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Sample records for ground water chemical

  1. CHEMICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TEHRAN GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For better understanding of Tehran ground water, samples were taken randomly from 340 out of 655 deep & semi deep wells in 1993, which dug by Tehran Water Supply and Sewage Engineering Company. 260 Water specimens were examined chemically and physically and compared with the 1993 World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO criteria and analyzed statistically. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 53 deep wells which are now connected to Tehran water supply system showed Sodium- Sulphate category. Main chemical components of water are closely adjusted to the international standards and no overdoses were observed in any cases. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 72 deep wells, which were rsed for the Tehran’s orbital town's drinking water, showed that chemical components of the water were Calcic-Chloride category and there were not observed any increases within the other compounds.

  2. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during convention

  3. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  4. CHEMICAL REACTIONS SIMULATED BY GROUND-WATER-QUALITY MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

  5. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  6. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  7. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  8. Chemical Analyses of Ground Water in the Carson Desert near Stillwater, Churchill County, Nevada, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbury, DeEtta; Walker, Mark; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected in 2005 from domestic wells located in the Stillwater area of the Carson Desert (fig. 1). These data were evaluated for evidence of mixing with nearby geothermal waters (Fosbury, 2007). That study used several methods to identify mixing zones of ground and geothermal waters using trace elements, chemical equilibria, water temperature, geothermometer estimates, and statistical techniques. In some regions, geothermal sources influence the chemical quality of ground water used for drinking water supplies. Typical geothermal contaminants include arsenic, mercury, antimony, selenium, thallium, boron, lithium, and fluoride (Webster and Nordstrom, 2003). The Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking water standards for these, with the exception of boron and lithium. Concentrations of some trace metals in geothermal water may exceed drinking water standards by several orders of magnitude. Geothermal influences on water quality are likely to be localized, depending on directions of ground water flow, the relative volumes of geothermal sources and ground water originating from other sources, and depth below the surface from which water is withdrawn. It is important to understand the areal extent of shallow mixing of geothermal water because it may have adverse chemical and aesthetic effects on domestic drinking water. It would be useful to understand the areal extent of these effects.

  9. INVESTIGATIONS OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STATUS OF GROUND WATER OF SINGRAULI DISTRICT, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Pandey et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground water is the most preferred water source in current scenario. Once believed to be safe from pollution as it is available many band below the surface, is now provided to be prone to pollution by research investigators. Various causes associated for the contamination of ground water. The major cause of the contamination of ground water may be due to improper disposal of industrial waste. The effort was made to assess the quality of ground water and thrash out the portability of ground water by physico-chemical temperament. Present study was carried out to assess the ground water quality of Singrauli district an energy hub station of Madhya Pradesh state of India Study was conduct in year 2012 by selecting 13 different spots, covered all the four directions of Singrauli. Ground water samples were taken from different sources such as bore well, well water, municipal supplier water etc. Investigations of Physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater quality based on Physico-chemical parameters have been taken up to evaluate its suitability for different objects. Quality analysis has been made through in terms of pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkalinity. Comparative studies of collected samples indicated that there is no appreciable change in the different parameters during sampling season. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and ICMR. The results showed that high total hardness content indicating the need of some treatment for minimization. Other investigated samples were found within the water quality standards but the quality of water is not completely favorable as per standard human requirement. Water is not completely fit for drinking purpose due to improper management of disposal of industrials, mines waste or garbage in these local energy hub environments.

  10. Some physico-chemical characteristics of ground water in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using multimeter, conductimeter and pH-meter; nutrients (nitrogen, ... As the world is ushered into the modern era of civilization, water and its ... Groundwater is one of the major sources of freshwater to human society ..... edition), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. 5. ... Crisis: A guide to the world's fresh water resources. Oxford ...

  11. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  12. Physical and chemical data for ground water in the Michigan basin, 1986-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, G.T.; Baltusis, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 459 wells located in the Michigan basin as part of a Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. Data on the physical and chemical characteristics of 476 ground-water samples from these wells represent ground-water characteristics in the Berea Sandstone, Coldwater Shale, Marshall Sandstone, Michigan Formation, Bayport Limestone, Saginaw Formation, Grand River Formation, and glacial deposits. Ground-water samples were measured in the Geld for specific conductance, temperature, and alkalinity. Analyses of ground water for concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, total iron, and sulfide were also done in the field. Additional laboratory analysis provided data on eight major and 18 minor inorganic constituents. Twenty-one samples were analyzed for tritium, 140 samples were analyzed for carbon-13, and 19 samples were analyzed for carbon-14. The stable-isotope ratio of deuterium to hydrogen was determined for 408 samples; the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 was determined for 433 samples; and the ratio of sulfur-34 to sulfur-32 was determined for 20 samples. Sixteen samples were analyzed for the unstable isotopes of uranium; 13 samples were analyzed for radium-226; and the ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 was determined for 13 samples.

  13. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to characterize the interactions between ground water and surface water in mantled karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Coplen, T.B.; Bullen, T.D.; Hal, Davis J.

    1997-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrane of northern Florida, the water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer is influenced by the degree of connectivity between the aquifer and the surface. Chemical and isotopic analyses [18O/16O (??18O), 2H/1H (??D), 13C/12C (??13C), tritium(3H), and strontium-87/strontium-86(87Sr/86Sr)]along with geochemical mass-balance modeling were used to identify the dominant hydrochemical processes that control the composition of ground water as it evolves downgradient in two systems. In one system, surface water enters the Upper Floridan aquifer through a sinkhole located in the Northern Highlands physiographic unit. In the other system, surface water enters the aquifer through a sinkhole lake (Lake Bradford) in the Woodville Karst Plain. Differences in the composition of water isotopes (??18O and ??D) in rainfall, ground water, and surface water were used to develop mixing models of surface water (leakage of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer from a sinkhole lake and a sinkhole) and ground water. Using mass-balance calculations, based on differences in ??18O and ??D, the proportion of lake water that mixed with meteoric water ranged from 7 to 86% in water from wells located in close proximity to Lake Bradford. In deeper parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, water enriched in 18O and D from five of 12 sampled municipal wells indicated that recharge from a sinkhole (1 to 24%) and surface water with an evaporated isotopic signature (2 to 32%) was mixing with ground water. The solute isotopes, ??13C and 87Sr/86Sr, were used to test the sensitivity of binary and ternary mixing models, and to estimate the amount of mass transfer of carbon and other dissolved species in geochemical reactions. In ground water downgradient from Lake Bradford, the dominant processes controlling carbon cycling in ground water were dissolution of carbonate minerals, aerobic degradation of organic matter, and hydrolysis of silicate minerals. In the deeper parts of the Upper

  14. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.

