WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground water protection

  1. Composite liners protect ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  2. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  3. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  4. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  5. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  6. Ground-water protection activities of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report evaluates the internal consistency of NRC's ground-water protection programs. These programs have evolved consistently with growing public concerns about the significance of ground-water contamination and environmental impacts. Early NRC programs provided for protection of the public health and safety by minimizing releases of radionuclides. More recent programs have included provisions for minimizing releases of nonradiological constituents, mitigating environmental impacts, and correcting ground-water contamination. NRC's ground-water protection programs are categorized according to program areas, including nuclear materials and waste management (NMSS), nuclear reactor operation (NRR), confirmatory research and standards development (RES), inspection and enforcement (IE), and agreement state programs (SP). Based on analysis of existing ground-water protection programs within NRC, the interoffice Ground-water Protection Group has identified several inconsistencies between and within program areas. These inconsistencies include: (1) different definitions of the term ''ground-water,'' (2) variable regulation of nonradiological constituents in ground water, (3) different design periods for ground-water protection, and (4) different scopes and rigor of ground-water assessments. The second inconsistency stems from differences in statutory authority granted to the NRC. The third inconsistency is rationalized by recognizing differences in perceived risks associated with nuclear facilities. The Ground-water Protection Group will document its analysis of the remaining inconsistencies and make recommendations to reconcile or eliminate them in a subsequent report

  7. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsible for the Underground Injection Control Program. You may call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.87 How does... Water Source Assessment and Protection Program in your area. You may call the Safe Drinking Water...

  8. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  9. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  10. Ground and surface water in New Mexico: are they protected against uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    Inadequate funds to allow New Mexico to collect data on the effects of uranium mining and milling on ground and surface water resources and vigorous opposition by the uranium companies have made the Environmental Protection Agency reluctant to adopt the state's request for control of discharges. The state is unable to monitor for the presence of toxic materials and questions have been raised over EPA's jurisdiction over groundwater. Federal and state water pollution regulations are reviewed and weaknesses noted, particularly the effect of terrain and the limitations on regulation of navigable waters

  11. Reclamation and reuse of MWI slags under the aspect of ground water protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahl, U.; Struth, R.

    1993-01-01

    Some importants aspects of ground water protection are discussed, with regard to MWI-slag reclamation and reuse as construction material. The effects of a treatment process on residual organic compounds of slag material have to be regarded as very positive. Directed chemical influencing of the hydratation process directly after incineration offers new perspectives for generating slag with potentially little and constant elution behaviour. The authors welcome the new, sharpened demands on reuse of MWI-slag in Northrhine-Westfalia. This challenge can be met by the proposed treatment procedure without problems. (orig.) [de

  12. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report

  13. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  14. Improvement of ground water management and protection through the use of isotope and Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.

    2009-01-01

    To establish nuclear techniques for the study and management of water resources including technology transfer; to develop a national strategy for the use of isotope techniques in water management and development studies; to develop a water mangement framework; to solve problems related to water shortage, overexploitation, management and rapid quality deterioration; to evaluate the sources, recharge rates and renewal of ground water reservoires; to resolve the problems of mixed aquifers, the quantity of mixing and the exchange reactions between groundwater reservoirs and their matrix; to strengthen the role of the CNRS within national instituions and water authorities. (author)

  15. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  16. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  17. Tritium as an indicator of the state of protection of ground water deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, D.; Jordan, H.

    1992-01-01

    A concept for a quantitative assessment of the state of protection of groundwater deposits is presented. The following components of protection are combined: Geochemical degradation and fixation of pollutants, - retardation of pollutants, - dilution of pollutants in groundwater. It is shown that the dilution capacity of deposits - the volume index - can be assessed on the basis of tritium analyses. (orig.) [de

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailing site Maybell, Colorado. Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from former uranium processing activities at inactive uranium processing sites (40 CFR Part 192 (1993)) (52 FR 36000 (1978)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has decided that each assessment will include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes the proposed action compliance with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4, Water Resources Protection Strategy. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include the following: (1) Definition of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the environment, including hydrostratigraphy, aquifer parameters, areas of aquifer recharge and discharge, potentiometric surfaces, and ground water velocities. (2) Definition of background ground water quality and comparison with proposed EPA ground water protection standards. (3) Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant source and/or residual radioactive materials. (4) Definition of existing ground water contamination by comparison with the EPA ground water protection standards. (5) Description of the geochemical processes that affect the migration of the source contaminants at the processing site. (6) Description of water resource use, including availability, current and future use and value, and alternate water supplies

  19. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  20. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  1. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  2. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  3. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  4. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  5. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  6. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  7. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  8. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  9. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  10. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards

  11. Protection of ground water at shallow geothermal power plants by means of an automatic leakage detection and liquid backwashing; Grundwasserschutz bei flachen Geothermieanlagen durch automatische Leckagenerkennung und Fluessigkeitsrueckspuelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohnlich, Stefan; Scheliga, Roman [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie; Bonin, Juergen [Umwelt und Technik, Xanten (Germany)

    2011-10-24

    A protective device is examined with which the contamination of groundwater in an accident can be reduced to a minimum. The proposed device (geo-protector) registered a leak in two stages of pressure sensors. If the value falls below the lower minimum pressure, the entire system is flushed with water. The brine can be collected in a separate vessel. Thus, only drinking water escapes from the leak. A further contamination of ground water with brine is avoided. In order to investigate the functionality and reliability of the geo-protectors, a model of a geothermal power plant was created. With this, leakages of varying sizes were simulated at different places of the geothermal probes. All measured leakage scenarios could be registered. The output amount of the brine during the flushing process was at most 5% of the total volume of the system. The output amount could be further minimized by means of a pressure reducer. The outflow quantity of the brine is reduced to a minimum by means of a shallow geothermal system. This significantly may contribute to the protection of groundwater.

  12. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that Na and K were the most abundant dissolved cations in the groundwater. The. + .... concentration of phosphate (PO ) in the water. 4 samples was ...... The Effect of Copper on Some Laboratory Indices of Clarias.

  13. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  14. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  15. Understanding ground water investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.E.; Ward, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    An orientation manual for groundwater has been developed for small-to-medium-sized businesses who can ill-afford full-time groundwater specialists in their organizations, but who must and wish to comply with the increasingly-complicated environmental laws. Basic themes and information are highlighted, with the hope that these businesses, their counsel, local and regional officials, and government agencies that must make decisions will find their concerns illuminated, and, if necessary, can seek specialized help. The manual is organized into thirteen short chapters which address such discrete issues as: who uses groundwater and how, patterns and trends, and resource value; basic groundwater science and how contaminants reach and move in groundwater; sources of groundwater contamination, particularly light industry and commercial sources; federal regulatory programs for monitoring, protecting, and cleaning up groundwater; state, local, and regional rules for groundwater, focusing on wellhead protection; monitoring groundwater quality and detecting contamination; deciding how significant the contamination is and how much cleanup is necessary; cleanup strategies and techniques; corporate groundwater programs; contingency planning for responding to contamination incidents and replacing contaminated groundwater supplies; a peek into the crystal ball of federal groundwater law; and the cost of cleaning up groundwater. The book concludes with a glossary of terms and acronyms likely to be unfamiliar to the general reader

  16. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  17. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified in...

  18. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity

  19. Prospects of protected ground in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Mamedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state and prospects of  protected  ground development in the Russian Federation based on the data of the Ministry  of Agriculture and  the Federal State Statistics Service. The indexes of production of vegetable crops in different regions of the  Russian Federation are given. The problems, which  are  holding back the greenhouse business, are  discussed. The possibilities of increasing the  area of protected ground and vegetable production are shown.

  20. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141... customer as follows: (i) Chemical disinfection—(A) Ground water systems serving greater than 3,300 people...

  1. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  2. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  3. Assessment of ground water vulnerability and its application to the development of protection strategy for the water supply aquifer in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, K M; Nwankwor, G I; Onyekuru, S O

    2001-03-01

    Pollution vulnerability of the Owerri regional water supply aquifer was evaluated as a basis for developing appropriate protection strategy for the groundwater resource. The assessment was accomplished using Legrand, GOD, Siga and DRASTIC models. Techniques of the models generally involved parameters rating and point count systems, which are based on the evaluation of various parameter in relation to their capacity for enhancing or attenuating contaminants in the groundwater system. Field and laboratory evaluations of the parameters indicate that the Owerri area generally occupies a nearly, flat topography with a relatively high groundwater recharge. The area is underlain by predominantly sandy facies in the Northern area which grades into gravelly sequences towards the southwest. The Southeastern area is distinguished by thick clayey facies that thin westwards towards the Owerri metropolis. Effective hydraulic conductivity (Kz) in the downward direction ranges from 1.44 x 10(-3) to 5.6 x 10(-9) m s(-1); with the upper limits reflecting coarse sands and gravelly units. The amount of clay and clay-size particles in the sandy and gravelly units is negligible, suggesting that the sorptive capacity of the units is low. Depth to water table decreases southwards while hydraulic head gradients vary between 0.09 and 0.22. Groundwater occurs in unconfined conditions in most places except in the southeastern zone where it is semi-confined due to the presence of a clayey unit. The groundwater vulnerability map developed on the basis of the models and several other thematic maps shows that the Owerri metropolis and the southwest area of Owerri have high vulnerability, indicating groundwater pollution. The existing waste disposal sites in these sub-areas should be abandoned and rehabilitated to forstall further pollution of the groundwater system. Areas to the North and Southeast of Owerri have moderate and low vulnerabilities, respectively, indicating the relatively lower

  4. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  5. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  6. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  7. Transitions in midwestern ground water law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.A.; Clark, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ground-water law in eight states in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is examined, and a review of transitions in ground-water doctrines is presented. Two underlying themes in changing ground-water management are communicated. First, ground-water law is evolving from private property rules of capture based on the absolute ownership doctrines to rules requiring conservation and sharing of ground water as a public resource. Second, in both courts and state legislatures, a proactive role of ground-water management is emerging, again, with an emphasis on sharing. Both of these trends are apparent in the Midwest. In the last decade midwestern states have (1) seen significant shifts in court decisions on ground-water use with greater recognition of the reciprocal or mutually dependent nature of ground-water rights, and (2) seen increased legislative development of comprehensive ground-water management statutes that emphasize the reciprocal liabilities of ground-water use. These trends are examined and ground-water management programs discussed for eight states in the Midwest

  8. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  9. Protected area certificates: gaining ground for better ecosystem protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  10. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-01-01

    The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations ...

  11. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  12. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  13. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  14. Strategies for protecting ground water used for human consumption in the Guadalquivir basin; Estrategias de proteccion del agua subterranea destinada al consumo humano en la cuenca del Guadalquivir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Madrid, A.; Martinez, C.; Luque, J. a.; Rubio-Campos, J. C.; Carrasco, F.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a way of defining safeguard zones for groundwater protection according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Taking into account the peculiarities of the groundwater bodies in the region of the Mediterranean arch, we chose to conduct our study in the Guadalquivir basin in southern Spain, an area of special interest because it combines the influence of rain fronts and the mixed characteristics of both Mediterranean and Atlantic climates, together with the fact that a large percentage of water for human consumption is provided by groundwater, especially at the head of the basin, where this percentage may account for up to 80%. Safeguard zones are defined by an initial delimitation of quality-protection perimeters using the Reduced DRASTIC and COP methods, designed specifically for detrital and karstic aquifers respectively, to assess the potential impact of the existing pressures upon them and study their intrinsic vulnerability. An analysis of all this spatial information using a geographical information system allowed us to test and validate the method used and to obtain an initial definition of safeguard zones in the basin in question. (Author) 37 refs.

  15. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  16. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act

  17. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  18. Water resources protection strategy: Revision 1, Attachment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) must provide a demonstration of compliance with the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards for inactive mill sites pursuant to 40 CFR Part 192. This plan outlines the proposed strategy to demonstrate compliance with the ground water standards at the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This demonstration consists of (1) the ground water protection standard, (2) a performance assessment, (3) a closure performance demonstration, and (4) a performance monitoring and corrective action program

  19. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting. 430.19 Section 430.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.19...

  20. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  1. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  2. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  3. Identification of contaminants of concern in Hanford ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    More than 1,500 waste-disposal sites have been identified at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, these sites were aggregated into four administrative areas for listing on the National Priority List. Within the four aggregate areas, 646 inactive sites were selected for further evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS). Evaluation of inactive waste sites by HRS provided valuable insight to design a focused radiological- and hazardous-substance monitoring network. Hanford Site-wide ground-water monitoring was expanded to address not only radioactive constituents but also hazardous chemicals. The HRS scoring process considers the likelihood of ground-water contamination from past disposal practices at inactive waste sites. The network designed to monitor ground water at those facilities identified 129 I, 99 Tc, 90 Sr, uranium, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, and cyanide

  4. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  5. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  6. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  7. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield.

  8. Chemotoxic materials in a final repository for high-level radioactive wastes. CHEMOTOX concept for defence in depth concerning ground water protection from chemotoxic materials in a final high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Sailer, Michael; Schmidt, Gerhard; Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Krone, Juergen; Tholen, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in a final repository includes chemotoxic materials. The chemotoxic materials are either part of the radioactive material or part of the packaging material, or the structures within the repository. In the frame of the licensing procedure it has to be demonstrated that no hazardous pollution of the ground water or other disadvantageous changes can occur. The report describes the common project of the Oeko-Institut e.V., the DBE Technology GmbH and the GRS mbH concerning the possible demonstration of a systematic protection of the groundwater against chemotoxic materials in case of a final high-level-radioactive waste repository in the host materials salt and clay stone.

  9. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as 14 C, 36 Cl and 4 He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  10. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  11. Unmanned Ground Vehicles for Integrated Force Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    employed. 2 Force Protection 18 MAR 02 Security Posts Squad Laptop Fire Tm Ldr Wearable Computers OP/LP Def Fight Psn SRT Sensors USA, USMC, Allied...visual systems. Attaching sensors and response devices on a monorail proved to be much more technically challenging than expected. Film producers and...facilitate experimentation with weapon aiming and firing techniques from the MRHA. grated Marsupial Delivery System was developed to transport smaller

  12. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  13. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  14. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  15. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  16. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support

  17. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  18. Effects of energy development on ground water quality: an overview and preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.M. III; Yin, S.C.L.; Davis, M.J.; Kutz, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    A preliminary national overview of the various effects on ground water quality likely to result from energy development. Based on estimates of present and projected energy-development activities, those regions of the country are identified where ground water quality has the potential for being adversely affected. The general causes of change in ground water quality are reviewed. Specific effects on ground water quality of selected energy technologies are discussed, and some case-history material is provided. A brief overview of pertinent legislation relating to the protection and management of ground water quality is presented. Six methodologies that have some value for assessing the potential effects on ground water quality of energy development activities are reviewed. A method of identifying regions in the 48 contiguous states where there is a potential for ground water quality problems is described and then applied

  19. Practical Approach on Lightning and Grounding Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Jose Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Lightning Protection and Grounding of Electrical and Mechanical equipment’s for the Protection of the Human Beings, Structure of the building and equipment protection, safe working of the Worker at Industry as per my latest practical knowledge in the site environment in extreme climatic condition of low lying areas of the Gulf Region in the challenging projects. All the conductor calculation, Lightning Risk Factor calculations, all the system information regarding the ...

  20. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  1. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  2. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  3. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  4. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  5. Enhancing protection for vulnerable waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; Lane, Charles R.; Serran, Jacqueline N.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Christensen, Jay R.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; Dekeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David B.; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Rains, Kai C.; Smith, Lora

    2017-11-01

    Governments worldwide do not adequately protect their limited freshwater systems and therefore place freshwater functions and attendant ecosystem services at risk. The best available scientific evidence compels enhanced protections for freshwater systems, especially for impermanent streams and wetlands outside of floodplains that are particularly vulnerable to alteration or destruction. New approaches to freshwater sustainability -- implemented through scientifically informed adaptive management -- are required to protect freshwater systems through periods of changing societal needs. One such approach introduced in the US in 2015 is the Clean Water Rule, which clarified the jurisdictional scope for federally protected waters. However, within hours of its implementation litigants convinced the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit to stay the rule, and the subsequently elected administration has now placed it under review for potential revision or rescission. Regardless of its outcome at the federal level, policy and management discussions initiated by the propagation of this rare rulemaking event have potential far-reaching implications at all levels of government across the US and worldwide. At this timely juncture, we provide a scientific rationale and three policy options for all levels of government to meaningfully enhance protection of these vulnerable waters. A fourth option, a 'do-nothing' approach, is wholly inconsistent with the well-established scientific evidence of the importance of these vulnerable waters.

  6. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, R.

    1994-03-01

    ;Contents: Hydrodynamic cavitation oxidation destroys organics; Biosparging documented in fuel remediation study; Surfactant flushing research to remove organic liquids from aquifers; and Compilation of Ground-Water Models (a book review).

  7. National water summary 1986; Hydrologic events and ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David W.; Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    -scale, or nonpoint, sources of contamination such as agricultural activities or highdensity domestic waste disposal (septic systems) in urban centers. At present, only a very small percentage of the total volume of potable ground water in the United States is contaminated from both point and nonpoint sources; however, available data, especially data about the occurrence of synthetic organic and toxic substances, generally are inadequate to determine the full extent of ground-water contamination in the Nation's aquifers or to define trends in groundwater quality. Most information about the occurrence of these substances has come from the study of individual sites or areas where contamination had already been detected or suspected.Management and protection of ground water present a major challenge to the Nation. Current and projected costs of detection and cleanup of existing ground-water contamination are staggering and, even so, complete removal of pollutants from ground water in the vicinity of some waste sites might not be technically feasible. At all levels of government, the task of protecting the resource for its most beneficial uses is difficult and controversial.Despite increasing awareness that some of the Nation's ground water is contaminated with a variety of toxic metals, synthetic organic chemicals, radionuclides, pesticides, and other contaminants that might present a long-term risk to human health, public policy towards ground-water protection is still in the formative stages. Despite increasing efforts devoted to ground-water protection by State and Federal regulatory and resource-management agencies, the extent of ground-water contamination is likely to appear to increase over the next few years because more agencies will be searching for evidence of contamination, and they will be using increasingly sensitive analytical procedures. Increased technology and expanded monitoring activities probably will detect the effects of past contamination and land uses on

  8. Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals in Ground Waters of Vijayawada Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiboyina, Ravisankar; Ptsrk, Prasada Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc., gives an attention to protect environment.one of the major source of contamination of ground water is improper discharge of industrial effluents these effluents contains so many heavy metals which…

  9. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  10. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  11. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  12. Environmental isotope observations on Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental isotope measurements have been conducted on the outputs of some of the main dewatering points in both north and south mining areas as well as on numerous other observation points in the Sishen compartment. The effect of the dykes bounding the compartment could be observed from the behaviour of the isotopic composition of ground waters in the conduit zone. Measurements were done on radiocarbon, tritium oxygen-18 and carbon-13

  13. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  14. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  15. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  16. MINTEQ, Geochemical Equilibria in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase. 2 - Method of solution: MINTEQ applies the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to solve geochemical equilibria from a set of mass balance equations, one for each component. Because the

  17. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  18. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  19. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  20. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  1. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  2. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  3. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  4. Lightning and surge protection of large ground facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Michael F.

    1988-04-01

    The vulnerability of large ground facilities to direct lightning strikes and to lightning-induced overvoltages on the power distribution, telephone and data communication lines are discussed. Advanced electrogeometric modeling is used for the calculation of direct strikes to overhead power lines, buildings, vehicles and objects within the facility. Possible modes of damage, injury and loss are discussed. Some appropriate protection methods for overhead power lines, structures, vehicles and aircraft are suggested. Methods to mitigate the effects of transients on overhead and underground power systems as well as within buildings and other structures are recommended. The specification and location of low-voltage surge suppressors for the protection of vulnerable hardware such as computers, telecommunication equipment and radar installations are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used grounding techniques, such as single point, multiple and isolated grounds are compared. An example is given of the expected distribution of lightning flashes to a large airport, its buildings, structures and facilities, as well as to vehicles on the ground.

  5. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting the proposed EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own unique set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. Implementing a PEIS alternative means applying a ground water compliance strategy or strategies at a specific site. It is the use of a strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  6. Chemical application strategies to protect water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Barber, Brian L; Koskinen, William C

    2018-07-30

    Management of turfgrass on golf courses and athletic fields often involves application of plant protection products to maintain or enhance turfgrass health and performance. However, the transport of fertilizer and pesticides with runoff to adjacent surface waters can enhance algal blooms, promote eutrophication and may have negative impacts on sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of chemical application setbacks to reduce the off-site transport of chemicals with storm runoff. Experiments with water soluble tracer compounds confirmed an increase in application setback distance resulted in a significant increase in the volume of runoff measured before first off-site chemical detection, as well as a significant reduction in the total percentage of applied chemical transported with the storm runoff. For example, implementation of a 6.1 m application setback reduced the total percentage of an applied water soluble tracer by 43%, from 18.5% of applied to 10.5% of applied. Evaluation of chemographs revealed the efficacy of application setbacks could be observed with storms resulting in lesser (e.g. 100 L) and greater (e.g. > 300 L) quantities of runoff. Application setbacks offer turfgrass managers a mitigation approach that requires no additional resources or time inputs and may serve as an alternative practice when buffers are less appropriate for land management objectives or site conditions. Characterizing potential contamination of surface waters and developing strategies to safeguard water quality will help protect the environment and improve water resource security. This information is useful to grounds superintendents for designing chemical application strategies to maximize environmental stewardship. The data will also be useful to scientists and regulators working with chemical transport and risk models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Investigation of counter-measures in the case of radioactive materials penetration in soils and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachse, G.; Anders, G.; Puehrer, H.; Stohn, W.

    1975-03-01

    Proceeding from the methods known from hydraulic engineering for the protection of ground waters from penetrating noxious substances, suitable measures for preventing the contamination of ground waters and soils are discussed. Since preventive measures are always of priority, a facility using concrete containers with double walls is considered to be an appropriate method for temporary storage of low and medium activity waste waters. (author)

  8. Ground water quality evaluation in Beed city, Maharashtra, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters into consideration. The present investigation is aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of ground water and to assess the impact of pollutants due to agriculture ...

