0% followed by boreholes with NO3–N % ≥ MCL of 8.33% while for springs, the NO3–N % ≥ MCL was zero. On the other hand, NO2–N (μg/L from all the sampling points vary within (ND/0.30 plus or minus 0.00 – 297.0 plus or minus 0.50 μg/L NO2–N, which were far below the recommended MCL of 1 mg/L (= 1000 μg/L.

  14. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  15. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics of ground water samples from different areas of Thrissur District, Kerala State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mity Thambi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of groundwater quality of important town areas of Thrissur district was carried out during the pre-monsoon period of 2014. The Physicochemical and biological parameters such as temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, alkalinity, chloride, salinity, total harness, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphate, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total coliform count and E. coli were determined. Most of the physicochemical parameters were observed above the desirable limit but below the permissible limit of drinking water standards of World Health Organization (WHO. Total coliform bacteria count values of different samples are within the permissible limit. The studies reveal that samples from Thrissur town (T, Guruvayoor (G and Laloor (L shows the presence of E.coli bacteria. All other samples were negative for E.coli bacteria. Dumping of wastes near road sides, flood due to heavy rains, improper waste management in hospitals, markets, flats etc increases the pollution of ground water. The results were compared with WHO guidelines, 2006 and Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 10500, 1991 desirable limits for drinking water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12636 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 182-192

  17. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Sample collection; (2) Sample preservation and shipment; (3) Analytical procedures; (4) Chain of... theory test, then the data should be transformed or a distribution-free theory test should be used. If... chart and its associated parameter values shall be protective of human health and the environment. The...

  18. CHROMATO: a new probe for well sampling and lanthanides chromatographic measurements in deep ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, J.M.; Rouxel, R.; Soreau, P.

    1991-01-01

    The important effect of natural medium on the stored radionuclides migration's alulities implies the development of all the necessary devices for the medium's chemical study. The chromato probe's target is to measure all the factors likely to be disturbed by a simple sampling. The lanthanides able to compete in all chemical migration's mechanisms with pollutants have to be considered with a special attention. The volumetric in-situ sampling of these elements is the object of this contract. 6 Refs.; 25 Photos; 15 Figs [fr

  19. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHEONIS, NITROPHENOIS AND METHYLPHENOIS IN GROUND-WATER SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively determine phenolic compounds and their isomers in aqueous samples. The HPLC method can analyze a mixture of 15 contaminants in the same analytical run with an analysis time of 25 minutes. The...

  20. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS, NITROPHENOLS, AND METHYLPHENOLS IN GROUND-WATER SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively determine phenolic compounds and their isomers in aqueous samples. The HPLC method can analyze a mixture of 15 contaminants in the same analytical run with an analysis time of 25 minutes. The...

  1. GROUND WATER ISSUE: NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS COMPATIBILITY WITH MATERIALS USED IN WELL CONSTRUCTION, SAMPLING, AND REMEDIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper provides a comprehensive literature review regarding the compatibility of NAPLs with a wide variety of materials used at hazardous waste sites. A condensed reference table of compatibility data for 207 chemicals and 28 commonly used well construction and sampling...

  2. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  3. 222Rn in water: A comparison of two sample collection methods and two sample transport methods, and the determination of temporal variation in North Carolina ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.H. III

    1994-01-01

    Objectives of this field experiment were: (1) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radon concentrations of samples collected by EPA's standard method, using a syringe, and an alternative, slow-flow method; (2) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the measured radon concentrations of samples mailed vs samples not mailed; and (3) determine whether there was a temporal variation of water radon concentration over a 7-month period. The field experiment was conducted at 9 sites, 5 private wells, and 4 public wells, at various locations in North Carolina. Results showed that a syringe is not necessary for sample collection, there was generally no significant radon loss due to mailing samples, and there was statistically significant evidence of temporal variations in water radon concentrations

  4. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  5. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  6. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  7. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that Na and K were the most abundant dissolved cations in the groundwater. The. + .... concentration of phosphate (PO ) in the water. 4 samples was ...... The Effect of Copper on Some Laboratory Indices of Clarias.

  8. Ultrasonic-energy enhance the ionic liquid-based dual microextraction to preconcentrate the lead in ground and stored rain water samples as compared to conventional shaking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Sooraj; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I

    2018-01-01

    An efficient preconcentration technique based on ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid-based dual microextraction (UA-ILDµE) method has been developed to preconcentrate the lead (Pb +2 ) in ground and stored rain water. In the current proposed method, Pb +2 was complexed with a chelating agent (dithizone), whereas an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was used for extraction purpose. The ultrasonic irradiation and electrical shaking system were applied to enhance the dispersion and extraction of Pb +2 complex in aqueous samples. For second phase, dual microextraction (DµE phase), the enriched Pb +2 complex in ionic liquid, extracted back into the acidic aqueous solution and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Some major analytical parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency of developed method, such as pH, concentration of ligand, volume of ionic liquid and samples, time of shaking in thermostatic electrical shaker and ultrasonic bath, effect of back extracting HNO 3 volume, matrix effect, centrifugation time and rate were optimized. At the sample volume of 25mL, the calculated preconcentration factor was 62.2. The limit of detection of proposed procedure for Pb +2 ions was found to be 0.54μgL -1 . The validation of developed method was performed by the analysis of certified sample of water SRM 1643e and standard addition method in a real water sample. The extraction recovery of Pb +2 was enhanced≥2% with shaking time of 80s in ultrasonic bath as compared to used thermostatic electrical shaker, where for optimum recovery up to 10min was required. The developed procedure was successfully used for the enrichment of Pb +2 in ground and stored rain water (surface water) samples of an endemic region of Pakistan. The resulted data indicated that the ground water samples were highly contaminated with Pb +2 , while some of the surface water samples were also have higher values of Pb +2 than permissible limit of

  9. Evaluation of field sampling and preservation methods for strontium-90 in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Water from four wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer was sampled as part of the US Geological Survey's quality assurance program to evaluate the effect of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in groundwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Water from each well was filtered through either a 0.45-micrometer membrane or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered samples was preserved in the field with reagent-grade hydrochloric acid and the other set of samples was not acidified. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94% or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that within-laboratory reproducibility for strontium-90 in groundwater at the INEL is not significantly affected by changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collections. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  11. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  12. A robust and fast method of sampling and analysis of delta13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in ground waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph

    2005-09-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (delta13C(DIC)) is traditionally determined using either direct precipitation or gas evolution methods in conjunction with offline gas preparation and measurement in a dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer. A gas evolution method based on continuous-flow technology is described here, which is easy to use and robust. Water samples (100-1500 microl depending on the carbonate alkalinity) are injected into He-filled autosampler vials in the field and analysed on an automated continuous-flow gas preparation system interfaced to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Sample analysis time including online preparation is 10 min and overall precision is 0.1 per thousand. This method is thus fast and can easily be automated for handling large sample batches.

  13. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  14. Comparison of diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods to monitor volatile organic compounds in ground water, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, July 1999-December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archfield, Stacey A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate diffusion sampling as an alternative method to monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground water, concentrations in samples collected by traditional pumped-sampling methods were compared to concentrations in samples collected by diffusion-sampling methods for 89 monitoring wells at or near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod. Samples were analyzed for 36 VOCs. There was no substantial difference between the utility of diffusion and pumped samples to detect the presence or absence of a VOC. In wells where VOCs were detected, diffusion-sample concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were significantly lower than pumped-sample concentrations. Because PCE and TCE concentrations detected in the wells dominated the calculation of many of the total VOC concentrations, when VOC concentrations were summed and compared by sampling method, visual inspection also showed a downward concentration bias in the diffusion-sample concentration. The degree to which pumped- and diffusion-sample concentrations agreed was not a result of variability inherent within the sampling methods or the diffusion process itself. A comparison of the degree of agreement in the results from the two methods to 13 quantifiable characteristics external to the sampling methods offered only well-screen length as being related to the degree of agreement between the methods; however, there is also evidence to indicate that the flushing rate of water through the well screen affected the agreement between the sampling methods. Despite poor agreement between the concentrations obtained by the two methods at some wells, the degree to which the concentrations agree at a given well is repeatable. A one-time, well-bywell comparison between diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods could determine which wells are good candidates for the use of diffusion samplers. For wells with good method agreement, the diffusion-sampling method is a time

  15. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  16. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  17. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  18. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  19. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  20. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  1. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  2. Evaluating the effect of sampling and spatial correlation on ground-water travel time uncertainty coupling geostatistical, stochastic, and first order, second moment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; LaVenue, A.M.; McNeish, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Ground-water travel time predictions at potential high-level waste repositories are subject to a degree of uncertainty due to the scale of averaging incorporated in conceptual models of the ground-water flow regime as well as the lack of data on the spatial variability of the hydrogeologic parameters. The present study describes the effect of limited observations of a spatially correlated permeability field on the predicted ground-water travel time uncertainty. Varying permeability correlation lengths have been used to investigate the importance of this geostatistical property on the tails of the travel time distribution. This study uses both geostatistical and differential analysis techniques. Following the generation of a spatially correlated permeability field which is considered reality, semivariogram analyses are performed upon small random subsets of the generated field to determine the geostatistical properties of the field represented by the observations. Kriging is then employed to generate a kriged permeability field and the corresponding standard deviation of the estimated field conditioned by the limited observations. Using both the real and kriged fields, the ground-water flow regime is simulated and ground-water travel paths and travel times are determined for various starting points. These results are used to define the ground-water travel time uncertainty due to path variability. The variance of the ground-water travel time along particular paths due to the variance of the permeability field estimated using kriging is then calculated using the first order, second moment method. The uncertainties in predicted travel time due to path and parameter uncertainties are then combined into a single distribution

  3. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Kolpin, D.; Anderson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Commonly used prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals are possibly present in surface- and ground-water samples at ambient concentrations less than 1 μg/L. In this report, the performance characteristics of a combined solid-phase extraction isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) analytical procedure for routine determination of the presence and concentration of human-health pharmaceuticals are described. This method was developed and used in a recent national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals in USA surface waters. The selection of pharmaceuticals evaluated for this method was based on usage estimates, resulting in a method that contains compounds from diverse chemical classes, which presents challenges and compromises when applied as a single routine analysis. The method performed well for the majority of the 22 pharmaceuticals evaluated, with recoveries greater than 60% for 12 pharmaceuticals. The recoveries of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a histamine (H2) receptor antagonist, and antihypoglycemic compound classes were less than 50%, but were retained in the method to provide information describing the potential presence of these compounds in environmental samples and to indicate evidence of possible matrix enhancing effects. Long-term recoveries, evaluated from reagent-water fortifications processed over 2 years, were similar to initial method performance. Method detection limits averaged 0.022 μg/L, sufficient for expected ambient concentrations. Compound-dependent matrix effects on HPLC/ESI-MS analysis, including enhancement and suppression of ionization, were observed as a 20–30% increase in measured concentrations for three compounds and greater than 50% increase for two compounds. Changing internal standard and more frequent ESI source maintenance minimized matrix effects. Application of the method in the national survey demonstrates that several

  4. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  5. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  6. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  7. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  8. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  9. Radon measurement in Malaysia water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.B.; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported the results of the measurement of radon in local water. The water samples collected were rainwater, river water, seawater, well water or ground water at area of State of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The samples were collected in scintillation cell ZnS(Ag) through Radon Degassing Unit RDU 200. Alpha activity was counted with scintillation counters RD 200 at energy 5.5 MeV. (author)

  10. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  11. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  12. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  13. Transitions in midwestern ground water law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.A.; Clark, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ground-water law in eight states in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is examined, and a review of transitions in ground-water doctrines is presented. Two underlying themes in changing ground-water management are communicated. First, ground-water law is evolving from private property rules of capture based on the absolute ownership doctrines to rules requiring conservation and sharing of ground water as a public resource. Second, in both courts and state legislatures, a proactive role of ground-water management is emerging, again, with an emphasis on sharing. Both of these trends are apparent in the Midwest. In the last decade midwestern states have (1) seen significant shifts in court decisions on ground-water use with greater recognition of the reciprocal or mutually dependent nature of ground-water rights, and (2) seen increased legislative development of comprehensive ground-water management statutes that emphasize the reciprocal liabilities of ground-water use. These trends are examined and ground-water management programs discussed for eight states in the Midwest

  14. Gradient HPLC of antibiotics in urine, ground water, chicken muscle, hospital wastewater, and pharmaceutical samples using C-18 and RP-amide columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar Malik, Ashok; Kumar Tewary, Dhananjay; Singh, Baldev

    2008-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC-UV) method has been developed for the determination of ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid, in mobile phase citrate buffer (0.001 M) of pH 4.5 prepared in water (X), methanol (Y), and ACN (Z) using gradient at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min by direct UV absorbance detection at lambda = 280 nm. Separation of analytes was studied on the C-18 and RP-amide columns and best results were observed on the RP-amide column with LODs (3.3 x S/m) 0.89, 0.55, 0.67, and 1.41 ng/mL for ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively, and better RSD than the C-18 column. The recovery of Fluoroquinolones (FQs) in urine, ground water, hospital wastewater, and chicken muscle using this method is more than 90%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid in urine, ground water, pharmaceutical dosage forms, hospital wastewater, and chicken muscle.

  15. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  16. Composite liners protect ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  17. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented

  18. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  19. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  20. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  1. Report of analyses for light hydrocarbons in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, E.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report contains on microfiche the results of analyses for methane, ethane, propane, and butane in 11,659 ground water samples collected in 47 western and three eastern 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles of the National Topographic Map Series (Figures 1 and 2), along with a brief description of the analytical technique used and some simple, descriptive statistics. The ground water samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Further information on the ground water samples can be obtained by consulting the NURE data reports for the individual quadrangles. This information includes (1) measurements characterizing water samples (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and other measurements), and (3) elemental analyses

  2. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  3. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  4. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  5. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, P.L.; Duerden, S.L.; Atkins, K.M.; Majumdar, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  6. Applicability of the direct injection liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric analytical approach to the sub-ngL-1 determination of perfluoro-alkyl acids in waste, surface, ground and drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi, Lorenzo; Renai, Lapo; Rossini, Daniele; Ancillotti, Claudia; Falai, Alida; Fibbi, Donatella; Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Santana-Rodriguez, José Juan; Orlandini, Serena; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of a direct injection UHPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of several perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a wide range of water matrices was investigated. The method is based on the direct injection of 100µL of centrifuged water sample, without any other sample treatment. Very good method detection limits (0.014-0.44ngL -1 ) and excellent intra and inter-day precision (RSD% values in the range 1.8-4.4% and 2.7-5.7%, respectively) were achieved, with a total analysis time of 20min per sample. A high number of samples - i.e. 8 drinking waters (DW), 12 ground waters (GW), 13 surface waters (SW), 8 influents and 11 effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP IN and WWTP OUT ) were processed and the extent of matrix effect (ME) was calculated, highlighting the strong prevalence of |ME| 50% was occasionally observed only for perfluorooctanesulphonic and perfluorodecanoic acids. Linear discriminant analysis highlighted the great contribution of the sample origin (i.e. DW, GW, SW, WWTP IN and WWTP OUT ) to the ME. Partial least square regression (PLS) and leave-one-out cross-validation were performed in order to interpret and predict the signal suppression or enhancement phenomena as a function of physicochemical parameters of water samples (i.e. conductivity, hardness and chemical oxygen demand) and background chromatographic area. The PLS approach resulted only in an approximate screening, due to the low prediction power of the PLS models. However, for most analytes in most samples, the fitted and cross-validated values were such as to correctly distinguish between | ME | higher than 20% or below this limit. PFAAs in the aforementioned water samples were quantified by means of the standard addition method, highlighting their occurrence mainly in WWTP influents and effluents, at concentrations as high as one hundred of µgL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oskarshamn site investigation. Hydrogeochemical monitoring programme for core and percussion drilled boreholes 2009. Summary of ground water chemistry results from spring and autumn sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regander, Claes; Bergman, Bo (Sweco Environment AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report summarises the results obtained in 2009 from the hydrogeochemical monitoring programme for core and percussion drilled boreholes. During 2009 groundwater sampling has been performed in monitored (permanently installed) boreholes in two sampling periods, spring (May-June), and autumn (October-November). Both in spring and autumn groundwater sampling was carried out in the following 12 sections; HLX28:2, HLX35:2, HLX37:1, HLX39:1, KLX08:4, KLX10:2, KLX10:5, KLX12A:2, KLX15A:3, KLX15A:6, KLX18A:3, KLX19A:3. The programme started in 2005 and since then water sampling has been performed twice every year. The objective of the hydrogeochemical monitoring programme is to determine the groundwater composition in selected sections chosen for this purpose. In 2009 the sampling of core drilled borehole sections has been conducted in time series, where each borehole section has been sampled at seven occasions. Percussion drilled borehole sections has been sampled at three occasions. The final sample in each section was taken when the electric conductivity had reached a stable level. Obtained results from the activities presented here include groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 5 including options and SKB chemistry reduced class 5. SKB chemistry reduced class 5 includes analysis of pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, density, drill water (uranine), major cations (Chapter 5.4), F-, Br-, Cl-, SO{sub 4}2-, Fe(II)/Fe(tot), HS-, DOC, TOC and the isotopes delta2H, delta18O and 3H. Options for SKB chemistry class 5 include even lanthanoids and other trace elements, As, In, I, environmental metals, NH{sub 4}+, nutrient salts and the isotopes delta34S, delta37Cl, 87Sr/86Sr, 10B/11B, delta13C, 226Ra, 222Rn, 238U, 234U, 230Th and 232Th. All data from the activity are stored in the SICADA database

  8. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  9. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  10. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  11. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  12. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  13. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  14. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  15. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities

  16. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  17. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  18. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) describes planned water sampling activities and provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water sampling in 1994 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Maybell, Colorado. The WSAP identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies at the site. The ground water data will be used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for the ground water and surface water monitoring activities is derived from the EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993) and the proposed EPA standards of 1987 (52 FR 36000). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. This WSAP also includes a summary and the results of water sampling activities from 1989 through 1992 (no sampling was performed in 1993)

  20. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  1. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  2. Analytical methods for multiresidue determination of sulfonamides and trimethoprim in meat and ground water samples by CE-MS and CE-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Chinchilla, Jorge J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents two methods based on CZE-MS detection and CZE-MS/MS detection developed for the multiresidue determination of ten sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadoxin, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfameter, sulfamerazine, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethizole) and a potentiator, trimethoprim (TMP), whose contents are regulated by the EU Council Regulation no. 2377/90 in animal edible tissues. Experimental designs were employed to optimize the electrospray conditions. MS/MS experiments using an IT as analyzer operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were carried out to achieve the minimum number of points according to the 2002/657/EC European Decision for unambiguous identification. The proposed procedures have been compared in terms of the performance characteristics and trueness. The limits of detection and quantification were in all cases lower than the maximum residue limits legislated for these compounds and the recoveries were satisfactory, being possible the application for their monitoring in foodstuff of animal origin and in environmental samples, allowing the determination of sulfonamides and TMP residues in meat and in superficial water in the low microg/L range.

  3. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has not been affected by leakage from a regulated unit; (i) A determination of background ground-water...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... elevation each time ground water is sampled. (g) In detection monitoring or where appropriate in compliance...

  4. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  5. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed

  6. Sixth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Outdoor Action Conference was comprised of three days of technical presentations, workshops, demonstrations, and an exhibition. The sessions were devoted to the following topics: Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Sampling Technology; Soil and Ground Water Remediation; and Surface and Borehole Geophysics. The meeting was sponsored by the National Ground Water Association. These papers were published exactly as submitted, without technical and grammatical editing or peer review

  7. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  8. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  9. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  10. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as 14 C, 36 Cl and 4 He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  11. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  12. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  13. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  14. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  15. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  16. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support

  17. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  18. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  19. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  20. Tethered Pyrotechnic Apparatus for Acquiring a Ground Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    A proposed alternative design for the balloon-borne ground-sampling system described in the immediately preceding article would not rely on free fall to drive a harpoonlike sample-collecting device into the ground. Instead, the harpoon-like sample-collecting device would be a pyrotechnically driven, tethered projectile. The apparatus would include a tripod that would be tethered to the gondola. A gun for shooting the projectile into the ground would be mounted at the apex of the tripod. The gun would include an electronic trigger circuit, a chamber at the breech end containing a pyrotechnic charge, and a barrel. A sabot would be placed in the barrel just below the pyrotechnic charge, and the tethered projectile would be placed in the barrel just below the sabot. The tripod feet would be equipped with contact sensors connected to the trigger circuit. In operation, the tripod would be lowered to the ground on its tether. Once contact with the ground was detected by the sensors on all three tripod feet, the trigger circuit would fire the pyrotechnic charge to drive the projectile into the ground. (Requiring contact among all three tripod feet and the ground would ensure that the projectile would be fired into the ground, rather than up toward the gondola or the balloon.) The tethered projectile would then be reeled back up to the gondola for analysis of the sample.

  1. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  2. The isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    An intensive hydrological and geophysical survey of fresh water occurance in the Gordonia area, promoted a parallel study of the isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of both the fresh and saline ground waters of the area. Measurements of 14 C, 3 H, 13 C and 18 O as well of major element hydrochemistry were conducted on numerous samples. Radiocarbon concentrations range from 6 pmc to 111 pmc. Significant tritium is only observed in cases where 14 C concentrations are significantly higher than 90 pmc

  3. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  4. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  5. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, R.

    1994-03-01

    ;Contents: Hydrodynamic cavitation oxidation destroys organics; Biosparging documented in fuel remediation study; Surfactant flushing research to remove organic liquids from aquifers; and Compilation of Ground-Water Models (a book review).