  16. Anions Analysis in Ground and Tap Waters by Sequential Chemical and CO2-Suppressed Ion Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Andrew D. De Vera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An ion chromatographic method using conductivity detection with sequential chemical and CO2 suppression was optimized for the simultaneous determination of fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate,phosphate and sulfate in ground and tap water. The separation was done using an anion exchange column with an eluent of 3.2 mM Na2CO3 and 3.2 mM NaHCO3 mixture. The method was linear in the concentration range of 5 to 300 μg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 for the six inorganic anions. The method was also shown to be applicable in trace anions analysis as given by the low method detection limits (MDL. The MDL was 1μg/L for both fluoride and chloride. Bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate had MDLs of 7 μg/L, 10 μg/L, 9 μg/L and 2 μg/L, respectively. Good precision was obtained as shown in the relative standard deviation of 0.1 to 12% for peak area and 0.1 to 0.3% for retention time. The sensitivity of the method improved with the addition of CO2 suppressor to chemical suppression as shown in the lower background conductivity and detection limits. The recoveries of the anions spiked in water at 300 μg/L level ranged from 100 to 104%. The method was demonstrated to be sensitive, accurate and precise for trace analysis of the six anions and was applied in the anions analysis in ground and tap waters in Malolos, Bulacan. The water samples were found to contain high concentrations of chloride of up to 476 mg/L followed by sulfate (38 mg/L, bromide (1 mg/L, phosphate (0.4 mg/L, fluoride (0.2 mg/L and nitrate (0.1 mg/L.

  17. Records of wells and springs, water levels, and chemical quality of ground water in the East Portland area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Hogenson, G.M.; Hampton, E.R.

    1964-01-01

    Data are presented on more than 300 wells, including many new ones whose records will not be a part of a forthcoming interpretative report on the occurrence of ground water in this area. A brief description of the geomorphic features is given, and the characteristics of the rock units are summarized in a table. Principal aquifers are beds of loose sand and gravel in the early Pliocene Troutdale Formation, late Pleistocene fluviolacustrine deposits, and Recent alluvium. Locally, Columbia River Basalt (Miocene) and the Boring Lava (late Pliocene to Pleistocene) yield substantial amounts of wate.. In addition to well records there are 124 driller's logs and a table of chemical analyses of the ground water.

  18. Li isotopes reflect chemical weathering intensity in streams and ground waters draining basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Rudnick, R. L.; McDonough, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering has an important influence on continental crust evolution, as weathering of basalt preferentially removes soluble elements, such as Mg, and can shift the crust composition towards more andesitic compositions, thus helping to solve the crustal composition paradox [1]. The isotopic compositions of soluble elements (e.g., Li and Mg) provide a monitor of chemical weathering of the continents. Along with large isotopic fractionations [2], these elements are preferentially transferred to rivers during weathering, and are useful tracers of weathering processes. The chemical and isotopic compositions of streams and ground waters that reside entirely within the Columbia River Basalts (CRBs) reflect the processes associated with basalt weathering. In addition, stream samples from both west and east of the Cascades were collected during summer and late winter to evaluate seasonal changes in Li isotopic compositions. The Li concentrations ([Li]) vary from 0.2 to 4.7 μg/l in dissolved loads of streams for both sampling seasons; in ground waters, [Li] varies from 2 to 21 μg/l. δ7Li varies by up to 20‰ in streams and ground waters, demonstrating that lithology is not the only influence on water chemistry in the catchments. Calculated mineral saturation suggests that most streams and some ground waters were saturated with respect to most secondary minerals, implying that Li isotopic fractionation was influenced by the development of secondary minerals, such as kaolinite and hematite. The δ7Li and Li/Na in dissolved loads of streams are not sensitive to distance from the coast or climate, but likely reflect the local weathering intensity. The correlated variation in δ7Li and Li/Na ratios seem to have global significance, at least in streams that only drain basalts [3, 4, 5], suggesting that the streams within the CRBs cover a wide range of weathering intensity, with low δ7Li and high Li/Na corresponding to higher weathering intensity. In addition

  19. Chemical reactions of uranium in ground water at a mill tailings site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelouas, A.; Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1998-11-01

    We studied soil and ground water samples from the tailings disposal site near Tuba City, AZ, located on Navajo sandstone, in terms of uranium adsorption and precipitation. The uranium concentration is up to 1 mg/l, 20 times the maximum concentration for ground water protection in the United States. The concentration of bicarbonate (HCO 3-) in the ground water increased from ≤7×10 -4 M, the background concentration, to 7×10 -3 M. Negatively charged uranium carbonate complexes prevail at high carbonate concentrations and uranium is not adsorbed on the negatively charged mineral surfaces. Leaching experiments using contaminated and uncontaminated sandstone and 1 N HCl show that adsorption of uranium from the ground water is negligible. Batch adsorption experiments with the sandstone and ground water at 16°C, the in situ ground water temperature, show that uranium is not adsorbed, in agreement with the results of the leaching experiments. Adsorption of uranium at 16°C is observed when the contaminated ground water is diluted with carbonate-free water. The observed increase in pH from 6.7 to 7.3 after dilution is too small to affect adsorption of uranium on the sandstone. Storage of undiluted ground water to 24°C, the temperature in the laboratory, causes coprecipitation of uranium with aragonite and calcite. Our study provides knowledge of the on-site uranium chemistry that can be used to select the optimum ground water remediation strategy. We discuss our results in terms of ground water remediation strategies such as pump and treat, in situ bioremediation, steam injection, and natural flushing.