  9. Promoting the management and protection of private water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Hugh

    Rural families in Ontario depend almost entirely on groundwater from private wells for their potable water supply. In many cases, groundwater may be the only feasible water supply source and it requires management and protection. A significant potential source of ground water contamination is the movement of contaminated surface water through water wells that are improperly constructed, maintained, or should be decommissioned. Therefore, proper water well construction and maintenance, and eventual decommissioning, are critical for managing and protecting the quantity and quality of groundwater, as well as ensuring the integrity of rural drinking-water supplies. These actions are important for protecting private water supplies from both potential human and natural contamination. Individual well owners each have a personal interest and valuable role in ensuring the integrity of their water supplies. The following information is required to help well owners ensure the integrity of their water supply: different types of wells, why some wells are at greater risk of contamination than others, and sources of groundwater contaminants; groundwater contaminants, how they can move through soil and water, and potential risks to human health; benefits of ensuring that wells are properly maintained and operate efficiently; and importance of a regular well water quality testing program. This paper summarizes the technical information that should be provided to rural well owners concerning proper water well and groundwater management and protection, and provides an example of how this information can be promoted in an effective manner.

  10. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for performing remedial action to bring surface and ground water contaminant levels at 24 inactive uranium processing sites into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. DOE is accomplishing this through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface and Ground Water Projects. Remedial action will be conducted with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the full participation of affected states and Indian tribes. Uranium processing activities at most of 24 the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels, the potential health and the environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  13. Ground water geochemistry in the vicinity of the Jabiluka deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, R.L.; Mann, A.W.; Giblin, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen exploration drill holes in the vicinity of the Jabiluka One and Jabiluka Two deposits were logged for Eh-pH and conductivity at 5 metre intervals to depths of up to 195 metres below ground surface. Forty-seven water samples from exploration drill holes, augered holes on the Magela flood plain and from two billabongs in the vicinity of the deposits were collected and analyzed. Analyses for pH and Fe were conducted in the field, and further analyses for major ions Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , SO 4 2- , Cl - , HCO 3 - and Si and minorelements Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and U were conducted in the laboratory. The in situ Eh-pH and conductivity measurements, and analyses for major and minor elements of ground waters suggest that deep-lying chlorite-graphite schists containing the uranium mineralization are well protected from, or do not react rapidly with, ground water under present-day conditions, i.e. the schists of the Cahill Formation are a stable host for uranium mineralization at depth. In the vicinity of the Magela flood plain where the Cahill Formation and the permanent water table are close to the surface, some samples were found to contain high concentrations of sulphate, zinc, lead and iron. These same samples were characterized by low pH's in the pH range 3.0-4.0. The anomalies suggest weathering of sulphides associated with the mineralized Cahill Formation, where the schists are at shallow depths and in an oxidizing environment. The anomalies are not, however, necessarily indicative of zones of uranium enrichment in this formation. (author)

  14. Water resources data for Virginia, water year 1991. Volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugh, B.J.; Powell, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 356 observation wells and water quality at 2 wells. Locations of these wells are given in the report

  15. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  16. Consumer protection on the drinking water market

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Bachelor thesis is marketing research on consumer preferences and knowledge in the field of drinking water and also analyze and compare the price of tap water and bottled water. The theoretical part describes how the consumer market with drinking water is protected in the Czech Republic. They compared the advantages and disadvantages of both types of drinking water.

  17. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  19. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities

  20. ground water quality evaluation in beed city, maharashtra, india

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khatib Afsar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical .... All ideal value s (Vio) are taken as zero for the drinking water ..... Conference: Ustron, Poland, 2004, Routledge, New York.

  1. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  2. Theoretical aspects on the phenomenon of contamination of ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of contamination of ground waters and the destination of certain constituents of the water keep in mind diverse mechanisms of physical nature, chemistry and biological; in this work it is consigned in a concise way, the theoretical aspects of these topics, that is to say, the basic principles of the ground water hydraulics, the fundamental concepts of the physics of the movement and the chemistry of the ground water, as well as the equations that govern the phenomenon of contamination of the mass of water contained in the interstices of the floors and the rocks, broadly used in the mathematical modeling of the phenomenon

  3. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Public concern regarding the potential human health and environmental effects from uranium mill tailings led Congress to pass the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Public Law 95-604) in 1978. In the UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings at 24 abandoned uranium mill processing sites needing remedial action. Uranium processing activities at most of the 24 mill processing sites resulted in the formation of contaminated ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of hazardous constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting EPA-proposed standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated with constituents from UMTRA Project sites. A major first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of the alternatives, including the proposed action. These alternatives are programmatic in that they are plans for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. This PEIS is a planning document that will provide a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assess the potential programmatic and environmental impacts of conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project; provide a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provide data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses documents more efficiently

  4. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  5. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  6. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  8. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  9. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  10. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  11. Handling the decline of ground water using artificial recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, Muhammad Shofi; Yoga, Kuncaraningrat Edi; Muslim, Dicky

    2017-11-01

    Jatinagor, a region with rapid growth cause increasing in water demand. The ground water surface in the observation area shows a decrease based on its potential. This deflation is mainly caused by the inequality between inputs and outputs of the ground water itself. The decrease of this ground water surface is also caused by the number of catchment areas that keeps decreasing. According to the data analysis of geology and hydrology, the condition of ground water in Jatinangor on 2015 had indicated a decrease compared to 2010. Nowadays, the longlivity of clean water can be ensure by the hydrogeology engineering, which is to construct an artificial recharge for ground water in use. The numerical method is aims to determine the number of ground water supply in Jatinangor. According to the research, the most suitable artificial recharge is in the form of a small dam located in the internment river. With the area of 209.000 m2, this dam will be able to contain 525 m3 runoff water with the intensity of maximum rainfall effectively 59,44 mm/hour. The increase of water volume generate by this artificial recharge, fulfilled the demand of clean water.

  12. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  13. Geohydrological and environmental isotope observation of Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Dziembowski, Z.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dewatering of Sishen Mine in the northern Cape Province supplies good quality water for the mine and surrounding areas. Using various approaches, attempts are made to quantify the remaining storage of ground water. Geohydrological observations provide an estimate based on extrapolating the thickness of dewatered rock. Environmental isotope observations on various borehole outputs show contrasts between different ground-water bodies and their mixtures and allows for some extrapolations of observed trends. Indications are that previous estimates of storage, based on ground-water level changes, are conservative

  14. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  15. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ''ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated

  16. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented

  17. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of selecting a ground water compliance strategy for the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) discusses two alternatives and the effects associated with each. The two alternatives are (1) natural flushing coupled with institutional controls and continued monitoring and (2) no action. The compliance strategy must meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards defined in Title 40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' Part 192, Subpart B, in areas where ground water beneath and around the site is contaminated as a result of past milling operations. It has been determined that contamination in the ground water at the Gunnison site consists of soluble residual radioactive material (RRM) as defined in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA)

  18. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  19. The Virginia Beach shallow ground-water study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionVirginia Beach is a rapidly growing city of more than 425,000 people. Sources of fresh water within the city, however, are limited. Prior to 1998, the Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department met the city's water needs by purchasing treated drinking water from the City of Norfolk. Because Norfolk had to meet its own requirements, the amount of water available to Virginia Beach was limited to about 30 million gallons per day (mgd) and even less during droughts. This water supply was supplemented with ground water from city-owned, community, and private wells. In many parts of the city, however, ground water cannot be used because of high concentrations of chloride, iron, and (or) sulfur, which give the water an unpleasant taste.In early 1998, a pipeline came on-line that can carry up to 45 mgd of water from Lake Gaston to Virginia Beach. The Gaston pipeline has alleviated concerns about water supply and quality for most residents living north of the "Green Line." These residents primarily use ground water only for small-scale domestic activities such as watering lawns, filling ponds and pools, and washing cars. City water and sewer services have been extended beyond the Green Line into the "Transition Area." Residents and businesses south of the Transition Area, however, continue to rely on ground water to meet most of their needs for potable and non-potable water. To help assure a continued, reliable supply of ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department, has begun an assessment of the shallow ground-water resources underlying the City of Virginia Beach.

  20. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  2. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  3. Ground-water resources data for Baldwin County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.; Moreland, Richard S.; Clark, Amy E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for 237 wells were collected, and water-levels in 223 wells in Baldwin and Escambia Counties were measured. Long-term water water-level data, available for many wells, indicate that ground-water levels in most of Baldwin County show no significant trends for the period of record. However, ground-water levels have declined in the general vicinity of Spanish Fort and Daphne, and ground-water levels in the Gulf Shores and Orange Beach areas are less than 5 feet above sea level in places. The quality of ground water generally is good, but problems with iron, sulfur, turbidity, and color occur. The water from most private wells in Baldwin County is used without treatment or filtration. Alabama public- health law requires that water from public-supply wells be chlorinated. Beyond that, the most common treatment of ground water by public-water suppliers in Baldwin County consists of pH adjustment, iron removal, and aeration. The transmissivity of the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer was determined at 10 locations in Baldwin County. Estimates of transmissivity ranged from 700 to 5,400 feet squared per day. In general, aquifer transmissivity was greatest in the southeastern part of the county, and least in the western part of the county near Mobile Bay. A storage coefficient of 1.5 x 10-3 was determined for the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer near Loxley.

  4. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1994. Much of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  5. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  6. Universal water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamtseva, M.V.; Kardash, N.V.; Latynina, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the interest of environmental protection, improvement of working conditions, and reduced fire hazard in production operations, water-based protective lubricants are now available in a wide assortment, and the production volume has increased greatly. The term water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants (WDIPL) means water-soluble, water-emulsifiable, or water-dispersible products with the dual function of reducing friction and wear and protecting metal surfaces against corrosion for specified periods of time. According to the standard Unified System of Protection Against Corrosion and Aging (COST 9.103-78), WDIPLs are classed as products for the temporary corrosion protection of metals and end-items. In the general class of WDIPLs one can identify water-dilutable combination corrosion inhibitors, film-forming inhibited petroleum compositions (FIPC-d), detergent-preservative fluids, operational-preservative lubricating-cooling process compounds (ICPC), and, finally, universal multifunctional products. Combined corrosion inhibitors may consist of water-soluble organic and inorganic compounds; water/oil and oil-soluble surfactants - corrosion inhibitors of the chemisorption type or donor and/or acceptor types; shielding inhibitors of the adsorption type; and fast-acting water-displacing components. 23 refs

  7. A Generalised Fault Protection Structure Proposed for Uni-grounded Low-Voltage AC Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duong Minh; Chen, Shi-Lin; Lien, Keng-Yu; Jiang, Jheng-Lun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents three main configurations of uni-grounded low-voltage AC microgrids. Transient situations of a uni-grounded low-voltage (LV) AC microgrid (MG) are simulated through various fault tests and operation transition tests between grid-connected and islanded modes. Based on transient simulation results, available fault protection methods are proposed for main and back-up protection of a uni-grounded AC microgrid. In addition, concept of a generalised fault protection structure of uni-grounded LVAC MGs is mentioned in the paper. As a result, main contributions of the paper are: (i) definition of different uni-grounded LVAC MG configurations; (ii) analysing transient responses of a uni-grounded LVAC microgrid through line-to-line faults, line-to-ground faults, three-phase faults and a microgrid operation transition test, (iii) proposing available fault protection methods for uni-grounded microgrids, such as: non-directional or directional overcurrent protection, under/over voltage protection, differential current protection, voltage-restrained overcurrent protection, and other fault protection principles not based on phase currents and voltages (e.g. total harmonic distortion detection of currents and voltages, using sequence components of current and voltage, 3I0 or 3V0 components), and (iv) developing a generalised fault protection structure with six individual protection zones to be suitable for different uni-grounded AC MG configurations.

  8. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Introduction: Water is a necessity of life. Accordingly, every person is deeply interested in the subject of water supply. He knows that he must have water to drink. He depends indirectly on water for all his food and clothing. He may want water in which to wash. Civilized man has learned also that water serves admirably for a large and ever enlarging list of uses that depend on its easy convertibility from a liquid to a solid or gaseous state and its adaptability as a chemical solvent, a medium for transfer of matter or energy, and a regulator of temperature. 

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  11. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, P.L.; Duerden, S.L.; Atkins, K.M.; Majumdar, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  12. Uranium mineralization by ground water in sedimentary rocks, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Hirono, S.; Sakamaki, Y.

    1975-01-01

    To solve the mechanism of uranium concentration in stratabound uranium deposits occurring in the basal part of Neogene sediments overlying granite basement, attention was paid to uranium leaching from weathered granite by circulating carbonated fissure waters, to effective adsorbents for fixing uranium from uraniferous ground waters, to structural features controlling the ground-water circulation, and other relevant factors. The evidence for uranium transportation by hydothermal solutions, including hot spring waters, is hard to observe. Conclusions are summarized as follows: Uranium in the deposits is supplied from surrounding source rocks, mostly from granite. Uranium is transported by circulating ground-water solutions. The uranium dissolved in ground water is fixed in minerals in various ways, the most important being adsorption by carbonaceous matter. Ore-grade uranium concentrated from very dilute solutions occurs by multiple repetition of a leaching-and-fixation cycle between minerals or adsorbents and circulating uraniferous ground water. Important factors for uranium mineralization are sufficient uranium, supplied mostly from granite, the existence of effective adsorbents such as carbonaceous matter in the host rocks, and favorable geological, geochemical, and geophysical environments. The last seem to require not only physical and chemical conditions but also correct flow and volume of ground water. (U.S.)

  13. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  14. Radioactivity monitoring of fallout, water and ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosavljevic, R.

    1961-01-01

    During 1961, the radioactivity monitoring of the Boris Kidric Institute site covered monitoring of the total β activity of the fallout and water on the site. Activity of the fallout was monitored by measuring the activity of the rain and collected sedimented dust form the atmosphere. Water monitored was the water from Danube and river Mlaka, technical and drinking water. Plants and soil activity were not measured although sample were taken and the total β activity will be measured and analysed later

  15. Ground-Water Hydrology and Projected Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1983-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mount...

  16. Temporal variation of uranium in ground water with conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Chaudhury, Moushumi D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of uranium in drinking water sources is a matter of health concern since it has been proved to be chemo-toxic to humans. Uranium being a more soluble actinide is also very mobile in the environment. The effect of water quality parameters and their co-relation to uranium content in the water is an interesting study to understand and predict its behavior in ground water and subsequently to judge the hazard posed. Hence studies on spatial and temporal variation of uranium concentration with electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids and salinity in ground water was carried out. (author)

  17. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  18. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Halimshah; A. Yusup; Z. Mat Amin; M. D. Ghazalli

    2015-01-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and effic...

  19. Isolation and characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic resistant bacteria from different water sources such as surface water and ground water in Rautahat, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakya, S.; Pradhan, B.; Smth, L.; Shrestha, J.; Tuladhar, S.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenicosis is a problem that is primarily caused by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated water. The different surveys have identified that Terai region in Nepal is at risk of ground water arsenic contamination. With the recent adoption of the 50 part per billion (ppb) of Nepal and 10 ppb by United States Environmental protection agency standard for arsenic in drinking water, it has been estimated that the Rautahat has its share of hotspots that exceeds the level in drinking water. (Author)

  20. Isolation and characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic resistant bacteria from different water sources such as surface water and ground water in Rautahat, Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, S.; Pradhan, B.; Smth, L.; Shrestha, J.; Tuladhar, S.

    2009-07-01

    Arsenicosis is a problem that is primarily caused by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated water. The different surveys have identified that Terai region in Nepal is at risk of ground water arsenic contamination. With the recent adoption of the 50 part per billion (ppb) of Nepal and 10 ppb by United States Environmental protection agency standard for arsenic in drinking water, it has been estimated that the Rautahat has its share of hotspots that exceeds the level in drinking water. (Author)

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities

  2. Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cml

    2012-06-16

    Jun 16, 2012 ... Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which endangers ... include leakage of pipes, pollution from sewerage pipes ..... and Quality Control Authority, Karachi, Pakistan.

  3. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field

  4. Modelling of the evolution of ground waters in a granite system at low temperature: the Stripa ground waters, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaud, D.; Michard, G.; Beaucaire, C.

    1990-01-01

    From chemical data on the Stripa ground waters we have tried to model the evolution of the chemical composition of a ground water in a granitic system at low temperature. The existence of two end-member ground water compositions made it possible first, to test the conventional model of a geothermal system according to which an overall equilibrium between the waters and a given mineral assemblage can be defined, and then to show that such a model could be extended to low temperatures (10 o C). Conversely, if we know the mineral assemblage, the equilibration temperature and the charge of the mobile ions (in this case, Cl), the composition of the solution is entirely fixed. In our model of the Stripa ground waters, the existence of two end-member ground water compositions can be explained by an evolution from a ''kaolinite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium to a ''prehnite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium, the latter requiring less Al than the former. We have also emphasized the importance of the Cl ion concentrations of the ground waters, because they can be considered as indicators of the degree of reaction progress between rock and water, thus determining the degree of equilibration of the system. (author)

  5. Non-stationary open-flow filtration of ground waters at the Pripyat'-Dnieper inter river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapon, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to filtration of ground waters into rivers and to effect of drainage devices. Investigations were conducted with use of modelling of planned and profile filtration of ground waters at the electric models. Efficiency of engineering protection facilities suggested, was studied to prevent contamination of water intakes. Modelling shown, that contamination washing out process was in a cycle character with 1 year period. Use of drainage canal with the water level 0.8 m lower than in the river, is an effective way to prevent filtration of ground waters into the Pripyat' and the Dnieper from the upper open-flow aquiver

  6. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  7. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people's health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  10. A new digital ground-fault protection system for generator-transformer unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielichowski, Mieczyslaw; Szlezak, Tomasz [Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    Ground faults are one of most often reasons of damages in stator windings of large generators. Under certain conditions, as a result of ground-fault protection systems maloperation, ground faults convert into high-current faults, causing severe failures in power system. Numerous publications in renowned journals and magazines testify about ground-fault matter importance and problems reported by exploitators confirm opinions, that some issues concerning ground-fault protection of large generators have not been solved yet or have been solved insufficiently. In this paper a new conception of a digital ground-fault protection system for stator winding of large generator was proposed. The process of intermittent arc ground fault in stator winding has been briefly discussed and actual ground-fault voltage waveforms were presented. A new relaying algorithm, based on third harmonic voltage measurement was also drawn and the methods of its implementation and testing were described. (author)

  11. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  12. Report of analyses for light hydrocarbons in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, E.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report contains on microfiche the results of analyses for methane, ethane, propane, and butane in 11,659 ground water samples collected in 47 western and three eastern 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles of the National Topographic Map Series (Figures 1 and 2), along with a brief description of the analytical technique used and some simple, descriptive statistics. The ground water samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Further information on the ground water samples can be obtained by consulting the NURE data reports for the individual quadrangles. This information includes (1) measurements characterizing water samples (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and other measurements), and (3) elemental analyses

  13. Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa Al Hawari; Mohammad Khader; Tarek Zayed; Osama Moselhi

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imagin...

  14. Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2004-09-01

    The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.

  15. Water power and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshelm, J.

    1992-01-01

    This study illuminates the first large environmental debate after World War 2: the struggle against the harnessing of the northern Swedish rivers. The fascinating question is raised of how it was possible for an unparliamentary environmental protection movement to make itself heard, and influence the Swedish energy policy, though their arguments were contrary to the outspoken interests of the industry, the trade unions, and the social democratic government. This was the more fascinating because the values the opinion stressed wore of ethic, esthetic, biological, and conservation economical nature

  16. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  18. Evaluation of shallow ground water use in command area of Dhoro Naro minor, Nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashari, B.K.

    2002-01-01

    Water supply data shows that the average supply of canal water to minor has been reduced to 30.9 cusecs (1.5 mm/day), which is about 41% (1.19mm/day) short of design supply due to water shortage in the system. To deal with water-short period and increase cultivation, the farmers (water users) have installed around 100 tube wells (from which 90 are functioning) to extract shallow ground water up to a depth of 40-50 feet (12.2-15.24m) having average discharge of tube well is 0.78 cusees (22 litres/sec). The water quality measured of these tube wells ranges between 371-8,858 PPM (0.58-13.9 dS/m). On average 3 hours/acre/week running of private tube wells contributes 0.5 mm/day to over come the shortage of water, which has resulted in 32% cropping intensity against 38% of design cropping intensity in spite of 41% short of designed supply of surface water. Moreover, the water table depth has gone down to an average depth of about 9.5 feet from the ground surface. Study has suggested that the pumping of these tube wells needs to be optimized to keep to water table depth up to 6 feet so as deterioration of shallow ground water be minimized and land be protected from secondary soil salinization. (author)

  19. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  20. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  1. Optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection in coal-accumulated basin of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 董东林; 石占华; 武雄; 孙卫东; 叶责钧; 李树文; 刘金韬

    2000-01-01

    The conflict among water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection is getting more and more serious due to the irrational drainage and exploitation of ground water resources in coal-accumulated basins of North China. Efficient solutions to the conflict are to maintain long-term dynamic balance between input and output of the ground water basins, and to try to improve resourcification of the mine water. All solutions must guarantee the eco-environment quality. This paper presents a new idea of optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection so as to solve the problem of unstable mine water supply, which is caused by the changeable water drainage for the whole combination system. Both the management of hydraulic techniques and constraints in economy, society, ecology, environment, industrial structural adjustments and sustainable developments have been taken into account. Since the traditional and separate management of different departments of water drainage,

  2. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed

  3. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  4. 30 CFR 77.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.802 Protection... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral... grounded through a suitable resistor at the source transformers, and a grounding circuit, originating at...

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  7. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  8. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  9. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  10. Restoration of intact ground waters and surface waters in the post-mining landscape; Wiederherstellung intakter Grund- und Oberflaechengewaesser nach dem Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Scholz, Guenter; Rabe, Wolfgang; Clauss, Denny [MOVAB-D GmbH, Lauta (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The restoration of the territories of former brown coal mining increasingly requires special efforts for the protection of affected ground waters and surface waters. With newly developed methods (the so-called inlake technology), recently various solutions to neutralize acidic mining lakes could be created. Simultaneously, this improves the water quality of adjacent aquifers at reasonable financial cost.