  6. Radioactivity monitoring of fallout, water and ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosavljevic, R.

    1961-01-01

    During 1961, the radioactivity monitoring of the Boris Kidric Institute site covered monitoring of the total β activity of the fallout and water on the site. Activity of the fallout was monitored by measuring the activity of the rain and collected sedimented dust form the atmosphere. Water monitored was the water from Danube and river Mlaka, technical and drinking water. Plants and soil activity were not measured although sample were taken and the total β activity will be measured and analysed later

  7. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  8. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  9. Environmental isotope observations on Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental isotope measurements have been conducted on the outputs of some of the main dewatering points in both north and south mining areas as well as on numerous other observation points in the Sishen compartment. The effect of the dykes bounding the compartment could be observed from the behaviour of the isotopic composition of ground waters in the conduit zone. Measurements were done on radiocarbon, tritium oxygen-18 and carbon-13

  10. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  11. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  12. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  13. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  14. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan: Canonsburg and Burrell, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Canonsburg and Burrell UMTRA Project sites in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1985 and 1987, respectively. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at both sites have remained relatively consistent with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) at the Canonsburg site; no MCLs are exceeded in ground water at the Burrell site. Surface water quality shows no evidence of impact from the sites

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site

  16. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  18. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods

  19. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibla, O.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO 3 ''-''-), nitrite (No 2 ''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO 4 ''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO 3 ''-''-,HCO 3 ''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from physical and chemical

  20. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibla, O A.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Graduate Studies, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-01-15

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO{sub 3}''-''-), nitrite (No{sub 2}''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO{sub 4}''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO{sub 3}''-''-,HCO{sub 3}''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from

  1. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  2. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  3. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  4. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  5. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples

  6. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell's construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site

  7. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  8. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  9. Application of isotopic techniques for study of ground water from karstic areas. 1. Origin of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia

    2000-01-01

    Environmental stable isotope method was used for study of ground water from karst of NE Dobrogea. Study area is in the vicinity of Danube Delta (declared in 1990 by UNESCO the Reserve of Biosphere) and presents scientific and ecological interest. Measurements of deuterium content of ground water show that waters are meteoric in origin, but at the same time the results showed that the water from two sampling points could not originate from local ground water and have their recharge area at high altitude and a considerable distance. According to the δD values the following categories of waters were established: - waters depleted in deuterium (δD 0 / 00 ) relative to δD values of surface and ground water in the geographic area from which they were collected. They represent most probably the intrusion of isotopically light water from high altitude sites (higher than 1000 m) through network of highly permeable karst channels. The discharge of this component of aquifer occurs both by conduct flow and by diffuse flow; - Waters tributaries to the Danube River (δD > -75 0 / 00 ) that have a small time variability of δD values; - Local infiltration waters, situated in the West side of the investigated area towards the continental platform of the Dobrogea (δD > -70 0 / 00 ). They present high time variability of δD values, due to distinct seasonal effects; - Waters originated in mixing processes between the waters with different isotopic content. The endmember one is heavier isotopic water that belongs to local recharged waters (local infiltration waters and waters tributary to Danube river) while the other endmember is the isotopically light water. (authors)

  10. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent

  11. Plutonium radionuclides in the ground waters at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Marsh, K.; Eagle, R.; Holladay, G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1974 a groundwater program was initiated at Eniwetok Atoll to study systematically the hydrology and the ground water geochemistry on selected islands of the Atoll. The program provides chemical and radiochemical data for assessment of water quality on those islands designated for rehabilitation. These and other data are used to interpret the mechanisms by which radionuclides are cycled in the soil-groundwater system. Because of the international concern over the long-term buildup, availability, and transport of plutonium in the environment, this program emphasizes analysis of the element. The results of the study show that on all islands sampled, small quantities of plutonium radionuclides have migrated through the soil columns and are redistributed throughout the groundwater reservoirs. The observed maximum surface concentrations are less than 0.02 percent of the maximal recommended concentration for drinking water. Concentrations of 137 Cs are found to correlate with water freshness, but those of 239 , 240 Pu show no such relationship. The mechanisms moving 239 , 240 Pu through the ground water reservoirs are independent of the processes controlling the cycling of 137 Cs and fresh water. A reasonable linear correlation is found between mean surface-water concentrations and soil burdens. This indicates that the quantities of 239 , 240 Pu migrating to the groundwater surface layers are, to a first approximation, independent of the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the islands. (auth)

  12. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards

  13. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities

  14. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  15. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  16. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  17. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Venedam

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analyticalsensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expandedin this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene inmonitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2. The platform was interfacedwith chromium (VI and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installedadjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. Agroundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River throughthe gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployedfor the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations atmore frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methodsemployed a the Site.

  18. Ground water geochemistry in the vicinity of the Jabiluka deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, R.L.; Mann, A.W.; Giblin, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen exploration drill holes in the vicinity of the Jabiluka One and Jabiluka Two deposits were logged for Eh-pH and conductivity at 5 metre intervals to depths of up to 195 metres below ground surface. Forty-seven water samples from exploration drill holes, augered holes on the Magela flood plain and from two billabongs in the vicinity of the deposits were collected and analyzed. Analyses for pH and Fe were conducted in the field, and further analyses for major ions Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , SO 4 2- , Cl - , HCO 3 - and Si and minorelements Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and U were conducted in the laboratory. The in situ Eh-pH and conductivity measurements, and analyses for major and minor elements of ground waters suggest that deep-lying chlorite-graphite schists containing the uranium mineralization are well protected from, or do not react rapidly with, ground water under present-day conditions, i.e. the schists of the Cahill Formation are a stable host for uranium mineralization at depth. In the vicinity of the Magela flood plain where the Cahill Formation and the permanent water table are close to the surface, some samples were found to contain high concentrations of sulphate, zinc, lead and iron. These same samples were characterized by low pH's in the pH range 3.0-4.0. The anomalies suggest weathering of sulphides associated with the mineralized Cahill Formation, where the schists are at shallow depths and in an oxidizing environment. The anomalies are not, however, necessarily indicative of zones of uranium enrichment in this formation. (author)

  19. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  20. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  1. Spectrophotometric Determination of Boron in Environmental Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San; Khin Win Kyi; Kwaw Naing

    2002-02-01

    The present paper deals with the study on the methods for the determination of boron in the environmental water samples. The standard methods which are useful for this determination are discussed thoroughly in this work. Among the standard methods approved by American Public Health Association, the carmine method was selected for this study. Prior to the determination of boron in the water samples, the precision and accuracy of the methods of choice were examined by using standard boron solutions. The determination of Boron was carried out by using water samples, waste water from Aquaculture Research Centre, University of Yangon, the Ayeyarwady River water near Magway Myathalon Pagoda in Magway Division, ground water from Sanchaung Township, and tap water from Universities' Research Centre, University of Yangon. Analyses of these water samples were done and statistical treatment of the results was carried out. (author)

  2. Ground water quality evaluation in Beed city, Maharashtra, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters into consideration. The present investigation is aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of ground water and to assess the impact of pollutants due to agriculture ...

  3. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  4. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified in...

  5. Colloid Detection in Natural Ground Water from Ruprechtov by Laser-Induced Breakdown Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, W.; Geckeis, H.; Goetz, R. [FZK - Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Ka rlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: hauser@ine.fzk.de; Noseck, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Laciok, A. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc, Waste and Environmental Management Dept., Husinec-Rez, PSC 250 68 (Czech Republic)

    2007-06-15

    A borehole ground water sampling system and a mobile laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) equipment for colloid detection combined with a geomonitoring unit have been applied to characterize the natural background colloid concentration in ground waters of the Ruprechtov natural analogue site (Czech Republic). Ground water has been sampled using steel cylinders. To minimize artifacts during ground water sampling the contact to atmospheric oxygen has been excluded. The ground water samples collected in this way are transported to the laboratory where they have been connected to a series of flow-through detection cells. Argon gas is used to press the ground water through these detection cells for colloid analysis (LIBD), pH, Eh, electrical conductivity and oxygen content. After the above mentioned analysis additional samples are taken for chemical analysis by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, IC- and DOC-detection. Our data obtained by in-situ- and laboratory- measurements point out that the natural colloid concentration found at the Ruprechtov site is a strong function of the ground water ionic strength. The LIBD determined natural background colloid concentrations found at Ruprechtov are compared with data of studies performed in Aespoe (Sweden) and Grimsel (Switzerland)

  6. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Gunnison ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Gunnison processing site; and modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  7. Water resources data for Virginia, water year 1991. Volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugh, B.J.; Powell, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 356 observation wells and water quality at 2 wells. Locations of these wells are given in the report

  8. IMPACT OF TURBIDITY ON TCE AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated particulate concentrations in ground water samples can bias contaminant concentration data. This has been particularly problematic for metal analyses where artificially increased turbidity levels can affect metals concentrations and confound interpretation of the data. H...

  9. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  10. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  11. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  13. Occurrence of estrogenic activities in second-grade surface water and ground water in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Wei; Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Wei, Si; Cai, Xi; Chen, Bo; Feng, Jianfang; Hu, Xinxin; Wang, Xinru; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    Second-grade surface water and ground water are considered as the commonly used cleanest water in the Yangtze River Delta, which supplies centralized drinking water and contains rare species. However, some synthetic chemicals with estrogenic disrupting activities are detectable. Estrogenic activities in the second-grade surface water and ground water were surveyed by a green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cell line based ER reporter gene assay. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were further conducted to identify the responsible compounds. Estrogen receptor (ER) agonist activities were present in 7 out of 16 surface water and all the ground water samples. Huaihe River and Yangtze River posed the highest toxicity potential. The highest equivalent (2.2 ng E 2 /L) is higher than the predicted no-effect-concentration (PNEC). Bisphenol A (BPA) contributes to greater than 50% of the total derived equivalents in surface water, and the risk potential in this region deserves more attention and further research. -- Highlights: •Estrogenic activities were present in second-grade surface water and ground water. •Most of the detected equivalents were higher than the predicted no-effect-concentration of E 2 . •ER-EQ 20–80 ranges showed that samples in Huaihe River and Yangtze River posed the highest toxicity. •Bisphenol A contributes to most of the instrumentally derived equivalents in surface water. -- Estrogenic activities were observed in second-grade surface water and ground water in Yangtze River Delta, and BPA was the responsible contaminant

  14. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravotta, C.A. III

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (< 5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only

  15. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  16. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    gneiss rocks can indicate a potential for corrosive water. The only constituent measured in the field that has a USEPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) is pH. The SMCL for pH is 6.5-8.5; 64 percent of samples analyzed for pH were acidic (below pH 6.5). Only 1 percent of samples were basic (above pH 8.5).Of the common ions, the USEPA has SMCLs for chloride, sulfate, and total dissolved solids. The USEPA has a SMCL and a Primary Maximum Contaminant Level (PMCL) for fluoride. Chloride is more closely related to land use than geology. In Chester County, chloride exceeded the SMCL (250 mg/L) only in 5 percent of the services (commercial services, community services, and military) land-use areas. No samples analyzed for sulfate exceeded the SMCL (250 mg/L). Only 3 percent of samples analyzed for total dissolved solids exceeded the SMCL (500 milligrams per liter) (mg/L). No samples analyzed for fluoride equaled or exceeded the SMCL (2.0 mg/L) or PMCL (4.0 mg/L).Iron concentrations exceeded the USEPA SMCL in 11 percent of samples and were highest in schist (14 percent) and gneiss (13 percent). Manganese concentrations exceeded the SMCL in 19 percent of samples and were highest in quartzite and schist (both 28 percent). Lead and arsenic were present in low concentrations: the highest concentrations of lead occurred in water from quartzite (8 percent exceeded the USEPA Action Level), and arsenic was detected mostly in Triassic sedimentary rocks (9 percent exceeded the USEPA PMCL). The highest concentrations of copper occurred more frequently in quartzite rocks, and to a lesser extent were evenly distributed between ground water in gneiss, schist, and Triassic sedimentary rocks.Elevated concentrations of radon-222 and the combined radium-226/radium-228 radionuclides were common in water from quartzite and schist. Gross alpha and gross beta particle activities were elevated in water from quartzite and carbonate rocks. In contrast, elevated concentrations of uranium

  17. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-06-01

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  18. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Assessment of Ground Water in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiti, S.Y.; Ali, M.M.; Yousef, L.A.; Dessouki, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The recharge rate is the most critical factor to ground water resources especially in semi- arid and arid areas. Fourteen representative ground water samples were collected from South Eastern Desert of Egypt and subjected to chemical and isotopic composition. The chemical data reported that, the alkalinity (ph) ranges between 6.5 and 8.5, the salinity of water ranges between 396 and 7874 ppm, sodium is the most dominant cation and chloride is the most dominant anion. The concentration of trace elements (Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mn) was analyzed to evaluate the suitability for drinking and irrigation. Uranium and thorium concentrations were found within the safe limit. Most of ground water was found suitable for drinking water, laundry, irrigation, building, industrial, livestock and poultry. The environmental stable isotopes (D and 18 O) and the radioactive isotope 3 H were evaluated for water samples of the investigated area to focus on the origin of the ground water, sources of recharging and the water rock interaction between aquifers and water. The isotopic compositions of these ground water samples indicated that, there are three different sources of recharge; paleo-water, local precipitation and rain water

  19. ground water quality evaluation in beed city, maharashtra, india

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khatib Afsar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical .... All ideal value s (Vio) are taken as zero for the drinking water ..... Conference: Ustron, Poland, 2004, Routledge, New York.

  20. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  1. Theoretical aspects on the phenomenon of contamination of ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of contamination of ground waters and the destination of certain constituents of the water keep in mind diverse mechanisms of physical nature, chemistry and biological; in this work it is consigned in a concise way, the theoretical aspects of these topics, that is to say, the basic principles of the ground water hydraulics, the fundamental concepts of the physics of the movement and the chemistry of the ground water, as well as the equations that govern the phenomenon of contamination of the mass of water contained in the interstices of the floors and the rocks, broadly used in the mathematical modeling of the phenomenon

  2. Nitrogen-isotope ratios of nitrate in ground water under fertilized fields, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, W.J.; Bonner, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the 15N/14N ratios (??15N values) of fertilizer are increased during transit from land surface to ground water to an extent which would preclude use of this ratio to distinguish agricultural from animal sources of nitrate in ground water. Ground water at both sites contained a greater proportion of 15N than the fertilizers being applied. At the potato farm, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was 0.2???; the average ??15N value of the ground-water nitrate was 6.2???. At the golf course, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was -5.9???, and that of ground-water nitrate was 6.5???. The higher ??15N values of ground-water nitrate are probably caused by isotopic fractionation during the volatile loss of ammonia from nitrogen applied in reduced forms (NH4+ and organic-N). The ??15N values of most ground-water samples from both areas were less than 10???, the upper limit of the range characteristic of agricultural sources of nitrate; these sources include both fertilizer nitrate and nitrate derived from increased mineralization of soil nitrogen through cultivation. Previous studies have shown that the ??15N values of nitrate derived from human or animal waste generally exceed 10???. The nitrogen-isotope ratios of fertilizer-derived nitrate were not altered to an extent that would make them indistinguishable from animal-waste-derived nitrates in ground water.Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to

  3. The physical and aesthetic quality of ground water in rural areas of Lahore district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salik, M.; Mahmood, K.; Sadiq, M.

    2009-01-01

    Physical and aesthetic parameters of drinking water include total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity (EC), taste, odour, colour and turbidity, Although these parameters are not considered to be harmful for health, but they do effect the look and taste of the water, and may cause it to be undrinkable by some people. Addressing these water quality problems is therefore important and all have relatively simple solutions. A study was conducted in twenty villages of Lahore district to, assess the physical and aesthetic quality of ground water. It was observed that in rural area ground water is used for domestic and drinking purpose. Therefore, tube wells water samples were twenty villages were collected, Bore depths .ranged from 60 to 380 feet. Three water samples were collected from each of twenty villages and were analyzed for total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity (EC), taste, odour, colour and turbidity, Analysis showed that regarding colour, odour and taste all, water samples were fit. Considering World Health Organization permissible limit for turbidity (5 Nephlometric Turbidity Unit) all the water samples were fit. Regarding total dissolved solids, 33.3 % water samples were unfit while, 64.7 % were fit considering the WHO criteria (1000 mill). Regarding pH. 7.5 % of water samples were unfit for drinking and only 25 % water samples fall within safe limit. Considering all the parameters, 10 samples (16.6 %) were fit and remaining 50 samples were unfit out of total 60 water samples. (author)

  4. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  5. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  6. Implications of ground water chemistry and flow patterns for earthquake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangcai, Wang; Zuochen, Zhang; Min, Wang; Cravotta, Charles A; Chenglong, Liu

    2005-01-01

    Ground water can facilitate earthquake development and respond physically and chemically to tectonism. Thus, an understanding of ground water circulation in seismically active regions is important for earthquake prediction. To investigate the roles of ground water in the development and prediction of earthquakes, geological and hydrogeological monitoring was conducted in a seismogenic area in the Yanhuai Basin, China. This study used isotopic and hydrogeochemical methods to characterize ground water samples from six hot springs and two cold springs. The hydrochemical data and associated geological and geophysical data were used to identify possible relations between ground water circulation and seismically active structural features. The data for delta18O, deltaD, tritium, and 14C indicate ground water from hot springs is of meteoric origin with subsurface residence times of 50 to 30,320 years. The reservoir temperature and circulation depths of the hot ground water are 57 degrees C to 160 degrees C and 1600 to 5000 m, respectively, as estimated by quartz and chalcedony geothermometers and the geothermal gradient. Various possible origins of noble gases dissolved in the ground water also were evaluated, indicating mantle and deep crust sources consistent with tectonically active segments. A hard intercalated stratum, where small to moderate earthquakes frequently originate, is present between a deep (10 to 20 km), high-electrical conductivity layer and the zone of active ground water circulation. The ground water anomalies are closely related to the structural peculiarity of each monitoring point. These results could have implications for ground water and seismic studies in other seismogenic areas.

  7. Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Dhamar City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefdallah Al Aizari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on groundwater at five fields (17 sampling wells located in Dhamar city, the central highlands of Yemen, was carried out. Samples were collected from the ground water supplies (tube wells during the year 2015. Physical parameters studied include (values between bracket s represents the measured mean values temperature (T, 25°, total dissolved solids (TDS, 271.47, pH (7.5, and electrical conductivity (EC, 424.18. The chemical parameters investigated include total hardness (TH, 127.45, calcium (Ca2+, 32.89, magnesium (Mg2+, 11.03, bicarbonate (HCO3̶, 143.84, sulphate (SO42-, 143.84, sodium (Na+, 35.11, potassium (K+, 6.28 and Chloride (Cl ̵, 22.69. The results were compared with drinking water quality standards issued by Yemen standards for drinking water. Except for T° and pH, all other measured parameters fall below the minimum permissible limits. The correlation between various physio-chemical parameters of the studied water wells was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. The obtained results show that all water samples are potable and can be safely used for both drinking and irrigation purposes. This comes in agreement with the public notion about groundwater of Dhamar Governorate. Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR values were calculated and found below 3 except for one drill. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 56-71

  8. Existence of Insecticides in Tap Drinking Surface and Ground Water in Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Mandour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The environmental degradation products of pesticides may enter drinking water and result in serious health problems. Objective: To evaluate the occurrence of insecticides in drinking surface and ground water in Dakahlyia Governorate, northern Egypt in 2011. Methods: We studied blood samples collected from 36 consecutive patients diagnosed with pesticides poisoning and 36 tap drinking water (surface and ground. Blood and water samples were analyzed for pesticides using gas chromatography-electron captured detector (GC-ECD. In addition, blood samples were analyzed for plasma pseudo-cholinesterase level (PChE and red blood cells acetyl cholinesterase activity (AChE. Results: The results confirmed the presence of high concentrations of insecticides, including organonitrogenous and organochlorine in tap drinking surface and ground water. Conclusion: Drinking water contaminated with insecticides constitutes an important health concern in Dakahlyia governorate, Egypt.

  9. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  10. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  11. Identification of sources and mechanisms of salt-water pollution ground-water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.C.; Dutton, A.R.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on salinization of soils and ground water that is widespread in the Concho River watershed and other semiarid areas in Texas and the United States. Using more than 1,200 chemical analyses of water samples, the authors were able to differentiate various salinization mechanisms by mapping salinity patterns and hydrochemical facies and by analyzing isotopic compositions and ionic ratios. Results revealed that in Runnels County evaporation of irrigation water and ground water is a major salinization mechanism, whereas to the west, in Irion and Tom Green Counties, saline water appears to be a natural mixture of subsurface brine and shallowly circulating meteoric water recharged in the Concho River watershed. The authors concluded that the occurrence of poor-quality ground water is not a recent or single-source phenomenon; it has been affected by terracing of farmland, by disposal of oil-field brines into surface pits, and by upward flow of brine from the Coleman Junction Formation via insufficiently plugged abandoned boreholes

  12. Volatile organic compounds in the nation's ground water and drinking-water supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogorski, John S.; Carter, Janet M.; Ivahnenko, Tamara; Lapham, Wayne W.; Moran, Michael J.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Squillace, Paul J.; Toccalino, Patricia L.

    2006-01-01

    This national assessment of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water gives emphasis to the occurrence of VOCs in aquifers that are used as an important supply of drinking water. In contrast to the monitoring of VOC contamination of ground water at point-source release sites, such as landfills and leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs), our investigations of aquifers are designed as large-scale resource assessments that provide a general characterization of water-quality conditions. Nearly all of the aquifers included in this assessment have been identified as regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems. The assessment of ground water (Chapter 3) included analyses of about 3,500 water samples collected during 1985-2001 from various types of wells, representing almost 100 different aquifer studies. This is the first national assessment of the occurrence of a large number of VOCs with different uses, and the assessment addresses key questions about VOCs in aquifers. The assessment also provides a foundation for subsequent decadal assessments of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to ascertain long-term trends of VOC occurrence in these aquifers.