  20. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on

  1. Study on Some Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Ground Water of District Rampur - A Statistical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Susheel Kumar Sindhu; Amit Sharma

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study has been carried out to explore the water quality index of ground water of various tehsils of Rampur district. Twenty five water samples from tube wells, open wells and hand pumps at various locations were collected and analyzed for pH, nitrate, turbidity, total dissolve solid, chlorides, total hardness, alkalinity and fluoride. In this study overall water quality of Rampur district is very poor and unsuitable for drinking purpose. Water quality of Bilaspur, Shahabad and Ra...

  2. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Davis, J. Wade; Hormann, Anette M.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized thataselected subset of chemicalsusedin natural gas drilling operationsandalso surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas–related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operationsmayresult in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STATUS OF GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF PARBHANI DISTRICT (M.S., INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Dhale et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground water is the most preferred water source in recent day. Once believed to be safe from pollution as it is available many strata below the surface, is now provided to be prone to pollution by many researchers across the world. The contamination of ground water may be due to improper disposal of domestic and industrial west water. A study was carried out to assess the ground water quality of Parbhani District, one of the most important agro plantation areas of Maharashtra State (India. The present work was undertaken to assess the ground water quality and discus the potability of ground water by collecting data of physio-chemical characters of ground water. The study was carried out in years 2007 by selecting 10 spots, situated in Parbhani District. Nineteen water quality parameters of water of all sites were estimated following standard methods and procedures of sampling and estimation. Comparison of estimated values with W.H.O. The physio-chemical parameter such as Temperature, colour, odour, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, total hardness (TH, calcium (Ca++, magnesium (Mg++, total alkalinity (TA, bicarbonate (HCO3-, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, chloride (Cl-, fluoride (F- nitrate (NO-3 and sulphate (SO--4 were studied. Variations in these values were observed. The sampling point S6 and S7 showed high total hardness content indicating the need of some treatment for minimization of the parameters. Other sites water under investigation was found physicochemical parameters within the water quality standards and the quality of water is good and it is fit for drinking purpose.

  4. Records of wells and chemical analyses of ground water in Hand and Hyde counties, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, K.M.; Koch, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Well and chemical groundwater data contained in three tables were collected during a 4-year study started in 1972 to determine the geology and water resources of Hand and Hyde Counties, South Dakota. Physical, hydrologic, and geologic data for 2,729 wells and test holes have been entered into computer storage in the Groundwater Site Inventory File of the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System WATSTORE. Water quality data from 300 chemical analyses has been stored in the Water Quality File of WATSTORE and is computer printed int he chemical analyses table by aquifer. (USGS)

  5. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  6. Status Of Physico-Chemical Parameter Of Ground Water Of Gorakhpur City U.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district by collecting 20 samples of water from hand pump from 20 locations well distributed with in Gorakhpur district were analyzed for different parameters such as pH electric conductivity chloride total free chlorine hardness fluoride nitrate iron Turbidity potassium. Groundwater is polluted from seepage pits refuse dumps septic tanks barnyards manures transport accident and different pollutant. Important sources of ground water pollution are sewage is dumped in shallow soak pits. It gives rise to cholera hepatitis dysenteries etc. especially in areas with high water table.

  7. Study on Some Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Ground Water of District Rampur - A Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheel Kumar Sindhu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the water quality index of ground water of various tehsils of Rampur district. Twenty five water samples from tube wells, open wells and hand pumps at various locations were collected and analyzed for pH, nitrate, turbidity, total dissolve solid, chlorides, total hardness, alkalinity and fluoride. In this study overall water quality of Rampur district is very poor and unsuitable for drinking purpose. Water quality of Bilaspur, Shahabad and Rampur city shows that water may not be used for drinking as well as domestic purpose. Present study recommends that the top priority should be given to water quality monitoring and indigenous technologies should be adopted to make water fit for drinking after treatment such as defluoridation, desalination.

  8. STUDY OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SURFACE AND GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Al-Ghamdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the natural resources, water is unarguably the most essential and precious. Life began in water and life is nurtured by water. Ninety seven percent of the world’s water is found in oceans. Only 2.5% of the world’s water are non-saline fresh water. Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Water is scarce and extremely valuable and with the country’s rapid growth, the demand for water is increasing. Seven samples of water are collected, six samples from Wells (1-6 and the last sample from Al-Mallah Valley Dam, Mukhwa (7, Al-Mukhwah, in order to find impurities and pollutants and found some suitable solution. Some physical properties of water are measured such as turbidity, conductivity, pH and also, some pollutants such as iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite fluoride, phosphate as well as calcium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride as well as detection of some microorganisms. The results shown that, the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam has a high percentage of turbidity as a result of contamination of water with clay, plant residues and also some dead animals. On the other hand, the samples of ground water have high conductivity and high value of fluoride, nitrite, nitrate contents as well as Mn and Fe. Also the result of microorganisms showed the presence of some the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam can be treated with a very simple method and become suitable for drinking. Also ground water can be treated with a suitable method to reduce the total hardness and some pollutants. But its content of fluoride is higher than that of gulf specifications so it must be treated before used.

  9. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Chelette, A.R.; Pratt, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO3 values (1.7-13.8???) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (??15N-NO3=5.3-8.9???) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index, and phosphate in springs and deep water (>45 m) relative to a shallow zone (<45 m) were associated with longer ground-water transit times (50-90 years). Chemical differences with depth in the aquifer result from deep regional flow of water recharged through low permeability sediments (clays and clayey sands of the Hawthorn Formation) that overlie the UFA

  10. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Chelette, Angela R.; Pratt, Thomas R.