  11. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ''pump-and-treat'' technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water

  14. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  15. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  16. Resources sustainable management of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation executive interinstitutional of the state of knowledge of the Raigon aquifer in the mark of the Project RLA/8/031 (sustainable Administration of Resources of groundwaters), elaborate of an I diagnose and definition of the necessities with a view to the formulation of the plan of activities of the project to develop. In the development of this work shop they were the following topics: Geology and hidrogeology, numeric modelation of the Aquifer and letter of vulnerability of the Aquifer Raigon. soils, quality and water demand, juridical and institutionals aspects

  17. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  18. Ground rubber: Sorption media for ground water containing benzene and O-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of ground rubber to sorb benzene and O-xylene from water contained with aromatic hydrocarbons. The study consisted of running both batch and packed bed column tests to determine the sorption capacity, the required sorption equilibration time, and the flow through utilization efficiency of ground rubber under various contact times when exposed to water contaminated with various amounts of benzene or O-xylene. Initial batch test results indicate that ground rubber can attain equilibrium sorption capacities up to 1.3 or 8.2 mg of benzene or O-xylene, respectively, per gram of tire rubber at solution equilibrium concentrations of 10 mg/L. Packed bed column tests indicate that ground tire rubber has on the average a 40% utilization rate when a hydraulic residence time of 15 min is used. Possible future uses of round rubber as a sorption media could include, but are not limited to, the use of ground rubber as an aggregate in slurry cutoff walls that are in contact with petroleum products. Ground rubber could also be used as a sorption media in pump-and-treat methodologies or as a sorption media in in-situ reactive permeable barriers

  19. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater-quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective.In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Water-quality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinking water standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county.Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  20. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  1. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  2. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  3. Ground-water hydrology and radioactive waste disposal at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1979-02-01

    This paper is a summary of the hydrologic activities conducted at the Hanford Site as a part of the environmental protection effort. The Site encompasses 1,480 square kilometers in the arid, southeastern part of Washington State. Precipitation averages about 160 millimeters per year with a negligible amount, if any, recharging the water table, which is from 50 to 100 meters below the ground surface. An unconfined aquifer occurs in the upper and middle Ringold Formations. The lower Ringold Formation along with interbed and interflow zones in the Saddle Mountain and Wanapum basalts forms a confined aquifer system. A potential exists for the interconnection of the unconfined and confined aquifer systems, especially near Gable Mountain where the anticlinal ridge was eroded by the catastrophic floods of the ancestral Columbia River system. Liquid wastes from chemical processing operations have resulted in large quantities of processing and cooling water disposed to ground via ponds, cribs, and ditches. The ground-water hydrology program at Hanford is designed: (1) to define and quantify the ground-water flow systems, (2) to evaluate the impact of the liquid waste discharges on these flow systems, and (3) to predict the impact on the ground-water systems of changes in system inputs. This work is conducted through a drilling, sampling, testing, and modeling program

  4. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  5. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Investigate Transient Behaviours and Select Appropriate Fault Protection Solutions of Uni-grounded AC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Minh Bui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient situations of a uni-grounded low-voltage AC microgrid are simulated in this paper, which include different fault tests and operation transition test between the grid-connected and islanded modes of the uni-grounded microgrid. Based on transient simulation results, available fault protection methods are proposed for the main and back-up protection of a uni-grounded AC microgrid. Main contributions of this paper are (i analysing transient responses of a typically uni-grounded lowvoltage AC microgrid from line-to-line, single line-to-ground, three-phase faults and a microgrid operation transition test; and (ii proposing available fault protection methods for uni-grounded AC microgrids, such as non-directional/directional overcurrent protection solutions, under/over voltage protection solutions, differential protection, voltage-restrained overcurrent protection, and other protection principles not based on high fault currents (e.g. total harmonic distortion detection of phase currents and voltages, or protection methods using symmetrical sequence components of current and voltage.

  7. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  8. Emission to air, water and ground: legislation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Dag Horsberg

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses Norwegian legislation on emission to air, water and ground. Pollution in the sense of the law is defined as ''the addition of solid matter, gas or liquid to air, water or ground''. The concept of pollution is, however, more far-reaching as even noise, light and radiation may be regarded as pollution although these are not discussed. Any pollution is prohibited. But there are two exceptions: commonly accepted pollutions such as arising from wood burning and agriculture, and emissions allowed by special permission from the National State Pollution Control Authority. The article also discusses liability issues

  9. Valuation of potential hazards to ground water from abandoned sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerndorff, H.; Schleyer, R.; Dieter, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    With a view to obtaining, for the large number of abandoned sites suspected of pollution, necessary information regarding the type and extent of possible ground water contamination with a minimum of effort and cost, a hierarchical investigation strategy was developed and successfully tested in more than 100 cases in Germany. As a decisive advantage, already the well-defined and simple investigation steps ''preliminary prospecting'' and ''screening'' permit to recognize polluted sites posing a hazard to ground water. The more specific and demanding investigation steps ''pollutant analysis'' and ''detailed investigations'' may be carried through if necessary. (orig./BBR). 27 figs., 36 tabs [de

  10. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  11. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-23

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  12. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  13. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people's health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

  16. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  17. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  18. Time-Of-Travel Tool Protects Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lower Susquehanna Source Water Protection (SWP) Partnership utilizes the Incident Command Tool for Drinking Water Protection (ICWater) to support the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) with real-time spill tracking information.

  19. Ground-water conditions and quality in the western part of Kenai Peninsula, southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The western part of Kenai Peninsula in southcentral Alaska is bounded by Cook Inlet and the Kenai Mountains. Ground water is the predominant source of water for commercial, industrial, and domestic uses on the peninsula. Mean daily water use in an oil, gas, and chemical processing area north of Kenai is more than 3.5 million gallons. Unconsolidated sediments of glacial and fluvial origin are the most productive aquifers. In the upper (northwestern) peninsula, almost all water used is withdrawn from unconsolidated sediments, which may be as thick as 750 feet. In the lower peninsula, unconsolidated sediments are thinner and are absent on many hills. Water supplies in the lower peninsula are obtained from unconsolidated sediments and bedrock, and a public-water supply in parts of Homer is obtained from Bridge Creek. Throughout the peninsula, ground-water flow occurs primarily as localized flow controlled by permeability of aquifer materials and surface topography. The concentration of constituents analyzed in water from 312 wells indicated that the chemical quality of ground water for human consumption varies from marginal to excellent. Even though the median concentration of dissolved solids is low (152 milligrams per liter), much of the ground water on the peninsula does not meet water-quality regulations for public drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). About 8 percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved arsenic that exceeded the USEPA primary maximum contaminant level of 50 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of dissolved arsenic were as great as 94 micrograms per liter. Forty-six percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved iron greater than the USEPA secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter. Unconsolidated sediments generally yield water having calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as its predominant ions. In some areas, ground water at

  20. Aldicarb-pesticide contamination of ground water in eastern Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, Julian; Stelz, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Aldicarb, a toxic oxime-carbamate pesticide that was believed incapable of reaching ground water, was used in potato-farming areas of eastern Suffolk County, New York during 1975-80. In 1979, aldicarb was found in substantial concentrations in ground water throughout the area. The New York State Department of Health set a limit of 7 micrograms per liter for aldicarb in drinking water. Extensive ground-water sampling into 1980 showed widespread contamination ranging from small amounts to as much as 515 micrograms per liter. In 1980, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency banned the use of aldicarb on Long Island at the manufacturer 's request. A 1982 sampling study found aldicarb to have penetrated to about 40 feet below the water table in concentrations ranging from below detection limit to 239 micrograms per liter. Despite reputed toxicity, no instance of aldicarb poisoning on Long Island has been documented. The excessive aldicarb concentrations in the ground water of eastern Long Island may persist for decades; the duration has not been precisely determined and remains under investigation. (USGS)

  1. Hanford ground-water data base management guide and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.; Bradymire, S.L.; Newbill, C.A.

    1985-05-01

    This management guide and user's manual is a working document for the computerized Hanford Ground-water Data Base maintained by the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Ground-Water Surveillance Program. The program is managed by the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department for the US Department of Energy. The data base is maintained to provide rapid access to data that are rountinely collected from ground-water monitoring wells at the Hanford site. The data include water levels, sample analyses, geologic descriptions and well construction information of over 3000 existing or destroyed wells. These data are used to monitor water quality and for the evaluation of ground-water flow and pollutant transport problems. The management guide gives instructions for maintenance of the data base on the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/70 Computer using the CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) data base management software developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Maintenance activities include inserting, modifying and deleting data, making back-up copies of the data base, and generating tables for annual monitoring reports. The user's guide includes instructions for running programs to retrieve the data in the form of listings of graphical plots. 3 refs

  2. Cerenkov radiation simulation in the Auger water ground detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Ngoc; Vo Van Thuan; Dang Quang Thieu

    2003-01-01

    The simulation of response of the Auger water Cerenkov ground detector to atmospheric shower muons in practically needed for the experimental research of cosmic rays at extreme energies. We consider here a simulation model for the process of emission and diffusion of Cerenkov photons concerned with muons moving through the detector volume with the velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in the water on purpose to define photons producing signal in the detector. (author)

  3. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  4. The isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    An intensive hydrological and geophysical survey of fresh water occurance in the Gordonia area, promoted a parallel study of the isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of both the fresh and saline ground waters of the area. Measurements of 14 C, 3 H, 13 C and 18 O as well of major element hydrochemistry were conducted on numerous samples. Radiocarbon concentrations range from 6 pmc to 111 pmc. Significant tritium is only observed in cases where 14 C concentrations are significantly higher than 90 pmc

  5. Legal instruments of the protection from waters (floods and droughts and of the protection of waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes the Serbian law, the laws of several European countries (Germany, France, Austria, Hungary and Croatia and European Union rules in respect of the protection from harmful effects of waters, such as floods, erosion, torrents, icing on the surface of waters, just as well as the rules on diverting of water from a territory where it is in surplus, on the one hand, or directing it from the territory where it is in surplus to the one with water shortage (amelioration, on the other. The subject of analysis is the instruments of water management in the function of protection from high-water, too, such as the long and short term planning of protection from floods, measures necessary to prevent them and elimination of their effects. The maintenance of required water regime is also considered as an instrument of protection from high-water, especially the construction and upkeep of facilities for protection from floods. Facilities for utilization of water resources, such as roads and bridges, should be constructed in accordance with environmental permits, at the level well above the high water level measured in a longer period of time.

  6. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  8. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  9. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  10. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods

  11. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  12. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  14. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  15. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  16. Ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Enid, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, Stuart L.

    1948-01-01

    This memorandum summaries matter discussed at a meeting of the City Commission of Enid, Oklahoma, on Thursday, January 15, 1948, at which the write presented a brief analysis of the ground-water resources available to the City of Enid and answered questions brought up by the commissioners.

  17. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  18. Impressed current cathodic protection of deep water structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.

    that the cathodic protection design approaches for shallow water may not be adequate for deeper water. This paper discusses on environmental factors encountered in deep water and their effect on cathodic protection behaviour of steel. Further, current CP design...

  19. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  20. H. R. 2253 - the Ground Water Research, Development and Demonstration Act, and H. R. 791 - the National Ground Water Contamination Information Act of 1987. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, First Session, July 21, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Until a few years ago, many believed that ground water was naturally protected in some way from manmade sources of contamination; painfully, it has been learned that this is not the case. In 1984 alone, water in some 8000 wells across the country was reported to be unusable or degraded due to ground-water contamination. Threats to ground-water purity come from many sources: from hazardous wastes, septic tanks, road salts during the wintertime, pesticides and fertilizers, sanitary landfills, and oil and gas explorations. Unseen, these toxic chemicals have entered once safe and pure drinking-water supplies. Efforts to protect ground water have been hampered by lack of scientific information about how ground-water contaminants move in ground water, how they change, how long they last. Existing technologies for detecting, monitoring, and mitigating ground-water pollutants are limited and expensive. Little or no information, for example, is available on the potential health effects of many ground-water contaminants. In this hearing, witnesses from the Environmental Protection Agency, the US Geological Survey, and the private sector, familiar with ground-water research needs, testify to provide the subcommittee with information for effective ground-water research legislation.

  1. Modeling decadal timescale interactions between surface water and ground water in the central Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2006-04-01

    Surface-water and ground-water flow are coupled in the central Everglades, although the remoteness of this system has hindered many previous attempts to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water. We modeled flow through a 43,000 ha basin in the central Everglades called Water Conservation Area 2A. The purpose of the model was to quantify recharge and discharge in the basin's vast interior areas. The presence and distribution of tritium in ground water was the principal constraint on the modeling, based on measurements in 25 research wells ranging in depth from 2 to 37 m. In addition to average characteristics of surface-water flow, the model parameters included depth of the layer of 'interactive' ground water that is actively exchanged with surface water, average residence time of interactive ground water, and the associated recharge and discharge fluxes across the wetland ground surface. Results indicated that only a relatively thin (8 m) layer of the 60 m deep surfical aquifer actively exchanges surface water and ground water on a decadal timescale. The calculated storage depth of interactive ground water was 3.1 m after adjustment for the porosity of peat and sandy limestone. Modeling of the tritium data yielded an average residence time of 90 years in interactive ground water, with associated recharge and discharge fluxes equal to 0.01 cm d -1. 3H/ 3He isotopic ratio measurements (which correct for effects of vertical mixing in the aquifer with deeper, tritium-dead water) were available from several wells, and these indicated an average residence time of 25 years, suggesting that residence time was overestimated using tritium measurements alone. Indeed, both residence time and storage depth would be expected to be overestimated due to vertical mixing. The estimate of recharge and discharge (0.01 cm d -1) that resulted from tritium modeling therefore is still considered reliable, because the ratio of residence time and storage depth (used to

  2. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  3. Practical Guidelines for Water Percolation Capacity Determination of the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of water infiltration capacity of ground soils and rocks represents important part of design and construction procedures of the facilities for the infiltration of clean precipitation water. With their help percolation capacity of ground as well as response of the infiltration facilities to the inflowing precipitation water is estimated.Comparing to other in situ hydrogeological tests they can be understood as simple. However, in every day’s practiceseveral problems during their on site application and desk interpretation can arise. Paper represents review of existingpractical engineering procedures during the performance of percolation tests. Procedures are described for the borehole and shaft percolation tests execution and calculation theory for stationary and non‑stationary percolation tests are given. Theory is illustrated with practical exercises. Interpretations of typical departures from theoretical presumptions according to Hvorslev test of non-stationary test are illustrated.

  4. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  5. Radium-226 and radium-228 in shallow ground water, southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total radium (the sum of radium-226 and radium-228) and gross alpha-particle activities in drinking water that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) are known to cause cancer. Results of investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) indicate that concentrations of total radium in water samples from 33 percent of 170 wells in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in southern New Jersey exceeded the MCL of 5 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) (fig. 1). Wells containing water in which concentrations of total radium were greater than the MCL typically are found where the Bridgeton Formation crops out, in or near an agricultural area, where ground water is acidic (pH less than 5), and where nitrate concentrations generally exceed 5 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Leaching of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium from agricultural chemicals (fertilizer, lime) applied to cropland may increase the mobility of radium in ground water. Gross alphaparticle activities exceeded the USEPA MCL of 15 pCi/L in water from 14 percent of 127 wells. A statistically significant 2:1 ratio between gross alpha-particle activity and concentration of total radium indicates that gross alpha-particle activity can be used as a screening tool to predict the presence of water that may have a high total-radium concentration.

  6. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  7. Plutonium radionuclides in the ground waters at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Marsh, K.; Eagle, R.; Holladay, G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1974 a groundwater program was initiated at Eniwetok Atoll to study systematically the hydrology and the ground water geochemistry on selected islands of the Atoll. The program provides chemical and radiochemical data for assessment of water quality on those islands designated for rehabilitation. These and other data are used to interpret the mechanisms by which radionuclides are cycled in the soil-groundwater system. Because of the international concern over the long-term buildup, availability, and transport of plutonium in the environment, this program emphasizes analysis of the element. The results of the study show that on all islands sampled, small quantities of plutonium radionuclides have migrated through the soil columns and are redistributed throughout the groundwater reservoirs. The observed maximum surface concentrations are less than 0.02 percent of the maximal recommended concentration for drinking water. Concentrations of 137 Cs are found to correlate with water freshness, but those of 239 , 240 Pu show no such relationship. The mechanisms moving 239 , 240 Pu through the ground water reservoirs are independent of the processes controlling the cycling of 137 Cs and fresh water. A reasonable linear correlation is found between mean surface-water concentrations and soil burdens. This indicates that the quantities of 239 , 240 Pu migrating to the groundwater surface layers are, to a first approximation, independent of the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the islands. (auth)

  8. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management.

  9. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management

  10. Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

  11. Cathodic Protection for Above Ground Storage Tank Bottom Using Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Abbood Issa Al Haboubi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impressed current cathodic protection controlled by computer gives the ideal solution to the changes in environmental factors and long term coating degradation. The protection potential distribution achieved and the current demand on the anode can be regulated to protection criteria, to achieve the effective protection for the system. In this paper, cathodic protection problem of above ground steel storage tank was investigated by an impressed current of cathodic protection with controlled potential of electrical system to manage the variation in soil resistivity. Corrosion controller has been implemented for above ground tank in LabView where tank's bottom potential to soil was manipulated to the desired set point (protection criterion 850 mV. National Instruments Data Acquisition (NI-DAQ and PC controllers for tank corrosion control system provides quick response to achieve steady state condition for any kind of disturbances.

  12. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of glacial-drift aquifers, Leech Lake Indian Reservation, north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Among the duties of the water managers of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation in north-central Minnesota are the development and protection of the water resources of the Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Leech Lake Indian Reservation Business Committee, conducted a three and one half-year study (1988-91) of the ground-water resources of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation. The objectives of this study were to describe the availability and quality of ground water contained in glacial-drift aquifers underlying the Reservation.

  13. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  14. Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-10-01

    In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

  15. Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelmann, S.; Buenger, T.; Fusban, H.U.; Ruehle, H.; Viertel, H.; Gans, I.

    1991-01-01

    This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs [de

  16. Ground water chemistry and water-rock interaction at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Front, K.

    1992-02-01

    Bedrock investigations for the final repository for low- and intermediate level wastes (VLJ repository) generated at the Olkiluoto (TVO-I and TVO-II) nuclear power plant, stareted in 1980. Since 1988 the area has been investigated for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the report the geochemistry at the nuclear waste investigation site, Olkiluoto, is evaluated. The hydrogeological data are collected from boreholes drilled down to 1000-m depth into Proterozoic crystalline bedrock. The interpretation is based on groundwater chemistry and isotope data, mineralogical data, and the structure and hydrology of the bedrock, using correlation diagrams and thermodynamic calculations (PHREEQE). The hydrogeochemistry and major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are discussed. The groundwater types are characterized by water-rock interaction but they also show features of other origins. The fresh and brackish waters are contaminated by varying amounts of young meteoric water and brackish seawater. The saline water contains residues of possibly ancient hydrothermal waters, imprints of which are occasionally seen in the rock itself. Different mixing phenomenas are indicated by the isotope contents (O-l8/H-2, H-3) and the Ca/Cl, Na/Cl, HCO 3 /Cl, SO 4 /Cl, Br/Cl, SI(calcite)/SI(dolomite) ratios. The interaction between bedrock and groundwater is reflected by the behaviour of pH, Eh, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, HCO 3 and S0 4 . Dissolution and precipitation of calcite and pyrite, and aluminosilicate hydrolysis play the major role in defining the groundwater composition of the above components

  17. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Drinking water protection plan; a discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This draft document outlines the plan of action devised by the Government of British Columbia in an effort to safeguard the purity of the drinking water supply in the province, and invites British Columbians to participate in the elaboration of such a plan. This document concentrates on the assessment of the sources of the water supply (watersheds and aquifers) and on measures to ensure the integrity of the system of water treatment and distribution as the principal components of a comprehensive plan to protect drinking water. The proposed plan involves a multi-barrier approach that will use a combination of measures to ensure that water sources are properly managed and waterworks systems provide safe drinking water. New drinking water planning procedures, more effective local influence and authority, enforceable standards, better access to information and public education programs form the essence of the plan. A series of public meetings are scheduled to provide the public at large with opportunities to comment on the government's plan of action and to offer suggestions for additional measures

  19. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  20. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-04

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (52 FR 36000 (1987)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, 42 USC {section}7901 et seq., the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. The following site characterization activities are discussed in this attachment: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment, including hydrostratigraphy, ground water occurrence, aquifer parameters, and areas of recharge and discharge. Characterization of existing ground water quality by comparison with background water quality and the maximum concentration limits (MCL) of the proposed EPA ground water protection standards. Definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source, including concentration and leachability of the source in relation to migration in ground water and hydraulically connected surface water. Description of local water resources, including current and future use, availability, and alternative supplies.

  1. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  2. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  5. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  6. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The EPA standards allow the use of different strategies for achieving compliance with the standards. This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. Each of the four alternatives evaluated in the PEIS is based on a different mix of strategies to meet EPA ground water standards. The PEIS is intended to serve as a programmatic planning document that provides an objective basis for determining site-specific ground water compliance strategies and data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impact analyses more efficiently. DOE will prepare appropriate further National Environmental Policy Act documentation before making site-specific decisions to implement the Ground Water Project. Affected States, Tribes, local government agencies, and members of the public have been involved in the process of preparing this PEIS; DOE encourages their continued participation in the site-specific decision making process

  7. A dual model approach to ground water recovery trench design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.L.; Crouch, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design of trenches for contaminated ground water recovery must consider several variables. This paper presents a dual-model approach for effectively recovering contaminated ground water migrating toward a trench by advection. The approach involves an analytical model to determine the vertical influence of the trench and a numerical flow model to determine the capture zone within the trench and the surrounding aquifer. The analytical model is utilized by varying trench dimensions and head values to design a trench which meets the remediation criteria. The numerical flow model is utilized to select the type of backfill and location of sumps within the trench. The dual-model approach can be used to design a recovery trench which effectively captures advective migration of contaminants in the vertical and horizontal planes

  8. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  9. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  10. Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bolado, O. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bollen, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Edds, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Hejdak, W. J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Houseman, D. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Klein, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Maibach, P. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nicolai, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Pasupulati, S. V. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Saylors, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Siebert, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2009-01-01

    Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and applying surge arresters to wind plant medium voltage collector systems, with emphasis on the peculiar properties of this application.