  13. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  14. Handling the decline of ground water using artificial recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, Muhammad Shofi; Yoga, Kuncaraningrat Edi; Muslim, Dicky

    2017-11-01

    Jatinagor, a region with rapid growth cause increasing in water demand. The ground water surface in the observation area shows a decrease based on its potential. This deflation is mainly caused by the inequality between inputs and outputs of the ground water itself. The decrease of this ground water surface is also caused by the number of catchment areas that keeps decreasing. According to the data analysis of geology and hydrology, the condition of ground water in Jatinangor on 2015 had indicated a decrease compared to 2010. Nowadays, the longlivity of clean water can be ensure by the hydrogeology engineering, which is to construct an artificial recharge for ground water in use. The numerical method is aims to determine the number of ground water supply in Jatinangor. According to the research, the most suitable artificial recharge is in the form of a small dam located in the internment river. With the area of 209.000 m2, this dam will be able to contain 525 m3 runoff water with the intensity of maximum rainfall effectively 59,44 mm/hour. The increase of water volume generate by this artificial recharge, fulfilled the demand of clean water.

  15. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  16. Geohydrological and environmental isotope observation of Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Dziembowski, Z.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dewatering of Sishen Mine in the northern Cape Province supplies good quality water for the mine and surrounding areas. Using various approaches, attempts are made to quantify the remaining storage of ground water. Geohydrological observations provide an estimate based on extrapolating the thickness of dewatered rock. Environmental isotope observations on various borehole outputs show contrasts between different ground-water bodies and their mixtures and allows for some extrapolations of observed trends. Indications are that previous estimates of storage, based on ground-water level changes, are conservative

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ''Vitro'' site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ''Clive'' disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer

  18. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ''ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  20. Radon concentrations in ground and drinking water in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.; Cano Jimenez, A.; Renteria Villalobos, M.; Delgado Mendoza, C.J.; Jurado Tenorio, L.A.; Davila Rangel, I.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports 222 Rn concentrations in ground and drinking water of nine cities of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Fifty percent of the 114 sampled wells exhibited 222 Rn concentrations exceeding 11 Bq/L, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) recommended by the USEPA. Furthermore, around 48% (123 samples) of the tap-water samples taken from 255 dwellings showed radon concentrations over the MCL. There is an apparent correlation between total dissolved solids and radon concentration in ground-water. The high levels of 222 Rn found may be entirely attributed to the nature of aquifer rocks

  1. Radon concentrations in ground and drinking water in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Colmenero Sujo, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Chihuahua II, Ave. de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Montero Cabrera, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)]. E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx; Cano Jimenez, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Renteria Villalobos, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Delgado Mendoza, C.J. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Jurado Tenorio, L.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Davila Rangel, I. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 20, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Herrera Peraza, E.F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports {sup 222}Rn concentrations in ground and drinking water of nine cities of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Fifty percent of the 114 sampled wells exhibited {sup 222}Rn concentrations exceeding 11 Bq/L, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) recommended by the USEPA. Furthermore, around 48% (123 samples) of the tap-water samples taken from 255 dwellings showed radon concentrations over the MCL. There is an apparent correlation between total dissolved solids and radon concentration in ground-water. The high levels of {sup 222}Rn found may be entirely attributed to the nature of aquifer rocks.

  2. Radon concentrations in ground and drinking water in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, L; Colmenero Sujo, L; Montero Cabrera, M E; Cano Jiménez, A; Rentería Villalobos, M; Delgado Mendoza, C J; Jurado Tenorio, L A; Dávila Rangel, I; Herrera Peraza, E F

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports (222)Rn concentrations in ground and drinking water of nine cities of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Fifty percent of the 114 sampled wells exhibited (222)Rn concentrations exceeding 11Bq/L, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) recommended by the USEPA. Furthermore, around 48% (123 samples) of the tap-water samples taken from 255 dwellings showed radon concentrations over the MCL. There is an apparent correlation between total dissolved solids and radon concentration in ground-water. The high levels of (222)Rn found may be entirely attributed to the nature of aquifer rocks.

  3. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  4. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  5. The Virginia Beach shallow ground-water study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionVirginia Beach is a rapidly growing city of more than 425,000 people. Sources of fresh water within the city, however, are limited. Prior to 1998, the Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department met the city's water needs by purchasing treated drinking water from the City of Norfolk. Because Norfolk had to meet its own requirements, the amount of water available to Virginia Beach was limited to about 30 million gallons per day (mgd) and even less during droughts. This water supply was supplemented with ground water from city-owned, community, and private wells. In many parts of the city, however, ground water cannot be used because of high concentrations of chloride, iron, and (or) sulfur, which give the water an unpleasant taste.In early 1998, a pipeline came on-line that can carry up to 45 mgd of water from Lake Gaston to Virginia Beach. The Gaston pipeline has alleviated concerns about water supply and quality for most residents living north of the "Green Line." These residents primarily use ground water only for small-scale domestic activities such as watering lawns, filling ponds and pools, and washing cars. City water and sewer services have been extended beyond the Green Line into the "Transition Area." Residents and businesses south of the Transition Area, however, continue to rely on ground water to meet most of their needs for potable and non-potable water. To help assure a continued, reliable supply of ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department, has begun an assessment of the shallow ground-water resources underlying the City of Virginia Beach.

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  8. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  9. MINTEQ, Geochemical Equilibria in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase. 2 - Method of solution: MINTEQ applies the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to solve geochemical equilibria from a set of mass balance equations, one for each component. Because the

  10. Pollution of south of Tehran ground waters with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmasi, R.; Tavassoli, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reuse of nutrients and organic matter in wastewater sludge via on agricultural lands application is a desirable goal. However, trace or heavy metals present in sludge pose the risk of human or phyto toxicity from land application. The aim of this research is possibility of ground water pollution of south of Tehran because of ten years irrigation with Ni, Cd and Pb borne waste water. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones from Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. The soils differed in their texture from sandy to clayey. Each soil sample in duplicate and uniformly packed into PVC columns. Soil samples were irrigated with Cd, Pb and Ni-added wastewater. After irrigating, the columns were cut and the soils separated from sectioned pieces and their heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cd and Ni) were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer y use of HNO 3 , 4N solution. Because of high sorption capacity of these elements by soils, these metals were accumulated in surface layer of the soils. Movement in the soils without lime and organic matter were as low as other samples. Ni has had the most accumulation or the least vertical movement, and Pb the opposite ones

  11. Ground-water resources data for Baldwin County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.; Moreland, Richard S.; Clark, Amy E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for 237 wells were collected, and water-levels in 223 wells in Baldwin and Escambia Counties were measured. Long-term water water-level data, available for many wells, indicate that ground-water levels in most of Baldwin County show no significant trends for the period of record. However, ground-water levels have declined in the general vicinity of Spanish Fort and Daphne, and ground-water levels in the Gulf Shores and Orange Beach areas are less than 5 feet above sea level in places. The quality of ground water generally is good, but problems with iron, sulfur, turbidity, and color occur. The water from most private wells in Baldwin County is used without treatment or filtration. Alabama public- health law requires that water from public-supply wells be chlorinated. Beyond that, the most common treatment of ground water by public-water suppliers in Baldwin County consists of pH adjustment, iron removal, and aeration. The transmissivity of the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer was determined at 10 locations in Baldwin County. Estimates of transmissivity ranged from 700 to 5,400 feet squared per day. In general, aquifer transmissivity was greatest in the southeastern part of the county, and least in the western part of the county near Mobile Bay. A storage coefficient of 1.5 x 10-3 was determined for the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer near Loxley.

  12. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1994. Much of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  13. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  14. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  15. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act

  16. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  18. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Introduction: Water is a necessity of life. Accordingly, every person is deeply interested in the subject of water supply. He knows that he must have water to drink. He depends indirectly on water for all his food and clothing. He may want water in which to wash. Civilized man has learned also that water serves admirably for a large and ever enlarging list of uses that depend on its easy convertibility from a liquid to a solid or gaseous state and its adaptability as a chemical solvent, a medium for transfer of matter or energy, and a regulator of temperature. 

  19. Natural Radioactivity Pattern of Surabaya Water Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide of Surabaya environmental samples pattern have been evaluated. The environmental samples were chosen randomly at 12 locations. The environment samples were water (fresh, estuary and coastal), sediment, eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Mangrove (Rhizophora stylosa), (Moolgarda delicatus) fish and (Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis) (Sharpnose hammer croaker) fish. The water sample was evaporated; the sediment sample was dried and ground; the biotic samples was burnt at the temperature 500 °C ; The gross β measurement using GM detector and the radionuclides has been identified by γ spectrometer. From the investigation results could be concluded that the natural radioactivity of environmental samples was very low. gross-β of water samples were lower than the threshold value of local government regulation of Surabaya no: 2 year 2004 (1 Bq/L). The distribution of gross-β activity of eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms was higher than the other biotic, water and sediment samples as well as the accumulation of radionuclides in the water organism was taken place. The result of identification using γ spectrometer has detected 7 of radionuclides, i.e 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, and 40 K in all sample. The distribution factor of sediment F D was less than bioaccumulation factor of biotic F B and it indicates that there the radionuclide accumulation migration follows the pattern of water - sediment - biotic sample. (author)

  20. Ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer, southwestern Albany area, Georgia, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Debbie; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    During 1997, the Dougherty County Health Department sampled more than 700 wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Dougherty County, Georgia, and determined that nitrate as nitrogen (hereinafter called nitrate) concentrations were above 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in 12 percent of the wells. Ten mg/L is the Georgia primary drinking-water standard. The ground-water flow system is complex and poorly understood in this predominantly agricultural area. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with Albany Water, Gas and Light Commission - conducted a study to better define ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Florida aquifer in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia. Ground-water levels were measured in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia, during May 1998 and March 1999 (spring), and October 1998 and September 1999 (fall). Groundwater levels measured in 75 wells open only to the Upper Floridan aquifer were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for those four time periods. These maps show that ground water generally flows from northwest to southeast at gradients ranging from about 2 to greater than 10 feet per mile. During spring and fall 1998, ground-water levels were high and mounding of the potentiometric surface occurred in the central part of the study area, indicating a local recharge area. Water levels declined from December through February, and by March 1999 the mound in the potentiometric surface had dissipated. Of the 75 wells in the potentiometric network, 24 were selected for a water-quality network. These 24 wells and 1 spring were sampled during fall 1998 and spring 1999. Samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, selected minor constituents, selected nutrients, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). Water-quality field measurements - such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance (SC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) - were taken at each well. During August 2000, a ground-water sample was collected

  1. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  2. Uranium mineralization by ground water in sedimentary rocks, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Hirono, S.; Sakamaki, Y.

    1975-01-01

    To solve the mechanism of uranium concentration in stratabound uranium deposits occurring in the basal part of Neogene sediments overlying granite basement, attention was paid to uranium leaching from weathered granite by circulating carbonated fissure waters, to effective adsorbents for fixing uranium from uraniferous ground waters, to structural features controlling the ground-water circulation, and other relevant factors. The evidence for uranium transportation by hydothermal solutions, including hot spring waters, is hard to observe. Conclusions are summarized as follows: Uranium in the deposits is supplied from surrounding source rocks, mostly from granite. Uranium is transported by circulating ground-water solutions. The uranium dissolved in ground water is fixed in minerals in various ways, the most important being adsorption by carbonaceous matter. Ore-grade uranium concentrated from very dilute solutions occurs by multiple repetition of a leaching-and-fixation cycle between minerals or adsorbents and circulating uraniferous ground water. Important factors for uranium mineralization are sufficient uranium, supplied mostly from granite, the existence of effective adsorbents such as carbonaceous matter in the host rocks, and favorable geological, geochemical, and geophysical environments. The last seem to require not only physical and chemical conditions but also correct flow and volume of ground water. (U.S.)

  3. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  4. Ground-Water Hydrology and Projected Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1983-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mount...

  5. Temporal variation of uranium in ground water with conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Chaudhury, Moushumi D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of uranium in drinking water sources is a matter of health concern since it has been proved to be chemo-toxic to humans. Uranium being a more soluble actinide is also very mobile in the environment. The effect of water quality parameters and their co-relation to uranium content in the water is an interesting study to understand and predict its behavior in ground water and subsequently to judge the hazard posed. Hence studies on spatial and temporal variation of uranium concentration with electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids and salinity in ground water was carried out. (author)

  6. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  7. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  8. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  9. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Halimshah; A. Yusup; Z. Mat Amin; M. D. Ghazalli

    2015-01-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and effic...

  10. Determination of Phthalates in Drinking Water Samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. ... esters are used in the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride. (PVC). ... water, soil, air, food products and the human body. (Castillo et al.

  11. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  12. Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cml

    2012-06-16

    Jun 16, 2012 ... Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which endangers ... include leakage of pipes, pollution from sewerage pipes ..... and Quality Control Authority, Karachi, Pakistan.

  13. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field

  14. Modelling of the evolution of ground waters in a granite system at low temperature: the Stripa ground waters, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaud, D.; Michard, G.; Beaucaire, C.

    1990-01-01

    From chemical data on the Stripa ground waters we have tried to model the evolution of the chemical composition of a ground water in a granitic system at low temperature. The existence of two end-member ground water compositions made it possible first, to test the conventional model of a geothermal system according to which an overall equilibrium between the waters and a given mineral assemblage can be defined, and then to show that such a model could be extended to low temperatures (10 o C). Conversely, if we know the mineral assemblage, the equilibration temperature and the charge of the mobile ions (in this case, Cl), the composition of the solution is entirely fixed. In our model of the Stripa ground waters, the existence of two end-member ground water compositions can be explained by an evolution from a ''kaolinite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium to a ''prehnite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium, the latter requiring less Al than the former. We have also emphasized the importance of the Cl ion concentrations of the ground waters, because they can be considered as indicators of the degree of reaction progress between rock and water, thus determining the degree of equilibration of the system. (author)

  15. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  16. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-01-01

    The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations ...

  17. Ground water input to coastal salt ponds of southern Rhode Island estimated using 226Ra as a tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M K; Moran, S B

    2001-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 years) was used as a tracer to determine ground water input to Point Judith, Potter, Green Hill and Ninigret ponds in southern Rhode Island. Measurements of 226Ra activity were made in samples collected from salt ponds, pore waters, sediments, and local ground water wells during June-August, 1997. These results were combined with a simple box model to derive ground water input fluxes of 0.1-0.3 cm3 cm-2 d-1 (2-5 x 10(7) L d-1), which are comparable to previous estimates of ground water input to these ponds.

  18. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  20. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  1. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  2. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho

  3. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approves the use of E. coli as a fecal indicator for source water monitoring under this paragraph (a). If the repeat sample collected from the ground water source is E.coli positive, the system must comply... listed in the in paragraph (c)(2) of this section for the presence of E. coli, enterococci, or coliphage...

  4. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  5. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  6. Determination of uranium in ground water using different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Maity, Sukanta; Bhangare, R.C.; Pandit, G.G.; Sharma, D.N.

    2014-10-01

    The concern over presence of natural radionuclides like uranium in drinking water is growing recently. The contamination of aquifers with radionuclides depends on number of factors. The geology of an area is the most important factor along with anthropogenic activities like mining, coal ash disposal from thermal power plants, use of phosphate fertilizers etc. Whatever may be the source, the presence of uranium in drinking waters is a matter of great concern for public health. Studies show that uranium is a chemo-toxic and nephrotoxic heavy metal. This chemotoxicity affects the kidneys and bones in particular. Seeing the potential health hazards from natural radionuclides in drinking water, many countries worldwide have adopted the guideline activity concentration for drinking water quality recommended by the WHO (2011). For uranium, WHO has set a limit of 30μgL-1 in drinking water. The geological distribution of uranium and its migration in environment is of interest because the element is having environmental and exposure concerns. It is of great interest to use an analytical technique for uranium analysis in water which is highly sensitive especially at trace levels, specific and precise in presence of other naturally occurring major and trace metals and needs small amount of sample. Various analytical methods based on the use of different techniques have been developed in the past for the determination of uranium in the geological samples. The determination of uranium requires high selectivity due to its strong association with other elements. Several trace level wet chemistry analytical techniques have been reported for uranium determination, but most of these involve tedious and pain staking procedures, high detection limits, interferences etc. Each analytical technique has its own merits and demerits. Comparative assessment by different techniques can provide better quality control and assurance. In present study, uranium was analysed in ground water samples

  7. Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa Al Hawari; Mohammad Khader; Tarek Zayed; Osama Moselhi

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imagin...

  8. Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2004-09-01

    The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.

  9. Herbicide micropollutants in surface, ground and drinking waters within and near the area of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingler, Sanja; Mendaš, G; Dvoršćak, M; Stipičević, S; Vasilić, Ž; Drevenkar, V

    2017-04-01

    The frequency and mass concentrations of 13 herbicide micropollutants (triazines, phenylureas, chloroacetanilides and trifluralin) were investigated during 2014 in surface, ground and drinking waters in the area of the city of Zagreb and its suburbs. Herbicide compounds were accumulated from water by solid-phase extraction using either octadecylsilica or styrene-divinylbenzene sorbent cartridges and analysed either by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detector or gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide in drinking (84 % of samples) and ground (61 % of samples) waters in mass concentrations of 5 to 68 ng L -1 . It was followed by metolachlor and terbuthylazine, the former being detected in 54 % of drinking (up to 15 ng L -1 ) and 23 % of ground (up to 100 ng L -1 ) waters, and the latter in 45 % of drinking (up to 20 ng L -1 ) and 26 % of ground (up to 25 ng L -1 ) water samples. Acetochlor was the fourth most abundant herbicide in drinking waters, detected in 32 % of samples. Its mass concentrations of 107 to 117 ng L -1 in three tap water samples were the highest of all herbicides measured in the drinking waters. The most frequently (62 % of samples) and highly (up to 887 ng L -1 ) detected herbicide in surface waters was metolachlor, followed by terbuthylazine detected in 49 % of samples in mass concentrations of up to 690 ng L -1 , and atrazine detected in 30 % of samples in mass concentrations of up to 18 ng L -1 . The seasonal variations in herbicide concentrations in surface waters were observed for terbuthylazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, chlortoluron and isoproturon with the highest concentrations measured from April to August.

  10. Radon concentrations of ground waters in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kawamura, Norihisa [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health has been collecting the data concerning the spacial distribution of Rn concentration of groundwater in Aichi Prefecture and its time course changes. In this report, the data was described chiefly from 1991 and the availability of newly developed polyethylene vessel was discussed. Determination of Rn concentration was performed at a total of 104 sites within the range from the horizon to the depth of 1800 m. The measurement has been repeatedly conducted for ca. 20 years. The maximum level of Rn was 896 Bq/l and the minimum was 0.3 Bq/l for the groundwater samples collected from different springs. Correlation of Rn concentration with other chemical and physical factors for ground water was investigated and a significant correlation was found only between Rn concentration and pH ({gamma}=0.304, p<0.01). No time course changes in Rn concentration was observed except for the water sample from the site affected by some newly dug wells. In addition, the newly developed extraction vessel was shown to be available for the determination and its operability in the field was superior to the conventional glass ware. (M.N.)

  11. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  12. Hydrochemical assessments of surface Nile water and ground water in an industry area – South West Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El-Sayed

    2015-09-01

    The data obtained were used for mathematical calculations of some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, sodium percentage (Na%, and the suitability of water samples for drinking, domestic, and irrigation purposes was evaluated. The results indicate that most studied surface Nile water samples show excellent to good categories and are suitable for drinking and irrigation. Most studied ground water samples are not suitable for drinking and need treatment for irrigation; few samples are not suitable for any purpose because of pollution from different sources in this area.

  13. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.; Voss, C.I.

    1999-09-01

    The present report analyzes the geochemical data in order to evaluate collection and interpretation techniques that will be used to site the repository and to assess its safety. Ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) may be grouped into five chemically and isotopically distinct water types, on the basis of their deuterium and chloride contents: 1) recent waters, 2) 5 g/L chloride waters, 3) deep waters, 4) seawater imprint waters, and 5) glacial melt waters. The sampled ground waters show a progressive change from a predominantly NaHCO 3 composition at shallow depth to a CaCl 2 -rich composition at depth. Despite the proximity of the Baltic, relatively few of the sampled ground waters contain any evidence of a seawater component. This finding, together with the rather shallow depths at which saline waters were found, indicates that Aespoe island is presently in a regional ground-water discharge area. The chemical and isotopic composition of the sampled waters also indicates that local recharge of dilute recent waters occurs only down to shallow depths (generally less than 100 in). The Aespoe ground waters are sulfidic and do not presently contain any dissolved oxygen. Measured E H values are generally near -300 mV, and on average are only about 50 mV lower than E H values calculated from the sulfide/sulfate couple. Maintenance of reducing conditions, such as presently found at the Aespoe HRL, is an important consideration in assessing the performance of nuclear waste disposal sites. Measurements of dissolved radon and of uranium concentrations in fracture-fill materials were used to calculate an average effective flow-wetted surface area of 3.1 m 2 per liter of water for the Aespoe site. Estimation of flow-wetted surface areas is essential in determining the importance of matrix diffusion and surface sorption processes for radionuclide release calculations. The Rn calculation technique shows promise in helping narrow the possible range of values

  14. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  15. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  16. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in ground water, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems (CWSs) in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that is treated and ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before entering the distribution system. SWQA studies are conducted in two phases, and the objectives of SWQA studies are twofold: (1) to determine the occurrence and, for rivers, seasonal changes in concentrations of a broad list of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in aquifers and rivers that have some of the largest withdrawals for drinking-water supply (phase 1), and (2) for those AOCs found to occur most frequently in source water, characterize the extent to which these compounds are present in finished water (phase 2). These objectives were met for SWQA studies by collecting ground-water and surface-water (source) samples and analyzing these samples for 258 AOCs during phase 1. Samples from a subset of wells and surface-water sites located in areas with substantial agricultural production in the watershed were analyzed for 19 additional AOCs, for a total of 277 compounds analyzed for SWQA studies. The 277 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and

  17. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  18. Copepod communities from surface and ground waters in the everglades, south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M.C.; Cunningham, K.J.; Perry, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We studied species composition and individual abundance of copepods in the surficial aquifer northeast of Everglades National Park. We identified the spatial distribution of subsurface habitats by assessing the depth of the high porosity layers in the limestone along a canal system, and we used copepods to assess the exchange between surface water and ground water along canal banks, at levels in the wells where high porosity connections to the canals exist. Surface- and ground-water taxa were defined, and species composition was related to areal position, sampling depth, and time. Subsurface copepod communities were dominated by surface copepods that disperse into the aquifer following the groundwater seepage along canal L-31N. The similarities in species composition between wells along canal reaches, suggest that copepods mainly enter ground water horizontally along canals via active and passive dispersal. Thus, the copepod populations indicate continuous connections between surface- and ground waters. The most abundant species were Orthocyclops modestus, Arctodiaptomus floridanus, Mesocyclops edax, and Thermocyclops parvus, all known in literature from surface habitats; however, these species have been collected in ground water in ENP. Only two stygophiles were collected: Diacylcops nearcticus and Diacyclops crassicaudis brachycercus. Restoration of the Everglades ecosystem requires a mosaic of data to reveal a complete picture of this complex system. The use of copepods as indicators of seepage could be a tool in helping to assess the direction and the duration of surface and ground water exchange.