    2004-04-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m 3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO 3 values (1.7-13.8‰) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (δ 15N-NO 3=5.3-8.9‰) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index, and phosphate in springs and deep water (>45 m) relative to a shallow zone (<45 m) were associated with longer ground-water transit times (50-90 years). Chemical differences with depth in the aquifer result from deep regional flow of water recharged through low permeability sediments (clays and clayey sands of the Hawthorn Formation) that overlie the UFA

  11. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF RURAL AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the status of the groundwater in rural areas of Jaipur city. People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants Natural water resources are being contaminated due to weathering of rocks and leaching of soil, mining processing etc. It is necessary that quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval to prevent various water born diseases. In present analysis physico-chemical parameter of drinking water viz. pH, hardness, TDS, residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, Free CO2 have been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 8 villages of Amber District Jaipur, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature and quality of water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory. The main objective of the present paper is to aware people of concerned area about the water quality and concerned health hazards.

  12. Availability and chemical characteristics of ground water in central La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, R.E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The central part of La Plata County, Colo., has undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in central La Plata County include: alluvium, Animas Formation of Quaternary and Tertiary age, Fruitland Formation, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, three formations of the Mesa Verde Group, the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation of Cretaceous and Jurassic age, and undifferentiated formations. Well yields generally are low, usually less than 25 gallons per minute. However, higher yields, 25 to 50 gallons per minute may be found locally in aquifers in the alluvium and the Animas Formation. The quality of water from the aquifers is dependent on rock type. Most of the water is a calcium bicarbonate type. However, aquifers that are predominantly fine-grained or contain interbeds of shale may contain sodium bicarbonate type water. The dissolution of minerals in the coal beds, which are present in the Mesa Verde Group and the Dakota Sandstone, can contribute high concentrations of iron, sulfate, and chloride to ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Geology and ground-water resources of the Big Sandy Creek Valley, Lincoln, Cheyenne, and Kiowa Counties, Colorado; with a section on Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Donald L.; Horr, Clarence Albert

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the geology and ground-water resources of that part of the Big Sandy Creek valley from about 6 miles east of Limon, Colo., downstream to the Kiowa County and Prowers County line, an area of about 1,400 square miles. The valley is drained by Big Sandy Creek and its principal tributary, Rush Creek. The land surface ranges from flat to rolling; the most irregular topography is in the sandhills south and west of Big Sandy Creek. Farming and livestock raising are the principal occupations. Irrigated lands constitute only a sin311 part of the project area, but during the last 15 years irrigation has expanded. Exposed rocks range in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent. They comprise the Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formations, Pierre Shale (all Late Cretaceous), upland deposits (Pleistocene), valley-fill deposits (Pleistocene and Recent), and dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent). Because the Upper Cretaceous formations are relatively impermeable and inhibit water movement, they allow ground water to accumul3te in the overlying unconsolidated Pleistocene and Recent deposits. The valley-fill deposits constitute the major aquifer and yield as much as 800 gpm (gallons per mixture) to wells along Big Sandy and Rush Creeks. Transmissibilities average about 45,000 gallons per day per foot. Maximum well yields in the tributary valleys are about 200 gpm and average 5 to 10 gpm. The dune sand and upland deposits generally are drained and yield water to wells in only a few places. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from direct infiltration of precipitation, which annually averages about 12 inches for the entire basin, and from infiltration of floodwater. Floods in the ephemeral Big Sandy Creek are a major source of recharge to ground-water reservoirs. Observations of a flood near Kit Carson indicated that about 3 acre-feet of runoff percolated into the ground-water reservoir through each acre of the wetted stream channel The downstream decrease in channel and

  14. Evaluation of arsenic and other physico-chemical parameters of surface and ground water of Jamshoro, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_KU2004@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas, E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Sarfraz, Raja Adil, E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jamal, Muhammad Khan, E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com [Government Degree College Usta Muhammad, Balochistan 08300 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2009-07-30

    Arsenic contamination in water has caused severe health problems around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the geological and anthropogenic aspects of As pollution in surface and groundwater resources of Jamshoro Sindh, Pakistan. Hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) is employed for the determination of arsenic in water samples, with detection limit of 0.02 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Arsenic concentrations in surface and underground water range from 3.0 to 50.0, and 13 to 106 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively. In most of the water samples As levels exceeded the WHO provisional guideline values 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The high level of As in under study area may be due to widespread water logging from Indus river irrigation system which causes high saturation of salts in this semi-arid region and lead to enrichment of As in shallow groundwater. Among the physico-chemical parameters, electrical conductivity, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} were found to be higher in surface and ground water, while elevated levels of Ca{sup 2+} and Cl{sup -} were detected only in ground water than WHO permissible limit. The high level of iron was observed in ground water, which is a possible source of As enrichment in the study area. The multivariate technique (cluster analysis) was used for the elucidation of high, medium and low As contaminated areas. It may be concluded that As originate from coal combustion at brick factories and power generation plants, and it was mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the understudy groundwater samples.

  15. Geology and ground-water resources of the Douglas basin, Arizona, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Donald Robert; Cushman, R.L.; Hatchett, James Lawrence

    1955-01-01

    The Douglas basin is part of a large northwest-trending intermontane valley, known as the Sulphur Spring Valley, which lies in southeastern Arizona, and extends into northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Maturely dissected mountains rise abruptly from long alluvial slopes and culminate in peaks 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the valley floor, Bedrock in the mountain areas confines drainage on the east and west, and an arc of low hills to the north separates the basin from the Willcox basin of the Sulphur Spring Valley. Drainage of the 1,200 square miles in the Douglas basin is southward into Mexico through Whitewater Draw. The mountains include igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks ranging in age from pre-Cambrian to Tertiary, including Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that total about 10,000 feet in thickness. The older rocks have been metamorphosed, and all the bedrock has been affected by igneous intrusion, largely in Mesozoic time, and by structural movements, largely in Cenozoic time and extending into the Quaternary period. By the early part of Cenozoic time the major structural features were formed, and mountain ranges had been uplifted above the valley trough along northwest-trending fault zones. Since that time the physiographic features have resulted through erosion of the mountain blocks and the deposition, in places, of more than 2,800 feet of unconsolidated rock debris in the valley. Ground-water supplies of the Douglas basin are developed largely in the saturated zone of the valley-fill sediments. The ground water in the valley fill occurs in thin lenses and strata of sand and gravel, which are interbedded with large thicknesses of silt and day. Scattered gypsum beds and extensive caliche deposits appear at the surface and occur within the valley fill at various depths. Although the valley-fill sediments are as much as 2,800 feet thick, the uppermost 300 feet or so are the most permeable. Ground water originates as precipitation in the mountain areas