  11. Ground-water development and problems in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1954-01-01

    The development of groundwater for irrigation in Idaho, as most of you know, has proceeded at phenomenal rate since the Second World War. In the period 1907 to 1944 inclusive only about 328 valid permits and licenses to appropriate ground water were issued by the state. thereafter 28 permits became valid in 1945, 83 in 1946, and 121 in 1947. Sine 1947 permits and licenses have been issued at the rate of more than 400 a year.  

  12. Purification of arsenic contaminated ground water using hydrated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, N.; Swain, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed for the separation of arsenic from ground water using inorganic material in neutral medium. The separation procedure involves the quantitative retention of arsenic on hydrated manganese dioxide, in neutral medium. The validity of the separation procedure has been checked by a standard addition method and radiotracer studies. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), a powerful measurement technique, has been used for the quantitative determination of arsenic. (author)

  13. A contribution on the problem of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliox, L.; Muntzer, P.; Kresser, W.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present the underlying physics of processes relevant to the problem of ground water pollution. A series of models are discussed which include two-dimensional diffusion from a point source of pollution in a uniform homogeneous medium and the modifying effect of inhomogeneities, together with displacement processes for miscible liquids in saturated porous media. In conclusion an account of laboratory and theoretical investigations of these diffusion processes in layered media of different permeabilities is given. (J.R.B.)

  14. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  15. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  16. Blindagem eletromagnética, aterramento e proteção contra surtos de tensão em equipamentos para monitoramento automático do teor de água no solo Electromagnetic shielding, grounding and protection against voltage surges in equipments for automatic soil-water measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. A. Teixeira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi implementar um sistema de blindagem eletromagnética, aterramento e proteção contra surtos de tensão na instalação de instrumental para o monitoramento automático do teor de água no solo. O experimento foi instalado em Piracicaba, São Paulo, em que os equipamentos utilizados foram um testador de cabos marca Tektronix, que opera pelo princípio da reflectometria no domínio do tempo e um sistema de aquisição de dados marca Campbell Scientific Inc. (CSI, que controla e analisa as formas de onda produzidas pelo testador de cabos. A umidade volumétrica foi obtida indiretamente por meio de sensores inseridos no solo, os quais medem a constante dielétrica do mesmo. Utilizaram-se tubos galvanizados para a blindagem eletromagnética dos cabos e hastes "cooperweld", cordoalha de cobre e terminais bimetálicos para o sistema de aterramento. Para o sistema de proteção eletroeletrônica, utilizaram-se um disjuntor para a separação do circuito de alimentação, protetor de surtos, "no-breaks" e medidor de resistência de terra. Face aos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o sistema proposto, ao utilizar material geralmente preexistente em locais de pesquisa agropecuária, apresentou uma proteção eficaz.The objective of this paper was to implement an electromagnetic shielding, grounding and voltage surge protection in equipments for automatic soil water monitoring. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, using a Tektronix Cable Tester (Model 1502 B that operates by time domain reflectometry (TDR and a datalogger (CR10X, Campbell Scientific Inc., CSI to control and analyze the waveforms produced by the cable tester. The water content was indirectly obtained by measuring the dielectric constant through probes inserted in the soil. For electromagnetic shielding the energy and signal cables were inserted in galvanized pipes, linked together by means of copper wire fixed in

  17. Time-dependent protection of ground and polished Cu using graphene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Liu, Qingqing; Zhou, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene was deposited on polished and ground Cu sheets by CVD. • Graphene films provide better protection to polished Cu for short time. • Multilayer graphene films provide better protection for short time. - Abstract: Graphene was deposited on Cu sheets with different morphologies by chemical vapor deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the morphology of the Cu sheet affected the graphene film properties. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that the graphene film did not effectively protect Cu against corrosion because of prolonged exposure to ionic environments (3.5 wt.% NaCl solution). For short durations, graphene films provided better protection to polished Cu than ground Cu. Prolonged electrolyte immersion of graphene-coated Cu samples showed that the graphene film from the polished Cu surface was detached more easily than that from ground Cu

  18. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater

  19. Some physico-chemical characteristics of ground water in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicated different levels of pollution in groundwater of Rwanda. A detailed study looking at different plausible pollution sources should be conducted in order to validate the results and advice on environmental protection of this precious source of drinking water. Key words: groundwater, heavy metals, pollution ...

  20. Application of isotopic techniques for study of ground water from karstic areas. 1. Origin of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia

    2000-01-01

    Environmental stable isotope method was used for study of ground water from karst of NE Dobrogea. Study area is in the vicinity of Danube Delta (declared in 1990 by UNESCO the Reserve of Biosphere) and presents scientific and ecological interest. Measurements of deuterium content of ground water show that waters are meteoric in origin, but at the same time the results showed that the water from two sampling points could not originate from local ground water and have their recharge area at high altitude and a considerable distance. According to the δD values the following categories of waters were established: - waters depleted in deuterium (δD 0 / 00 ) relative to δD values of surface and ground water in the geographic area from which they were collected. They represent most probably the intrusion of isotopically light water from high altitude sites (higher than 1000 m) through network of highly permeable karst channels. The discharge of this component of aquifer occurs both by conduct flow and by diffuse flow; - Waters tributaries to the Danube River (δD > -75 0 / 00 ) that have a small time variability of δD values; - Local infiltration waters, situated in the West side of the investigated area towards the continental platform of the Dobrogea (δD > -70 0 / 00 ). They present high time variability of δD values, due to distinct seasonal effects; - Waters originated in mixing processes between the waters with different isotopic content. The endmember one is heavier isotopic water that belongs to local recharged waters (local infiltration waters and waters tributary to Danube river) while the other endmember is the isotopically light water. (authors)

  1. Ground-water resources of the Alma area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlier, Kenneth E.

    1963-01-01

    The Alma area consists of 30 square miles in the northwestern part of Gratiot County, Mich. It is an area of slight relief gently rolling hills and level plains and is an important agricultural center in the State.The Saginaw formation, which forms the bedrock surface in part of the area, is of relatively low permeability and yields water containing objectionable amounts of chloride. Formations below the Saginaw are tapped for brine in and near the Alma area.The consolidated rocks of the Alma area are mantled by Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are as much as 550 feet thick where preglacial valleys were eroded into the bedrock. The glacial deposits consist of till, glacial-lake deposits, and outwash. Till deposits are at the surface along the south-trending moraines that cross the area, and they underlie other types of glacial deposits at depth throughout the area. The till deposits are of low permeability and are not a source of water to wells, though locally they include small lenses of permeable sand and gravel.In the western part of the area, including much of the city of Alma, the glacial-lake deposits consist primarily of sand and are a source of small supplies of water. In the northeastern part of the area the lake deposits are predominantly clayey and of low permeability.Sand and gravel outwash yields moderate and large supplies of water within the area. Outwash is present at the surface along the West Branch of the Pine River. A more extensive deposit of outwash buried by the lake deposits is the source of most of the ground water pumped at Alma. The presence of an additional deposit of buried outwash west and southwest of the city is inferred from the glacial history of the area. Additional water supplies that may be developed from these deposits are probably adequate for anticipated population and industrial growth.Water levels have declined generally in the vicinity of the city of Alma since 1920 in response to pumping for municipal and industrial

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  4. Analysis and Improvement of Adaptive Coefficient Third Harmonic Voltage Differential Stator Grounding Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel third harmonic voltage differential stator grounding protection (THV-DSGP method combining the adaptive coefficient and fixed coefficient. It can solve the protection sensitivity degradation problem when the insulation resistance of stator winding to ground is slowly declining. This protection method retains the advantages of the adaptive coefficient, which is to maintain high sensitivity in case of an instantaneous ground fault. Moreover, the fixed coefficient can remember the initial insulation state of the stator winding and prevent relay failure when the stator insulation is slowly declining. In addition, due to zero-sequence voltage disconnection (ZSVD often leading to malfunctioning of the THV stator ground protection, the existing criterion of the ZSVD was improved according to the electrical characteristics of the generator when ZSVD happens. THV-DSGP with both adaptive coefficient and fixed coefficient was simulated in the Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the proposed protection can be applied to the slow ground fault of the stator winding. Furthermore, the improved criterion of ZSVD can effectively distinguish the stator metal earth fault and the secondary loop break of the zero-sequence voltage.

  5. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  6. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Kamiyama, Hideo

    1991-07-01

    Radionuclides migration in ground surface water flow is considered to be one of the important path way in the scenario for environmental migration of radionuclides leaked from low level radioactive waste repository. Simulating the slightly sloped surface on which contaminated solution is flowing downward, testing for radionuclide migration on ground surface had been started. As it's first step, an experiment was carried out under the condition of restricted infiltration in order to elucidate the adsorption behavior of radionuclides onto the loamy soil surface in related with hydraulic conditions. Radionuclides concentration change in effluent solution with time and a concentration distribution of radionuclides adsorbed on the ground surface were obtained from several experimental conditions combining the rate and the duration time of the water flow. The radionuclides concentration in the effluent solution was nearly constant during each experimental period, and was reduced under the condition of lower flow rate. The surface distribution of radionuclides concentration showed two distinctive regions. The one was near the inlet vessel where the concentration was promptly reducing, and the other was following the former where the concentration was nearly constant. The characteristic surface distribution of radionuclides concentration can be explained by a two dimensional diffusion model with a first order adsorption reaction, based on the advection of flow rate distribution in perpendicular direction. (author)

  7. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements

  8. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  9. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  15. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic problem consists of a liner flexible structure situated at or near the surface of a soil half-space. In keeping with typical small strain seismic analyses, the soil skeleton is represented as a linear medium in which all potential nonlinearities are at most lumped together into an equivalent hysteretic damping modulus. In addition, the ground water level is located at some depth relatively close to the structure, and in a position to impact on the seismic response of the facility. In order to estimate the response of this oil-water system, the two-phased medium formulation of Biot was used to treat the response of the solids and water as two separate linear media, coupled together through soil permeability and volume effects. (orig./HP)

  16. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  17. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  18. Coastal ground water at risk - Saltwater contamination at Brunswick, Georgia and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.; Clarke, John S.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionSaltwater contamination is restricting the development of ground-water supply in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The principal source of water in the coastal area is the Upper Floridan aquifer—an extremely permeable and high-yielding aquifer—which was first developed in the late 1800s. Pumping from the aquifer has resulted in substantial ground-water-level decline and subsequent saltwater intrusion of the aquifer from underlying strata containing highly saline water at Brunswick, Georgia, and with encroachment of sea-water into the aquifer at the northern end of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The saltwater contamination at these locations has constrained further development of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the coastal area and has created competing demands for the limited supply of freshwater. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) has restricted permitted withdrawal of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in parts of the coastal area (including the Savannah and Brunswick areas) to 1997 rates, and also has restricted additional permitted pumpage in all 24 coastal area counties to 36 million gallons per day above 1997 rates. These actions have prompted interest in alternative management of the aquifer and in the development of supplemental sources of water supply including those from the shallower surficial and upper and lower Brunswick aquifers and from the deeper Lower Floridan aquifer.

  19. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  20. Sixth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Outdoor Action Conference was comprised of three days of technical presentations, workshops, demonstrations, and an exhibition. The sessions were devoted to the following topics: Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Sampling Technology; Soil and Ground Water Remediation; and Surface and Borehole Geophysics. The meeting was sponsored by the National Ground Water Association. These papers were published exactly as submitted, without technical and grammatical editing or peer review

  1. Quality of surface water and ground water in the proposed artificial-recharge project area, Rillito Creek basin, Tucson, Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid

    1995-01-01

    Controlled artificial recharge of surface runoff is being considered as a water-management technique to address the problem of ground-water overdraft. The planned use of recharge facilities in urban areas has caused concern about the quality of urban runoff to be recharged and the potential for ground-water contamination. The proposed recharge facility in Rillito Creek will utilize runoff entering a 1-mile reach of the Rillito Creek between Craycroft Road and Swan Road for infiltration and recharge purposes within the channel and excavated overbank areas. Physical and chemical data were collected from two surface-water and two ground-water sites in the study area in 1994. Analyses of surface-water samples were done to determine the occurrence and concentration of potential contaminants and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected during 1987-93. Analyses of ground-water samples were done to determine the variability of ground-water quality at the monitoring wells throughout the year and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected in 1989 and 1993. Surface-water samples were collected from Tanque Verde Creek at Sabino Canyon Road (streamflow-gaging station Tanque Verde Creek at Tucson, 09484500) and from Alamo Wash at Fort Lowell Road in September and May 1994, respectively. Ground-water samples were collected from monitoring wells (D- 13-14)26cbb2 and (D-13-14)26dcb2 in January, May, July, and October 1994. In surface water, calcium was the dominant cation, and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. In ground water, calcium and sodium were the dominant cations and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. Surface water in the area is soft, and ground water is moderately hard to hard. In surface water and ground water, nitrogen was found predominantly as nitrate. Concentrations of manganese in ground-water samples ranged from 60 to 230 micrograms per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant

  2. Ground-fault protection of insulated high-voltage power networks in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudelko, H

    1976-09-01

    Safety of power networks is discussed in underground black coal mines in Poland. Safety in mines with a long service life was compared with safety in mines constructed since 1950. Power networks and systems protecting against electric ground-faults in the 2 mine groups are comparatively evaluated. Systems for protection against electric ground-faults in mine high-voltage networks with an insulated star point of the transformer are characterized. Fluctuations of resistance of electrical insulation under conditions of changing load are analyzed. The results of analyses are given in 14 diagrams. Recommendations for design of systems protecting against electric ground-faults in 6 kV mine power systems are made. 7 references.

  3. Isotopic discontinuities in ground water beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckless, J.S.; Whelan, J.F.; Steinkampf, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical data for stable isotopes in ground water from beneath Yucca Mountain, when examined in map view, show areal patterns of heterogeneity that can be interpreted in terms of mixing of at least three end members. One end member must be isotopically heavy in terms of hydrogen and oxygen and have a young apparent 14 C age such as water found at the north end of Yucca Mountain beneath Fortymile Wash. A second end member must contain isotopically heavy carbon and have an old apparent 14 C age such as water from the Paleozoic aquifer. The third end member cannot be tightly defined. It must be isotopically lighter than the first with respect of hydrogen and oxygen and be intermediate to the first and second end members with respect to both apparent 14 C age and δ 13 C. The variable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that two of the end members are waters, but the variable carbon isotopic composition could represent either a third water end member or reaction of water with a carbon-bearing solids such as calcite. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Risk-based decision analysis of atmospheric emission alternatives to reduce ground water degradation on the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wladis, D.; Rosen, L.; Kros, H.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental degradation due to emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrate oxides, and ammonia from diffuse sources amounts to substantial costs to society and so do the alternatives to protect and restore the environment. Damage to ground water includes acidification, aluminum leaching, elevated

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site's contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  7. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has not been affected by leakage from a regulated unit; (i) A determination of background ground-water...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... elevation each time ground water is sampled. (g) In detection monitoring or where appropriate in compliance...

  8. Simplified estimation technique for organic contaminant transport in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1984-05-01

    The analytical solution for one-dimensional dispersive-advective transport of a single solute in a saturated soil accompanied by adsorption onto soil surfaces and first-order reaction rate kinetics for degradation can be used to evaluate the suitability of potential sites for burial of organic chemicals. The technique can be used to the greatest advantage with organic chemicals that are present in ground waters in small amounts. The steady-state solution provides a rapid method for chemical landfill site evaluation because it contains the important variables that describe interactions between hydrodynamics and chemical transformation. With this solution, solute concentration, at a specified distance from the landfill site, is a function of the initial concentration and two dimensionless groups. In the first group, the relative weights of advective and dispersive variables are compared, and in the second group the relative weights of hydrodynamic and degradation variables are compared. The ratio of hydrodynamic to degradation variables can be rearranged and written as (a/sub L lambda)/(q/epsilon), where a/sub L/ is the dispersivity of the soil, lambda is the reaction rate constant, q is ground water flow velocity, and epsilon is the soil porosity. When this term has a value less than 0.01, the degradation process is occurring at such a slow rate relative to the hydrodynamics that it can be neglected. Under these conditions the site is unsuitable because the chemicals are unreactive, and concentrations in ground waters will change very slowly with distance away from the landfill site.

  9. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Ehrnsten, U.; Saario, T.

    1996-05-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  10. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibla, O.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO 3 ''-''-), nitrite (No 2 ''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO 4 ''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO 3 ''-''-,HCO 3 ''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from physical and chemical

  11. Electrochemistry of lead in simulated ground water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, E.A.; Devereux, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    Lead and lead alloys are used commonly as moisture barriers for underground cables. Lead exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in a variety of environments, but areas of localized attack have been found. These can result in able failures. The susceptibility of lead to pitting in several simulated ground water (SGW) environments was assessed using cyclic potentiodynamic pitting scans (PPS) and microscopy. Although general corrosion was observed, PPS demonstrated pitting did not occur in the same sense as in alloys known to be susceptible to pitting (i.e., very localized pit formation without general corrosion). However, areas of nonuniform general attack did occur, resulting in pitted surface morphologies

  12. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibla, O A.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Graduate Studies, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-01-15

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO{sub 3}''-''-), nitrite (No{sub 2}''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO{sub 4}''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO{sub 3}''-''-,HCO{sub 3}''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from

  13. Monitoring methods and prediction of ground waters quality changes in the interaction region of Mine and Power Plant 'Belchatow'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltyk, W.; Owczarczyk, A.; Walendziak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Polish law regulations regarding the environmental waters (surface and ground) monitoring have been cited in the report. Also basic analytical methods for water quality control, commonly used in hydrogeology, and environment protection, have been described. All the presented methods have been used for investigations of the influence of Lignite Strip Mine 'Belchatow' on river water quality in the upper Warta basin, which are the main receivers of waters from the strip drainage system. The main physico-chemical features as well as micro and macro components and environmental isotope concentrations were measured in the surface and ground waters in the hypothetical strip interaction region. It has been found that the outfall of mine pumped waters to the Widawka river do not spoil water quality, which preserves the first class of purity in the course between Ruszczyn up to the Warta river. The forecast of the salinity increase for ground waters pumped by the protection barrier of salt deposit Debina have been worked out for water table altitude +50.0 m below the sea level (state in December 2000). The range of the wet ash deposit interaction on water quality pumped by the 'Belchatow' Mine drainage system have been determined and evaluated. (author)

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  16. Wildland Fire Research: Water Supply and Ecosystem Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is critical to better understand how fires affect water quality and supply and the overall health of an ecosystem. This information can be used to protect the safety of drinking water and assess the vulnerability of water supplies.

  17. Hydrology and water law: what is their future common ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Arthur M.; Thomas, Harold E.

    1957-01-01

    We live in an age of social and economic evolution--evolution so deep reaching and rapid it constitutes ad revolution in numerous fields of human concern. Long-standing concepts of what is appropriate and orderly face drastic modification if they are to survive. To this situation the principles of applied hydrology and the tenets of water law are no exceptions. Their common ground, incomplete in the past, becomes tenuous when projected into the future. To hydrologists it is common knowledge that the Nation has some trouble spots tin water supply, occasioned by burgeoning population, by standards of living that seem luxurious to other peoples if not to us, and by tremendously dynamic industry whose voracious thirst for water seems insatiable. Seldom is the "trouble" a mere lack of water in a quantity sufficient to serve all real needs; rather, water usually is available only part of the time, at greater-than-customary cost, or under competition among several potential uses. We can expect only that such spots will increase in number and in geographic reach.

  18. Karst aquifer in Galichica and possibilities for water supply to Ohrid with ground -water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchovski, Vojo; Kekich, Aleksandar; Spasovski, Orce; Mirchovski, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    In this paper are presented some hydrogeological features of the karst aquifer in Mt Galichica, which contains important quantities of ground-water that can to used for the water supply of the town Ohrid. Based on the hydrogeological data are given three solutions that be can to used for water supply of Ohrid, the first one is to drill of deep wells, combination of deep and shallow wells, as well as construction of horizontal galleries.

  19. Salt water and its relation to fresh ground water in Harris County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Allen G.; Doyel, William Watson; Wood, L.A.

    1957-01-01

    Harris County, in the West Gulf Coastal Plain in southeastern Texas, has one of the heaviest concentrations of ground-water withdrawal in the United States. Large quantities of water are pumped to meet the requirements of the rapidly growing population, for industry, and for rice irrigation. The water is pumped from artesian wells which tap a thick series of sands ranging in age from Miocene (?) to Pleistocene.

  20. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent

  1. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J

    1986-04-01

    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  2. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  3. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  4. Ground-water resources of the El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Albert Nelson; Livingston, Penn Poore

    1945-01-01

    El Paso, Tex., and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and the industries in -that area draw their water supplies from wells, most of which are from 600 to 800 feet deep. In 1906, the estimated average pumpage there was about 1,000,000 gallons a day, and by 1935 it had increased to 15,400,000 gallons a day. The water-bearing beds, consisting of sand and gravel interbedded wire clay, tie in the deep structural trough known as the Hueco bolson, between the Organ and Franklin Mountains on the west, the Hueco, Finlay, and Malone Mountains on the east, the Tularosa Basin on the north, and the mountain ranges of Mexico on the south. From the gorge above El Paso to that beginning near Fort Quitman, about 90 miles southeast .of El Paso, the Rio Grande has eroded a flat-bottomed, steepwalled valley, 6 to 8 miles wide and 225 to 350 feet deep. No other large drainage channels have been developed on the bolson. The valley is known as the El Paso Valley, and the uneroded upland part of the bolson is called the Mesa. In the lowest parts of the El Paso Valley, the water-table is nearly at the surface. The quality of the underground water in the valley varies greatly both vertically and laterally. To a depth of about 400 to 500 feet it is in general too highly mineralized for municipal use, but between about. 500 and 900 feet good water may be obtained from several beds. In the beds between 500 and 900 feet the water level in wells is in places as. much as 20 feet lower than that in the shallow beds. Beneath the Mesa the water level .varies from about 200 feet beneath the surface, where the ground elevation is least, to about 400 feet. where it is highest. The water beneath the Mesa in general is of satisfactory quality and contains less than 500 parts per million of dissolved solids. Two cones of depression in the water table have been formed by the pumping near El Paso--one m the vicinity of the Mesa well field, the other around the Montana well field in the valley. The water

  5. Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Dhamar City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefdallah Al Aizari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on groundwater at five fields (17 sampling wells located in Dhamar city, the central highlands of Yemen, was carried out. Samples were collected from the ground water supplies (tube wells during the year 2015. Physical parameters studied include (values between bracket s represents the measured mean values temperature (T, 25°, total dissolved solids (TDS, 271.47, pH (7.5, and electrical conductivity (EC, 424.18. The chemical parameters investigated include total hardness (TH, 127.45, calcium (Ca2+, 32.89, magnesium (Mg2+, 11.03, bicarbonate (HCO3̶, 143.84, sulphate (SO42-, 143.84, sodium (Na+, 35.11, potassium (K+, 6.28 and Chloride (Cl ̵, 22.69. The results were compared with drinking water quality standards issued by Yemen standards for drinking water. Except for T° and pH, all other measured parameters fall below the minimum permissible limits. The correlation between various physio-chemical parameters of the studied water wells was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. The obtained results show that all water samples are potable and can be safely used for both drinking and irrigation purposes. This comes in agreement with the public notion about groundwater of Dhamar Governorate. Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR values were calculated and found below 3 except for one drill. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 56-71

  6. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    largest in the alluvial system (median = 5 mg/L) and smallest in the surface-water system (median = 1 mg/L). Most nitrate concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking water of 10 mg/L as nitrogen were adjacent to irrigated fields and in areas where alluvial sediments are less than 50 ft thick. Sources of nitrogen in the ground water of the study area included naturally occurring nitrogen, commercial fertilizer, and animal waste. Based on nitrate concentration and delta nitrogen-15, the nitrogen in 65 percent of the water samples appears to have originated from a mixture of commercial fertilizers and animal waste. Some of the smallest nitrate concentrations in the ground-water samples contained some of the largest delta nitrogen-15 values (greater than 10 per mil), which suggests animal waste as the likely source. Commercial fertilizers were the likely source of most of the nitrogen in water samples with nitrate concentrations that exceeded 10 mg/L. The source of the nitrogen in water samples with nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L, but with delta nitrogen-15 values close to 10 per mil, could not be determined.