  19. Study of uranium contamination of ground water in Punjab using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrakabi, Muhanad; Singh, Gurjeet; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rai, Bimal; Singh, N.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Srivastava, Alok

    2010-01-01

    A number of reports have appeared in public media about uranium ingestion being a possible cause for cancer and increased birth rate abnormalities among children in the Malwa region of Punjab state in India. These reports link problems like cancer and Autism, with the presence of uranium in the ground waters of Malwa region. The concentration of uranium in drinking water from sources as varied as ground water, canal water supply and reverse osmosis system have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. Samples from the thermal power plants in the regions and nearby ground waters were also analyzed to identify the source of contamination. The samples were collected with assistance of the officials from the Government of Punjab. More than half a litre of each of the water samples was dried at 60 deg-80 deg in an oven. Residue was collected using larger quantities of water samples in case of RO water samples. The elemental analysis of the residue was carried out using the Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer consisting of an 42 Mo-anode X-ray tube (Panalytical, 2.5 kW) as an excitation source and a Si(Li) detector. A combination of selective absorbers of 30 Zn, 38 Sr, and 39 Y was used in the incident beam for improving the detection limit for Uranium by reducing the background and removing the 42 Mo K X-rays. The detection limit in ppb/litre depends upon the amount of residue

  20. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  1. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  2. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. Semiannual water sampling is scheduled for the spring and fall. Water quality sampling is conducted at the processing site (1) to ensure protection of human health and the environment, (2) for ground water compliance monitoring during remedial action construction, and (3) to define the extent of contamination. At the processing site, the frequency and duration of sampling will be dependent upon the nature and extent of residual contamination and the compliance strategy chosen. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  3. Seasonal Distribution of Trace Metals in Ground and Surface Water of Golaghat District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boarh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out on the quality of ground and surface water with respect to chromium, manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and arsenic contamination from 28 different sources in the predominantly rural Golaghat district of Assam (India. The metals were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometer. Water samples were collected from groundwater and surface water during the dry and wet seasons of 2008 from the different sources in 28 locations (samples. The results are discussed in the light of possible health hazards from the metals in relation to their maximum permissible limits. The study shows the quality of ground and surface water in a sizeable number of water samples in the district not to be fully satisfactory with respect to presence of the metals beyond permissible limits of WHO. The metal concentration of groundwater in the district follows the trend As>Zn>Mn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Cd in both the seasons.

  4. sessment of ground water contamination in Erode District, Tamilnadu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  5. Assessment of ground water contamination in Erode District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  6. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  7. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  8. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  10. Comparison between agricultural and urban ground-water quality in the Mobile River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2003-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer is a major source of public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The aquifer outcrop trends northwest - southeast across Mississippi and Alabama. A relatively thin shallow aquifer overlies and recharges the Black Warrior River aquifer in the flood plains and terraces of the Alabama, Coosa, Black Warrior, and Tallapoosa Rivers. Ground water in the shallow aquifer and the Black Warrior River aquifer is susceptible to contamination due to the effects of land use. Ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer and the shallow subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer, underlying an agricultural and an urban area, is described and compared. The agricultural and urban areas are located in central Alabama in Autauga, Elmore, Lowndes, Macon, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa Counties. Row cropping in the Mobile River Basin is concentrated within the flood plains of major rivers and their tributaries, and has been practiced in some of the fields for nearly 100 years. Major crops are cotton, corn, and beans. Crop rotation and no-till planting are practiced, and a variety of crops are grown on about one-third of the farms. Row cropping is interspersed with pasture and forested areas. In 1997, the average farm size in the agricultural area ranged from 196 to 524 acres. The urban area is located in eastern Montgomery, Alabama, where residential and commercial development overlies the shallow aquifer and subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer. Development of the urban area began about 1965 and continued in some areas through 1995. The average home is built on a 1/8 - to 1/4 - acre lot. Ground-water samples were collected from 29 wells in the agricultural area, 30 wells in the urban area, and a reference well located in a predominately forested area. The median depth to the screens of the agricultural and urban wells was 22.5 and 29 feet, respectively. Ground-water samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and pesticides

  11. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ''pump-and-treat'' technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations

  12. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  13. Resources sustainable management of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation executive interinstitutional of the state of knowledge of the Raigon aquifer in the mark of the Project RLA/8/031 (sustainable Administration of Resources of groundwaters), elaborate of an I diagnose and definition of the necessities with a view to the formulation of the plan of activities of the project to develop. In the development of this work shop they were the following topics: Geology and hidrogeology, numeric modelation of the Aquifer and letter of vulnerability of the Aquifer Raigon. soils, quality and water demand, juridical and institutionals aspects

  14. Chemical evaluation and treatment of ground water for university town Peshawar, Pakistan by reverse osmosis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddique, M.; Gilani, S.N.; Ishaq, M.; Gul, F.

    2012-01-01

    Present study is focused on the ground water treatment for the University Town Peshawar by reverse osmosis technology, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis pure water and ultra pure water filtration. Water collected from three locations was analyzed. The results showed that the first two water samples were neutral having pH 7.09 and 7.16 comparable with the range (6.50-8.50), while the pH for the water sample getting purified and passed from RO process was 5.33 i.e. slightly acidic. The ionic content of the water sample was low, whereas the conductivity ranged from 624-634 micro S/cm for the first two samples and reduced to 1.37 muS/cm. The parameters investigated are below the safety baseline levels of the national and international standards with the exception of Pb. (author)

  15. Potential for saturated ground-water system contamination at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.; Ruggieri, M.R.; Rogers, L.L.; Emerson, D.O.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A program of hydrogeologic investigation has been carried out to determine the likelihood of contaminant movement to the saturated zone from near the ground surface at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A companion survey of potential contaminant sources was also conducted at the LLNL. Water samples from selected LLNL wells were analyzed to test the water quality in the uppermost part of the saturated zone, which is from 14 to 48 m (45 to 158 ft) beneath the surface. Only nitrate and tritium were found in concentrations above natural background. In one well, the nitrate was slightly more concentrated than the drinking water limit. The nitrate source has not been found. The tritium in all ground-water samples from wells was found far less concentrated than the drinking water limit. The extent of infiltration of surface water was traced with environmental tritium. The thickness and stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone beneath the LLNL, and nearby area, was determined with specially constructed wells and boreholes. Well hydrograph analysis indicated where infiltration of surface water reached the saturated ground-water system. The investigation indicates that water infiltrating from the surface, through alluvial deposits, reaches the saturated zone along the course of Arroyo Seco, Arroyo Las Positas, and from the depression near the center of the site where seasonal water accumulates. Several potential contaminant sources were identified, and it is likely that contaminants could move from near the ground surface to the saturated zone beneath LLNL. Additional ground-water sampling and analysis will be performed and ongoing investigations will provide estimates of the speed with which potential contaminants can flow laterally in the saturated zone beneath LLNL. 34 references, 61 figures, 16 tables

  16. Advances in Radiocarbon Measurement of Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janovics, R.; Molnar, M.; Major, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATO MKI), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Svetlik, I. [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Wacker, L. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper two very different and novel methods for the {sup 14}C measurement of water samples are presented. The first method uses direct absorption into a scintillation cocktail and a following liquid scintillation measurement. Typical sample size is 20-40 L and overall uncertainty is {+-} 2% for modern samples. It is a very cost effective and easy to use method based on a novel and simple static absorption process for the CO{sub 2} extracted from groundwater. The other very sensitive method is based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) using a gas ion source. With a MICADAS type AMS system we demonstrated that you can routinely measure the {sup 14}C content of 1 mL of water sample with better than 1% precision (for a modern sample). This direct {sup 14}C AMS measurement of water takes less than 20 minutes including sample preparation. (author)

  17. Radon in streams and ground waters of Pennsylvania as a guide to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korner, L.A.; Rose, A.W.

    1977-06-01

    Radon-222, a daughter in the radioactive decay of uranium, has potential as a geochemical guide to uranium ores because of its chemical inertness and its relatively easy determination. The radon contents of 59 stream and 149 ground waters have been determined with a newly designed portable radon detector in order to test the method in uranium exploration. Radon contents of stream waters do not appear useful for reconnaissance uranium exploration of areas like Pennsylvania because of relatively rapid degassing of radon from turbulent waters, and because most radon is derived from nearby influx of ground waters into the streams. Radon in streams near uranium occurrences in Carbon and Lycoming counties is lower than many background streams. Radon in ground water is recommended as a reconnaissance method of uranium exploration because most samples from near mineralized areas are anomalous in radon. In contrast, uranium in ground waters is not anomalous near mineralized areas in Carbon County. Equations are derived to show the relation of radon in ground waters to uranium contents of enclosing rocks, emanation of radon from the solids to water, and porosity or fracture width. Limonites are found to be highly enriched in radium, the parent of radon. A model for detection of a nearby uranium ore body by radon measurement on a pumping well has been developed

  18. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in and around Gobichettipalayam Town Erode District, Tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    P. N. Palanisamy; A. Geetha; M. Sujatha; P. Sivakumar; K. Karunakaran

    2007-01-01

    Ground water samples collected from different localities in and around Gobichettipalayam town, Erode District, Tamil Nadu were analyzed for their physico- chemical characteristics. This analysis result was compared with the WHO & ICMR standards of drinking water quality parameters with the following water quality parameters namely pH, Electrical conductivity, CN-, Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca & Mg in CaCO3 equivalents, phenolphthalein alkalinity, hydroxide alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbo...

  19. Organic contamination of ground water at Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on-site. The park soil is currently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the ground water. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in ground water samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where ground water was in contact with a non-aqueous phase liquid in the soil. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid was present, concentrations were much smaller, even if the ground water was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes in which soluble, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the non-aqueous phase liquid into the ground water. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large

  20. Organic contamination of ground water at Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on-site. The park soil is currently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the ground water. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in ground water samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where ground water was in contact with a non-aqueous phase liquid in the soil. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid was present, concentrations were much smaller, even if the ground water was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes in which soluble, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the non-aqueous phase liquid into the ground water. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large.

  1. Ground rubber: Sorption media for ground water containing benzene and O-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of ground rubber to sorb benzene and O-xylene from water contained with aromatic hydrocarbons. The study consisted of running both batch and packed bed column tests to determine the sorption capacity, the required sorption equilibration time, and the flow through utilization efficiency of ground rubber under various contact times when exposed to water contaminated with various amounts of benzene or O-xylene. Initial batch test results indicate that ground rubber can attain equilibrium sorption capacities up to 1.3 or 8.2 mg of benzene or O-xylene, respectively, per gram of tire rubber at solution equilibrium concentrations of 10 mg/L. Packed bed column tests indicate that ground tire rubber has on the average a 40% utilization rate when a hydraulic residence time of 15 min is used. Possible future uses of round rubber as a sorption media could include, but are not limited to, the use of ground rubber as an aggregate in slurry cutoff walls that are in contact with petroleum products. Ground rubber could also be used as a sorption media in pump-and-treat methodologies or as a sorption media in in-situ reactive permeable barriers

  2. Identification of contaminants of concern in Hanford ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    More than 1,500 waste-disposal sites have been identified at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, these sites were aggregated into four administrative areas for listing on the National Priority List. Within the four aggregate areas, 646 inactive sites were selected for further evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS). Evaluation of inactive waste sites by HRS provided valuable insight to design a focused radiological- and hazardous-substance monitoring network. Hanford Site-wide ground-water monitoring was expanded to address not only radioactive constituents but also hazardous chemicals. The HRS scoring process considers the likelihood of ground-water contamination from past disposal practices at inactive waste sites. The network designed to monitor ground water at those facilities identified 129 I, 99 Tc, 90 Sr, uranium, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, and cyanide

  3. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  4. Water Sample Points, Navajo Nation, 2000, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point shapefile presents the locations and results for water samples collected on the Navajo Nation by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the US...

  5. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  6. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  8. Emission to air, water and ground: legislation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Dag Horsberg

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses Norwegian legislation on emission to air, water and ground. Pollution in the sense of the law is defined as ''the addition of solid matter, gas or liquid to air, water or ground''. The concept of pollution is, however, more far-reaching as even noise, light and radiation may be regarded as pollution although these are not discussed. Any pollution is prohibited. But there are two exceptions: commonly accepted pollutions such as arising from wood burning and agriculture, and emissions allowed by special permission from the National State Pollution Control Authority. The article also discusses liability issues

  9. Valuation of potential hazards to ground water from abandoned sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerndorff, H.; Schleyer, R.; Dieter, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    With a view to obtaining, for the large number of abandoned sites suspected of pollution, necessary information regarding the type and extent of possible ground water contamination with a minimum of effort and cost, a hierarchical investigation strategy was developed and successfully tested in more than 100 cases in Germany. As a decisive advantage, already the well-defined and simple investigation steps ''preliminary prospecting'' and ''screening'' permit to recognize polluted sites posing a hazard to ground water. The more specific and demanding investigation steps ''pollutant analysis'' and ''detailed investigations'' may be carried through if necessary. (orig./BBR). 27 figs., 36 tabs [de

  10. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  11. Modeling the effects of longwall mining on the ground water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matetic, R.J.; Liu, J.; Elsworth, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this US Bureau of Mines hydrologic-subsidence investigation was to evaluate the effects of longwall mining on the local ground water regime through field monitoring and numerical modeling. Field data were obtained from multiple-position borehole extensometers (MPBXs) that were used to measure subsurface displacements. Survey monuments were installed to measure mining-induced surface deformations. Numerous drawdown and recovery tests were performed to characterized hydrologic properties of the overburden strata. Coreholes were drilled above the study area to determine lithologic and strength characteristics of the overburden strata using the rock samples collected. Electronic recorders were installed on all monitoring wells to continuously monitor ground water levels in coordination with mining of the longwall panels. A combined finite element model of the deformation of overlying strata, and its influence on ground water flow was used to define the change in local and regional water budgets. The predicted effects of the postmining ground water system determined by the model correlated well with field data collected from the fieldsite. Without an infiltration rate added to the model, a static decrease of 3.0 m (10 ft) in water level would occur due to mining of both longwall panels and if an infiltration rate was inputted in the model, no predicted long-term effects would occur to the ground water system

  12. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. The Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin. The JBWD is concerned with the long-term sustainability of the underlying aquifer. To help meet future demands, the JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. As growth continues in the desert, there may be a need to import water to supplement the available ground-water resources. In order to manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins, (2) determine the distribution and quantity of recharge using field and numerical techniques, and (3) develop a ground-water flow model that can be used to help manage the water resources of the region. The geohydrologic framework was refined by collecting and interpreting water-level and water-quality data, geologic and electric logs, and gravity data. The water-bearing deposits in the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins are Quarternary alluvial deposits and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The Quarternary alluvial deposits were divided into two aquifers (referred to as the 'upper' and the 'middle' alluvial aquifers), which are about 600 feet (ft) thick, and the Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits were assigned to a single aquifer (referred to as the 'lower' aquifer), which is as thick as 1,500 ft. The ground-water quality of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins was defined by collecting 53 ground-water samples from 15 wells (10 in the

  13. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  14. Ground water investigations in connection with planned energy wells in the Lena area, Melhus centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storroe, Gaute

    2000-01-01

    In March 2000 the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) was requested to carry out ground water investigations in the Lena area at Melhus centre by the firms E-Tek AS and Statoil. The background for the investigations was the plans of exploiting ground heat connected to a housing project lead by Selmer Bolig AS. The aim of the project was to document the possibilities for extracting ground heat from loose soil well(s) in the selected construction area. The needed amount of water is in the size of 50 m 3 /hour (14l/s). In addition the conditions of currents, ground water quality and possibilities for refiltering of the ground water was to be mapped. In conclusion it may be said that it most likely will be possible to meet the stipulated water requirements (50 m 3 /hour) by establishing a full scale production well within the construction area. The ground water currents in the Lena area run from north to south. The ground water surface is relatively flat with an incline of 0.1 - 0.2 % (1-2 mm/m). The possibilities for refiltering pumped water seem to be good. The conditions should be mapped more closely through refiltering tests. All of the collected ground water samples exceed the limiting values stipulated by the drinking water regulations as to alkalinity, sulphate, calcium, potassium and manganese. The tests from Obs2 and from the ''municipal well'' exceed the limits for chloride and sodium as well. This indicates that unwanted precipitations of both chalk and manganese may occur. Large quantities of sea salts (chloride and sodium) may also have a corrosive effect. Through calculations using the Ryznar's Stability Index (RSI) it is evident that the tests from Obs1 and Obs2 are in the limiting area between ''problem free water'' and ''corrosive water'', while the water from the municipal well must be characterised as very corrosive. According to information from the managing personnel there have not been registered problems with precipitations or corrosion in heat

  15. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  16. The 226Ra isotope activities in ground water samples drawn of two wells from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State; Atividades do 226Ra em aguas subterraneas extraidas de dois pocos localizados no pluton meridional, granitoides de Morungaba, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; Silva Junior, Mario Goncalves da; Bertolla, Luciana; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: brenha@iag.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The 226Ra activities, both in solution and associated with suspended solids, were measured in ground water samples drawn from two wells drilled in a fractured granitic aquifer from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State. The 226Ra isotope activities were measured in a sequence of samples collected about one month apart between March, 2003 and April 2004. The 226Ra activities were measured by radon gas emanometry. The mean dissolved 226Ra activity concentration activities observed in the two wells were (44.9 {+-} 7.1) mBq/L and (51.6 {+-} 8.8) mBq/L. The 226Ra activity of the suspend solids in a liter of these waters varied between (0,6 {+-} 0,1) mBq and (13 {+-} 1) mBq, respectively. (author)

  17. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  18. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  19. Variations in radon-222 in soil and ground water at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Straume, T.; Smith, A.; King, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To help evaluate the applicability of variations of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas as a possible earthquake predictor, measurements were conducted in conjunction with underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radon fluctuations in ground water have been observed during a sequence of aftershocks following the Oroville, California earthquake of 1 August 1975. The NTS measurements were designed to show if these fluctuations were in response to ground shaking; if not, they could be attributed to changes in earth strain prior to the aftershocks. Well waters were periodically sampled and soil-gas 222 Rn monitored prior to and following seven underground explosions of varying strength and distance from sampling and detector locations. Soil-gas 222 Rn contents were measured by the alpha-track method; well water 222 Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearly identifiable correlation between well-water radon fluctuations and individual underground tests. One prominent variation in soil-gas radon corresponded to ground shaking from a pair of underground tests in alluvium; otherwise, there was no apparent correlation between radon emanation and other explosions. Markedly lower soil-gas radon contents following the tests were probably caused by consolidation of alluvium in response to ground shaking

  20. Water sampling techniques for continuous monitoring of pesticides in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šunjka Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good ecological and chemical status of water represents the most important aim of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which implies respect of water quality standards at the level of entire river basin (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EC. This especially refers to the control of pesticide residues in surface waters. In order to achieve the set goals, a continuous monitoring program that should provide a comprehensive and interrelated overview of water status should be implemented. However, it demands the use of appropriate analysis techniques. Until now, the procedure for sampling and quantification of residual pesticide quantities in aquatic environment was based on the use of traditional sampling techniques that imply periodical collecting of individual samples. However, this type of sampling provides only a snapshot of the situation in regard to the presence of pollutants in water. As an alternative, the technique of passive sampling of pollutants in water, including pesticides has been introduced. Different samplers are available for pesticide sampling in surface water, depending on compounds. The technique itself is based on keeping a device in water over a longer period of time which varies from several days to several weeks, depending on the kind of compound. In this manner, the average concentrations of pollutants dissolved in water during a time period (time-weighted average concentrations, TWA are obtained, which enables monitoring of trends in areal and seasonal variations. The use of these techniques also leads to an increase in sensitivity of analytical methods, considering that pre-concentration of analytes takes place within the sorption medium. However, the use of these techniques for determination of pesticide concentrations in real water environments requires calibration studies for the estimation of sampling rates (Rs. Rs is a volume of water per time, calculated as the product of overall mass transfer coefficient and area of

  1. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Gunnison ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish numerical model boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Gunnison processing site; and modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY CONSTITUTENTS RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN GROUND WATER FROM SMALL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study of small public ground-water-supply wells that produce water from discontinuous sand and gravel aquifers was done from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan. Samples were collected to determine the occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicato...

  3. Size Distributions and Characterization of Native and Ground Samples for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; Taylor, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation shows charts and graphs that review the particle size distribution and characterization of natural and ground samples for toxicology studies. There are graphs which show the volume distribution versus the number distribution for natural occurring dust, jet mill ground dust, and ball mill ground dust.