  16. Ground-water conditions in the Dutch Flats area, Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, H.M.; Visher, F.N.; Durum, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of

  17. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  19. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  20. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological quality of ground water from boreholes and shallow wells in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    Groundwater from boreholes and shallow wells is a major source of drinking water in most rural areas of Zimbabwe. The quality of groundwater has been taken for granted and the status and the potential threats to groundwater quality have not been investigated on a large scale in Zimbabwe. A borehole and shallow well water quality survey was undertaken between January, 2009 and February, 2010 to determine the chemical and microbial aspects of drinking water in three catchment areas. Groundwater quality physico-chemical indicators used in this study were nitrates, chloride, water hardness, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, fluoride, sulphates, sodium and pH. The microbiological indicators were total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophs. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the variation in ground water quality in all catchment areas is accounted for by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, bicarbonate and magnesium. The principal dissolved constituents in ground water are in the form of electrically charged ions. Nitrate is a significant problem as the World Health Organization recommended levels were exceeded in 36%, 37% and 22% of the boreholes in the Manyame, Mazowe and Gwayi catchment areas respectively. The nitrate levels were particularly high in commercial farming areas. Iron and manganese also exceeded the recommended levels. The probable source of high iron levels is the underlying geology of the area which is dominated by dolerites. Dolerites weather to give soils rich in iron and other mafic minerals. The high level of manganese is probably due to the lithology of the rock as well as mining activity in some areas. Water hardness is a problem in all catchment areas, particularly in the Gwayi catchment area where a value of 2550 mg/l was recorded in one borehole. The problems with hard water use are discussed. Chloride levels exceeded the

  1. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  2. Chemical Quality of Ground Water from Shallow Wells in Galambi a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    concentrations than WHO standards for drinking water. Consequently, relevant treatment procedures are strongly ... the container and decaying effect of any organic content. ... The measurements of pH, total dissolved solids ... Department of Chemistry Laboratory, Federal ..... Rahaman, M.A., Recent advances in the study.

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics of the ground water table after monsoon: a case study at central Travancore in Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar S Vishnu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water quality plays an important role in maintaining plant and animal life. Lack of good quality drinking water and water for sanitation cause health problems. Water quality characteristics arise from a group of physical, chemical and biological factors. The dynamic balance of the aquatic system can be destroyed by human activities resulting in water pollution.Well water has traditionally considered as a safe resource of water for consumption without treatment and extensively used for individual water supply in rural and many urban areas.In this paper a preliminary analysis is done to explore the water quality of selected wells in order to correlate the effect of pollution on water quality at these locations. Water samples are collected from different regions of Vazhappally area located on central travancore of Kerala. These sites are important because people depend only on well water for drinking purpose. The samples are collected from ten locations and analyzed for chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, salinity, turbidity, acidity, alkainity, hardness, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and Iron content. Samples are also analysed for coliform bacteria which cause pathogenic diseases. Remarkable differences are observed mainly in biological oxygen demand, acidity and hardness. Finally, an attempt has been done to correlate the observed chemical parameters and the waterquality standards. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10501 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 20-27

  4. Water quality and chemical evolution of ground water within the north coast limestone aquifers of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Mas, Angel J.; Lee, Roger W.

    1985-01-01

    Waters within the north coastal limestoneaquifers are suitable for public supply, industrial and agricultural uses. For the artesian aquifer and the updip parts of the watertable aquifer, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ionic species with total dissolved solids and chloride concentrations below 500 and 250 mg/L, respectively. In coastal areas of thewater table aquifer, where a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone occurs, the calcium bicarbonate facie grade to a sodium-chloride facie. Within this zone, concentrations of total dissolved solids and chloride are greater than 250 and 500 mg/L respectively, affecting the suitability of the water for some uses. Geochemical models were constructed to determine the physical and chemicalreasons for the prevailing water quality patterns of the north coastlimestone aquifers. Models indicate that calcite and carbon dioxide dissolution, precipitation or degassing are the primary processes. The mixing of recharge water or saltwater with aquifer waters is an important feature within the water table aquifer. The models provide further evidence that support the circulation of groundwater within the north coast limestone.

  5. Flow pattern and related chemical quality of ground water in the "500-foot" sand in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edwin Allen; Nyman, Dale J.

    1968-01-01

    water occurs in the northwestern part of the area. The variations in chemical quality of water en route through the '500-foot' sand are virtually proportional to increases or decreases of the major chemical constituents. The variations are chiefly attributed to the mixing or blending of water from different directions or sources of recharge as wells are pumped. As water levels are lowered by continuous pumping in the future, increasing rates of recharge from the outcrop areas and from shallow aquifers will probably cause little, if any, change in chemical quality of the water. Certainly, the effects on quality are not expected to be detrimental. Although future changes in chemical quality of water in the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area will probably be neither intense nor extensive, some changes can be anticipated as a result of man's activities associated with the continued growth and development of the area. Increased pumping at existing pumping centers will deepen existing cones of depression and thereby increase gradients. These increases will not necessarily cause a change in chemical quality unless the increases in pumping are unevenly distributed. If a major well field were developed in the '500-foot' sand in the southwestern part of the Memphis area, little change in quality would result because water would be caused to move toward the well field from both the northwest and southeast. This movement would not affect the blending of updip and downdip water at other well fields If water were impounded in the Wolf River a few miles upstream from Memphis, the impoundment could furnish recharge, at least temporarily, to the '500-foot' sand. It is improbable that any detrimental effects on the chemical quality of the water supply of Memphis would result, because the water in the impoundment would probably be softer ,and less mineralized than the water in the '500-foot' sand in that area.