  7. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  9. The impact of changing climate on surface and ground water quality in southeast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribak, Kamal

    2015-04-01

    In the current changing climate globally, Ireland have been experiencing a yearly recurrent extreme heavy rainfall events in the last decade, with damaging visible effects socially, economically and on the environment. Ireland intensive agriculture production is a major treat to the aquatic environment, Nitrogen and phosphorus losses to the water courses are major causes to eutrophication. The European Water Frame Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) sets a number of measures to better protect and improve water status. Five years of high temporal resolution river water quality data measurement from two contrasting catchment in the southeast of Ireland were correlated with rain fall and nutrients losses to the ground and surface water, additional to the integrated Southeast River District Basin ground and surface water quality to establish spatiotemporal connection to the agriculture activities, the first well-drained soil catchment had high coefficient correlation with rain fall with higher losses to groundwater, on the other hand higher nutrients losses to surface water were higher with less influence from groundwater recharge of N and P transfer, the poorly clay base soil contributed to higher increased losses to surface water during excessive rain fall. Agriculture activities, hydrology, geology and human interaction can interact according to their site specific setting and the effects will fluctuate dependent on the conditions influencing the impact on water quality, there is a requirement to better distinguish those effects together and identify areas and land uses control and nutrients management to improve the water quality, stakeholders co-operation along with effective polices, long term monitoring, nutrients pathways management and better understanding of the environmental factors interaction on national, regional and catchment scale to enable planning policies and enforcement measures to be more focused on areas of high risk

  10. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.

  11. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data

  13. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  14. Impact of anthropogenic development on coastal ground-water hydrology in southeastern Florida, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Robert A.; Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John A.; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A.C.; Marella, Richard L.; Telis, Pamela A.; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    agricultural industry by urban growth. Present-day agricultural supplies are obtained largely from surface-water sources in Palm Beach County and ground-water sources in Miami-Dade County, whereas Broward County agricultural growers have been largely displaced. The construction of a complex canal drainage system and large well fields has substantially altered the surface- and ground-water hydrologic systems. The drainage system constructed between 1910 and 1928 mostly failed to transport flood flows, however, and exacerbated periods of low rainfall and drought by overdraining the surficial aquifer system. Following completion of the 1930s Hoover Dike levee system that was designed to reduce Lake Okeechobee flood flows, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project initiated the restructure of the existing conveyance system in 1948 through canal expansion, construction of protective levees and control structures, and greater management of ground-water levels in the surficial aquifer system. Gated canal control structures discharge excess surface water during the wet season and remain closed during the dry season to induce recharge by canal seepage and well withdrawals. Management of surface water through canal systems has successfully maintained lower ground-water levels inland to curb urban and agricultural flooding, and has been used to increase ground-water levels near the coast to impede saltwater intrusion. Coastal discharge, however, appears to have declined, due in part to water being rerouted to secondary canals, and to induced recharge to the surficial aquifer system by large municipal withdrawals. Southeastern Florida is underlain by Holocene- to Tertiary-age karstic limestone deposits that form (in descending order): a highly prolific surficial aquifer system, a poorly permeable intermediate confining system, and a permeable Floridan aquifer system. Prior to construction of a complex drainage netwo

  15. Pressure resistance of cold-shocked Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef gravy and peptone water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus-Taylor, G S H; Falloon, O C; Henry, N

    2015-06-01

    (i) To study the effects of cold shock on Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells. (ii) To determine if cold-shocked E. coli O157:H7 cells at stationary and exponential phases are more pressure-resistant than their non-cold-shocked counterparts. (iii) To investigate the baro-protective role of growth media (0·1% peptone water, beef gravy and ground beef). Quantitative estimates of lethality and sublethal injury were made using the differential plating method. There were no significant differences (P > 0·05) in the number of cells killed; cold-shocked or non-cold-shocked. Cells grown in ground beef (stationary and exponential phases) experienced lowest death compared with peptone water and beef gravy. Cold-shock treatment increased the sublethal injury to cells cultured in peptone water (stationary and exponential phases) and ground beef (exponential phase), but decreased the sublethal injury to cells in beef gravy (stationary phase). Cold shock did not confer greater resistance to stationary or exponential phase cells pressurized in peptone water, beef gravy or ground beef. Ground beef had the greatest baro-protective effect. Real food systems should be used in establishing food safety parameters for high-pressure treatments; micro-organisms are less resistant in model food systems, the use of which may underestimate the organisms' resistance. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks or replicates, or samples for matrix spikes) were collected from approximately 26 percent of the wells, and the analyses of these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control results showed that the quality of the environmental data was good, with low bias and low variability, and as a result, less than 0.1 percent of the analytes detected in ground-water samples were censored. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is delivered (or, supplied) to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were reported at concentrations below their established health-based thresholds. VOCs, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds were detected in about 33 percent or less of the 42 SCRV grid wells. Concentrations of all detected organic constituents were below established health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected in approximately 12 percent of the SCRV grid wells; all concentrations reported were below the NL-CA threshold. Additional constituents, including major ions, trace elements, and nutrients were collected at 26 wells (16 grid wells and 10 understanding wells) of the 53 wells sampled f

  17. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  18. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  19. Radiological protection of the unborn child. Recommendation of the Commission on Radiological Protection and scientific grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarenio, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Commission on Radiological Protection was asked to give advice on the practical implications of the absorption of the maximum possible activity values that, under the Radiological Protection Ordinance, may be incorporated in women of child-bearing age occupationally exposed to radiation with regard to incorporation monitoring and compliance with the dose limit for the protection of the unborn child. An unborn child's conceivable level of exposure to radiation in the least favourable case due to continuous and single incorporations of radionuclides in the mother was determined on a nuclide-specific basis by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection with the aid of the mathematical metabolic models provided in ICRP 88. At the proposal of the Commission on Radiological Protection, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection considered the following very conservative scenarios: - the mother's maximum possible exposure due to a continuous intake of activity over 10 years prior to the pregnancy and in the first 10 weeks postconception based on the limits set out in the Radiological Protection Ordinance; - the mother's maximum possible exposure due to a single intake at the most unfavourable time in the first 10 weeks postconception based on the limits set out in the Radiological Protection Ordinance. Examination of these scenarios found that, with a few exceptions, the dose to the unborn child attributable to the incorporation of radiation in the mother summed up over 70 years is less than that to the mother. The committed effective dose to the unborn child from certain radionuclides may exceed the value of 1 mSv when the dose to the mother reaches the maximum limit. The Commission on Radiological Protection was therefore asked 1. to examine whether compliance with the limit of 1 mSv effective dose is sufficient for the protection of the unborn child or whether any additional limitation is required for individual organs, 2. to discuss the implications for

  20. Pesticide and Water management alternatives to mitigate potential ground-water contamination for selected counties in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, Majid; Requena, Antonio M.; Peralta, R. C.; Deer, Howard M.; Hill, Robert W.; Ranjha, Ahmad Yar

    1990-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. Although pesticides are necessary in today's agriculture, they can be a serious problem if they reach and contaminate ground water, especially in places where drinking water needs are supplied from ground water. The relative reduction of potential ground-water contamination due to agricultural use of pesticides was analyzed for parti...

  1. 46 CFR 111.01-5 - Protection from bilge water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection from bilge water. 111.01-5 Section 111.01-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-5 Protection from bilge water. Each of the following in or around the bilge area must be arranged or constructed so that it cannot be damaged by bilge water: (a...

  2. Identification of sources and mechanisms of salt-water pollution ground-water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.C.; Dutton, A.R.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on salinization of soils and ground water that is widespread in the Concho River watershed and other semiarid areas in Texas and the United States. Using more than 1,200 chemical analyses of water samples, the authors were able to differentiate various salinization mechanisms by mapping salinity patterns and hydrochemical facies and by analyzing isotopic compositions and ionic ratios. Results revealed that in Runnels County evaporation of irrigation water and ground water is a major salinization mechanism, whereas to the west, in Irion and Tom Green Counties, saline water appears to be a natural mixture of subsurface brine and shallowly circulating meteoric water recharged in the Concho River watershed. The authors concluded that the occurrence of poor-quality ground water is not a recent or single-source phenomenon; it has been affected by terracing of farmland, by disposal of oil-field brines into surface pits, and by upward flow of brine from the Coleman Junction Formation via insufficiently plugged abandoned boreholes

  3. Volatile organic compounds in the nation's ground water and drinking-water supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogorski, John S.; Carter, Janet M.; Ivahnenko, Tamara; Lapham, Wayne W.; Moran, Michael J.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Squillace, Paul J.; Toccalino, Patricia L.

    2006-01-01

    This national assessment of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water gives emphasis to the occurrence of VOCs in aquifers that are used as an important supply of drinking water. In contrast to the monitoring of VOC contamination of ground water at point-source release sites, such as landfills and leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs), our investigations of aquifers are designed as large-scale resource assessments that provide a general characterization of water-quality conditions. Nearly all of the aquifers included in this assessment have been identified as regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems. The assessment of ground water (Chapter 3) included analyses of about 3,500 water samples collected during 1985-2001 from various types of wells, representing almost 100 different aquifer studies. This is the first national assessment of the occurrence of a large number of VOCs with different uses, and the assessment addresses key questions about VOCs in aquifers. The assessment also provides a foundation for subsequent decadal assessments of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to ascertain long-term trends of VOC occurrence in these aquifers.

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control data resulted in censoring of less than 1 percent of the detections of constituents measured in ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable drinking-water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to the treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and other health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Two VOCs were detected above health-based thresholds: 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), and benzene. DBCP was detected above the U.S. Environmental Protections Agency's maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in three grid wells and five understanding wells. Benzene was detected above the CDPH's maximum contaminant level (MCL-CA) in one grid well. All pesticide detections were below health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected above its maximum contaminate level for California in one grid well. Nitrate was detected above the MCL-US in six samples from understanding wells, of which one was a public supply well. Two trace elements were detected above MCLs-US: arsenic and uranium. Arsenic was detected above the MCL-US in four grid wells and two understanding wells; uranium was detected above the MCL-US in one grid well and one understanding well. Gross alpha radiation was detected above MCLs-US in five samples; four of them understanding wells, and uranium isotope activity was greater than the MCL-US for one understanding well

  5. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met

  6. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.

    1974-01-01

    This manual reviews the standard methods of surface geophysics applicable to ground-water investigations. It covers electrical methods, seismic and gravity methods, and magnetic methods. The general physical principles underlying each method and its capabilities and limitations are described. Possibilities for non-uniqueness of interpretation of geophysical results are noted. Examples of actual use of the methods are given to illustrate applications and interpretation in selected geohydrologic environments. The objective of the manual is to provide the hydrogeologist with a sufficient understanding of the capabilities, imitations, and relative cost of geophysical methods to make sound decisions as to when to use of these methods is desirable. The manual also provides enough information for the hydrogeologist to work with a geophysicist in designing geophysical surveys that differentiate significant hydrogeologic changes.

  7. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    ground water. A quality-control sample (blank, replicate, or matrix spike) was collected at approximately one quarter of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control information resulted in V-coding less than 0.1 percent of the data collected. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is supplied to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic purposes (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Most constituents detected in ground-water samples were at concentrations below drinking-water thresholds. Volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and pesticide degradates were detected in less than one-third of the grid well samples collected. All VOC and pesticide concentrations measured were below health-based thresholds. Potential waste-water indicators were detected in less than half of the wells sampled, and no detections were above health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected in seven grid wells; concentrations from two wells were above the CDPH maximum contaminant level (MCL-CA). Most detections of trace elements in samples collected from COA Study Unit wells were below water-quality thresholds. Exceptions include five samples of arsenic that were above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US), two detections of boron above the CDPH notification level (NL-CA), and two detections of mol

  9. Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, northwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lee R.; Bayless, E. Randall; Buszka, Paul M.; Wilson, John T.

    2002-01-01

    in ground water were determined in samples collected during the spring and summer from wells open to the water table within about 9 feet of the highway. Chloride concentrations in ground water that were attributable to highway deicers also were found in tested wells about 400 feet downgradient from US?12 during the fall and winter and at greater depths than in wells closer to US?12. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water at seven wells downgradient from the highway during late winter, spring, and summer samplings. The chloride standard was exceeded only in water from wells with total depths that are less than about 10 feet below land surface. Sodium concentrations in water periodically exceeded the USEPA drinking-water equivalency level of 20 milligrams per liter in both the uppermost (deicer affected) and lower one-thirds of the aquifer. Sodium concentrations in ground water downgradient from US?12 and in the upper 5 feet of the aquifer also occasionally exceeded drinking-water standards for sodium (160 milligrams per liter) as set by the State of Florida and a standard for taste (200 milligrams per liter) as set by the World Health Organization. Dispersion was identified by analysis of aquifer-test data, isotopic dating of ground water, and water-quality data to be the process most responsible for reducing concentrations of highway deicers in the aquifer. Chemical analyses of the sand composing the aquifer indicated that cation exchange decreased the mass of deicer-related sodium in ground water, although the sand has a limited capacity to sustain the process. Automated daily measurements of specific conductance, correlated to chloride concentrations, indicated that some deicer is retained in the aquifer near the highway throughout the entire year and acts as a continuous chloride source for ground water. Peak concentrations of

  10. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  11. A new breed of innovative ground water modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Ziagos, J.; McKereghan, P.; Vogele, T.; Nelson, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Sparse data is a critical obstacle in every ground water remediation project. Lack of data necessitates non-unique interpolations that can distort modeled distributions of contaminants and essential physical properties (e.g., permeability, porosity). These properties largely determine the rates and paths that contaminants may take in migrating from sources to receptor locations. We apply both forward and inverse model estimates to resolve this problem because coupled modeling provides the only way to obtain constitutive property distributions that simultaneously simulate the flow and transport behavior observed in borehole measurements. Innovations in multidimensional modeling are a key to achieving more effective subsurface characterizations, remedial designs, risk assessments, and compliance monitoring in efforts to accelerate cleanup and reduce costs in national environmental remediations. Fundamentally new modeling concepts and novel software have emerged recently from two decades of research on self-adaptive solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs). We have tested a revolutionary software product, PDEase, applying it to coupled forward and inverse flow problems. In the Superfund cleanup effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site, the new modeling paradigm of PDEase enables ground water professionals to simply provide the flow equations, site geometry, sources, sinks, constitutive parameters, and boundary conditions. Its symbolic processors then construct the actual numerical solution code and solve it automatically. Powerful grid refinements that conform adaptively to evolving flow features are executed dynamically with iterative finite-element solutions that minimize numerical errors to user-specified limits. Numerical solution accuracy can be tested easily with the diagnostic information and interactive graphical displays that appear as the solutions are generated

  12. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater.

  13. Evaluation of ground water quality of Mubi town in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... ... resultant of all the processes and reactions that act on the water from the ... chemical parameters and heavy metals' levels in the boreholes and .... for drinking water. Potassium concentration in the ground water varied from.

  14. Ground-water resources of north-central Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum

    1964-01-01

    The term 'north-central Connecticut' in this report refers to an area of about 640 square miles within the central lowland of the Connecticut River basin north of Middletown. The area is mostly a broad valley floor underlain by unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age which mantle an erosional surface formed on consolidated rocks of pre-Triassic and Triassic age. The mean annual precipitation at Hartford, near the center of the area, is 42.83 inches and is uniformly distributed throughout the year. The average annual streamflow from the area is about 22 inches or about half the precipitation. The consolidated water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Triassic age and sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Newark group of Triassic age. The crystalline rocks include the Middletown gneiss, the Maromas granite gneiss, the Glastonbury granite-gneiss of Rice and Gregory (1906), and the Bolton schist which form the basement complex and the Eastern Upland of north-central Connecticut. Enough water for domestic, stock, and small commercial use generally can be obtained from the crystalline rocks. Recoverable ground water occurs in the interconnected joints and fracture zones and is yielded in amounts ranging from 29 to 35 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells ranging in depth from 29 to 550 feet. The sedimentary rocks of Triassic age underlie all the Connecticut River Lowland and are predominantly arkosic sandstone and shale. Water supplies sufficient for domestic, stock, and small commercial use can be obtained from shallow wells penetrating these rocks, and larger supplies sufficient for industries and smaller municipalities can probably be obtained from deeper wells. Reported yields range from ? to 578 gpm; the larger yields are generally obtained from wells between 300 and 600 feet in depth. Yields are larger where the overlying material is sand and gravel or where the rocks are well fractured. The igneous rocks of Triassic age are basalt and have

  15. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Rieger, J.T.; Webber, W.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Gillespie, B.M.; Luttrell, S.P.; Wurstner, S.K.; Liikala, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Groundwater Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1995 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that impacted groundwater quality on the site. Monitoring of water levels and groundwater chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination, to note trends in contaminant concentrations,a nd to identify emerging groundwater quality problems. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of onsite groundwater quality. A three- dimensional, numerical, groundwater model is being developed to improve predictions of contaminant transport. The existing two- dimensional model was applied to predict contaminant flow paths and the impact of changes on site conditions. These activities were supported by limited hydrogeologic characterization. Water level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Radiological monitoring results indicated that many radioactive contaminants were above US Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington drinking water standards at the Hanford Site. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, cyanide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their US EPA or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    ] and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fourth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a significant source of bias. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. Assessment of the quality-control information resulted in applying ?V? codes to approximately 0.1 percent of the data collected for ground-water samples (meaning a constituent was detected in blanks as well as the corresponding environmental data). This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable drinking-water quality. Regulatory thresholds are applied to the treated drinking water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH, formerly California Department of Health Services [CADHS]) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only, and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those thresholds. VOCs were detected in alm

  17. The Value of Forest Conservation for Water Quality Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Kreye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests protect water quality by reducing soil erosion, sedimentation, and pollution; yet there is little information about the economic value of conserving forests for water quality protection in much of the United States. To assess this value, we conducted a meta-analysis of willingness-to-pay (WTP for protecting unimpaired waters, and econometrically determined several significant drivers of WTP: type of conservation instrument (tool, aquatic resource type, geographic context, spatial scale, time, and household income. Using a benefit transfer to two highly forested sites, we illustrate the importance of these factors on WTP for water quality protection programs, forest conservation and policy design.

  18. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Results from field blanks indicated contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for ground-water samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most constituents. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Therefore, any comparisons of the results of this study to drinking-water standards only is for illustrative purposes and is not indicative of compliance or non-compliance to those standards. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were found at concentrations below drinking-water standards or thresholds. Six constituents? fluoride, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, gross-alpha radioactivity, and radon-222?were detected at concentrations higher than thresholds set for health-based regulatory purposes. Three additional constituents?pH, iron and manganese?were detected at concentrations above thresholds set for aesthetic concerns. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, were detected in less than one-third of the samples and generally at less than one one-hundredth of a health-based threshold.

  20. Determination of uranium in ground water using different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Maity, Sukanta; Bhangare, R.C.; Pandit, G.G.; Sharma, D.N.

    2014-10-01

    The concern over presence of natural radionuclides like uranium in drinking water is growing recently. The contamination of aquifers with radionuclides depends on number of factors. The geology of an area is the most important factor along with anthropogenic activities like mining, coal ash disposal from thermal power plants, use of phosphate fertilizers etc. Whatever may be the source, the presence of uranium in drinking waters is a matter of great concern for public health. Studies show that uranium is a chemo-toxic and nephrotoxic heavy metal. This chemotoxicity affects the kidneys and bones in particular. Seeing the potential health hazards from natural radionuclides in drinking water, many countries worldwide have adopted the guideline activity concentration for drinking water quality recommended by the WHO (2011). For uranium, WHO has set a limit of 30μgL-1 in drinking water. The geological distribution of uranium and its migration in environment is of interest because the element is having environmental and exposure concerns. It is of great interest to use an analytical technique for uranium analysis in water which is highly sensitive especially at trace levels, specific and precise in presence of other naturally occurring major and trace metals and needs small amount of sample. Various analytical methods based on the use of different techniques have been developed in the past for the determination of uranium in the geological samples. The determination of uranium requires high selectivity due to its strong association with other elements. Several trace level wet chemistry analytical techniques have been reported for uranium determination, but most of these involve tedious and pain staking procedures, high detection limits, interferences etc. Each analytical technique has its own merits and demerits. Comparative assessment by different techniques can provide better quality control and assurance. In present study, uranium was analysed in ground water samples

  1. Well-Construction, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Data for Ground-Water Monitoring Wells for the J4 Hydrogeologic Study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haugh, Connor J

    1996-01-01

    ...) in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality...