  4. Cerenkov radiation simulation in the Auger water ground detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Ngoc; Vo Van Thuan; Dang Quang Thieu

    2003-01-01

    The simulation of response of the Auger water Cerenkov ground detector to atmospheric shower muons in practically needed for the experimental research of cosmic rays at extreme energies. We consider here a simulation model for the process of emission and diffusion of Cerenkov photons concerned with muons moving through the detector volume with the velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in the water on purpose to define photons producing signal in the detector. (author)

  5. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  6. Fifth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring, and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book presents papers on technology in ground water sampling, monitoring, and remediation and geophysical techniques. The section on monitoring and remediation covers monitoring case studies, monitoring waste disposal sites, petroleum recovery, techniques in aquifer remediation, mathematical analysis of remedial techniques, vacuum extraction, bioremediation, and monitoring techniques. The section on sampling covers measurement variability, microbial sampling, vadose zone sampling, sampling with hydraulic probes, unusual sampling problems and equipment, and data management. A section on geophysics covers geophysics and site characterization, and geophysics and mining. The focus is on hazardous organic compounds. Individual articles are abstracted separately

  7. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  9. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  10. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  11. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  13. Ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Enid, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, Stuart L.

    1948-01-01

    This memorandum summaries matter discussed at a meeting of the City Commission of Enid, Oklahoma, on Thursday, January 15, 1948, at which the write presented a brief analysis of the ground-water resources available to the City of Enid and answered questions brought up by the commissioners.

  14. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    , selenium, and gross-alpha activity that exceed drinking-water standards. Suspected problems include possible contamination of the aquifer by oil-field brines and drilling fluids, pesticides, industrial chemicals, septic-tank effluent, fertilizers, and leakage from sewage systems and underground tanks used for storage of hydrocarbons. There are four major components of the Central Oklahoma aquifer project. The first component is the collection and analysis of existing information, including chemical, hydrologic, and land-use data. The second component is the geohydrologic and geochemical investigations of the aquifer flow system. The third component is the sampling for a wide variety of inorganic, organic, and radioactive constituents as part a regional survey that will produce a consistent set of data among all ground-water pilot projects. These data can be used to: (1) Define regional ground-water quality within the Central Oklahoma aquifer, and (2) compare water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer to the water quality in the other ground-water study units of the NAWQA program. The fourth component is topical studies that will address, in more detail, some of the major water-quality issues pertaining to the aquifer.

  15. Ground-water conditions and quality in the western part of Kenai Peninsula, southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The western part of Kenai Peninsula in southcentral Alaska is bounded by Cook Inlet and the Kenai Mountains. Ground water is the predominant source of water for commercial, industrial, and domestic uses on the peninsula. Mean daily water use in an oil, gas, and chemical processing area north of Kenai is more than 3.5 million gallons. Unconsolidated sediments of glacial and fluvial origin are the most productive aquifers. In the upper (northwestern) peninsula, almost all water used is withdrawn from unconsolidated sediments, which may be as thick as 750 feet. In the lower peninsula, unconsolidated sediments are thinner and are absent on many hills. Water supplies in the lower peninsula are obtained from unconsolidated sediments and bedrock, and a public-water supply in parts of Homer is obtained from Bridge Creek. Throughout the peninsula, ground-water flow occurs primarily as localized flow controlled by permeability of aquifer materials and surface topography. The concentration of constituents analyzed in water from 312 wells indicated that the chemical quality of ground water for human consumption varies from marginal to excellent. Even though the median concentration of dissolved solids is low (152 milligrams per liter), much of the ground water on the peninsula does not meet water-quality regulations for public drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). About 8 percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved arsenic that exceeded the USEPA primary maximum contaminant level of 50 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of dissolved arsenic were as great as 94 micrograms per liter. Forty-six percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved iron greater than the USEPA secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter. Unconsolidated sediments generally yield water having calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as its predominant ions. In some areas, ground water at

  16. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2009-01-01

    Livestock manure containing antimicrobials becomes a possible source of these compounds to surface and ground waters when applied to cropland as a nutrient source. The potential for transport of the veterinary antimicrobial lincomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to ground water was assessed by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snowmelt runoff, and ground water over a 2-yr period in Saskatchewan, Canada, after fall application of liquid swine manure to cropland. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify lincomycin in all matrix extracts. Initial concentrations in soil (46.3-117 mug kg(-1)) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for manure application rates ranging from 60,000 to 95,000 L ha(-1) and had decreased to nondetectable levels by mid-summer the following year. After fall manure application, lincomycin was present in all simulated rainfall runoff (0.07-2.7 mug L(-1)) and all snowmelt runoff (0.038-3.2 mug L(-1)) samples. Concentrations in snowmelt runoff were not significantly different from those in simulated rainfall runoff the previous fall. On average, lincomycin concentrations in ephemeral wetlands dissipated by 50% after 31 d. Concentrations of lincomycin in ground water were generally <0.005 mug L(-1). This study demonstrates that the management practice of using livestock manure from confined animal feeding operations as a plant nutrient source on cropland may result in antimicrobial transport to surface and ground waters.

  17. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, P.A.; Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents, which have reached the unconfined ground water, contain low levels of radioactive and chemical substances. The movement of these constituents in the unconfined ground water is monitored as part of the Ground-Water Surveillance Program. During 1982, 324 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Tritium are the primary ones used to monitor the movement of the ground water. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium and nitrate plumes. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. The general plume configuration is much the same as in 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from an evaporation facility

  18. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  19. Ground water pollution due to aquaculture in east coast region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ground water quality parameters were studied for pollution due to aquaculture in the east coast region of district Andhrapradesh, India. Over a period of two years, 46 groundwater samples were collected for analyses. The results showed that the alkalinity ranged from 120 - 482 mg/L, and pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6.

  20. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  1. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  2. Aldicarb-pesticide contamination of ground water in eastern Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, Julian; Stelz, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Aldicarb, a toxic oxime-carbamate pesticide that was believed incapable of reaching ground water, was used in potato-farming areas of eastern Suffolk County, New York during 1975-80. In 1979, aldicarb was found in substantial concentrations in ground water throughout the area. The New York State Department of Health set a limit of 7 micrograms per liter for aldicarb in drinking water. Extensive ground-water sampling into 1980 showed widespread contamination ranging from small amounts to as much as 515 micrograms per liter. In 1980, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency banned the use of aldicarb on Long Island at the manufacturer 's request. A 1982 sampling study found aldicarb to have penetrated to about 40 feet below the water table in concentrations ranging from below detection limit to 239 micrograms per liter. Despite reputed toxicity, no instance of aldicarb poisoning on Long Island has been documented. The excessive aldicarb concentrations in the ground water of eastern Long Island may persist for decades; the duration has not been precisely determined and remains under investigation. (USGS)

  3. Quality of surface water and ground water in the proposed artificial-recharge project area, Rillito Creek basin, Tucson, Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid

    1995-01-01

    Controlled artificial recharge of surface runoff is being considered as a water-management technique to address the problem of ground-water overdraft. The planned use of recharge facilities in urban areas has caused concern about the quality of urban runoff to be recharged and the potential for ground-water contamination. The proposed recharge facility in Rillito Creek will utilize runoff entering a 1-mile reach of the Rillito Creek between Craycroft Road and Swan Road for infiltration and recharge purposes within the channel and excavated overbank areas. Physical and chemical data were collected from two surface-water and two ground-water sites in the study area in 1994. Analyses of surface-water samples were done to determine the occurrence and concentration of potential contaminants and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected during 1987-93. Analyses of ground-water samples were done to determine the variability of ground-water quality at the monitoring wells throughout the year and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected in 1989 and 1993. Surface-water samples were collected from Tanque Verde Creek at Sabino Canyon Road (streamflow-gaging station Tanque Verde Creek at Tucson, 09484500) and from Alamo Wash at Fort Lowell Road in September and May 1994, respectively. Ground-water samples were collected from monitoring wells (D- 13-14)26cbb2 and (D-13-14)26dcb2 in January, May, July, and October 1994. In surface water, calcium was the dominant cation, and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. In ground water, calcium and sodium were the dominant cations and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. Surface water in the area is soft, and ground water is moderately hard to hard. In surface water and ground water, nitrogen was found predominantly as nitrate. Concentrations of manganese in ground-water samples ranged from 60 to 230 micrograms per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant

  4. Ground-water quality in the southeastern Sacramento Valley aquifer, California, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 29 domestic wells and 2 monitoring wells in the southeastern Sacramento Valley as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This area, designated as the NAWQA Sacramento subunit study area, was chosen because it had the largest amount of ground-water use in the Sacramento River Basin. The Sacramento subunit study area is about 4,400 square kilometers and includes intense agricultural and urban development. The wells sampled ranged from 14.9 to 79.2 meters deep. Ground-water samples from 31 wells were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 14 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, organic carbon, 86 pesticides, 87 volatile organic compounds, tritium (hydrogen-3), radon-222, deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. Nitrate levels were lower than the 2000 drinking-water standards in all but one well, but many detections were in the range that indicated an effect by human activities on ground-water quality. Radon was detected in all wells, and was measured at levels above the proposed Federal 2000 maximum contaminant level in 90 percent of the wells. Five pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples and concentrations were below 2000 drinking-water standards. All pesticides detected during this study have been used in the Sacramento Valley. Thirteen volatile organic compounds were detected in ground water. One detection of trichloroethene was above Federal 2000 drinking-water standards, and another, tetrachloromethane, was above California 1997 drinking-water standards; both occurred in a well that had eight volatile organic compound detections and is near a known source of ground-water contamination. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected in agricultural and urban areas; both pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected at a higher frequency in urban wells. Ground-water chemistry indicates that natural

  5. Modeling decadal timescale interactions between surface water and ground water in the central Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2006-04-01

    Surface-water and ground-water flow are coupled in the central Everglades, although the remoteness of this system has hindered many previous attempts to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water. We modeled flow through a 43,000 ha basin in the central Everglades called Water Conservation Area 2A. The purpose of the model was to quantify recharge and discharge in the basin's vast interior areas. The presence and distribution of tritium in ground water was the principal constraint on the modeling, based on measurements in 25 research wells ranging in depth from 2 to 37 m. In addition to average characteristics of surface-water flow, the model parameters included depth of the layer of 'interactive' ground water that is actively exchanged with surface water, average residence time of interactive ground water, and the associated recharge and discharge fluxes across the wetland ground surface. Results indicated that only a relatively thin (8 m) layer of the 60 m deep surfical aquifer actively exchanges surface water and ground water on a decadal timescale. The calculated storage depth of interactive ground water was 3.1 m after adjustment for the porosity of peat and sandy limestone. Modeling of the tritium data yielded an average residence time of 90 years in interactive ground water, with associated recharge and discharge fluxes equal to 0.01 cm d -1. 3H/ 3He isotopic ratio measurements (which correct for effects of vertical mixing in the aquifer with deeper, tritium-dead water) were available from several wells, and these indicated an average residence time of 25 years, suggesting that residence time was overestimated using tritium measurements alone. Indeed, both residence time and storage depth would be expected to be overestimated due to vertical mixing. The estimate of recharge and discharge (0.01 cm d -1) that resulted from tritium modeling therefore is still considered reliable, because the ratio of residence time and storage depth (used to

  6. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  7. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    One of the major water-quality problems in the Chesapeake Bay is an overabundance of nutrients from the streams and rivers that discharge to the Bay. Some of these nutrients are from nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, agricultural manure and fertilizer, and septic systems. The effects of efforts to control nonpoint sources, however, can be difficult to quantify because of the lag time between changes at the land surface and the response in the base-flow (ground water) component of streams. To help resource managers understand the lag time between implementation of management practices and subsequent response in the nutrient concentrations in the base-flow component of streamflow, a study of ground-water discharge, residence time, and nitrate transport in springs throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and in four smaller watersheds in selected hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMRs) was conducted. The four watersheds were in the Coastal Plain Uplands, Piedmont crystalline, Valley and Ridge carbonate, and Valley and Ridge siliciclastic HGMRs.A study of springs to estimate an apparent age of the ground water was based on analyses for concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons in water samples collected from 48 springs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Results of the analysis indicate that median age for all the samples was 10 years, with the 25th percentile having an age of 7 years and the 75th percentile having an age of 13 years. Although the number of samples collected in each HGMR was limited, there did not appear to be distinct differences in the ages between the HGMRs. The ranges were similar between the major HGMRs above the Fall Line (modern to about 50 years), with only two HGMRs of small geographic extent (Piedmont carbonate and Mesozoic Lowland) having ranges of modern to about 10 years. The median values of all the HGMRs ranged from 7 to 11 years. Not enough samples were collected in the Coastal Plain for comparison. Spring samples showed slightly younger

  8. Practical Guidelines for Water Percolation Capacity Determination of the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of water infiltration capacity of ground soils and rocks represents important part of design and construction procedures of the facilities for the infiltration of clean precipitation water. With their help percolation capacity of ground as well as response of the infiltration facilities to the inflowing precipitation water is estimated.Comparing to other in situ hydrogeological tests they can be understood as simple. However, in every day’s practiceseveral problems during their on site application and desk interpretation can arise. Paper represents review of existingpractical engineering procedures during the performance of percolation tests. Procedures are described for the borehole and shaft percolation tests execution and calculation theory for stationary and non‑stationary percolation tests are given. Theory is illustrated with practical exercises. Interpretations of typical departures from theoretical presumptions according to Hvorslev test of non-stationary test are illustrated.

  9. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATERWORKS IN FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Meirami Ikonen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and microbiological water quality in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs of five waterworks in Finland with different raw water sources and treatment processes was explored. Water quality was monitored during four seasons with on-line equipment and bulk water samples were analysed in laboratory. Seasonal changes in the water quality were more evident in DWDSs of surface waterworks compared to the ground waterworks and artificially recharging ground waterworks (AGR. Between seasons, temperature changed significantly in every system but pH and EC changed only in one AGR system. Seasonal change was seen also in the absorbance values of all systems. The concentration of microbially available phosphorus (MAP, μg PO₄-P/l was the highest in drinking water originating from the waterworks supplying groundwater. Total assimilable organic carbon (AOC, μg AOC-C/l concentrations were significantly different between the DWDSs other than between the two AGR systems. This study reports differences in the water quality between surface and ground waterworks using a wide set of parameters commonly used for monitoring. The results confirm that every distribution system is unique, and the water quality is affected by environmental factors, raw water source, treatment methods and disinfection.

  10. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141... customer as follows: (i) Chemical disinfection—(A) Ground water systems serving greater than 3,300 people...

  11. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  12. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  13. Ground-water hydrology and radioactive waste disposal at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1979-02-01

    This paper is a summary of the hydrologic activities conducted at the Hanford Site as a part of the environmental protection effort. The Site encompasses 1,480 square kilometers in the arid, southeastern part of Washington State. Precipitation averages about 160 millimeters per year with a negligible amount, if any, recharging the water table, which is from 50 to 100 meters below the ground surface. An unconfined aquifer occurs in the upper and middle Ringold Formations. The lower Ringold Formation along with interbed and interflow zones in the Saddle Mountain and Wanapum basalts forms a confined aquifer system. A potential exists for the interconnection of the unconfined and confined aquifer systems, especially near Gable Mountain where the anticlinal ridge was eroded by the catastrophic floods of the ancestral Columbia River system. Liquid wastes from chemical processing operations have resulted in large quantities of processing and cooling water disposed to ground via ponds, cribs, and ditches. The ground-water hydrology program at Hanford is designed: (1) to define and quantify the ground-water flow systems, (2) to evaluate the impact of the liquid waste discharges on these flow systems, and (3) to predict the impact on the ground-water systems of changes in system inputs. This work is conducted through a drilling, sampling, testing, and modeling program

  14. Ground-Water Flow, 2004-07, and Water Quality, 1992-2007, in McBaine Bottoms, Columbia, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda Joyce; Richards, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Columbia, Missouri, and the Missouri Department of Conservation, collected ground-water quality data, surface-water quality data, and water-level data in McBaine Bottoms, southwest of Columbia. McBaine Bottoms, adjacent to the Missouri River, is the location of the municipal-supply well field for the city of Columbia, the city of Columbia wastewater-treatment wetlands, and the Missouri Department of Conservation Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area. This report describes the ground-water flow and water quality of McBaine Bottoms and provides information to better understand the interaction between treated effluent from the wetlands used on the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area and the water in the alluvial aquifer that is pumped from the city of Columbia municipal-supply well field. Changes in major chemical constituent concentrations have been detected at several sampling sites between pre- and post-effluent application data. Analysis of post-effluent data indicates substantial changes in calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in ground water. These changes became apparent shortly after the beginning of the operation of the wastewater-treatment wetland in 1994 and the formation of the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, which uses the treated effluent as a water source for the management of migratory water fowl. The changes have continued throughout the 15 years of sample collection. The concentrations of these major chemical constituents are on the mixing continuum between pre-effluent ground water as one end member and the treated wastewater effluent as the other end member. For monitoring wells that had changes in major chemical constituent concentrations, the relative percentage of treated effluent in the ground water, assuming chloride is conservative, ranged from 6 to 88 percent. Twenty-two monitoring wells throughout McBaine Bottoms have been affected by effluent based on chloride

  15. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  16. Ground-water development and the effects on ground-water levels and water quality in the town of Atherton, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.; Fio, John L.

    1997-01-01

    measured hydraulic heads in the study area from April 1993 through September 1995 were above sea level indicates that saltwater intrusion was unlikely during this period. The chemistry of 20 well-water samples is characterized as a calcium magnesium carbonate bicarbonate type water. There is no evidence of saltwater intrusion from San Francisco Bay; how ever, water samples from wells nearest the bay and bedrock assemblages indicate a greater concentra tion of dissolved constituents and salinity. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water samples from wells in these areas exceeded 1,000 milli grams per liter, and several samples contained a substantial fraction of sodium and chloride. Water hardness for the 20 wells sampled averaged 471 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate, which is classified as very hard. One well sample exceeded the primary maximum contaminant level for drinking water in nitrate, several wells exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level for chloride and sulfate, and all wells sampled exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level for total dissolved solids. Land-subsidence and the resultant damage because of excessive ground-water pumping, in combination with periodic drought, have a well- documented history in the south San Francisco Bay area. Land-elevation surveying data from 1934 to 1967 indicate that subsidence ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.5 foot in the vicinity of the study area. It could not be determined from land- surface elevation surveying data from 1993 whether subsidence is currently occurring in the study area.

  17. Intrinsic remediation of JP-4 fuel in soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmithorst, W.L. Jr.; Vardy, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Intrinsic remediation methods were employed to remediate soil and ground water contaminated by JP-4 fuel at the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center facility in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. By the time the release was discovered, non-aqueous phase JP-4 fuel was detected in ground water over an area of approximately 8,000 square feet. In addition, concentrations of dissolved BTEX in ground water exceeded 5,000 microg/L. Tight clays present in the upper two meters of the aquifer, underlain by highly transmissive sands, prevented remediation of the JP-4 by conventional treatment methods. Therefore, a system of air injection and air extraction wells were installed that simultaneously depressed the water table and extracted hydrocarbon vapors. The conceptual idea, developed by the EPA RS Kerr Environmental Laboratory (RSKERL) in Ada, Oklahoma, is to stimulate rapid intrinsic biodegradation of the JP-4 fuel compounds. Subsequent biorespiration measurements indicated that the fuel compounds were being rapidly biodegraded. Upon removal of the non aqueous JP-4 compounds, an investigation was conducted to determine if the aquifer had an adequate assimilative capacity to support natural aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of the contaminants. Analysis of ground water samples collected using a cone penetrometer and a direct-push sampling device indicate a sufficient concentration of electron acceptors to support natural biodegradation of the JP-4 compounds

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  20. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  1. Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-10-01

    In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

  2. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  3. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years

  4. Ground water chemistry and water-rock interaction at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Front, K.

    1992-02-01

    Bedrock investigations for the final repository for low- and intermediate level wastes (VLJ repository) generated at the Olkiluoto (TVO-I and TVO-II) nuclear power plant, stareted in 1980. Since 1988 the area has been investigated for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the report the geochemistry at the nuclear waste investigation site, Olkiluoto, is evaluated. The hydrogeological data are collected from boreholes drilled down to 1000-m depth into Proterozoic crystalline bedrock. The interpretation is based on groundwater chemistry and isotope data, mineralogical data, and the structure and hydrology of the bedrock, using correlation diagrams and thermodynamic calculations (PHREEQE). The hydrogeochemistry and major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are discussed. The groundwater types are characterized by water-rock interaction but they also show features of other origins. The fresh and brackish waters are contaminated by varying amounts of young meteoric water and brackish seawater. The saline water contains residues of possibly ancient hydrothermal waters, imprints of which are occasionally seen in the rock itself. Different mixing phenomenas are indicated by the isotope contents (O-l8/H-2, H-3) and the Ca/Cl, Na/Cl, HCO 3 /Cl, SO 4 /Cl, Br/Cl, SI(calcite)/SI(dolomite) ratios. The interaction between bedrock and groundwater is reflected by the behaviour of pH, Eh, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, HCO 3 and S0 4 . Dissolution and precipitation of calcite and pyrite, and aluminosilicate hydrolysis play the major role in defining the groundwater composition of the above components

  5. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Hydrogeology, Ground-Water-Age Dating, Water Quality, and Vulnerability of Ground Water to Contamination in a Part of the Whitewater Valley Aquifer System near Richmond, Indiana, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, Paul M.; Watson, Lee R.; Greeman, Theodore K.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of the vulnerability to contamination of ground-water sources used by public-water systems, as mandated by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996, commonly have involved qualitative evaluations based on existing information on the geologic and hydrologic setting. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program has identified ground-water-age dating; detailed water-quality analyses of nitrate, pesticides, trace elements, and wastewater-related organic compounds; and assessed natural processes that affect those constituents as potential, unique improvements to existing methods of qualitative vulnerability assessment. To evaluate the improvement from use of these methods, in 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Richmond, Indiana, compiled and interpreted hydrogeologic data and chemical analyses of water samples from seven wells in a part of the Whitewater Valley aquifer system in a former glacial valley near Richmond. This study investigated the application of ground-water-age dating, dissolved-gas analyses, and detailed water-quality analyses to quantitatively evaluate the vulnerability of ground water to contamination and to identify processes that affect the vulnerability to specific contaminants in an area of post-1972 greenfield development.