  6. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  7. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  8. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  9. An update of the distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in perched ground water, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastes generated at facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (known as the Test Reactor Area [TRA] until 2005), and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Disposal of wastewater to infiltration ponds and infiltration of surface water at waste burial sites resulted in formation of perched ground water in basalts and in sedimentary interbeds above the Snake River Plain aquifer. Perched ground water is an integral part of the pathway for waste-constituent migration to the aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to monitor the movement of radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater discharged from facilities to both perched ground water and the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-quality and water-level data collected from wells completed in perched ground water at the INL during 1999-2001, and summarizes historical disposal data and water-level-and water-quality trends. At the RTC, tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, dissolved chromium, chloride, sodium, and sulfate were monitored in shallow and deep perched ground water. In shallow perched ground water, no tritium was detected above the reporting level. In deep perched ground water, tritium concentrations generally decreased or varied randomly during 1999-2001. During October 2001, tritium concentrations ranged from less than the reporting level to 39.4?1.4 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL). Reportable concentrations of tritium during July-October 2001 were smaller than the reported concentrations measured during July-December 1998. Tritium concentrations in water from wells at the RTC were likely affected by: well's distance from the

  10. Geology and ground water in the Platte-Republican Rivers watershed and the Little Blue River basin above Angus, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.R.; Brennan, Robert

    1960-01-01

    saturation because the ground water, as it percolates southeastward beneath the area, moves out of the Tertiary and into the Quaternary deposits without apparent hindrance. The water that enters the area as underflow from the west is augmented within the area by water that infiltrates from the land surface. The principal sources of irrigating water are precipitation, seepage from canals and reservoirs, and applied irrigation water. Except for the water withdrawn through wells or discharged by natural processes where valleys have been cut into the zone of saturation, ground water leaves the area as underflow into the Platte River valley on the north, the Blue River drainage basin on the east, or the Republican River valley on the south. Part of the water used for irrigation and watering livestock and all the water used in rural and urban homes, in public buildings, and for industrial purposes is obtained from wells, To date (1952) there is no indication that the supply of ground water is being depleted faster than it is being replenished; instead, studies indicate that greater quantities can be withdrawn without causing an excessive decline of the water table. An increase of ground-water withdrawals to a sustainable maximum, however, will be possible only if the points of withdrawal are scattered fairly uniformly. It is estimated that annual withdrawals per township should not exceed 2,100 acre-feet where infiltrating precipitation is the only source of recharge, or 3,000 acre-feet where other sources of recharge are significant. Although perennial withdrawals of this amount could be sustained indefinitely, they would cause some lowering of the water table and eventually a decrease in the amount of water discharged from the area by natural means. The ground water is of the calcium bicarbonate type. In much of the area it is hard or very hard, and in places it contains excessive amounts of iron. In all other respects the water is chemically suitable for domesti

  11. Environmental factors and chemical and microbiological water-quality constituents related to the presence of enteric viruses in ground water from small public water supplies in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stopar, Julie; Luzano, Emma J.; Fout, G. Shay

    2004-01-01

    A study of small public ground-water-supply wells that produce water from discontinuous sand and gravel aquifers was done from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan. Samples were collected to determine the occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicators of fecal contamination (indicators), determine whether indicators are adequate predictors of the presence of enteric viruses, and determine the factors that affect the presence of enteric viruses. Small systems are those that serve less than 3,300 people. Samples were analyzed for specific enteric viruses by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for culturable viruses by cell culture, and for the indicators total coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, and F-specific and somatic coliphage. Ancillary environmental and water-quality data were collected or compiled. A total of 169 regular samples and 32 replicate pairs were collected from 38 wells. Replicate pairs were samples collected at the same well on the same date. One well was sampled 6 times, 30 wells were sampled five times, 6 wells were sampled twice, and 1 well was sampled once. By use of RT-PCR, enterovirus was found in four wells (10.5 percent) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in five wells (13.2 percent). In two of these wells, investigators found both enterovirus and HAV, but on different sampling dates. Culturable viruses were found one time in two wells (5.9 percent), and neither of these wells was positive for viruses by use of RT-PCR on any sampling date. If results for all viruses are combined, 9 of the 38 small public-supply wells were positive for enteric viruses (23.7 percent) by either cell culture or RT-PCR. One or more indicators were found in 18 of 38 wells. Total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and F-specific and somatic coliphage were found in 34.2, 10.5, 15.8, 5.9, and 5.9 percent, respectively, of the wells tested. In only 3 out of 18 wells were samples positive for an indicator on

  12. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  13. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  14. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  15. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.

    2017-06-01

    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONSTITUENTS RELATED TO THE PRESENECE OF VIRUSES IN GROUND WATER FROM SMALL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-eight public ground-water-supply wells serving fewer than 3,300 people were sampled from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan to determine (1) the occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicators, (2) the adequacy of indicators as predictors of...

  17. Distribution and Chemical Speciation of Some Elements in the Ground Waters of Oban Area (South-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Ekwere

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The computer modeling programs, PHREEQC and VISUAL MINTEQ were used to ascertain the distribution, chemical speciation and mineral saturation indices of groundwater in the Oban massif (South- Eastern Nigeria. The prime objective was to determine the potential risk of groundwater by potentially toxic Elements. Results reveals Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr are distributed as free ions. Oxides and hydroxides of iron and manganese are predominant, reflective of mineralogy/geology of the crystalline basement. The groundwater is super-saturated (SI>10, with respect to goethite, hematite, ferrihydrite, jarosite-k, hausmanite, manganite, pyrochroite and pyrolusite. These species are relatively mobile under the prevailing pH-Eh regime, but total concentrations are low and within permissible limits for safe water.