  2. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches

  3. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    ) were collected at ten percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control data resulted in censoring of less than 0.03 percent of the analyses of ground-water samples. This study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Health Services (CADHS) (Maximum Contaminant Levels [MCLs], notification levels [NLs], or lifetime health advisories [HA-Ls]) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels [SMCLs]). All wells were sampled for organic constituents and selected general water quality parameters; subsets of wells were sampled for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and radioactive constituents. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 49 out of 83 wells sampled and pesticides were detected in 35 out of 82 wells; all detections were below health-based thresholds, with the exception of 1 detection of 1,2,3-trichloropropane above a NL. Of the 43 wells sampled for trace elements, 27 had no detections of a trace element above a health-based threshold and 16 had at least one detection above. Of the 18 trace elements with health-based thresholds, 3 (arsenic, barium, and boron) were detected at concentrations higher an MCL. Of the 43 wells sampled for nitrate, only 1 well had a detection above the MCL. Twenty wells were sampled for radioactive constituents; only 1 (radon-222) was measured at activiti

  5. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    , replicates, laboratory matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for the ground-water samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most constituents. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or noncompliance with regulatory thresholds. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were found at concentrations below drinking-water thresholds. VOCs were detected in less than one-third and pesticides and pesticide degradates in just over one-half of the grid wells, and all detections of these constituents in samples from all wells of the MSACV study unit were below health-based thresholds. All detections of trace elements in samples from MSACV grid wells were below health-based thresholds, with the exceptions of arsenic and boro

  6. Natural isotope technique for the exploration and exploitation of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Abidin; Hudi Hastowo; Aang Hanafiah

    2007-01-01

    In line with the condition of climate and hydrology, Indonesia has a fast amount of aquifers which are sources of ground water. In several areas large number of springs occurred with small to large debits which is a sign of ground water potential. Ground water is a potential reservoir to be use at maximum for several purposes such as drinking water, industry and tourism. Large cities such as Jakarta, Bandung and others depend on ground water for their industries and hotels. The exploitation of ground water use has to be controlled and monitoring of a management system have to be done. Research carried out only on the exploitation of geophysics and hydrology showed that the amount of ground water reservoirs is not enough to be used when it comes to justification to explore it. Other parameters are still be needed which are the origins and dating of the ground water, these last two factors mentioned have to be taken into consideration in the system of conversion and balance of water. An alternative technology to determine the two factors mentioned in a short time is the natural isotope technique of 18 O, 2 H and 14 C. This technique is used to determine the origin of water, and isotope 14 C is carried out to determine the age of ground water. Isotopes 18 H and 2 H are stable isotopes in the form of water and is integrated in the hydrological cycle. Their specific concentrations in rain water at several elevations are used as fingerprints to locate the area of ground water supplement and its origin. Isotope 14 C is a natural radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5.730 years and is found in the hydrology cycle and enters the ground water system through CO 2 gas which is dissolved in water. 14 C isotope could determine the age of ground water and is also able to indicate the potential/amount of ground water. Studies of exploration and exploration monitoring of ground water should be an integrated study by geohydrology, geophysics and isotope and could be a solution of

  7. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  8. Pollution of south of Tehran ground waters with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmasi, R.; Tavassoli, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reuse of nutrients and organic matter in wastewater sludge via on agricultural lands application is a desirable goal. However, trace or heavy metals present in sludge pose the risk of human or phyto toxicity from land application. The aim of this research is possibility of ground water pollution of south of Tehran because of ten years irrigation with Ni, Cd and Pb borne waste water. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones from Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. The soils differed in their texture from sandy to clayey. Each soil sample in duplicate and uniformly packed into PVC columns. Soil samples were irrigated with Cd, Pb and Ni-added wastewater. After irrigating, the columns were cut and the soils separated from sectioned pieces and their heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cd and Ni) were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer y use of HNO 3 , 4N solution. Because of high sorption capacity of these elements by soils, these metals were accumulated in surface layer of the soils. Movement in the soils without lime and organic matter were as low as other samples. Ni has had the most accumulation or the least vertical movement, and Pb the opposite ones

  9. Radon concentrations of ground waters in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kawamura, Norihisa [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health has been collecting the data concerning the spacial distribution of Rn concentration of groundwater in Aichi Prefecture and its time course changes. In this report, the data was described chiefly from 1991 and the availability of newly developed polyethylene vessel was discussed. Determination of Rn concentration was performed at a total of 104 sites within the range from the horizon to the depth of 1800 m. The measurement has been repeatedly conducted for ca. 20 years. The maximum level of Rn was 896 Bq/l and the minimum was 0.3 Bq/l for the groundwater samples collected from different springs. Correlation of Rn concentration with other chemical and physical factors for ground water was investigated and a significant correlation was found only between Rn concentration and pH ({gamma}=0.304, p<0.01). No time course changes in Rn concentration was observed except for the water sample from the site affected by some newly dug wells. In addition, the newly developed extraction vessel was shown to be available for the determination and its operability in the field was superior to the conventional glass ware. (M.N.)

  10. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  13. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  14. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Lung, R.H.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The study of structural response to seismic inputs has been extensively studied and, particularly with the advent of the growth of digital computer capability, has lead to the development of numerical methods of analysis which are used as standard tools for the design of structures. One aspect of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) process which has not been developed to the same degree of sophistication is the impact of ground water (or pure water) on the response of the soil-structure system. There are very good reasons for his state of affairs, however, not the least of which is the difficulty of incorporating the true constitutive behavior of saturated soils into the analysis. At the large strain end of the spectrum, the engineer is concerned with the potential development of failure conditions under the structure, and is typically interested in the onset of liquefaction conditions. The current state of the art in this area is to a great extent based on empirical methods of analysis which were developed from investigations of limited failure data from specific sites around the world. Since it is known that analytic solutions are available for only the simplest of configurations, a numerical finite element solution process was developed. Again, in keeping with typical SSI analyses, in order to make the finite element approach yield resonable results, a comparable transmitting boundary formulation was included in the development. The purpose of the transmitting boundary is, of course, to allow for the treatment of extended soil/water half-space problems. For the calculations presented herein, a simple one dimensional transmitting boundary model was developed and utilized

  15. Completing the ground-water model: ''We need more data''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmeyer, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Computer modeling of geologic structures and groundwater flow has progressed from simple number crunching in the sixties to sophisticated and complex structure and flow models in the nineties (Hatheway, 1994). In the environmental field, a detailed knowledge of the subsurface geology is required and essential for successful ground-water remediation, planning, and investigations. Current options for determining shallow (0--400 ft) subsurface geology includes standard borings, cone penetrometer, ground penetrating radar (GPR), or resistivity surveys (RS). Standards borings are expensive coverage and the close spacing required for generating accurate model data. The cone penetrometer is less expensive and faster than conventional borings. However, both the cone penetrometer and borings are limited by access and are intrusive, providing additional paths for contaminant migration. While both standard GPR and RS are non-intrusive, they suffer from other limitations. A high conductivity soil (clay) will diminish the effectiveness of GPR. The signal is absorbed and dissipated in the first few inches of high conductivity soil. The depth of penetration of RS is better, but the vertical resolution for distinguishing between finely interbedded layers is much lower. An ideal system for subsurface geologic analysis would be non-intrusive, have the depth of penetration of RS, while offering the vertical resolution of GPR> Electromagnetic methods (EM) offer distinct advantages in helping to solve these problems: (a) they are non-intrusive, and (b) the technology to support EM probing-pulse generation, data collection--is well established. Quaternary Resource Investigations, Inc., (QRI) has developed such a system

  16. MODELING NITRATE CONCENTRATION IN GROUND WATER USING REGRESSION AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Nacha; Krishnan, Palaniappa; Bernard, John C.; Ritter, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in ground water is a major problem in specific agricultural areas. Using regression and neural networks, this study models nitrate concentration in ground water as a function of iron concentration in ground water, season and distance of the well from a poultry house. Results from both techniques are comparable and show that the distance of the well from a poultry house has a significant effect on nitrate concentration in groundwater.

  17. Water protection in coke-plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  18. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  19. Enhanced monitor system for water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David E [Knoxville, TN; Rodriquez, Jr., Miguel [Oak Ridge, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN

    2009-09-22

    An automatic, self-contained device for detecting toxic agents in a water supply includes an analyzer for detecting at least one toxic agent in a water sample, introducing a means for introducing a water sample into the analyzer and discharging the water sample from the analyzer, holding means for holding a water sample for a pre-selected period of time before the water sample is introduced into the analyzer, and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the analyzer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one toxic agent in the water sample.

  20. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Gunnison ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Gunnison processing site; and modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  1. Estimating Natural Recharge in a Desert Environment Facing Increasing Ground-Water Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.; Izbicki, J. A.; Hevesi, J. A.; Martin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin, and ground-water withdrawals averaging about 960 acre-ft/yr have resulted in as much as 35 ft of drawdown. As growth continues in the desert, ground-water resources may need to be supplemented using imported water. To help meet future demands, JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. To manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. To this end, field and numerical techniques were applied to determine the distribution and quantity of natural recharge. Field techniques included the installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Numerical techniques included the use of a distributed-parameter watershed model and a ground-water flow model. The results from the field techniques indicated that as much as 70 acre-ft/yr of water infiltrated downward through the two principal washes during the study period (2001-3). The results from the watershed model indicated that the average annual recharge in the ground-water subbasins is about 160 acre-ft/yr. The results from the calibrated ground-water flow model indicated that the average annual recharge for the same area is about 125 acre-ft/yr. Although the field and numerical techniques were applied to different scales (local vs. large), all indicate that natural recharge in the Joshua Tree area is very limited; therefore, careful management of the limited ground-water resources is needed. Moreover, the calibrated model can now be used to estimate the effects of different water-management strategies on the ground-water

  2. Considerations on the Legal Protection of Water

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Lenuta Balan; Aleodor Munteanu; Gicu Grijac; Emanuel Galatescu

    2010-01-01

    The water is one of the most important regenerable resources of the future. Water cryses, pollution, global warming, increased compsumptions need specific reglementation to find the best way to prevent a major water cryses. The Water Framework Directive in E.U. as well as other conferences and specific reglementations on water use are the first steps to find the best way for the preservation of this important resource.

  3. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples

  4. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, James Ray

    1974-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32.cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  5. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  6. Annotated bibliography on artificial recharge of ground water, 1955-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.; Growitz, Douglas J.; Kam, William

    1970-01-01

    Artificial ground-water recharge has become more important as water use by agriculture, industry, and municipalities increases. Water management agencies are increasingly interested in potential use of recharge for pollution abatement, waste-water disposal, and re-use and reclamation of locally available supplies. Research projects and theoretical analyses of operational recharge systems show increased scientific emphasis on the practice. Overall ground-water basin management systems generally now contain considerations of artificial recharge, whether by direct or indirect methods. Artificial ground-water recharge is a means of conserving surface runoff for future use in places where it would otherwise be lost, of protecting ground-water basins from salt-water encroachment along coastal areas, and of storing and distributing imported water. The biblio-graphy emphasizes technology; however, annotations of articles on waste-water reclamation, ground-water management and ground-water basin management are included. Subjects closely related to artificial recharge, including colloidal flow through porous media, field or laboratory instrumentation, and waste disposal by deep well injection are included where they specifically relate to potential recharge problems. Where almost the same material has been published in several journals, all references are included on the assumption that some publications may be more readily available to interested persons than others. Other publications, especially those of foreign literature, provided abstracts that were used freely as time limitations precluded obtaining and annotating all materials. Abstracts taken from published sources are noted. These are: "Abstracts of North American Geology," U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey; "Abstracts of Recent Published Material on Foil and Water Conservation," ARS-41 series, Agricultural F.esearch Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; "Water and1 Water

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control information resulted in censoring of less than 0.4 percent of the data collected for ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, raw ground water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply, not to the raw ground water, but to treated water that is served to the consumer. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and as well as with thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. VOCs and pesticides each were detected in approximately 60 percent of the grid wells, and detections of all compounds but one were below health-based thresholds. The fumigant, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), was detected above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in one sample. Detections of most inorganic constituents were also below health-based thresholds. Constituents detected above health-based thresholds include: nitrate, (MCL-US, 2 samples), arsenic (MCL-US, 2 samples), and vanadium (California notification level, NL-CA, 1 sample). All detections of radioactive constituents were below health-based thresholds, although nine samples had activities of radon-222 above the lower proposed MCL-US. Most of the samples from KERN wells had concentrations of major elements, total dissolved solids, and trace elements below the non-enforceable thresholds set for aesthetic concerns.

  8. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  9. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs

  10. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments

  13. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

  14. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River Basin were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the

  15. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-06-01

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  16. Contamination of the ground waters and surface waters by boron in Lerma Valley, NW-Argentina - an inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundschuh, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ground- and surface waters in areas unaffected by pollution from borax and boric acid producing plants exhibit low boron concentrations of less than 300 μg B/l. Only at the boric acid plant 'Mineratea' is the groundwater contaminated, with up to 6200 μg B/l occurring within an area of 8 to 10 km 2 with more than 1000 μg boron/l. Even higher boron concentrations (up to 18 μg B/l) are present in polluted surface waters. Not the boron concentration in the irrigation water, but the absolute amount of boron added to the plants by irrigation is what determines plant toxicity. For the contaminated area of the boric acid 'Mineratea', characterized by boron concentrations of between 1000 and 6000 μg B/l, the maximal amounts of irrigation water that can be applied lies between 300 and 8 mm. In order to protect the local groundwater resoures from present and future contamination, environmental impact assessment on industrial projects in the area are required. In this way, the quality of the drinking and irrigation water can be guaranteed through suitable measures, without hindering further necessary industrial development of the region. (orig./UWA) [de

  17. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  18. Quality of ground water in Clark County, Washington, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 76 wells throughout Clark County, in southwest Washington, during April and May 1988, and were analyzed from concentrations of major ions, silica, nitrate, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, radon, and bacteria. Samples from 20 wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements and organic compounds, including most of those on the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority pollutant list. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 12 to 245 mg/L, with a median concentration of 132 mg/L. The major dissolved constituents are calcium, bicarbonate, and silica, and, in some samples, sodium. Nitrate concentrations exceeded 1.0 mg/L throughout the Vancouver urban area, and were as large as 6.7 mg/L. Comparison with limited historical data indicates that nitrate concentrations were somewhat correlated, possibly indicating similar sources. Volatile organic compound, including tetrachloroethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, were detected in samples from three wells in the Vancouver area. Trace amounts of volatile organic compounds were reported in samples from several other wells, but at concentrations too close to analytical detection limits to ascertain that they were in the groundwater. Trace elements and radiochemical constituents were present at small levels indicating natural sources for these constituents. Only pH, turbidity, iron, manganese, and total coliform bacteria had values that did not meet USEPA Drinking Water Standards

  19. Geocongress 84: 20. Geological congress of the Geological Society of South Africa. Abstracts: Pt. 2. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Only one article in the publication is relevant to INIS: Environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry in ground water studies. A very short review is given on the ground water resources of the Kalahari in Gordonia. Ground water in mining exploration and the geophysics of ground water and the methods used in the geophysics are discussed. The dolomitic aquifers, especially in the southern and western Transvaal and ground water models are also reviewed

  20. Forecasting in an integrated surface water-ground water system: The Big Cypress Basin, South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Feng, K.; Klinting, A.; Stewart, K.; Nath, A.; Manning, P.; Hazlett, T.; Jacobsen, T.

    2009-04-01

    The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) manages and protects the state's water resources on behalf of 7.5 million South Floridians and is the lead agency in restoring America's Everglades - the largest environmental restoration project in US history. Many of the projects to restore and protect the Everglades ecosystem are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). The region has a unique hydrological regime, with close connection between surface water and groundwater, and a complex managed drainage network with many structures. Added to the physical complexity are the conflicting needs of the ecosystem for protection and restoration, versus the substantial urban development with the accompanying water supply, water quality and flood control issues. In this paper a novel forecasting and real-time modelling system is presented for the Big Cypress Basin. The Big Cypress Basin includes 272 km of primary canals and 46 water control structures throughout the area that provide limited levels of flood protection, as well as water supply and environmental quality management. This system is linked to the South Florida Water Management District's extensive real-time (SCADA) data monitoring and collection system. Novel aspects of this system include the use of a fully distributed and integrated modeling approach and a new filter-based updating approach for accurately forecasting river levels. Because of the interaction between surface- and groundwater a fully integrated forecast modeling approach is required. Indeed, results for the Tropical Storm Fay in 2008, the groundwater levels show an extremely rapid response to heavy rainfall. Analysis of this storm also shows that updating levels in the river system can have a direct impact on groundwater levels.

  1. Waters protection in agriculture; Gewaesserschutz mit der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaupt, Volker; Rechenberg, Joerg; Richter, Simone; Schulz, Dietrich; Wolter, Ruediger

    2010-01-15

    In Germany, agriculture is an important supplier of raw materials for the fodder industry and food industry. However, fertilizers and plant protection products only are used only partly. A large volume of these products is introduced into water and neighbouring ecological systems resulting in substantial ecological damage. Under this aspect, the brochure recommends wide employment of waters-friendly measures. It is pointed out that water protection need not involve a reduction of yields and benefits all involved.

  2. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure - Policy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  3. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  4. Implications of ground water chemistry and flow patterns for earthquake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangcai, Wang; Zuochen, Zhang; Min, Wang; Cravotta, Charles A; Chenglong, Liu

    2005-01-01

    Ground water can facilitate earthquake development and respond physically and chemically to tectonism. Thus, an understanding of ground water circulation in seismically active regions is important for earthquake prediction. To investigate the roles of ground water in the development and prediction of earthquakes, geological and hydrogeological monitoring was conducted in a seismogenic area in the Yanhuai Basin, China. This study used isotopic and hydrogeochemical methods to characterize ground water samples from six hot springs and two cold springs. The hydrochemical data and associated geological and geophysical data were used to identify possible relations between ground water circulation and seismically active structural features. The data for delta18O, deltaD, tritium, and 14C indicate ground water from hot springs is of meteoric origin with subsurface residence times of 50 to 30,320 years. The reservoir temperature and circulation depths of the hot ground water are 57 degrees C to 160 degrees C and 1600 to 5000 m, respectively, as estimated by quartz and chalcedony geothermometers and the geothermal gradient. Various possible origins of noble gases dissolved in the ground water also were evaluated, indicating mantle and deep crust sources consistent with tectonically active segments. A hard intercalated stratum, where small to moderate earthquakes frequently originate, is present between a deep (10 to 20 km), high-electrical conductivity layer and the zone of active ground water circulation. The ground water anomalies are closely related to the structural peculiarity of each monitoring point. These results could have implications for ground water and seismic studies in other seismogenic areas.

  5. Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and protecting America`s waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    On October 18, 1997, the 25th anniversary of the enactment of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President called for a renewed effort to restore and protect water quality. The Vice President asked that the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with other affected agencies, develop a Clean Water Action Plan that builds on clean water successes and addresses three major goals: (1) enhanced protection from public health threats posed by water pollution; (2) more effective control of polluted runoff; and (3) promotion of water quality protection on a watershed basis.

  6. Water resources data for Florida, water year 1992. Volume 1B. Northeast Florida ground water. Water-data report (Annual) October 1, 1991-September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 for northeast Florida include continuous or daily discharge for 140 streams, periodic discharge for 10 streams, miscellaneous discharge for 14 streams, continuous or daily stage for 32 streams, continuous or daily tide stage for 3 sites, periodic stage for 23 streams, peak discharge for 3 streams, and peak stage for 11 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 36 lakes, periodic elevations for 47 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 75 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 123 wells, and miscellaneous water-level measurements for 864 wells; and quality-of-water data for 38 surface-water sites and 66 wells

  7. External quality control in ground-water sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Juracich, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, external Quality Control (QC) for ground-water monitoring is extensive and has included routine submittal of intra- and interlaboratory duplicate samples, blind samples, and several kinds of blank samples. Examination of the resulting QC data for nine of the constituents found in ground water at the Hanford Site shows that the quality of analysis has generally been within the expectations of precision and accuracy that have been established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The constituents subjected to review were nitrate, chromium, sodium, fluoride, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, ammonium, trichloroethylene, and cyanide. Of these, the fluoride measurements were notable exceptions and were poor by EPA standards. The review has shown that interlaboratory analysis of duplicate samples yields the most useful QC data for evaluating laboratory performance in determining commonly encountered constituents. For rarely encountered constituents, interlaboratory comparisons may be augmented with blind samples (synthetic samples of known composition). Intralaboratory comparisons, blanks, and spikes should be generally restricted to studies of suspected or known sample contamination and to studies of the adequacy of sampling and analytical procedures

  8. Hydrogeology of the Dakota Group aquifer with emphasis on the radium-226 content of its contained ground water, Canon City Embayment, Fremont and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinckier, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Dakota Group aquifer of the Canon City embayment comprises two primary water-bearing units, the Lytle Sandstone Member at the base and the Dakota Sandstone at the top, separated by the semiconfining, arenaceous Glencairn Shale Member. The ground water in this area probably represents a mixture of some or all of the following genetic types: (1) ground water connate to the Dakota Group; (2) ground water, connate or otherwise, entering the aquifer as leakage from adjacent semiconfining strata; (3) deeply circulated meteoric ground water; and (4) hydrothermal fluids (magmatic or metamorphic ground water) purged from the crystalline basement complex underlying the embayment. The contents of the radium-226 in ground water from 117 wells completed in part or all of the Dakota Group were determined by the dissolved radon-222 emanation method. Sixty-seven percent of the ground water samples have radium-226 activities greater than 5.0 picocuries per liter of water (5.0 pCi/1), the recommended maximum permissible concentration of radium-226 in drinking water established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1973. Inspection of gamma-ray logs of about 20 wells revealed the presence of moderate to extremely high gamma radiation in strata of the Dakota Group, the Morrison Formation, the Fountain Formation, and in the crystalline basement rocks. High levels of radium-226 in drinking water supplies pose potentially serious health hazards to the users. Owners of wells producing such water supplies are advised to (1) install, at the homesite, ion exchange (filtering units) capable of removing 226 Ra 2 + ions and other aqueous radium species from the water or (2) effectively case out those stratigraphic intervals in the bore hole showing high gamma radiation preventing possible radium-rich ground water within these intervals from entering the well