  7. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  8. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  9. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  11. Determination of 36Cl/Cl ratio in ground water using the accelerator mass spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Suman; Deodhar, A.S.; Saravana Kumar, U.; Surendran, P.; Shrivastava, A.; Gupta, A.K.; Nair, J.P.; Yadav, M.L.; Hemalatha, M.; Sparrow, H.; Mahata, K.; Thomas, R.G.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Kailas, S.; Kale, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) programme using the 14 MV Pelletron Accelerator at Mumbai has been initiated with major emphasis on the determination of 36 Cl in water samples, of interest to hydrology and environment. In order to carry out the AMS measurement, a beam chopper to cut down beam intensity by a factor of 20 has been developed and commissioned. A multi-anode gas -si detector has been built to separate 36 Cl from the interfering 36 S. A new TPS system has been procured to operate the machine in the GVM mode. Standard and blank samples from Prime lab, Purdue have been employed in these measurements to standardise the technique for 36 Cl/Cl ratio determination. The detector was calibrated using the stable 35,37 Cl ions. The background 36 Cl in the system has been measured using the blank sample from Purdue and it was estimated that the ratio of 36 Cl/Cl was of the order of 10 -13 in the present setup. Ground water samples collected from South India were converted to AgCl and put in the SNICS ion source for the AMS measurements. These ground water samples, with 14 C content estimated to be in the range of 1 to 4 pMC indicate that the samples may be more than 35,000 years old. Using the AMS technique we have determined the 36 Cl/Cl ratio values for these ground water samples. They are found to range between 2 to 5 x 10 -12 . Additional measurements are planned to determine the age of the water samples and to understand the reasons for the observed high values of 36 Cl in these samples. (author)

  12. Fluoride, boron and nitrate toxicity in ground water of northwest Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Veena; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Mukesh; Yadav, B S

    2010-02-01

    The study was carried out to access the fluoride, boron, and nitrate concentrations in ground water samples of different villages in Indira Gandhi, Bhakra, and Gang canal catchment area of northwest Rajasthan, India. Rural population, in the study site, is using groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes, without any quality test of water. All water samples (including canal water) were contaminated with fluoride. Fluoride, boron, and nitrate were observed in the ranges of 0.50-8.50, 0.0-7.73, and 0.0-278.68 mg/l, respectively. Most of the water samples were in the categories of fluoride 1.50 mg/l, of boron 2.0-4.0 mg/l, and of nitrate availability of these compounds in groundwater was due to natural reasons and by the use of chemical fertilizers.

  13. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James M.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    (5) results of optical, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy examination of mineral grains in the aquifer sediments. Sulfur-isotopic composition of ground- water samples also supports the models. In general, the quality of ground water in the study area meets Nevada State drinking-water standards and is acceptable for most uses. In addition to analysis for major ions, samples were analyzed for 22 inorganic trace elements, 3 nutrients, and 4 radionuclides. Selenium in 1 sample is the only constituent that exceeded Nevada State primary drinking-water standards. Nevada State secondary- drinking water standards were exceeded for fluoride in 1 sample, for iron in 7 samples, and for manganese in 19 samples. Minor constituent con- centrations are generally the result of local redox conditions, and are primarily from minerals in volcanic and marine metasedimentary rocks, metal- oxide coatings on mineral grains, and organic matter.

  14. A dual model approach to ground water recovery trench design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.L.; Crouch, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design of trenches for contaminated ground water recovery must consider several variables. This paper presents a dual-model approach for effectively recovering contaminated ground water migrating toward a trench by advection. The approach involves an analytical model to determine the vertical influence of the trench and a numerical flow model to determine the capture zone within the trench and the surrounding aquifer. The analytical model is utilized by varying trench dimensions and head values to design a trench which meets the remediation criteria. The numerical flow model is utilized to select the type of backfill and location of sumps within the trench. The dual-model approach can be used to design a recovery trench which effectively captures advective migration of contaminants in the vertical and horizontal planes

  15. Hanford ground-water data base management guide and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.; Bradymire, S.L.; Newbill, C.A.

    1985-05-01

    This management guide and user's manual is a working document for the computerized Hanford Ground-water Data Base maintained by the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Ground-Water Surveillance Program. The program is managed by the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department for the US Department of Energy. The data base is maintained to provide rapid access to data that are rountinely collected from ground-water monitoring wells at the Hanford site. The data include water levels, sample analyses, geologic descriptions and well construction information of over 3000 existing or destroyed wells. These data are used to monitor water quality and for the evaluation of ground-water flow and pollutant transport problems. The management guide gives instructions for maintenance of the data base on the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/70 Computer using the CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) data base management software developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Maintenance activities include inserting, modifying and deleting data, making back-up copies of the data base, and generating tables for annual monitoring reports. The user's guide includes instructions for running programs to retrieve the data in the form of listings of graphical plots. 3 refs

  16. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River Basin were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the

  17. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  18. National water summary 1986; Hydrologic events and ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David W.; Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most important natural resources of the United States and degradation of its quality could have a major effect on the welfare of the Nation. Currently (1985), ground water is the source of drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's population and for more than 97 percent of its rural population. It is the source of about 40 percent of the Nation's public water supply, 33 percent of water for irrigation, and 17 percent of freshwater for selfsupplied industries.Ground water also is the source of about 40 percent of the average annual streamflow in the United States, although during long periods of little or no precipitation, ground-water discharges provide nearly all of the base streamflow. This hydraulic connection between aquifers and streams implies that if a persistent pollutant gets into an aquifer, it eventually could discharge into a stream.Information presented in the 1986 National Water Summary clearly shows that the United States has very large amounts of potable ground water available for use. Although naturally occurring constituents, such as nitrate, and human-induced substances, such as synthetic organic chemicals, frequently are detected in ground water, their concentrations usually do not exceed existing Federal or State standards or guidelines for maximum concentrations in drinking water.Troublesome contamination of ground water falls into two basic categories related to the source or sources of the contamination. Locally, high concentrations of a variety of toxic metals, organic chemicals, and petroleum products have been detected in ground water associated with point sources such as wastedisposal sites, storage-tank leaks, and hazardous chemical spills. These types of local problems commonly occur in densely populated urban areas and industrialized areas. Larger, multicounty areas also have been identified where contamination frequently is found in shallow wells. These areas generally are associated with broad

  19. Study of uranium contamination of ground water in Punjab using X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alrakabi, Muhanad; Singh, Gurjeet; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rai, Bimal; Singh, N; Shahi, J S; Mehta, D [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Srivastava, Alok [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-01

    A number of reports have appeared in public media about uranium ingestion being a possible cause for cancer and increased birth rate abnormalities among children in the Malwa region of Punjab state in India. These reports link problems like cancer and Autism, with the presence of uranium in the ground waters of Malwa region. The concentration of uranium in drinking water from sources as varied as ground water, canal water supply and reverse osmosis system have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. Samples from the thermal power plants in the regions and nearby ground waters were also analyzed to identify the source of contamination. The samples were collected with assistance of the officials from the Government of Punjab. More than half a litre of each of the water samples was dried at 60 deg-80 deg in an oven. Residue was collected using larger quantities of water samples in case of RO water samples. The elemental analysis of the residue was carried out using the Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer consisting of an {sup 42}Mo-anode X-ray tube (Panalytical, 2.5 kW) as an excitation source and a Si(Li) detector. A combination of selective absorbers of {sup 30}Zn, {sup 38}Sr, and {sup 39}Y was used in the incident beam for improving the detection limit for Uranium by reducing the background and removing the {sup 42}Mo K X-rays. The detection limit in ppb/litre depends upon the amount of residue

  20. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  1. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-23

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  2. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  3. Ground-water development and problems in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1954-01-01

    The development of groundwater for irrigation in Idaho, as most of you know, has proceeded at phenomenal rate since the Second World War. In the period 1907 to 1944 inclusive only about 328 valid permits and licenses to appropriate ground water were issued by the state. thereafter 28 permits became valid in 1945, 83 in 1946, and 121 in 1947. Sine 1947 permits and licenses have been issued at the rate of more than 400 a year.  

  4. Purification of arsenic contaminated ground water using hydrated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, N.; Swain, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed for the separation of arsenic from ground water using inorganic material in neutral medium. The separation procedure involves the quantitative retention of arsenic on hydrated manganese dioxide, in neutral medium. The validity of the separation procedure has been checked by a standard addition method and radiotracer studies. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), a powerful measurement technique, has been used for the quantitative determination of arsenic. (author)

  5. A contribution on the problem of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliox, L.; Muntzer, P.; Kresser, W.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present the underlying physics of processes relevant to the problem of ground water pollution. A series of models are discussed which include two-dimensional diffusion from a point source of pollution in a uniform homogeneous medium and the modifying effect of inhomogeneities, together with displacement processes for miscible liquids in saturated porous media. In conclusion an account of laboratory and theoretical investigations of these diffusion processes in layered media of different permeabilities is given. (J.R.B.)

  6. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  7. Water sampling device for detecting fuel failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Yukio.

    1997-01-01

    A notched portion is formed at the lower end of an outer cap, and an extensible air bag is disposed being in contact with the inner side of the notched portion. A compressed air is sent into the outer gap through an air supply pipe to urge coolants thereby lowering the water level. A portion of the compressed air gets out of the outer gap from the notched portion, and if air bubbles are observed on the surface of coolants in a pressure vessel of a reactor, the outer cap is confirmed to be attached to the upper lattice plate. Compressed air is supplied to the air bag to close the notched portion. Then, coolants are sucked from a water level confirmation pipe. The level of coolants is further lowered, and the compressed air is sucked from the water level confirmation pipe instead of the coolants. Then, the level of the coolants at the inner side of the inner cap is confirmed to be made lower than the upper end of the channel box of a reactor fuel assembly. Then, coolants in the channel box are sampled, as a specimen water, through a water sampling pipe. (I.N.)

  8. Ground-water quality, levels, and flow direction near Fort Cobb Reservoir, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2001-01-01

    Fort Cobb Reservoir in northwest Caddo County Oklahoma is managed by the Bureau of Reclamation for water supply, recreation, flood control, and wildlife. Excessive amounts of nitrogen in the watershed have the potential to cause long-term eutrophication of the reservoir and increase already elevated concentrations of nitrogen in the Rush Springs aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation studied ground water in the area surrounding a swine feeding operation located less than 2 miles upgradient from Fort Cobb Reservoir in Caddo County, Oklahoma. Objectives of the study were to (1) determine if the operation was contributing nitrogen to the ground water and (2) measure changes in ground-water levels and determine the local ground-water flow direction in the area surrounding the swine feeding operation. Nitrate concentrations (28.1 and 31.5 milligrams per liter) were largest in two ground-water samples from a well upgradient of the wastewater lagoon. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 4.30 to 8.20 milligrams per liter in samples from downgradient wells. Traces of ammonia and nitrite were detected in a downgradient well, but not in upgradient wells. d15N values indicate atmospheric nitrogen, synthetic fertilizer, or plants were the predominate sources of nitrate in ground water from the downgradient wells. The d15N values in these samples are depleted in nitrogen-15, indicating that animal waste was not a significant contributor of nitrate. Manganese concentrations (1,150 and 965 micrograms per liter) in samples from a downgradient well were substantially larger than concentrations in samples from other wells, exceeding the secondary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. Larger concentrations of bicarbonate, magnesium, fluoride, and iron and a higher pH were also measured in water from a downgradient well. Ground-water levels in an observation well were higher from April to mid-July and lower during the late summer

  9. Status Of Physico-Chemical Parameter Of Ground Water Of Gorakhpur City U.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district by collecting 20 samples of water from hand pump from 20 locations well distributed with in Gorakhpur district were analyzed for different parameters such as pH electric conductivity chloride total free chlorine hardness fluoride nitrate iron Turbidity potassium. Groundwater is polluted from seepage pits refuse dumps septic tanks barnyards manures transport accident and different pollutant. Important sources of ground water pollution are sewage is dumped in shallow soak pits. It gives rise to cholera hepatitis dysenteries etc. especially in areas with high water table.

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  11. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Belfield and Bowman Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in the spring of 1996. Water sampling was conducted in 1993 at both the Belfield processing site and the Bowman processing/disposal site. Results of the sampling at both sites indicate that ground water conditions have remained relatively stable over time. Water sampling activities are not scheduled for 1994 because ground water conditions at the two sites are relatively stable, the 1993 sampling was comprehensive, and surface remediation activities are not scheduled to start until 1996. The next water sampling event is scheduled before the start of remedial activities and will include sampling selected monitor wells at both sites and several domestic wells in the vicinity

  12. Ground-water resources of the Alma area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlier, Kenneth E.

    1963-01-01

    The Alma area consists of 30 square miles in the northwestern part of Gratiot County, Mich. It is an area of slight relief gently rolling hills and level plains and is an important agricultural center in the State.The Saginaw formation, which forms the bedrock surface in part of the area, is of relatively low permeability and yields water containing objectionable amounts of chloride. Formations below the Saginaw are tapped for brine in and near the Alma area.The consolidated rocks of the Alma area are mantled by Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are as much as 550 feet thick where preglacial valleys were eroded into the bedrock. The glacial deposits consist of till, glacial-lake deposits, and outwash. Till deposits are at the surface along the south-trending moraines that cross the area, and they underlie other types of glacial deposits at depth throughout the area. The till deposits are of low permeability and are not a source of water to wells, though locally they include small lenses of permeable sand and gravel.In the western part of the area, including much of the city of Alma, the glacial-lake deposits consist primarily of sand and are a source of small supplies of water. In the northeastern part of the area the lake deposits are predominantly clayey and of low permeability.Sand and gravel outwash yields moderate and large supplies of water within the area. Outwash is present at the surface along the West Branch of the Pine River. A more extensive deposit of outwash buried by the lake deposits is the source of most of the ground water pumped at Alma. The presence of an additional deposit of buried outwash west and southwest of the city is inferred from the glacial history of the area. Additional water supplies that may be developed from these deposits are probably adequate for anticipated population and industrial growth.Water levels have declined generally in the vicinity of the city of Alma since 1920 in response to pumping for municipal and industrial

  13. Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  15. Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  17. Determination of pesticides in surface and ground water used for human consumption in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knedel, W.; Chiquin, J.C.; Perez, J.; Rosales, S.

    1999-01-01

    A 15 month sampling and analysis programme was carried out to monitor concentrations of 37 targeted organochlorine, organophosphorus and organopyrethroid pesticides in surface and ground water in Guatemala. The 80 sampling points included 4 points in a lake, one point in each of the four lagoons, 10 municipal water systems of major towns, and 62 points along 52 rivers, most of which are located in the southern coast along borders with Mexico and El Salvador, and are one of the most productive areas in the country. The sampling used provided only preliminary information on the pattern of pesticide contamination of surface and ground water. It showed contamination of surface water in Los Esclavos watershed, Motagua river watershed as well as Villalobos, lake Amatitlan and Michatoya river watershed. Cypermethrin was the ubiquitous pesticides in some areas present in concentrations exceeding toxic levels for fish and other aquatic organisms. Several of the other targeted organophosphorus and ECD detectable pesticides were also detected in surface water. Some municipal water samples also had low levels of pesticides. (author)

  18. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  19. Determination of trace elements in ground water by two preconcentration methods using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, A. Y.

    2004-01-01

    This is a comparative study between two different methods of preconcentration done to separate the trace elements cadmium, nickel. chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, and lead in drinking (ground) water samples taken from different locations in Gezira State, central Sudan (the map); these methods are (coprecipitation) with aluminium hydroxide and by Ammonium Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (APDC) using Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) as an organic solvent; and subsequent analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) for both methods. The result of comparison showed the superiority of the (APDC) coprecipitation method over the aluminium hydroxide coprecipitation method in the total percentage recoveries of the studied trace elements in drinking (ground) water samples, such results confirm previous studies. This study also involves direct analysis of these water samples by atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the concentrations of trace elements Cadmium, Nickel, Chromium, Manganese, Copper, Zinc and Lead and compare it to the corresponding guide line values described by the World Health Organization and the maximum concentrations of trace elements in drinking water permitted by the Sudanese Standards and Metrology Organizations (SSMO), where the concentrations of some elements in some samples were found to be different than the described values by both of the organizations. The study includes a trial to throw light on the effect of the proximity of the water samples sources to the Blue Nile river on its trace elements concentrations; no relation was proved to exist in that respect.(Author)

  20. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of a ground-water contamination area in Wolcott, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J.R.; Casey, G.D.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Frick, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds and inorganic constituents has been identified at a number of industrial sites in the Town of Wolcott, Connecticut. Contamination is also present at a municipal landfill in the City of Waterbury that is upgradient from the industrial sites in the local ground-water-flow system. The study area, which lies in the Western Highlands of Connecticut, is in the Mad River Valley, a tributary to the Naugatuck River. Geohydrologic units (aquifer materials) include unconsolidated glacial sediments (surficial materials) and fractured crystalline (metamorphic) bedrock. Surficial materials include glacial till, coarse-grained andfine-grained glacial stratified deposits, and postglacial floodplain alluvium and swamp deposits. The ground-water-flow system in the surficial aquifer is complex because the hydraulic properties of the surficial materials are highly variable. In the bedrock aquifer, ground water moves exclusively through fractures. Hydrologic characteristics of the crystalline bedrock-degree of confinement, hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and porosity-are poorly defined in the study area. Further study is needed to adequately assess ground-water flow and contaminant migration under current or past hydrologic conditions. All known water-supply wells in the study area obtain water from the bedrock aquifer. Twenty households in a hillside residential area on Tosun Road currently obtain drinking water from private wells tapping the bedrock aquifer. The extent of contamination in the bedrock aquifer and the potential for future contamination from known sources of contamination in the surficial aquifer is of concern to regulatory agencies. Previous investigations have identified ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds at the Nutmeg Valley Road site area. Contamination has been associated with on-site disposal of heavy metals, chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds, and

  1. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2018-01-28

    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  2. PIXE analysis applied to characterized water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela S.; Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Medeiros, Geiza; Sampaio, Camilla; Martorell, Ana Beatriz Targino; Gouvea, Stella; Cunha, Kenya Moore Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Araxa, in Brazil, is a naturally high background area located in the State of Minas Gerais with a population of about 93 672 people. Araxa is historical city famous for its mineral water sources and mud from Termas de Araxa spa, which have been used for therapeutic, and recreation purposes. Other important aspect of economy of the city are mining and metallurgic industries. In the Araxa area is located the largest deposit of pyrochlore, a niobium mineral, and also a deposit of apatite, a phosphate mineral both containing Th and U associated to crystal lattice. The minerals are obtained from open pit mines, the minerals are processed in industrial also located in city of Araxa, these plants process the pyrochlore and apatite to obtain the Fe-Nb alloy and the concentrate of phosphate, respectively. Studies were developed in this area to assessment the occupational risk of the workers due to exposure to dust particles during the routine working, however very few studies evaluated the water contamination outside the mines in order to determine the metal (stables elements) concentrations in water and also the concentrations of the radionuclides in water. This paper presents the previous results of a study to identify and determine the concentrations of metals (stables elements) and radionuclides in river around the city. The water from these rivers is used as drinking water and irrigation water. The water samples were collected in different rivers around the Araxa city and the samples were analyzed using PIXE technique. A proton beam of 2 MeV obtained from the van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was used to induce the characteristic X-rays. S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ba, Pb and U were identified in the mass spectrum of the samples. The elemental mass concentrations were compared using a non-parametric statistical test. The results of the statistical test showed that the elemental mass concentrations did not present the same distribution. These results indicated

  3. Determination of 40K in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, C. E.; Miranda C, L.; Cuevas J, A. K.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The natural water used for human consumption comes from different sources, which may contain suspended solids in varying proportions. In groundwater, the source of suspended solids is related to the dissolution of mineral strata by the waters and leaching of rocks. Also, the radioactivity could concentrate on the bodies of slow-moving water that eventually could present a risk to ecosystems, as well as for the consumer. The water usually contains several natural radionuclides as: tritium, radon, radio, uranium isotopes, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of 40 K in water from different areas of Zacatecas state (Mexico). Four water samples were taken in triplicate from different areas; the 40 K concentration was measured with a spectrum metric system of gamma radiation with NaI (Tl) scintillation detector of 7.62 cm. In the measuring process a standard was prepared using water and KCl analytic grade where the 40 K concentration is 6.25 mol/Lt adding 250 mg/ml of potassium. Also the system was calibrated in energy using 3 point sources of 137 Cs, diameter 22 Na and 7.62 cm of height, using containers Marinelli and 60 Co. In the obtained spectra was observed that the photon of 1.432 MeV that emits the 40 K when decaying is the most important. The highest concentration was of 123 ± 5.2 Bq/lt and the lowest was of 9 ± 0.4 Bq/lt. Under the standards of drinking water, an amount of 40 K deposits an effective dose which contributes to annual dose received by people. (Author)

  4. Irrigation quality of ground water of twenty villages in Lahore district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available study was conducted in twenty villages of Lahore district to assess the suitability of ground water for irrigation. Three water samples were collected from each of twenty villages and were analyzed for electrical conductivity (EC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, residual sodium carbonate (RSC and chloride concentration. Out of total 60 water samples, 7 (11.7% were fit, 7 (11.7% were marginally fit, and remaining 46 (76.6% were unfit for irrigation. Twenty eight samples (46.6% had electrical conductivity higher than permissible limit (i.e. >1250 µS cm-1, 19 samples (31.6% were found with high SAR (i.e. >10 (m mol L-10. 5, 44 samples (73.3% had high RSC (i.e. >2.5 me L-1 and 10 samples (16.6% were found unfit for irrigation due to high concentration of chloride (i.e. >3.9 me L-1. It can be inferred from data that quality of available ground water in most ofthe villages is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health.