  18. The effectiveness of spent coffee grounds and its biochar on the amelioration of heavy metals-contaminated water and soil using chemical and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Koo, Namin; Park, Jeongsik; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Bak, Gwan-In; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-12-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and charred spent coffee grounds (SCG-char) have been widely used to adsorb or to amend heavy metals that contaminate water or soil and their success is usually assessed by chemical analysis. In this work, the effects of SCG and SCG-char on metal-contaminated water and soil were evaluated using chemical and biological assessments; a phytotoxicity test using bok choy (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Jusl.) was conducted for the biological assessment. When SCG and SCG-char were applied to acid mine drainage, the heavy metal concentrations were decreased and the pH was increased. However, for SCG, the phytotoxicity increased because a massive amount of dissolved organic carbon was released from SCG. In contrast, SCG-char did not exhibit this phenomenon because any easily released organic matter was removed during pyrolysis. While the bioavailable heavy metal content decreased in soils treated with SCG or SCG-char, the phytotoxicity only rose after SCG treatment. According to our statistical methodology, bioavailable Pb, Cu and As, as well as the electrical conductivity representing an increase in organic content, affected the phytotoxicity of soil. Therefore, applying SCG during environment remediation requires careful biological assessments and evaluations of the efficiency of this remediation technology.

  19. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  20. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal

    2016-10-01

    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  1. Review of Knowledge on the Occurrence, Chemical Composition, and Potential Use for Desalination of Saline Ground Water in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas with a Discussion of Potential Future Study Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing demand on the limited supplies of freshwater in the desert Southwest, as well as other parts of the United States, has increased the level of interest in saline-water resources. Saline ground water has long been recognized as a potentially important contributor to water supply in the Southwest, as demonstrated by the number of hydrologic, geologic, and engineering studies on the distribution of saline water and the feasibility of desalination. Potential future study needs include investigating and documenting the three-dimensional distribution of salinity and chemical composition of saline-water resources and the hydraulic properties of aquifers containing these saline-water resources, assessing the chemical suitability of saline water for use with existing and anticipated desalination technologies, simulating the effect of withdrawal of saline ground water on water levels and water composition in saline and adjoining or overlying freshwater aquifers, and determining the suitability of target geologic formations for injection of desalination-generated waste.

  2. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground water used as a source of public supply in southern Missouri : Phase II, April-July, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of public health through quality public ground-water systems is the responsibility of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Missouri, through the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Program. Approximately 95 percent of the public-water supplies in Missouri use ground water as their source of drinking water through more than 3,700 public wells. Karst terrain, intensive agricultural operations, extensive numbers of on-site sewage systems, and poor well construction can lead to chemical and microbiological contamination of the contributing aquifers. Sitespecific studies and routine regulatory monitoring have produced information on the overall quality and potability of the State's public-drinking-water supplies, but little is known about the presence of viruses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, sampled 109 public-water supplies to characterize the physical, chemical, bacterial, and viral conditions in southern Missouri. During April to July 1998, these wells were sampled for nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, indicator bacteria, enteric viruses, and ribonucleic acid and somatic coli phages. These constituents indicate possible surface contamination of the sampled aquifer. Selection of the wells to be sampled depended on the age of the well (pre-1970), land use, geohydrology, and well construction. None of the physical or chemical constituents measured or analyzed exceeded Missouri's Drinking Water Standards set by the Public Drinking Water Program of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The majority of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite, and phosphorus concentrations were below the laboratory's minimum reporting levels. There were a greater number of detects above the minimum reporting level with respect to the nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and total organic carbon concentrations. Analyses

  3. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  4. Environmental Effect / Impact Assessment of Industrial Effulent on Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Parmod Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aim of investigation is physical and chemical parameters of ground water and soil. By selected Physical and chemical parameters it is found that (1.Biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD are directly proportional to each other where dissolved oxygen (DO is indirectly proportional to BOD and COD. (2. Total dissolved solids, alkalinity and hardness are significantly higher in pre monsoon and winter season as compared to monsoon season.(3. High values of different parameters of ground water sources indicate the influence of industrial wastes on ground water.

  5. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  6. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  7. Iowa ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The population served by ground-water supplies in Iowa (fig. L4) is estimated to be about 2,392,000, or 82 percent of the total population (U.S. Geological Survey, 1985, p. 211). The population of Iowa is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the State (fig. IB), with 59 percent residing in rural areas or towns of less than 10,000 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982). Surficial aquifers, the Jordan aquifer, and aquifers that form the uppermost bedrock aquifer in a particular area are most commonly used for drinking-water supplies and usually provide ample amounts of good quality water. However, naturally occurring properties or substances such as hardness, dissolved solids, and radioactivity limit the use of water for drinking purposes in some areas of each of the five principal aquifers (fig. 2/4). Median concentrations of nitrate in all aquifers and radium-226 in all aquifers except the Jordan are within the primary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986a). Median concentrations for dissolved solids in the surficial, Dakota, and Jordan aquifers exceed secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b).

  8. Hydrologic characterization of the Fry Canyon, Utah site prior to field demonstration of reactive chemical barriers to control radionuclide and trace-element contamination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftz, D.L.; Freethey, G.W. [Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, J.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The Fry Canyon Site in southeastern Utah has been selected as a long term demonstration site to assess the performance of selected reaction barrier technologies for the removal of uranium and other trace elements from ground water. Objectives include site characterization and evaluation of barrier technologies.

  9. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Nielson, Ashley; Eacret, Robert J.; Myers, Andrew; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2008. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights. utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/ GW2009.pdf.

  10. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Enright, Michael; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2007. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2008.pdf.

  11. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2007-01-01

    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/newUTAH/GW2007.pdf.

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  13. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  14. Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ali H; Uliana, Matthew; Wade, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotopes of delta(18)O, delta(2)H, and (13)C, radiogenic isotopes of (14)C and (3)H, and ground water chemical compositions were used to distinguish ground water, recharge areas, and possible recharge processes in an arid zone, fault-bounded alluvial aquifer. Recharge mainly occurs through exposed stream channel beds as opposed to subsurface inflow along mountain fronts. This recharge distribution pattern may also occur in other fault-bounded aquifers, with important implications for conceptualization of ground water flow systems, development of ground water models, and ground water resource management. Ground water along the mountain front near the basin margins contains low delta(18)O, (14)C (percent modern carbon [pmC]), and (3)H (tritium units [TU]), suggesting older recharge. In addition, water levels lie at greater depths, and basin-bounding faults that locally act as a flow barrier may further reduce subsurface inflow into the aquifer along the mountain front. Chemical differences in ground water composition, attributed to varying aquifer mineralogy and recharge processes, further discriminate the basin-margin and the basin-center water. Direct recharge through the indurated sandstones and mudstones in the basin center is minimal. Modern recharge in the aquifer is mainly through the broad, exposed stream channel beds containing coarse sand and gravel where ground water contains higher delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU). Spatial differences in delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU) and occurrences of extensive mudstones in the basin center suggest sluggish ground water movement, including local compartmentalization of the flow system.