  9. Occurrence of estrogenic activities in second-grade surface water and ground water in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Wei; Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Wei, Si; Cai, Xi; Chen, Bo; Feng, Jianfang; Hu, Xinxin; Wang, Xinru; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    Second-grade surface water and ground water are considered as the commonly used cleanest water in the Yangtze River Delta, which supplies centralized drinking water and contains rare species. However, some synthetic chemicals with estrogenic disrupting activities are detectable. Estrogenic activities in the second-grade surface water and ground water were surveyed by a green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cell line based ER reporter gene assay. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were further conducted to identify the responsible compounds. Estrogen receptor (ER) agonist activities were present in 7 out of 16 surface water and all the ground water samples. Huaihe River and Yangtze River posed the highest toxicity potential. The highest equivalent (2.2 ng E 2 /L) is higher than the predicted no-effect-concentration (PNEC). Bisphenol A (BPA) contributes to greater than 50% of the total derived equivalents in surface water, and the risk potential in this region deserves more attention and further research. -- Highlights: •Estrogenic activities were present in second-grade surface water and ground water. •Most of the detected equivalents were higher than the predicted no-effect-concentration of E 2 . •ER-EQ 20–80 ranges showed that samples in Huaihe River and Yangtze River posed the highest toxicity. •Bisphenol A contributes to most of the instrumentally derived equivalents in surface water. -- Estrogenic activities were observed in second-grade surface water and ground water in Yangtze River Delta, and BPA was the responsible contaminant

  10. Combined ion exchange / biological denitrification for nitrate removal from ground water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der J.P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for nitrate removal from ground water. High nitrate concentrations in ground water are a result of fertilization in agriculture. According to a directive of the European Community the maximum admissible concentration of nitrate in

  11. Effects of uranium mining on ground water in Ambrosia Lake area, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.E.; Link, R.L.; Schipper, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of mining on the principal aquifer in the Ambrosia Lake area, the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. Loss of potentiometric head has resulted in interformational migration of ground water. This migration has produced local deterioration in chemical quality of the ground water. 7 refs

  12. Effects Disposal Condition and Ground Water to Leaching Rate of Radionuclides from Solidification Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlan Martono; Wati

    2008-01-01

    Effects disposal condition and ground water to leaching rate of radionuclides from solidification products have been studied. The aims of leaching test at laboratory to get the best composition of solidified products for continuous process or handling. The leaching rate of radionuclides from the many kinds of matrix from smallest to bigger are glass, thermosetting plastic, urea formaldehyde, asphalt, and cement. Glass for solidification of high level waste, thermosetting plastic and urea formaldehyde for solidification of low and intermediate waste, asphalt and cement for solidification of low and intermediate level waste. In shallow land burial, ground water rate is fast, debit is high, and high permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is occur. The pH of ground water increasing leaching rate, but cation in the ground water retard leaching rate. Effects temperature radiation and radiolysis to solidification products is not occur. In the deep repository, ground water rate is slow, debit is small, and low permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is very small. There are effect cooling time and distance between pits to rock temperature. Alfa radiation effects can be occur, but there is no contact between solidification products and ground water, so that there is not radiolysis. (author)

  13. Environmental isotopes as early warning tools to control the abstraction of deep ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, K.P.; Maloszewski, P.; Weise, S.M.; Loosli, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    Early warning system for the exploitation of ground water from the passive zone can not be based on the measurement of pollutant concentrations itself. The environmental tracer data are suggested to be used as indicators for changes in conservative mass transport processes from shallow to deep or very deep to deep ground waters

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  15. Anomalous Ground State of the Electrons in Nano-confined Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Anomalous ground state of the electrons in nano -confined water G. F. Reiter1*, Aniruddha Deb2*, Y. Sakurai3, M. Itou3, V. G. Krishnan4, S. J...electronic ground state of nano -confined water must be responsible for these anomalies but has so far not been investigated. We show here for the first time...using x-ray Compton scattering and a computational model, that the ground state configuration of the valence electrons in a particular nano

  16. Influence of surface mining on ground water (effects and possibilities of prevention)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicki, J

    1977-01-01

    This article analyzes the negative impact of surface mining on ground water. The effects of water depression on water supply for households and industry, and for vegetation and agriculture are evaluated. The negative impact of lowering the ground water level under various water conditions are analyzed: (1) vegetation is supplied with water only by rainfall, (2) vegetation is supplied with water in some seasons by rainfall and in some by ground water, and (3) vegetation uses ground water only. The impact of deteriorating water supply on forests is discussed. Problems connected with storage of waste materials in abandoned surface mines are also discussed. The influence of black coal ash and waste material from coal preparation plants on ground water is analyzed: penetration of some elements and chemical compounds to the ground water and its pollution. Some preventive measures are proposed: injection of grout in the bottom and walls of storage areas to reduce their permeability (organic resins can also be used but they are more expensive). The distance between injection boreholes should be 15 to 20 m. Covering the bottom of the storage area with plastic sheets can also be applied.

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    quality-control information resulted in censoring of less than 0.2 percent of the data collected for ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. VOCs and pesticides were detected in less than one-third of the grid wells, and all detections in samples from SOSA wells were below health-based thresholds. All detections of trace elements and nutrients in samples from SOSA wells were below health-based thresholds, with the exception of four detections of arsenic that were above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) and one detection of boron that was above the CDPH notification level (NL-CA). All detections of radioactive constituents were below health-based thresholds, although four samples had activities of radon-222 above the proposed MCL-US. Most of the samples from SOSA wells had concentrations of major elements, total dissolved solids, and trace elements below the non-enforceable thresholds set for aesthetic concerns. A few samples contained iron, manganese, or total dissolved solids at concentrations above the SMCL-CA thresholds.

  18. Nitrogen-isotope ratios of nitrate in ground water under fertilized fields, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, W.J.; Bonner, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the 15N/14N ratios (??15N values) of fertilizer are increased during transit from land surface to ground water to an extent which would preclude use of this ratio to distinguish agricultural from animal sources of nitrate in ground water. Ground water at both sites contained a greater proportion of 15N than the fertilizers being applied. At the potato farm, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was 0.2???; the average ??15N value of the ground-water nitrate was 6.2???. At the golf course, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was -5.9???, and that of ground-water nitrate was 6.5???. The higher ??15N values of ground-water nitrate are probably caused by isotopic fractionation during the volatile loss of ammonia from nitrogen applied in reduced forms (NH4+ and organic-N). The ??15N values of most ground-water samples from both areas were less than 10???, the upper limit of the range characteristic of agricultural sources of nitrate; these sources include both fertilizer nitrate and nitrate derived from increased mineralization of soil nitrogen through cultivation. Previous studies have shown that the ??15N values of nitrate derived from human or animal waste generally exceed 10???. The nitrogen-isotope ratios of fertilizer-derived nitrate were not altered to an extent that would make them indistinguishable from animal-waste-derived nitrates in ground water.Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to

  19. Cathodic protection simulation of above ground storage tank bottom: Experimental and numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Marcelo [Inspection Department, Rio de Janeiro Refinery - REDUC, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brasil, Simone L.D.C. [Chemistry School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baptista, Walmar [Corrosion Department, Research Centre - CENPES, Petrobras (Brazil); Miranda, Luiz de [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Program, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brito, Rosane F. [Corrosion Department, Research Centre, CENPES, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The deterioration history of Above ground Storage Tanks (AST) of Petrobras' refineries - shows that the great incidence of corrosion in the AST bottom is at the external side. This is a problem in the disposability of storage crude oil and other final products. At this refinery, all AST's are built over a concrete base with a lot of pile to support the structure and distribute the charge homogeneously. Because of this it is very difficult to use cathodic protection as an anti-corrosive method for each one of these tanks. This work presents an alternative cathodic protection system to protect the external side of the tank bottom using a new metallic bottom, placed at different distance from the original one. The space between the two bottoms was filled with one of two kinds of soils, sand or clay, more conductive than the concrete. Using a prototype tank it was studied the potential distributions over the new tank bottom for different system parameters, as soil resistivity, number and position of anodes localized in the old bottom. These experimental results were compared to numerical simulations, carried out using a software based on the Boundary Element Method. The computer simulation validates this protection method, confirming to be a very useful tool to define the optimized cathodic protection system configuration. (authors)

  20. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  1. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are

  2. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings ' ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.' Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    for approximately one-sixth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control results showed that the environmental data were of good quality, with low bias and low variability, and resulted in censoring of less than 0.3 percent of the detections found in ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CADPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CADPH. VOCs and pesticides were detected in approximately half of the grid wells, and all detections in samples from CESJO wells were below health-based thresholds. All detections of nutrients and major elements in grid wells also were below health-based thresholds. Most detections of constituents of special interest, trace elements, and radioactive constituents in samples from grid wells were below health-based thresholds. Exceptions included two detections of arsenic that were above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US), one detection of lead above the USEPA action level (AL-US), and one detection of vanadium and three detections of 1,2,3-TCP that were above the CADPH notification levels (NL-CA). All detections of radioactive constituents were below health-based thresholds, although fourteen samples had activities of radon-222 above the lower proposed MCL-US. Most of th

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    , replicate samples, matrix spike samples) were collected for approximately one-third of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control information from the field blanks resulted in applying 'V' codes to approximately 0.1 percent of the data collected for ground-water samples (meaning a constituent was detected in blanks as well as the corresponding environmental data). See the Appendix section 'Quality-Control-Sample Results'. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is delivered to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. VOCs were detected in about one-half of the grid wells, while pesticides were detected in about one-fifth of the grid wells. Concentrations of all VOCs and pesticides detected in samples from all SFBAY wells were below health-based thresholds. No pharmaceutical compounds were detected in any SFBAY well. One potential wastewater-indicator compound, caffeine, was detected in one grid well in SFBAY. Concentrations of most trace elements and nutrients detected in samples from all SFBAY wells were below health-based thresholds. Exceptions include nitrate, detected above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in 3samples; arsenic, above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in 3 samples; c

  5. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravotta, C.A. III

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (< 5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only

  6. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  7. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  8. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chhipa, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality in north-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluoride and potassium, p H, turbidity, temperature) were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70), Lalawas (362.74,396.67), Jaisinghpura area (286.00, 273.78) were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium. Saipura (122.52, 131.00), Naila (120.25, 239.86), Galta (160.9, 204.1) were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  9. Aquatic landscapes - 9. Magdeburg seminar on surface water protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The conference was attended by scientists and practical experts in ecology and water management. Results of BMBF research projects on ecology and pollutant freight of the Elbe and other big European rivers were presented. IKSE experts and Elbe water management experts presented their findings. Trends are presented since 1990. Subjects: Catchment area management; Monitoring concepts and modelling; Land use and water quality; High-water protection; Pollution and biodiversity in polder areas; Immigration of exotic species; Pollution from industry, mining and landfills [de

  10. Age of ground water and the origin of its salinity in the Leba region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwaterkiewicz, A.; Sadurski, A.; Zuber, A.

    1999-01-01

    Intensive exploitation of ground waters in the Leba region caused a strong increase of salinity, which on the basis of hydrochemistry, was supposed to result from the intrusion of the Baltic Sea water. Environmental isotope data revealed that water in the tertiary sediments is of glacial origin and its salinity is related to the admixture of ascending older waters. (author)

  11. Protecting food, energy, and livelihoods in Punjab through water ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Since 2008, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) and Columbia University ... Farmers have little incentive to change their practices when electricity ... Protecting access to water from urban sprawl, climate change in South Asia.

  12. Ground-water and geohydrologic conditions in Queens County, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, Julian

    1971-01-01

    Queens County is a heavily populated borough of New York City, at the western end of Long Island, N. Y., in which large amounts of ground water are used, mostly for public supply. Ground water, pumped from local aquifers, by privately owned water-supply companies, supplied the water needs of about 750,000 of the nearly 2 million residents of the county in 1967; the balance was supplied by New York City from surface sources outside the county in upstate New York. The county's aquifers consist of sand and gravel of Late Cretaceous and of Pleistocene ages, and the aquifers comprise a wedge-shaped ground-water reservoir lying on a southeastward-sloping floor of Precambrian(?) bedrock. Beds of clay and silt generally confine water in the deeper parts of the reservoir; water in the deeper aquifers ranges from poorly confined to well confined. Wisconsin-age glacial deposits in the uppermost part of the reservoir contain ground water under water-table conditions. Ground water pumpage averaged about 60 mgd (million gallons per day) in Queens County from about 1900 to 1967. Much of the water was used in adjacent Kings County, another borough of New York City, prior to 1950. The large ground-water withdrawal has resulted in a wide-spread and still-growing cone of depression in the water table, reflecting a loss of about 61 billion gallons of fresh water from storage. Significant drawdown of the water table probably began with rapid urbanization of Queens County in the 1920's. The county has been extensively paved, and storm and sanitary sewers divert water, which formerly entered the ground, to tidewater north and south of the county. Natural recharge to the aquifers has been reduced to about one half of the preurban rate and is below the withdrawal rate. Ground-water levels have declined more than 40. feet from the earliest-known levels, in 1903, to 1967, and the water table is below sea level in much of the county. The aquifers are being contaminated by the movement of

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site

  14. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Assessment of Ground Water in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiti, S.Y.; Ali, M.M.; Yousef, L.A.; Dessouki, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The recharge rate is the most critical factor to ground water resources especially in semi- arid and arid areas. Fourteen representative ground water samples were collected from South Eastern Desert of Egypt and subjected to chemical and isotopic composition. The chemical data reported that, the alkalinity (ph) ranges between 6.5 and 8.5, the salinity of water ranges between 396 and 7874 ppm, sodium is the most dominant cation and chloride is the most dominant anion. The concentration of trace elements (Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mn) was analyzed to evaluate the suitability for drinking and irrigation. Uranium and thorium concentrations were found within the safe limit. Most of ground water was found suitable for drinking water, laundry, irrigation, building, industrial, livestock and poultry. The environmental stable isotopes (D and 18 O) and the radioactive isotope 3 H were evaluated for water samples of the investigated area to focus on the origin of the ground water, sources of recharging and the water rock interaction between aquifers and water. The isotopic compositions of these ground water samples indicated that, there are three different sources of recharge; paleo-water, local precipitation and rain water

  15. Management of Water Resources and Protected Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cezar Leal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available According to Carl Sagan (1934-1996 water is the singular element gives color and life to this pale blue dot of the solar system we inhabit - the Earth. Interspersed by five large oceans, there are terrestrial ecosystems, which house a diverse set of living beings and, also, more water in different forms. In this arena of life, mankind has evolved, created its own media and ecosystems, moving away from the natural world (Thomas 2010. This contrast has led us to face planetary crises never before experienced by our species, such as loss of biodiversity, global climate change, and changes in biogeochemical fluxes (Steffen et al. 2015. These crises, in addition to water crises, threaten our quality of life and even our ability to survive.

  16. Water protection in the Republic of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjanovic, Z.; Damjanovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Construction of municipal and industrial sewerage systems in Serbia during the past decades was not harmonized with the development of water supply which resulted in significant getting behind in solving problems of evacuation of waste and storm waters. In addition, treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater has so far been considered an unnecessary burden to the national economy. The efficiency of the existing treatment plants/facilities for municipal and industrial wastewater is at minimum. Accidental pollution coming through international rivers to our regions (two recent pollution waves in the Tisa river being the most drastic example) revealed to a certain degree incompetence of the institutions to provide needed services concerning information and organizational tasks while monitoring transport and assessing pollution impact. Among the zones and objects which suffered the most severe damage caused by the bombing of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999 are the water supply resources in Novi Sad (destroyed oil refinery is situated nearby the main resource of underground water), Kraljevo (serious lack of drinking water caused by the increase of consumers when 50 000 refugees from Kosovo settled in the area) and the settlements which are supplied by the water from alluvial aquifers along the Danube river, downstream from the oil refinery in the town of Pancevo. In the Republic of Serbia, the plants/facilities for treatment of municipal wastewater were built in the following towns: Arandjelovac, Bor, Becej, Vlasotince, Velika Plana, Vrsac, Gornji Milanovac, Dimitrovgrad, Kladovo, Kragujevac, Kikinda, Medvedja, Negotin, Paracin, Pozarevac, Sombor, Surdulica, Soko Banja and Ruma. Treatment plants have not usually been tested for working conditions. In rear instances when the tests were conducted, the applied methodology was inadequate. It is very difficult to estimate efficiency of treatment plants/facilities based on the existing investigations because of

  17. Management of Water Resources and Protected Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Cezar Leal; Carlos Christian Della Giustina; Cristiane Gomes Barreto; Vivian da Silva Braz

    2017-01-01

    According to Carl Sagan (1934-1996) water is the singular element gives color and life to this pale blue dot of the solar system we inhabit - the Earth. Interspersed by five large oceans, there are terrestrial ecosystems, which house a diverse set of living beings and, also, more water in different forms. In this arena of life, mankind has evolved, created its own media and ecosystems, moving away from the natural world (Thomas 2010). This contrast has led us to face planetary crises never be...

  18. Occurrence of Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Little existing information was available describing pesticide occurrence in ground water of Wyoming, so the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality on behalf of the Wyoming Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee, collected ground-water samples twice (during late summer/early fall and spring) from 296 wells during 1995-2006 to characterize pesticide occurrence. Sampling focused on the State's ground water that was mapped as the most vulnerable to pesticide contamination because of either inherent hydrogeologic sensitivity (for example, shallow water table or highly permeable aquifer materials) or a combination of sensitivity and associated land use. Because of variations in reporting limits among different compounds and for the same compound during this study, pesticide detections were recensored to two different assessment levels to facilitate qualitative and quantitative examination of pesticide detection frequencies - a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter and an assessment level that differed by compound, referred to herein as a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL). Because of severe data censoring (fewer than 50 percent of the data are greater than laboratory reporting limits), categorical statistical methods were used exclusively for quantitative comparisons of pesticide detection frequencies between seasons and among various natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. One or more pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than the CAL in water from about 23 percent of wells sampled in the fall and from about 22 percent of wells sampled in the spring. Mixtures of two or more pesticides occurred at concentrations greater than the CAL in about 9 percent of wells sampled in the fall and in about 10 percent of wells sampled in the spring. At least 74 percent of pesticides detected were classified as herbicides

  19. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  20. Recreational trails reduce the density of ground-dwelling birds in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  1. Charter on ground-water management as adopted by the Economic Commission for Europe at its forty-fourth session (1989) by decision E (44)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Ground water - as a natural resource with both ecological and economic value is of vital importance for sustaining life, health and the integrity of ecosystems. This resource is, however, increasingly threatened by over-use and insidious long-term effects of pollution. Pollution comes from both point sources and diffuse sources. Potential risks or actual impacts could permanently impair underground water resources, with far-reaching and unpredictable implications for present and future generations. Action is urgently needed. The Charter on Ground-water Management provides policy measures for such action. The Charter on Ground-water Management gives broad support to ECE member Governments in their common endeavors to protect ground water by providing planners and decision-makers with appropriate policy instruments. Publication of the Charter is intended to heighten public awareness of the need for concerted action to protect ground water. The Commission has recommended that member Governments apply the provisions of the Charter when formulating, adopting and implementing water-related policies and strategies at both national and international levels

  2. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  3. Use of tree-ring chemistry to document historical ground-water contamination events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The annual growth rings of tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) appear to preserve a chemical record of ground-water contamination at a landfill in Maryland. Zones of elevated iron and chlorine concentrations in growth rings from trees immediately downgradient from the landfill are closely correlated temporally with activities in the landfill expected to generate iron and chloride contamination in the ground water. Successively later iron peaks in trees increasingly distant from the landfill along the general direction of ground-water flow imply movement of iron-contaminated ground water away from the landfill. The historical velocity of iron movement (2 to 9 m/yr) and chloride movement (at least 40 m/yr) in ground water at the site was estimated from element-concentration trends of trees at successive distances from the landfill. The tree-ring-derived chloride-transport velocity approximates the known ground-water velocity (30 to 80 m/yr). A minimum horizontal hydraulic conductivity (0.01 to .02 cm/s) calculated from chloride velocity agrees well with values derived from aquifer tests (about 0.07 cm/s) and from ground-water modeling results (0.009 to 0.04 cm/s).

  4. Colloid Detection in Natural Ground Water from Ruprechtov by Laser-Induced Breakdown Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, W.; Geckeis, H.; Goetz, R. [FZK - Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Ka rlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: hauser@ine.fzk.de; Noseck, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Laciok, A. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc, Waste and Environmental Management Dept., Husinec-Rez, PSC 250 68 (Czech Republic)

    2007-06-15

    A borehole ground water sampling system and a mobile laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) equipment for colloid detection combined with a geomonitoring unit have been applied to characterize the natural background colloid concentration in ground waters of the Ruprechtov natural analogue site (Czech Republic). Ground water has been sampled using steel cylinders. To minimize artifacts during ground water sampling the contact to atmospheric oxygen has been excluded. The ground water samples collected in this way are transported to the laboratory where they have been connected to a series of flow-through detection cells. Argon gas is used to press the ground water through these detection cells for colloid analysis (LIBD), pH, Eh, electrical conductivity and oxygen content. After the above mentioned analysis additional samples are taken for chemical analysis by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, IC- and DOC-detection. Our data obtained by in-situ- and laboratory- measurements point out that the natural colloid concentration found at the Ruprechtov site is a strong function of the ground water ionic strength. The LIBD determined natural background colloid concentrations found at Ruprechtov are compared with data of studies performed in Aespoe (Sweden) and Grimsel (Switzerland)

  5. Corrosion of dissimilar metal crevices in simulated concentrated ground water solutions at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Quinn, M.J

    2003-01-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada is under consideration by the US Department of Energy. The proposed facility will be located in the unsaturated zone approximately 300 m below the surface and 300 m above the water table. The proposed waste container consists of an outer corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 shell surrounding a 316 NG stainless steel structural inner container that encapsulates the used nuclear fuel waste. A titanium drip shield is proposed to protect the waste container from ground water seepage arid rock-fail. A cycle of dripping/evaporation could result in the generation of concentrated aggressive solutions, which could contact the waste container. The waste container material could be susceptible to crevice corrosion from such solutions. The experiments described in this report support the modeling of waste package degradation processes. The intent was to provide parameter values that are required to model crevice corrosion chemistry, as it relates to hydrogen pick-up, and stress corrosion cracking for selected candidate waste package materials. The purpose of the experiments was to study the crevice corrosion behavior of various candidate materials under near freely corroding conditions and to determine the pH developed in crevice solutions. Experimental results of crevice corrosion of dissimilar metal pairs (Alloy 22, Grade-7 and -16 titanium and 316 stainless steel) immersed in a simulated concentrated ground water at {approx}90{sup o}C are reported. The corrosion potential was measured during exposure periods of between 330 and 630 h. Following the experiments, the pH of the crevice solution was measured. The results indicate that a limited degree of crevice acidification occurred during the experiment. The values for corrosion potential suggest that crevice corrosion may have initiated. The total corrosion was limited, with little visible evidence for crevice corrosion being observed on the sample coupon faces

  6. Corrosion of dissimilar metal crevices in simulated concentrated ground water solutions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Quinn, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada is under consideration by the US Department of Energy. The proposed facility will be located in the unsaturated zone approximately 300 m below the surface and 300 m above the water table. The proposed waste container consists of an outer corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 shell surrounding a 316 NG stainless steel structural inner container that encapsulates the used nuclear fuel waste. A titanium drip shield is proposed to protect the waste container from ground water seepage arid rock-fail. A cycle of dripping/evaporation could result in the generation of concentrated aggressive solutions, which could contact the waste container. The waste container material could be susceptible to crevice corrosion from such solutions. The experiments described in this report support the modeling of waste package degradation processes. The intent was to provide parameter values that are required to model crevice corrosion chemistry, as it relates to hydrogen pick-up, and stress corrosion cracking for selected candidate waste package materials. The purpose of the experiments was to study the crevice corrosion behavior of various candidate materials under near freely corroding conditions and to determine the pH developed in crevice solutions. Experimental results of crevice corrosion of dissimilar metal pairs (Alloy 22, Grade-7 and -16 titanium and 316 stainless steel) immersed in a simulated concentrated ground water at ∼90 o C are reported. The corrosion potential was measured during exposure periods of between 330 and 630 h. Following the experiments, the pH of the crevice solution was measured. The results indicate that a limited degree of crevice acidification occurred during the experiment. The values for corrosion potential suggest that crevice corrosion may have initiated. The total corrosion was limited, with little visible evidence for crevice corrosion being observed on the sample coupon faces. The

  7. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this paragraph. (b) Separate monitoring systems for each waste management component of a facility are... which circumscribes the several waste management components. (c) All monitoring wells must be cased in a... Section 265.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  8. Ground-water resources of Gregg County, Texas, with a section on Stream runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Breeding, S.D.