  5. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  6. Radon content in various types of ground water in south-eastern Sweden. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, G.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of investigation has been to study the radon content and its seasonal fluctuations in different types of ground water. The investigation was carried out in an area where the hydrogeological conditions are fairly well known. The geology is dominated by granitic bedrock and till. Water samples were collected from drilled wells in different rocks and from dug wells and springs in till and gravel. The seasonal fluctuations were studied in a small area. All radon measurements were made in the laboratory. The main results are following.(1) The highest radon content (max. 40 nCi/l) was observed in water from wells drilled granite. (2) The radon content in ground water from till never exceeds 8 nCi/l; the highest amount is normally found in springs situated in drumlin terrain with basel till and gravel lenses and beds (3-5 nCi/l) the contents in dug wells are 0.5-3.5 nCi/l.(3) Waters from gravel deposits have constantly low radon contents (0.1-3 nCi/l), and surface water has no radon.(4) The seasonal fluctuations in radon content are rather high and show a similar pattern to that of the fluctuations of the ground-water levels in till in the same area. (author)

  7. Ground water as the source of an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kovačić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2014, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported to the Public Health Institute of Šibenik and Knin County in Croatia. The outbreak occurred in the County center of Šibenik, a town with 50,000 inhabitants, and it lasted for 12 days. An epidemiological investigation suggested a nearby water spring as the source of the outbreak. Due to the temporary closure of the public water supply system, the inhabitants started to use untreated water from a nearby spring. Microbiological analysis revealed that the outbreak was caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis that was isolated from stool samples of the patients and ground water. The isolates were further analysed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using XbaI, which revealed an identical macrorestriction profile. Although 68 cases were reported, it was estimated that the actual number of affected persons was more than several hundred. In order to prevent further spread of disease, public advice was released immediately after the first epidemiological indication and a warning sign was placed at the incriminated water source, after microbiological confirmation. It is necessary to regularly monitor microbiological quality of ground water especially in urban areas and provide adequate education and awareness to the inhabitants regarding the risk of using untreated ground water.

  8. Contamination of ground and surface waters by uranium mining and milling. Volume II. Field sampling and empirical modeling. Open file report (final) 25 Jul 79-14 Sep 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1981-12-01

    Uranium mill tailings represent a potential threat to the human habitat by containing large amounts of radioactive and chemically toxic substances in high concentrations. These undesired components enter the human habitat in various pathways such as by erosion and water or air transport. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the actual movement and model the potential movement of contaminants by seepage of water from the tailings into the subtailings soil. This report represents various models of the movement of contaminants using both theoretical approaches and empirical evaluation of data available from other investigations. Data analysis shows that the critical area of investigating movements is the interfaces between tailings and the external environment. The chemical differences at interfaces seem to result in a sink system for contaminants. The tailings-soil-water system shows extreme complexities because of chemical and physical heterogeneity of the system preventing the use of a single comprehensive model to represent real conditions. The validity of the simplifying assumption used has been shown and increasing complexity has been built into the models. Analogs of these models can be used for evaluation of similar systems

  9. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  10. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Kamiyama, Hideo

    1991-07-01

    Radionuclides migration in ground surface water flow is considered to be one of the important path way in the scenario for environmental migration of radionuclides leaked from low level radioactive waste repository. Simulating the slightly sloped surface on which contaminated solution is flowing downward, testing for radionuclide migration on ground surface had been started. As it's first step, an experiment was carried out under the condition of restricted infiltration in order to elucidate the adsorption behavior of radionuclides onto the loamy soil surface in related with hydraulic conditions. Radionuclides concentration change in effluent solution with time and a concentration distribution of radionuclides adsorbed on the ground surface were obtained from several experimental conditions combining the rate and the duration time of the water flow. The radionuclides concentration in the effluent solution was nearly constant during each experimental period, and was reduced under the condition of lower flow rate. The surface distribution of radionuclides concentration showed two distinctive regions. The one was near the inlet vessel where the concentration was promptly reducing, and the other was following the former where the concentration was nearly constant. The characteristic surface distribution of radionuclides concentration can be explained by a two dimensional diffusion model with a first order adsorption reaction, based on the advection of flow rate distribution in perpendicular direction. (author)

  11. Investigative studies on water contamination in Bangladesh. Primary treatment of water samples at the sampling site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Takatsuji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentration in 13 well waters, 9 pond waters, 10 agricultural waters and a coconut juice taken in Comilla district, Bangladesh, where the problem of arsenic pollution is the most severe, was investigated. High-level arsenic is detected even in the well water which has been kept drinking by the people. Relatively high arsenic concentration was detected for some pond and farm waters even though the sampling was performed just after the rainy season and the waters were expected to be highly diluted. Clear relationship was observed in elemental compositions between the pond water and the coconut juice collected at the edge of the water. These results are expected to become the basic information for evaluating the risk of individual food such as cultured fishes, shrimps and farm products, and for controlling total intakes of arsenic. In order to solve the problem of transportation of water samples internationally, a simple method of target preparation performed at the sampling site was established and its validity was confirmed. All targets were prepared at the sampling sites in this study on the basis of this method. (author)

  12. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author)

  13. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G. (Salamanca Univ. (Spain). Lab. de Radioactividad Ambiental)

    1992-01-01

    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author).

  14. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, P D; Voss, C I [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The present report analyzes the geochemical data in order to evaluate collection and interpretation techniques that will be used to site the repository and to assess its safety. Ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) may be grouped into five chemically and isotopically distinct water types, on the basis of their deuterium and chloride contents: 1) recent waters, 2) 5 g/L chloride waters, 3) deep waters, 4) seawater imprint waters, and 5) glacial melt waters. The sampled ground waters show a progressive change from a predominantly NaHCO{sub 3} composition at shallow depth to a CaCl{sub 2}-rich composition at depth. Despite the proximity of the Baltic, relatively few of the sampled ground waters contain any evidence of a seawater component. This finding, together with the rather shallow depths at which saline waters were found, indicates that Aespoe island is presently in a regional ground-water discharge area. The chemical and isotopic composition of the sampled waters also indicates that local recharge of dilute recent waters occurs only down to shallow depths (generally less than 100 in). The Aespoe ground waters are sulfidic and do not presently contain any dissolved oxygen. Measured E{sub H} values are generally near -300 mV, and on average are only about 50 mV lower than E{sub H} values calculated from the sulfide/sulfate couple. Maintenance of reducing conditions, such as presently found at the Aespoe HRL, is an important consideration in assessing the performance of nuclear waste disposal sites. Measurements of dissolved radon and of uranium concentrations in fracture-fill materials were used to calculate an average effective flow-wetted surface area of 3.1 m{sup 2} per liter of water for the Aespoe site. Estimation of flow-wetted surface areas is essential in determining the importance of matrix diffusion and surface sorption processes for radionuclide release calculations. The Rn calculation technique shows promise in helping narrow the

  15. Uranium-236 as an indicator of fuel-cycle uranium in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, R.E.

    1989-08-01

    Environmental monitoring on and around the Hanford Site includes regular sampling of onsite monitoring wells and offsite farm wells. Uranium has been identified in the ground water onsite and also in water from farm wells located on the east side of the Columbia River, across from the Hanford Site. Information on the hydrology of the area indicates that the source of the offsite uranium is not the Hanford Site. This study evaluated the isotopic composition of the uranium in water from the various wells to differentiate the onsite uranium contamination from natural uranium offsite. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  18. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  1. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic problem consists of a liner flexible structure situated at or near the surface of a soil half-space. In keeping with typical small strain seismic analyses, the soil skeleton is represented as a linear medium in which all potential nonlinearities are at most lumped together into an equivalent hysteretic damping modulus. In addition, the ground water level is located at some depth relatively close to the structure, and in a position to impact on the seismic response of the facility. In order to estimate the response of this oil-water system, the two-phased medium formulation of Biot was used to treat the response of the solids and water as two separate linear media, coupled together through soil permeability and volume effects. (orig./HP)

  2. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  3. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  4. Late quaternary history and uranium isotopic compositions of ground water discharge deposits, Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paces, J.B.; Taylor, E.M.; Bush, C.

    1993-01-01

    Three carbonate-rich spring deposits are present near the southern end of Crater Flat, NV, approximately 18 km southwest of the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. We have analyzed five samples of carbonate-rich material from two of the deposits for U and Th isotopic compositions. Resulting U-series disequilibrium ages indicate that springs were active at 18 ± 1, 30 ± 3, 45 ± 4 and >70 ka. These ages are consistent with a crude internal stratigraphy at one site. Identical ages for two samples at two separate sites suggest that springs were contemporaneous, at least in part, and were most likely part of the same hydrodynamic system. In addition, initial U isotopic compositions range from 2.8 to 3.8 and strongly suggest that ground water from the regional Tertiary-volcanic aquifer provided the source for these hydrogenic deposits. This interpretation, along with water level data from near-by wells suggest that the water table rose approximately 80 to 115 m above present levels during the late Quaternary and may have fluctuated repeatedly. Current data are insufficient to allow reconstruction of a detailed depositional history, however geochronological data are in a good agreement with other paleoclimatic proxy records preserved throughout the region. Since these deposits are down gradient from the potential repository site, the possibility of higher ground water levels in the future dramatically shortens both vertical and lateral ground water pathways and reduces travel times of transported radionuclides to potential discharge sites

  5. Late quaternary history and uranium isotopic compositions of ground water discharge deposits, Crater Flat, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Taylor, Emily M.; Bush, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Three carbonate-rich spring deposits are present near the southern end of Crater Flat, NV, approximately 18 km southwest of the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. We have analyzed five samples of carbonate-rich material from two of the deposits for U and Th isotopic compositions. Resulting U-series disequilibrium ages indicate that springs were active at 18 ?? 1, 30 ?? 3, 45 ?? 4 and >70 ka. These ages are consistent with a crude internal stratigraphy at one site. Identical ages for two samples at two separate sites suggest that springs were contemporaneous, at least in part, and were most likely part of the same hydrodynamic system. In addition, initial U isotopic compositions range from 2.8 to 3.8 and strongly suggest that ground water from the regional Tertiary-volcanic aquifer provided the source for these hydrogenic deposits. This interpretation, along with water level data from near-by wells suggest that the water table rose approximately 80 to 115 m above present levels during the late Quaternary and may have fluctuated repeatedly. Current data are insufficient to allow reconstruction of a detailed depositional history, however geochronological data are in good agreement with other paleoclimatic proxy records preserved throughout the region. Since these deposits are down gradient from the potential repository site, the possibility of higher ground water levels in the future dramatically shortens both vertical and lateral ground water pathways and reduces travel times of transported radionuclides to potential discharge sites.

  6. Appraisal of ground-water resources in the San Antonio Creek Valley, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    A nearly threefold increase in demand for water in the 154-square-mile San Antonio Creek valley in California during the period 1958-77 has increased the potential for overdraft on the ground-water basin. The hydrologic budget for this period showed a perennial yield of about 9,800 acre-feet per year and an annual ground-water discharge of about 11,400 acre-feet per year, comprising net pumpage of 7,100 acre-feet, phreatophyte evapotranspiration of 3,000 acre-feet, and base streamflow of 1 ,300 acre-feet. The base flow in San Antonio Creek could diminish to zero when net pumpage reaches 13,500 acre-feet per year. The environmentally sensitive marshland area of Barka Slough may then become stressed as water normally lost through evapotranspiration is captured by pumpage. The aquifer consists of alluvial valley fill that ranges in thickness from 0 to 3,500 feet. Ground water moves seaward from recharge areas along mountain fronts to a consolidated rock barrier about 5 miles east of the Pacific coast. Upwelling of ground water just east of the barrier has resulted in the 550-acre Barka Slough. Transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from 2,600 to 34,000 feet squared per day, with the lowest values occurring in the central part of the valley where the aquifer is thickest but probably finer grained. The salinity problems are increasing in the agricultural parts of the valley, which is east of the barrier. West of the barrier, stream and ground-water quality is poor, owing to seepage of saline water from the marine shale that underlies the area at shallow depths. A proposed basinwide monitoring program includes 17 water-level sites, 12 water-quality sampling sites, 3 streamflow measuring sites, and periodic infrared aerial photography of Barka Slough. A computer model of the ground-water flow system could be developed to assess the impact of various water-management alternatives. (USGS)

  7. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  9. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  10. Geochemical evolution of acidic ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved sulfate and acidity in ground water increase downflow in mine spoil and underlying bedrock at a reclaimed surface coal mine in the bituminous field of western Pennsylvania. Elevated dissolved sulfate and negligible oxygen in ground water from bedrock about 100 feet below the water table suggest that pyritic sulfur is oxidized below the water table, in a system closed to oxygen. Geochemical models for the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) and production of sulfate (SO42-) and acid (H+) are presented to explain the potential role of oxygen (O2) and ferric iron (Fe3+) as oxidants. Oxidation of pyrite by O2 and Fe3+ can occur under oxic conditions above the water table, whereas oxidation by Fe3+ also can occur under anoxic conditions below the water table. The hydrated ferric-sulfate minerals roemerite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)4·14H2O], copiapite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2·20H20], and coquimbite [Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O] were identified with FeS2 in coal samples, and form on the oxidizing surface of pyrite in an oxic system above the water table. These soluble ferric-sulfate 11 salts11 can dissolve with recharge waters or a rising water table releasing Fe3+, SO42-. and H+, which can be transported along closed-system ground-water flow paths to pyrite reaction sites where O2 may be absent. The Fe3+ transported to these sites can oxidize pyritic sulfur. The computer programs WATEQ4F and NEWBAL were used to compute chemical speciation and mass transfer, respectively, considering mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions plus mixing of waters from different upflow zones. Alternative mass-balance models indicate that (a) extremely large quantities of O2, over 100 times its aqueous solubility, can generate the observed concentrations of dissolved SO42- from FeS2, or (b) under anoxic conditions, Fe3+ from dissolved ferric-sulfate minerals can oxidize FeS2 along closed-system ground-water flow paths. In a system open to O2, such as in the unsaturated zone, the aqueous

  11. Isotopic discontinuities in ground water beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckless, J.S.; Whelan, J.F.; Steinkampf, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical data for stable isotopes in ground water from beneath Yucca Mountain, when examined in map view, show areal patterns of heterogeneity that can be interpreted in terms of mixing of at least three end members. One end member must be isotopically heavy in terms of hydrogen and oxygen and have a young apparent 14 C age such as water found at the north end of Yucca Mountain beneath Fortymile Wash. A second end member must contain isotopically heavy carbon and have an old apparent 14 C age such as water from the Paleozoic aquifer. The third end member cannot be tightly defined. It must be isotopically lighter than the first with respect of hydrogen and oxygen and be intermediate to the first and second end members with respect to both apparent 14 C age and δ 13 C. The variable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that two of the end members are waters, but the variable carbon isotopic composition could represent either a third water end member or reaction of water with a carbon-bearing solids such as calcite. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Water evaporation: a transition path sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varilly, Patrick; Chandler, David

    2013-02-07

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. On the basis of thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  13. Simplified estimation technique for organic contaminant transport in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1984-05-01

    The analytical solution for one-dimensional dispersive-advective transport of a single solute in a saturated soil accompanied by adsorption onto soil surfaces and first-order reaction rate kinetics for degradation can be used to evaluate the suitability of potential sites for burial of organic chemicals. The technique can be used to the greatest advantage with organic chemicals that are present in ground waters in small amounts. The steady-state solution provides a rapid method for chemical landfill site evaluation because it contains the important variables that describe interactions between hydrodynamics and chemical transformation. With this solution, solute concentration, at a specified distance from the landfill site, is a function of the initial concentration and two dimensionless groups. In the first group, the relative weights of advective and dispersive variables are compared, and in the second group the relative weights of hydrodynamic and degradation variables are compared. The ratio of hydrodynamic to degradation variables can be rearranged and written as (a/sub L lambda)/(q/epsilon), where a/sub L/ is the dispersivity of the soil, lambda is the reaction rate constant, q is ground water flow velocity, and epsilon is the soil porosity. When this term has a value less than 0.01, the degradation process is occurring at such a slow rate relative to the hydrodynamics that it can be neglected. Under these conditions the site is unsuitable because the chemicals are unreactive, and concentrations in ground waters will change very slowly with distance away from the landfill site.

  14. Effects of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality in northern Williamson County and southern Davidson County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchar, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the potential contamination of ground water from septic tank systems blasted in bedrock in Williamson and Davidson Counties, Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. Water samples were collected from domestic and observation wells, springs, and surface-water sites in a residential subdivision in the northern part of Williamson County near Nashville. The subdivision has a high density of septic-tank field lines installed into blasted bedrock Water samples also were collected from a well located in an area of Davidson County where field lines were installed in 5 feet of soil. Samples were analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, and bacteria. Although results of analyses of water samples from wells indicate no effect of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality at these sites, water from two springs located downgradient from the subdivision had slightly larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate (2.2 and 2.7 milligrams per liter N), and much larger concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria (2,000 to 3,200 and 700 to 900 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively), than other wells and springs sampled during 1988. Water from one of these springs contained optical brighteners, which indicates that septic-tank effluent is affecting ground-water quality.

  15. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater

  16. Assessment of ground water quality in a fractured aquifer under continue wastewater injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrieri, C.; Masciopinto, C.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies have been carried out in a fractured coastal aquifer of the Salento Region (Nardo' (Le) Italy), subject since 1991 to injection of 12000 m 3 /d of treated municipal wastewater in a natural sink. The analytical parameters of ground water sampled in monitoring wells, have been compared before and after the injection started. The mound of water table (1.5 m), the reduction of seawater extent of 2 km and the spreading of pollutants injected were evaluated by means of mathematical model results. After ten years operation, the volume of the available resource for agricultural and drinking use has been increased, without notable decrease of the pre existent ground water quality. Moreover for preserving such resource from pollution, the mathematical model allowed the standards of wastewater quality for recharge to be identified. Around the sink, a restricted area was also defined with prohibition of withdrawals, to avoid infection and other risks on human health [it

  17. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables

  19. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Ehrnsten, U.; Saario, T.

    1996-05-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  20. Electrochemistry of lead in simulated ground water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, E.A.; Devereux, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    Lead and lead alloys are used commonly as moisture barriers for underground cables. Lead exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in a variety of environments, but areas of localized attack have been found. These can result in able failures. The susceptibility of lead to pitting in several simulated ground water (SGW) environments was assessed using cyclic potentiodynamic pitting scans (PPS) and microscopy. Although general corrosion was observed, PPS demonstrated pitting did not occur in the same sense as in alloys known to be susceptible to pitting (i.e., very localized pit formation without general corrosion). However, areas of nonuniform general attack did occur, resulting in pitted surface morphologies

  1. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  2. Lithological and hydrological influences on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous carbonate-clay aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, S.J.; Herman, J.S.; Jones, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of clay units on ground-water composition was investigated in a heterogeneous carbonate aquifer system of Miocene age in southwest Florida, known as the Intermediate aquifer system. Regionally, the ground water is recharged inland, flows laterally and to greater depths in the aquifer systems, and is discharged vertically upward at the saltwater interface along the coast. A depth profile of water composition was obtained by sampling ground water from discrete intervals within the permeable carbonate units during coring and by squeezing pore water from a core of the less-permeable clay layers. A normative salt analysis of solute compositions in the water indicated a marine origin for both types of water and an evolutionary pathway for the clay water that involves clay diagenesis. The chemical composition of the ground water in the carbonate bedrock is significantly different from that of the pore water in the clay layers. Dissolution of clays and opaline silica results in high silica concentrations relative to water in other parts of the Intermediate aquifer system. Water enriched in chloride relative to the overlying and underlying ground water recharges the aquifer inland where the confining clay layer is absent, and it dissolves carbonate and silicate minerals and reacts with clays along its flow path, eventually reaching this coastal site and resulting in the high chloride and silica concentrations observed in the middle part of the Intermediate aquifer system. Reaction-path modeling suggests that the recharging surficial water mixes with sulfate-rich water upwelling from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and carbonate mineral dissolution and precipitation, weathering and exchange reactions, clay mineral diagenesis, clay and silica dissolution, organic carbon oxidation, and iron and sulfate reduction result in the observed water compositions.A study was conducted to clarify the influence of clay units on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous

  3. Enrichment and determination of small amounts of 90Sr/90Y in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1979-01-01

    Small amounts of 90 Sr/ 90 Y can be concentrated from large volumes of surface water (100 l) by precipitation of the phosphates, using bentonite as adsorber matrix. In the case of samples containing no or nearly no suspended matter (tap water, ground water, sea water), the daughter 90 Y can be extracted directly by using filter beds impregnated with HDEHP. The applicability of both techniques is demonstrated under realistic conditions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  4. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  7. Concentrations of 23 trace elements in ground water and surface water at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988--91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Mann, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Analytical data for 23 trace elements are reported for ground- and surface-water samples collected at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during 1988--91. Water samples were collected from 148 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer, 18 wells completed in discontinuous deep perched-water zones, and 1 well completed in an alluvial aquifer. Surface-water samples also were collected from three streams, two springs, two ponds, and one lake. Data are categorized by concentrations of total recoverable of dissolved trace elements. Concentrations of total recoverable trace elements are reported for unfiltered water samples and include results for one or more of the following: aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements are reported for water samples filtered through a nominal 0.45-micron filter and may also include bromide, fluoride, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium also are reported for many samples. The water samples were analyzed at the US Geological Survey's National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. Methods used to collect the water samples and quality assurance instituted for the sampling program are described. Concentrations of chromium equaled or exceeded the maximum contaminant level at 12 ground-water quality monitoring wells. Other trace elements did not exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels

  8. Concentrations of 23 trace elements in ground water and surface water at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Mann, L.J.