    1950-01-01

    mentioned (except coral reef), but the best yields are obtained from the alluvium. A maximum yield of 80 gallons a minute was obtained from a gravel-packed well in the alluvial valley at Fair Plain. Further exploration of the alluvium is recommended. The weathered diorite also appears to be a fairly good water-bearing formation. Test drilling showed that deep water- bearing formations should probably not be expected beneath the Tertiary rocks. Most of the ground waters of St. Croix contain a moderately high mineral content owing to the solution of rock-forming minerals and the deposition of alkali and salt spray in the soil. Only a few wells are contaminated by sea water. The low hardness of some highly mineralized waters is believe due to base exchange. The most highly mineralized waters are found in the alluvium in areas with alkali soil and in some places in the Tertiary limestones where presumably soluble salts were deposited in those strata. The least mineralized waters are found in shallow wells in the alluvial near the foot of the mountains and in the areas of dioritic rock. Many well waters in Croix, if properly protected from contamination might be entirely suited to human consumption. Although many waters are hard, they are used for domestic purposes. Most waters, even those high in chloride, are reported to be excellent for cattle consumption. Most ground waters in St. Croix cannot be used for boiler feed without treatment but are used for o*her purposes in the manufacture of sugar and rum. A brief discussion of the results of test drilling by the National Park Service in 1940-41 is also given.

  9. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is vital to the livelihood of communities in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins in Nebraska, and ground water is used to irrigate most of the cropland. Concerns about the sustainability of ground-water and surface-water resources have prompted State and regional agencies to evaluate the cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation in this area. To facilitate understanding of the effects of ground-water irrigation, a numerical computer model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and assess the effects of ground-water irrigation (including ground-water withdrawals, hereinafter referred to as pumpage, and enhanced recharge) on stream base flow. The study area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and includes the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk, Nebraska, and the Loup River Basin upstream from Columbus, Nebraska. The water-table aquifer consists of Quaternary-age sands and gravels and Tertiary-age silts, sands, and gravels. The simulation was constructed using one layer with 2-mile by 2-mile cell size. Simulations were constructed to represent the ground-water system before 1940 and from 1940 through 2005, and to simulate hypothetical conditions from 2006 through 2045 or 2055. The first simulation represents steady-state conditions of the system before anthropogenic effects, and then simulates the effects of early surface-water development activities and recharge of water leaking from canals during 1895 to 1940. The first simulation ends at 1940 because before that time, very little pumpage for irrigation occurred, but after that time it became increasingly commonplace. The pre-1940 simulation was calibrated against measured water levels and estimated long-term base flow, and the 1940 through 2005 simulation was calibrated against measured water-level changes and estimated long-term base flow. The calibrated 1940 through 2005 simulation was used as the basis for analyzing hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the effects of

  10. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507 Water... means for distributing and applying the water to protect personnel; to cool storage tanks, equipment...

  11. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  12. Ground Water Recharge Estimation Using Water Table Fluctuation Method And By GIS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajja, V.; Bekkam, V.; Nune, R.; M. v. S, R.

    2007-05-01

    Quite often it has become a debating point that how much recharge is occurring to the groundwater table through rainfall on one hand and through recharge structures such as percolation ponds and checkdams on the other. In the present investigations Musi basin of Andhra Pradesh, India is selected for study during the period 2005-06. Pre-monsoon and Post-monsoon groundwater levels are collected through out the Musi basin at 89 locations covering an area11, 291.69 km2. Geology of the study area and rainfall data during the study period has been collected. The contour maps of rainfall and the change in groundwater level between Pre-monsoon and Post- monsoon have been prepared. First the change in groundwater storage is estimated for each successive strips of areas enclosed between two contours of groundwater level fluctuations. In this calculation Specific yield (Sy) values are adopted based on the local Geology. Areas between the contours are estimated through Arc GIS software package. All such storages are added to compute the total storage for the entire basin. In order to find out the percent of rainfall converted into groundwater storage as well as to find out the ground water recharge due to storageponds, a contour map of rainfall for the study area is prepared and areas between successive contours have been calculated. Based on the Geology map, Infiltration values are adopted for each successive strip of the contour area. Then the amount of water infiltrated into the ground is calculated by adjusting the infiltration values for each strip, so that the total infiltrated water for the entire basin is matched with change in Ground water storage, which is 1314.37 MCM for the upper Musi basin while it is 2827.29 MCM for entire Musi basin. With this procedure on an average 29.68 and 30.66 percent of Rainfall is converted into Groundwater recharge for Upper Musi and for entire Musi basin respectively. In the total recharge, the contribution of rainfall directly to

  13. General and Localized corrosion of Austenitic and Borated Stainless Steels in Simulated Concentrated Ground Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, D.; Estill, J.; Wong, L.; Rebak, R.

    2004-01-01

    Boron containing stainless steels are used in the nuclear industry for applications such as spent fuel storage, control rods and shielding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion resistance of three borated stainless steels with standard austenitic alloy materials such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels. Tests were conducted in three simulated concentrated ground waters at 90 C. Results show that the borated stainless were less resistant to corrosion than the witness austenitic materials. An acidic concentrated ground water was more aggressive than an alkaline concentrated ground water

  14. Ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is a former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in ground water beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define ground water contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Solving this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  15. Implications of an assessment of potential organic contamination of ground water at an inactive uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Laws and regulations concerning remedial actions at inactive uranium mills explicitly recognize radiological and nonradiological hazards and may implicitly recognize the potential presence of hazardous wastes at these mill sites. Ground-water studies at the sites have placed an increasing emphasis on screening for priority pollutants. The Grand Junction, Colorado, mill site was deemed to have a high potential for the presence of organic compounds in ground water, and was chosen as a prototype for assessing the presence of organic compounds in ground water at inactive sites. Lessons learned from the assessment of organics at the Grand Junction site were used to develop a screening procedure for other inactive mill sites

  16. Implementation plan for the programmatic environmental impact statement for the Department of Energy UMTRA Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up contamination to protect human health and the environment at 24 inactive uranium processing sites located in 10 states. Five of the sites are either on or near Native American lands. The UMTRA Project is divided into two projects: Surface and Ground Water. On November 18, 1992, the DOE issued a notice of intent (57 FR 54374, 1992) to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The PEIS will result in a record of decision that will determine how the UMTRA Ground Water Project will address ground water contamination resulting from milling operations at the UMTRA Project processing sites. DOE regulations (10 CFR section 1021.312) require that an implementation plan be prepared to provide guidance for preparing a PEIS and to record the results of the scoping process. This implementation plan describes and records the results of the PEIS scoping process; summarizes comments received and their disposition; describes the purpose of and need for agency action, the proposed action, and alternatives; lists alternatives considered and eliminated from review; identifies cooperating agencies, their roles, and responsibilities; provides a draft PEIS outline, which includes the planned PEIS scope and content (Attachment A); and provides a schedule for the PEIS process. This plan will be placed in the UMTRA Project libraries listed in Attachment B. The PEIS will identify and evaluate the potential impacts associated with alternatives for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The PEIS will not assess site-specific impacts; site-specific impacts must be analyzed in separate National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents that will tier off the PEIS. This tiering process will streamline the preparation of site-specific NEPA documents

  17. Ground Water Quality Determination of former Lake Haramaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Dawa Water Bureau laboratory and Haramaya University laboratory. ... total colifoms above the guideline value and it reveal the necessity of treatment before use. ... Harer Town Water Supply and Sewerage Authority. ..... The small TDS value.

  18. Flow and geochemistry along shallow ground-water flowpaths in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, D.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Water-quality and geohydrologic data were collected from 19 monitor wells and a stream in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin. These sites were located along a 2,700-ft transect from a local ground-water high to the stream. The transect is approximately parallel to the horizontal direction of ground-water flow at the water table. Most of the wells were installed in unconsolidated deposits at five locations along the transect and include an upgradient well nest, a midgradient well nest, a downgradient well nest, wells in the lowland area near the stream, and wells installed in the stream bottom. The data collected from this study site were used to describe the water quality and geohydrology of the area and to explain and model the variations in water chemistry along selected ground-water flowpaths.

  19. Grounding Water: Building Conceptual Understanding through Multimodal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kerry L.; Thomas-Hilburn, Holly; Haverland, Arin

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is growing by about 80 million people a year, implying an estimated increased freshwater demand of about 64 billion cubic meters annually (World Water Assessment Programme, 2009, Water in a Changing World: United Nations World Water Development Report 3, Chap. 1, p. 3-21). Groundwater depletion, which reduces the amount of…

  20. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  1. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer

  2. Protection against deposits and corrosion in water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, J

    1978-11-01

    Industry generally, including mining and coal preparation, are in the habit of using large amounts of untreated service water. The service water can be softened or treated with hardness stabilisers in order to prevent deposit formation and corrosion. As often as not, deposits of dirt and attack by microorganisma also have to be eliminated. The article puts forward some suggestions for practical assistance in protecting water systems against the dangers of deposits and corrosion.

  3. Effect of Neutral Grounding Protection Methods for Compensated Wind/PV Grid-Connected Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Çetinkaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the wind/PV grid-connected system (GCS can be categorized as technical, environmental, and economic impacts. It has a vital impact for improving the voltage in the power systems; however, it has some negative effects such as interfacing and fault clearing. This paper discusses different grounding methods for fault protection of High-voltage (HV power systems. Influences of these grounding methods for various fault characteristics on wind/PV GCSs are discussed. Simulation models are implemented in the Alternative Transient Program (ATP version of the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP. The models allow for different fault factors and grounding methods. Results are obtained to evaluate the impact of each grounding method on the 3-phase short-circuit fault (SCF, double-line-to-ground (DLG fault, and single-line-to-ground (SLG fault features. Solid, resistance, and Petersen coil grounding are compared for different faults on wind/PV GCSs. Transient overcurrent and overvoltage waveforms are used to describe the fault case. This paper is intended as a guide to engineers in selecting adequate grounding and ground fault protection schemes for HV, for evaluating existing wind/PV GCSs to minimize the damage of the system components from faults. This research presents the contribution of wind/PV generators and their comparison with the conventional system alone.

  4. Preliminary report on the geology and ground-water supply of the Newark, New Jersey, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpers, Henry; Barksdale, Henry C.

    1951-01-01

    In the Newark area, ground water is used chiefly for industrial cooling, air-conditioning, general processing, and for sanitary purposes. A small amount is used in the manufacture of beverages. Total ground-water pumpage in Newark is estimated at not less than 20,000,000 gallons daily. The Newark area is underlain by formations of Recent, Pleistocene and Triassic age, and the geology and hydrologic properties of these formations are discussed. Attention is called to the important influence of a buried valley in the rock floor beneath the Newark area on the yield of wells located within it. Data on the fluctuation of the water levels and the variation in pumpage are presented, and their significance discussed. The results of a pumping test made during the investigation were inconclusive. The beneficial results of artificially recharging the aquifers in one part of the area are described. The intrusion of salt water into certain parts of the ground-water body is described and graphically portrayed by a map showing the chloride concentration of the ground water in various parts of the City. Insofar as available data permit, the chemical quality of the ground water is discussed and records are given of the ground-water temperatures in various parts of the City. There has been marked lowering of the water table in the eastern part of the area, accompanied by salt water intrusion, indicating that the safe yield of the formations in this part of Newark has probably been exceeded. It is recommended that the study of the ground-water resources of this area be continued, and that artificial recharging of the aquifers be increased over as wide an area as possible.

  5. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-02-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The US Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. 12 refs., 4 figs

  6. Copepod communities from surface and ground waters in the everglades, south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M.C.; Cunningham, K.J.; Perry, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We studied species composition and individual abundance of copepods in the surficial aquifer northeast of Everglades National Park. We identified the spatial distribution of subsurface habitats by assessing the depth of the high porosity layers in the limestone along a canal system, and we used copepods to assess the exchange between surface water and ground water along canal banks, at levels in the wells where high porosity connections to the canals exist. Surface- and ground-water taxa were defined, and species composition was related to areal position, sampling depth, and time. Subsurface copepod communities were dominated by surface copepods that disperse into the aquifer following the groundwater seepage along canal L-31N. The similarities in species composition between wells along canal reaches, suggest that copepods mainly enter ground water horizontally along canals via active and passive dispersal. Thus, the copepod populations indicate continuous connections between surface- and ground waters. The most abundant species were Orthocyclops modestus, Arctodiaptomus floridanus, Mesocyclops edax, and Thermocyclops parvus, all known in literature from surface habitats; however, these species have been collected in ground water in ENP. Only two stygophiles were collected: Diacylcops nearcticus and Diacyclops crassicaudis brachycercus. Restoration of the Everglades ecosystem requires a mosaic of data to reveal a complete picture of this complex system. The use of copepods as indicators of seepage could be a tool in helping to assess the direction and the duration of surface and ground water exchange.

  7. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The U.S. Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. Computer code used: SWIFT II (flow and transport code). 4 figs., 12 refs

  8. 40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and propagation of a... maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and... § 125.61. (b) Impact of discharge on public water supplies. (1) The applicant's modified discharge must...

  9. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report. In-Situ Bioremediation of MTBE in Ground Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Karen

    2003-01-01

    ... (methyl-tert-butyl-ether) and other dissolved gasoline components. It was implemented at the Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, CA to prevent further contamination of ground water by MTBE leaching from gasoline contaminated soils...

  10. IMPACT OF TURBIDITY ON TCE AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated particulate concentrations in ground water samples can bias contaminant concentration data. This has been particularly problematic for metal analyses where artificially increased turbidity levels can affect metals concentrations and confound interpretation of the data. H...

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  13. Ground-Water-Quality Data for Selected Wells in the Beaver Creek Watershed, West Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Shannon D

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, began an investigation of the quality of ground water in the Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee...

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  15. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  16. Further development of the methodical instruments to calculate ground water movements at repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Clauser, C.; Fein, E.; Karpinski, P.; Storck, R.

    1990-06-01

    In addition to the subsequent requirements concerning the Konrad plan approval procedure, other ground water and propagation calculations were also made. All available programs were used. Simple one- and two-dimensional models were considered for which an analytical solution exists. In some cases such analytical solutions are only approximate under certain conditions. By calculating such simple problems, the programs used were tested and verified, and the use of those programs was reviewed and documented. In addition to the finite-difference program SWIFT and the finite-element program CFEST, two other ground water and propagation programs were applied: 1) Finite-difference program MOL, two-dimensional propagation program for ground water flow; 2) SUTRA, two-dimensional hybrid finite-element and integrated finite-difference model for ground water flow and radionuclide migration. (orig./HP) [de

  17. METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL FOR GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION FROM GEOTHERMAL FLUID RELEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides analytical methods and graphical techniques to predict potential ground water contamination from geothermal energy development. Overflows and leaks from ponds, pipe leaks, well blowouts, leaks from well casing, and migration from injection zones can be handle...

  18. Geologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lite, Kenneth E.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2002-12-10

    Ground water is increasingly relied upon to satisfy the needs of a growing population in the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon. Hydrogeologic studies are being undertaken to aid in management of the ground-water resource. An understanding of the geologic factors influencing ground-water flow is basic to those investigations. The geology of the area has a direct effect on the occurrence and movement of ground water. The permeability and storage properties of rock material are influenced by the proportion, size, and degree of interconnection of open spaces the rocks contain. These properties are the result of primary geologic processes such as volcanism and sedimentation, as well as subsequent processes such as faulting, weathering, or hydrothermal alteration. The geologic landscape in the study area evolved during about 30 million years of volcanic activity related to a north-south trending volcanic arc, the current manifestation of which are today’s Cascade Range volcanoes.

  19. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-11-02

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Existence of Insecticides in Tap Drinking Surface and Ground Water in Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Mandour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The environmental degradation products of pesticides may enter drinking water and result in serious health problems. Objective: To evaluate the occurrence of insecticides in drinking surface and ground water in Dakahlyia Governorate, northern Egypt in 2011. Methods: We studied blood samples collected from 36 consecutive patients diagnosed with pesticides poisoning and 36 tap drinking water (surface and ground. Blood and water samples were analyzed for pesticides using gas chromatography-electron captured detector (GC-ECD. In addition, blood samples were analyzed for plasma pseudo-cholinesterase level (PChE and red blood cells acetyl cholinesterase activity (AChE. Results: The results confirmed the presence of high concentrations of insecticides, including organonitrogenous and organochlorine in tap drinking surface and ground water. Conclusion: Drinking water contaminated with insecticides constitutes an important health concern in Dakahlyia governorate, Egypt.

  1. Crop modelling and water use efficiency of protected cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moujabber, M.; Atallah, Th.; Darwish, T.

    2002-01-01

    Crop modelling is considered an essential tool of planning. The automation of irrigation scheduling using crop models would contribute to an optimisation of water and fertiliser use of protected crops. To achieve this purpose, two experiments were carried. The first one aimed at determining water requirements and irrigation scheduling using climatic data. The second experiment was to establish the influence of irrigation interval and fertigation regime on water use efficiency. The results gave a simple model for the determination of the water requirements of protected cucumber by the use of climatic data: ETc=K* Ep. K and Ep are calculated using climatic data outside the greenhouse. As for water use efficiency, the second experiment highlighted the fact that a high frequency and continuous feeding are highly recommended for maximising yield. (author)

  2. Ground water in Delhi area, problems and prospects under fast urbanisation- a nuclear aided study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, P.; Datta, P.S.; Chandrasekharan, H.; Tyagi, S.K.; Singh, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The work presented in this paper constitutes a peep into the components of urbanization in the two decades which affected the quality and availability of ground water in the Delhi territory. The recharge studies conducted in Delhi villages employing oxygen 18 and tritium tagging have been described with a view to focus attention on the sustainability of the ground water potential. 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.; Voss, C.I.

    1999-09-01

    The present report analyzes the geochemical data in order to evaluate collection and interpretation techniques that will be used to site the repository and to assess its safety. Ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) may be grouped into five chemically and isotopically distinct water types, on the basis of their deuterium and chloride contents: 1) recent waters, 2) 5 g/L chloride waters, 3) deep waters, 4) seawater imprint waters, and 5) glacial melt waters. The sampled ground waters show a progressive change from a predominantly NaHCO 3 composition at shallow depth to a CaCl 2 -rich composition at depth. Despite the proximity of the Baltic, relatively few of the sampled ground waters contain any evidence of a seawater component. This finding, together with the rather shallow depths at which saline waters were found, indicates that Aespoe island is presently in a regional ground-water discharge area. The chemical and isotopic composition of the sampled waters also indicates that local recharge of dilute recent waters occurs only down to shallow depths (generally less than 100 in). The Aespoe ground waters are sulfidic and do not presently contain any dissolved oxygen. Measured E H values are generally near -300 mV, and on average are only about 50 mV lower than E H values calculated from the sulfide/sulfate couple. Maintenance of reducing conditions, such as presently found at the Aespoe HRL, is an important consideration in assessing the performance of nuclear waste disposal sites. Measurements of dissolved radon and of uranium concentrations in fracture-fill materials were used to calculate an average effective flow-wetted surface area of 3.1 m 2 per liter of water for the Aespoe site. Estimation of flow-wetted surface areas is essential in determining the importance of matrix diffusion and surface sorption processes for radionuclide release calculations. The Rn calculation technique shows promise in helping narrow the possible range of values

  5. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  6. Quality of the ground water in basalt of the Columbia River group, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair

    1972-01-01

    The ground water within the 50,000-square-mile area of the layered basalt of the Columbia River Group is a generally uniform bicarbonate water having calcium and sodium in nearly equal amounts as the principal cations. water contains a relatively large amount of silica. The 525 chemical analyses indicate that the prevalent ground water is of two related kinds--a calcium and a sodium water. The sodium water is more common beneath the floors of the main synclinal valleys; the calcium water, elsewhere. In addition to the prevalent type, five special types form a small part of the ground water; four of these are natural and one is artificial. The four natural special types are: (1) calcium sodium chloride waters that rise from underlying sedimentary rocks west of the Cascade Range, (2) mineralized water at or near warm or hot springs, (3) water having unusual ion concentrations, especially of chloride, near sedimentary rocks intercalated at the edges of the basalt, and (4) more mineralized water near one locality of excess carbon dioxide. The one artificial kind of special