    1993-12-31

    Analytical data for 23 trace elements are reported for ground- and surface-water samples collected at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during 1988--91. Water samples were collected from 148 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer, 18 wells completed in discontinuous deep perched-water zones, and 1 well completed in an alluvial aquifer. Surface-water samples also were collected from three streams, two springs, two ponds, and one lake. Data are categorized by concentrations of total recoverable of dissolved trace elements. Concentrations of total recoverable trace elements are reported for unfiltered water samples and include results for one or more of the following: aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements are reported for water samples filtered through a nominal 0.45-micron filter and may also include bromide, fluoride, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium also are reported for many samples. The water samples were analyzed at the US Geological Survey`s National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. Methods used to collect the water samples and quality assurance instituted for the sampling program are described. Concentrations of chromium equaled or exceeded the maximum contaminant level at 12 ground-water quality monitoring wells. Other trace elements did not exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels.

  9. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  10. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.

    2010-01-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  11. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  12. Hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of river subsurface solutes under agriculturally enhanced ground water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, R.A.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The relative influences of hydrologic processes and biogeochemistry on the transport and retention of minor solutes were compared in the riverbed of the lower Merced River (California, USA). The subsurface of this reach receives ground water discharge and surface water infiltration due to an altered hydraulic setting resulting from agricultural irrigation. Filtered ground water samples were collected from 30 drive point locations in March, June, and October 2004. Hydrologic processes, described previously, were verified by observations of bromine concentrations; manganese was used to indicate redox conditions. The separate responses of the minor solutes strontium, barium, uranium, and phosphorus to these influences were examined. Correlation and principal component analyses indicate that hydrologic processes dominate the distribution of trace elements in the ground water. Redox conditions appear to be independent of hydrologic processes and account for most of the remaining data variability. With some variability, major processes are consistent in two sampling transects separated by 100 m. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrology and water law: what is their future common ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Arthur M.; Thomas, Harold E.

    1957-01-01

    We live in an age of social and economic evolution--evolution so deep reaching and rapid it constitutes ad revolution in numerous fields of human concern. Long-standing concepts of what is appropriate and orderly face drastic modification if they are to survive. To this situation the principles of applied hydrology and the tenets of water law are no exceptions. Their common ground, incomplete in the past, becomes tenuous when projected into the future. To hydrologists it is common knowledge that the Nation has some trouble spots tin water supply, occasioned by burgeoning population, by standards of living that seem luxurious to other peoples if not to us, and by tremendously dynamic industry whose voracious thirst for water seems insatiable. Seldom is the "trouble" a mere lack of water in a quantity sufficient to serve all real needs; rather, water usually is available only part of the time, at greater-than-customary cost, or under competition among several potential uses. We can expect only that such spots will increase in number and in geographic reach.

  14. Ground-Water Quality and its Relation to Land Use on Oahu, Hawaii, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2003-01-01

    Water quality in the main drinking-water source aquifers of Oahu was assessed by a one-time sampling of untreated ground water from 30 public-supply wells and 15 monitoring wells. The 384 square-mile study area, which includes urban Honolulu and large tracts of forested, agricultural, and suburban residential lands in central Oahu, accounts for 93 percent of the island's ground-water withdrawals. Organic compounds were detected in 73 percent of public-supply wells, but mostly at low concentrations below minimum reporting levels. Concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards in just a few cases: the solvent trichloroethene and the radionuclide radon-222 exceeded Federal standards in one public-supply well each, and the fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) exceeded State standards in three public-supply wells each. Solvents, fumigants, trihalomethanes, and herbicides were prevalent (detected in more than 30 percent of samples) but gasoline components and insecticides were detected in few wells. Most water samples contained complex mixtures of organic compounds: multiple solvents, fumigants, or herbicides, and in some cases compounds from two or all three of these classes. Characteristic suites of chemicals were associated with particular land uses and geographic locales. Solvents were associated with central Oahu urban-military lands whereas fumigants, herbicides, and fertilizer nutrients were associated with central Oahu agricultural lands. Somewhat unexpectedly, little contamination was detected in Honolulu where urban density is highest, most likely as a consequence of sound land-use planning, favorable aquifer structure, and less intensive application of chemicals (or of less mobile chemicals) over recharge zones in comparison to agricultural areas. For the most part, organic and nutrient contamination appear to reflect decades-old releases and former land use. Most ground-water ages were decades old, with recharge

  15. Karst aquifer in Galichica and possibilities for water supply to Ohrid with ground -water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchovski, Vojo; Kekich, Aleksandar; Spasovski, Orce; Mirchovski, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    In this paper are presented some hydrogeological features of the karst aquifer in Mt Galichica, which contains important quantities of ground-water that can to used for the water supply of the town Ohrid. Based on the hydrogeological data are given three solutions that be can to used for water supply of Ohrid, the first one is to drill of deep wells, combination of deep and shallow wells, as well as construction of horizontal galleries.

  16. Salt water and its relation to fresh ground water in Harris County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Allen G.; Doyel, William Watson; Wood, L.A.

    1957-01-01

    Harris County, in the West Gulf Coastal Plain in southeastern Texas, has one of the heaviest concentrations of ground-water withdrawal in the United States. Large quantities of water are pumped to meet the requirements of the rapidly growing population, for industry, and for rice irrigation. The water is pumped from artesian wells which tap a thick series of sands ranging in age from Miocene (?) to Pleistocene.

  17. Levels of Cadmium in Soil, Sediment and Water Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    The agricultural application of phosphate fertilizers represents a direct ... The samples were put into clean plastic containers and sealed. The plastic ... dried samples were ground and homogenized in a porcelain mortar, sieved to 40 mesh size.

  18. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J

    1986-04-01

    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  19. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  20. Ground-water resources of the El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Albert Nelson; Livingston, Penn Poore

    1945-01-01

    El Paso, Tex., and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and the industries in -that area draw their water supplies from wells, most of which are from 600 to 800 feet deep. In 1906, the estimated average pumpage there was about 1,000,000 gallons a day, and by 1935 it had increased to 15,400,000 gallons a day. The water-bearing beds, consisting of sand and gravel interbedded wire clay, tie in the deep structural trough known as the Hueco bolson, between the Organ and Franklin Mountains on the west, the Hueco, Finlay, and Malone Mountains on the east, the Tularosa Basin on the north, and the mountain ranges of Mexico on the south. From the gorge above El Paso to that beginning near Fort Quitman, about 90 miles southeast .of El Paso, the Rio Grande has eroded a flat-bottomed, steepwalled valley, 6 to 8 miles wide and 225 to 350 feet deep. No other large drainage channels have been developed on the bolson. The valley is known as the El Paso Valley, and the uneroded upland part of the bolson is called the Mesa. In the lowest parts of the El Paso Valley, the water-table is nearly at the surface. The quality of the underground water in the valley varies greatly both vertically and laterally. To a depth of about 400 to 500 feet it is in general too highly mineralized for municipal use, but between about. 500 and 900 feet good water may be obtained from several beds. In the beds between 500 and 900 feet the water level in wells is in places as. much as 20 feet lower than that in the shallow beds. Beneath the Mesa the water level .varies from about 200 feet beneath the surface, where the ground elevation is least, to about 400 feet. where it is highest. The water beneath the Mesa in general is of satisfactory quality and contains less than 500 parts per million of dissolved solids. Two cones of depression in the water table have been formed by the pumping near El Paso--one m the vicinity of the Mesa well field, the other around the Montana well field in the valley. The water

  1. Atmospheric and radiogenic gases in ground waters from the Stripa granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.N.; Hussain, N.; Youngman, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ground waters from depths of 350 m to 1,250 m in the Stripa granite contain dissolved radiogenic He in amounts up to 50,000 times that due to air-saturation. The groundwater He-contents increase with depth and lie close to the expected profile for He loss by aqueous diffusion (D = 0.032 m 2 a -1 ). Measurements on core samples show that the rock has retained about 10% of the possible cumulative radiogenic He and that this component is lost by matrix diffusion (D = 5 x 10 -7 m 2 a -1 ). Diffusive equilibrium between He in fracture fluids and in the adjacent rock matrix is rapidly established for the narrow fracture widths of the flow system. A major loss of stored He by both diffusion and advection along fluid-filled fractures is attributed to the proximity of a major fraction of uranium to the aqueous flow system because of its deposition within an interconnective microfracture system. The crustal flux of He is limited by its diffusion coefficient in the matrix of a granitic crust but may be supplemented by transport due to fluid circulation. The 3 He/ 4 He ratio of the excess He present in the Stripa ground waters, corresponds to that expected for radiogenic He production within the granite. The 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of dissolved Ar shows that radiogenic 40 Ar has been released from the rock matrix, especially for ground waters from greater than 450 m depth. Slow alteration reactions are the most probable cause of this radiogenic 40 Ar release which has occurred in the more saline ground waters. Groundwater recharge temperatures, estimated from their noble gas contents, are about 3 degree C lower than those for modern shallow ground waters in the locality and are related to the stable isotope composition of the groundwater

  2. Determination of Arsenic and Health Risk Assessment in the Ground Water of Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULFIQAR ALIBHATTI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As (Arsenic is one of the lethal element present at the various locations of the world, putting human beings in danger by polluting the water. Arsenic Kit and atomic absorption spectrometer were used to determine As in ground water of Sindh province, Pakistan. Twenty-Four (24 districts both on the left and right bank of RI (River Indus were analyzed. It was observed from the results that highest As concentration 200 ppb (parts per billion i.e. above the WHO (World Health Organization limit (10 ppb was observed in Sakrand, district Shaheed Benazirabad followed by Hala, Matairi, TMK (Tando Mohammad Khan and Nasarpur regions. It was further found that ground water of regions on the left bank of RIwas more contaminated than the right bank. Contour map was created using OriginPro and coordinate systems to highlight the elevated arsenic in the studied area. HRA (Health Risk Assessment of these areas was carried out to calculate EDI (Estimated Daily Intake, TQH (Target Hazard Quotient and CR (Cancer Risk. 45% of the total ground water samples analyzed were above the permissible limit for As in water and mostly these are located on the left bank of RI. The local wells in Sindh have never been tested for metal concentration former to use. These results provide baselines for researchers, NGO's (Non-Governmental Organizations and government to apply arsenic treatment technologies in those areas

  3. Decadal-scale changes of pesticides in ground water of the United States, 1993-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide data for ground water sampled across the United States between 1993-1995 and 2001-2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program were evaluated for trends in detection frequency and concentration. The data analysis evaluated samples collected from a total of 362 wells located in 12 local well networks characterizing shallow ground water in agricultural areas and six local well networks characterizing the drinking water resource in areas of variable land use. Each well network was sampled once during 1993-1995 and once during 2001-2003. The networks provide an overview of conditions across a wide range of hydrogeologic settings and in major agricultural areas that vary in dominant crop type and pesticide use. Of about 80 pesticide compounds analyzed, only six compounds were detected in ground water from at least 10 wells during both sampling events. These compounds were the triazine herbicides atrazine, simazine, and prometon; the acetanilide herbicide metolachlor; the urea herbicide tebuthiuron; and an atrazine degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA). Observed concentrations of these compounds generally were spikes. In wells yielding detectable concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and prometon, concentrations were significantly lower (?? = 0.1) in 2001-2003 than in 1993-1995, whereas detection frequency of these compounds did not change significantly. Trends in atrazine concentrations at shallow wells in agricultural areas were found to be consistent overall with recent atrazine use data. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Ground-water protection activities of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report evaluates the internal consistency of NRC's ground-water protection programs. These programs have evolved consistently with growing public concerns about the significance of ground-water contamination and environmental impacts. Early NRC programs provided for protection of the public health and safety by minimizing releases of radionuclides. More recent programs have included provisions for minimizing releases of nonradiological constituents, mitigating environmental impacts, and correcting ground-water contamination. NRC's ground-water protection programs are categorized according to program areas, including nuclear materials and waste management (NMSS), nuclear reactor operation (NRR), confirmatory research and standards development (RES), inspection and enforcement (IE), and agreement state programs (SP). Based on analysis of existing ground-water protection programs within NRC, the interoffice Ground-water Protection Group has identified several inconsistencies between and within program areas. These inconsistencies include: (1) different definitions of the term ''ground-water,'' (2) variable regulation of nonradiological constituents in ground water, (3) different design periods for ground-water protection, and (4) different scopes and rigor of ground-water assessments. The second inconsistency stems from differences in statutory authority granted to the NRC. The third inconsistency is rationalized by recognizing differences in perceived risks associated with nuclear facilities. The Ground-water Protection Group will document its analysis of the remaining inconsistencies and make recommendations to reconcile or eliminate them in a subsequent report

  5. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.

  6. Effects of energy development on ground water quality: an overview and preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.M. III; Yin, S.C.L.; Davis, M.J.; Kutz, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    A preliminary national overview of the various effects on ground water quality likely to result from energy development. Based on estimates of present and projected energy-development activities, those regions of the country are identified where ground water quality has the potential for being adversely affected. The general causes of change in ground water quality are reviewed. Specific effects on ground water quality of selected energy technologies are discussed, and some case-history material is provided. A brief overview of pertinent legislation relating to the protection and management of ground water quality is presented. Six methodologies that have some value for assessing the potential effects on ground water quality of energy development activities are reviewed. A method of identifying regions in the 48 contiguous states where there is a potential for ground water quality problems is described and then applied

  7. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data

  8. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  10. Radium-226 and radium-228 in shallow ground water, southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total radium (the sum of radium-226 and radium-228) and gross alpha-particle activities in drinking water that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) are known to cause cancer. Results of investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) indicate that concentrations of total radium in water samples from 33 percent of 170 wells in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in southern New Jersey exceeded the MCL of 5 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) (fig. 1). Wells containing water in which concentrations of total radium were greater than the MCL typically are found where the Bridgeton Formation crops out, in or near an agricultural area, where ground water is acidic (pH less than 5), and where nitrate concentrations generally exceed 5 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Leaching of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium from agricultural chemicals (fertilizer, lime) applied to cropland may increase the mobility of radium in ground water. Gross alphaparticle activities exceeded the USEPA MCL of 15 pCi/L in water from 14 percent of 127 wells. A statistically significant 2:1 ratio between gross alpha-particle activity and concentration of total radium indicates that gross alpha-particle activity can be used as a screening tool to predict the presence of water that may have a high total-radium concentration.

  11. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  12. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  13. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting. 430.19 Section 430.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.19...

  14. Pesticide and Water management alternatives to mitigate potential ground-water contamination for selected counties in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, Majid; Requena, Antonio M.; Peralta, R. C.; Deer, Howard M.; Hill, Robert W.; Ranjha, Ahmad Yar

    1990-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. Although pesticides are necessary in today's agriculture, they can be a serious problem if they reach and contaminate ground water, especially in places where drinking water needs are supplied from ground water. The relative reduction of potential ground-water contamination due to agricultural use of pesticides was analyzed for parti...

  15. Seasonal effects on ground water chemistry of the Ouachita Mountains. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, K.F.; Fay, W.M.; Cavendor, P.N.

    1982-08-01

    Samples from 13 ground water sites (10 springs and 3 wells) in the Ouachita Mountains were collected nine times during a 16-month period. Daily sampling of six sites was carried out over an 11-day period, with rain during this period. Finally, hourly sampling was conducted at a single site over a 7-hour period. The samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, temperature, total alkalinity, nitrate, ammonia, sulfate, phosphate, chloride, silica, Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, Hg, Br, F, V, Al, Dy, and U. Despite the dry season during late summer, and wet seasons during late spring and late fall in the Ouachita Mountain region, there was no significant change in the ground water chemistry with season. Likewise, there was no significant change due to rain storm events (daily sampling) or hourly sampling. The report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. 9 figures, 19 tables

  16. Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic determination of triazine herbicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Shuaihua; Yin, Xiaofang; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with online sweeping preconcentration in micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of five triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, propazine, prometon and simetryn) in water samples. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the type and volume of both the extraction and dispersive solvents, the addition of salt to sample solution, the extraction time and the pH of the sample solution were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was good in the range from 0.33 to 20 ng mL(-1) for simazine, propazine, atrazine and simetryn, and from 0.17 to 20 ng mL(-1) for prometon, respectively. The sensitivity enrichment factors were in the range from 1750 to 2100, depending on the compound. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 ng mL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the five triazines in river, ground and well waters. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Demonstration of the Gore Module for Passive Ground Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Organization for Standardization ( ISO )/International Electrotechnical Commission ( IEC ) 17025 , DoD ELAP, and NELAC quality standards for USEPA Method...mass spectrometry GCB Geochemical Sciences Branch GT glacial till HSE Health and Safety Executive IEC International Electrotechnical Commission...IRP Installation Restoration Program ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued) x ISO International Organization for Standardization ITRC

  18. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Comerio, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Comerio, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System, and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resource data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 13 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land- and water-use conditions. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 24 sampling stations to evaluate about 84 miles of stream channels with drainage to or within the municipio of Comerio. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions to evaluate the sanitary quality of streams. Bacteriological analyses indicate that about 27 miles of stream reaches within the municipio of Comerio may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunction of sanitary

  19. Innovative characterization techniques and decision support systems for ground water contamination projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Ground water contamination projects throughout the world must be approached as individual and unique problems. Many traditional investigation techniques require modification to meet the needs of site-specific situations. Because the age of the science of contaminant hydrogeology can be measured only in a few decades, the field is ripe for innovation. This paper describes the following new technologies: At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have developed a new drilling and sampling method, which allows the evaluation of the vertical extent of contamination in a single borehole. We are also using new fiber-optic-based chemical analytical sensors that promise to greatly increase the case of obtaining chemical analyses in the subsurface while greatly reducing costs. Because ground water investigations are data intensive, we need the best decision support system information tools to proceed with investigation and cleanup. These tools have three components: a relational database, data analysis tools, and tools for data display

  20. Used motor oil as a source of MTBE, TAME, and BTEX to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R.J.; Best, E.W.; Baehr, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the widely used gasoline oxygenate, has been identified as a common ground water contaminant, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) have long been associated with gasoline spills. Because not all instances of ground water contamination by MTBE and BTEX can be attributed to spills or leaking storage tanks, other potential sources need to be considered. In this study, used motor oil was investigated as a potential source of these contaminants. MTBE in oil was measured directly by methanol extraction and gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Water was equilibrated with oil samples and analyzed for MTBE, BTEX, and the oxygenate tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) by purge-and-trap concentration followed by GC/FID analysis. Raoult's law was used to calculate oil-phase concentrations of MTBE, BTEX, and TAME from aqueous-phase concentrations. MTBE, TAME, and BTEX were not detected in any of five new motor oil samples, whereas these compounds were found at significant concentrations in all six samples of the used motor oil tested for MTBE and all four samples tested for TAME and BTEX. MTBE concentrations in used motor oil were on the order of 100 mg/L. TAME concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 87 mg/L. Concentrations of benzene were 29 to 66 mg/L, but those of other BTEX compounds were higher, typically 500 to 2000 mg/L.

  1. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Saurabh [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands); Krishnan, Sunderrajan [INREM Foundation (India); Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l{sup −1}. Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  2. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Saurabh; Krishnan, Sunderrajan; Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l"−"1. Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site's contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  5. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met

  6. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.

    1974-01-01

    This manual reviews the standard methods of surface geophysics applicable to ground-water investigations. It covers electrical methods, seismic and gravity methods, and magnetic methods. The general physical principles underlying each method and its capabilities and limitations are described. Possibilities for non-uniqueness of interpretation of geophysical results are noted. Examples of actual use of the methods are given to illustrate applications and interpretation in selected geohydrologic environments. The objective of the manual is to provide the hydrogeologist with a sufficient understanding of the capabilities, imitations, and relative cost of geophysical methods to make sound decisions as to when to use of these methods is desirable. The manual also provides enough information for the hydrogeologist to work with a geophysicist in designing geophysical surveys that differentiate significant hydrogeologic changes.

  7. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  8. A new breed of innovative ground water modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Ziagos, J.; McKereghan, P.; Vogele, T.; Nelson, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Sparse data is a critical obstacle in every ground water remediation project. Lack of data necessitates non-unique interpolations that can distort modeled distributions of contaminants and essential physical properties (e.g., permeability, porosity). These properties largely determine the rates and paths that contaminants may take in migrating from sources to receptor locations. We apply both forward and inverse model estimates to resolve this problem because coupled modeling provides the only way to obtain constitutive property distributions that simultaneously simulate the flow and transport behavior observed in borehole measurements. Innovations in multidimensional modeling are a key to achieving more effective subsurface characterizations, remedial designs, risk assessments, and compliance monitoring in efforts to accelerate cleanup and reduce costs in national environmental remediations. Fundamentally new modeling concepts and novel software have emerged recently from two decades of research on self-adaptive solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs). We have tested a revolutionary software product, PDEase, applying it to coupled forward and inverse flow problems. In the Superfund cleanup effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site, the new modeling paradigm of PDEase enables ground water professionals to simply provide the flow equations, site geometry, sources, sinks, constitutive parameters, and boundary conditions. Its symbolic processors then construct the actual numerical solution code and solve it automatically. Powerful grid refinements that conform adaptively to evolving flow features are executed dynamically with iterative finite-element solutions that minimize numerical errors to user-specified limits. Numerical solution accuracy can be tested easily with the diagnostic information and interactive graphical displays that appear as the solutions are generated

  9. Guidance document for preparing water sampling and analysis plans for UMTRA Project sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is prepared for each Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide the rationale for routine ground water sampling at disposal sites and former processing sites. The WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine ground water monitoring stations at each site. This guidance document has been prepared by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose is to provide a consistent technical approach for sampling and monitoring activities performed under the WSAP and to provide a consistent format for the WSAP documents. It is designed for use by the TAC in preparing WSAPs and by the DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state and tribal agencies, other regulatory agencies, and the public in evaluating the content of WSAPS