  15. Nitrate in ground water and water sources used by riparian trees in an agricultural watershed: A chemical and isotopic investigation in southern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, Stephen C.; Magner, J.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates processes that affect nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath riparian zones in an agricultural watershed. Nitrate pathways in the upper 2 m of groundwater were investigated beneath wooded and grass-shrub riparian zones next to cultivated fields. Because trees can be important components of the overall nitrate pathway in wooded riparian zones, water sources used by riparian trees and possible effects of trees on nitrate concentrations in groundwater were also investigated. Average nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater beneath the cultivated fields were 5.5 mg/L upgradient of the wooded riparian zone and 3.5 mg/L upgradient of the grass-shrub zone. Shallow groundwater beneath the fields passed through the riparian zones and discharged into streams that had average nitrate concentrations of 8.5 mg/L (as N). Lateral variations of δD values in groundwater showed that mixing among different water sources occurred beneath the riparian zones. In the wooded riparian zone, nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater were diluted by upwelling, nitrate-poor, deep groundwater. Upwelling deep groundwater contained ammonium with a δ15N of 5‰ that upon nitrification and mixing with nitrate in shallow groundwater caused nitrate δ15N values in shallow groundwater to decrease by as much as 19.5‰. Stream water penetrated laterally beneath the wooded riparian zone as far as 19 m from the stream's edge and beneath the grass-shrub zone as far as 27 m from the stream's edge. Nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater immediately upgradient of where it mixed with stream water averaged 0.4 mg/L in the wooded riparian zone and 0.8 mg/L near the grass-shrub riparian zone. Nitrate concentrations increased toward the streams because of mixing with nitrate-rich stream water. Because nitrate concentrations were larger in stream water than shallow groundwater, concentrated nitrate in the streams cannot have come from shallow groundwater at these

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    This is the fortieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2002. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  17. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2001. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  18. Chemometric characterisation of the quality of ground waters from different wells in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Novič, Marjana; Vončina, Ernest; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka; Sovič, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The quality of ground water as a source of drinking water in Slovenia is regularly monitored. One of the monitoring programmes is performed on 5 wells for drinking water supply, 3 industrial wells and 2 ground water monitoring wells. Two hundred and fourteen samples of ground waters were analysed in the time 2003-2004. Samples were gathered from ten different sampling sites and physical chemical measurements were performed. The following 13 physical chemical parameters were regularly controll...

  19. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  20. Availability and chemical quality of ground water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, west-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Robert E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    Parts of the Crystal River and cattle Creek drainage basins near Glenwood Springs, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in the two drainage basins include: alluvium, basalts, the Mesa Verde Formation, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Maroon Formation, Eagle Valley Evaporite, and undifferentiated formations. Except for aquifers in the alluvium, and basalt, well yields are generally low and are less than 25 gallons per minute. Well yields form aquifers in the alluvium and basalt can be as much as several hundred gallons per minute. Water quality is dependent of rock type. Calcium bicarbonate is the predominant type of water in the study area. However, calcium sulfate type water may be found in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite and in the alluvium where the alluvial material has been derived from the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Concentrations of selenium in excess of U.S. Public Health Service standards for drinking water can be found locally in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...

  2. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  3. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  4. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  6. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples from the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 1993 through January 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D.W.; Schlottmann, J.L.; Ferree, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate general ground-water- quality conditions and contaminant locations in the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples from 36 observation wells in 12 well nests were analyzed. The well nests are located along three roads near the Rio Grande--two well nests near Paseo del Norte, five well nests near Monta?o Road, and five well nests near Rio Bravo Boulevard. The water samples were collected from October 19, 1993, through January 18, 1994. Water-quality types by major-ion composition were calcium bicarbonate (found in most samples), sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and calcium sulfate chloride. Nutrients were detected in all but one sample. Ammonia was detected in 34 samples, nitrite in 4 samples, and nitrate in 17 samples. Orthophosphate was detected in 31 samples. Organic carbon was detected in all samples collected. The trace elements arsenic and barium were detected in all samples and zinc in 31 samples. Fourteen samples contained detectable copper. Cadmium was detected in one sample, chromium in two samples, lead in four samples, and selenium in two samples. Mercury and silver were not detected.

  7. Ground-water flow related to streamflow and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voast, W. A.; Novitzki, R.P.

    1968-01-01

    A ground-water flow system in southwestern Minnesota illustrates water movement between geologic units and between the land surface and the subsurface. The flow patterns indicate numerous zones of ground-water recharge and discharge controlled by topography, varying thicknesses of geologic units, variation in permeabilities, and the configuration of the basement rock surface. Variations in streamflow along a reach of the Yellow Medicine River agree with the subsurface flow system. Increases and decreases in runoff per square mile correspond, apparently, to ground-water discharge and recharge zones. Ground-water quality variations between calcium sulfate waters typical of the Quaternary drift and sodium chloride waters typical of the Cretaceous rocks are caused by mixing of the two water types. The zones of mixing are in agreement with ground-water flow patterns along the hydrologic section.

  8. Thermal use of ground water; Thermische Grundwassernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathomen, N.; Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.; Osterkorn, F.

    2002-07-01

    This article discusses possible regional changes in ground water temperature caused by thermal use of the ground water in heat pump installations and by the infiltration of cooling water. The article reports on investigations made into the influence of ground water usage in the community of Altach in the Rhine Valley in Austria. The procedures used and the geology of the area investigated are described and the results of the measurements that were made are presented. The mathematical modelling of regional long-term heat transport is presented. The results of simulations are compared with long-term temperature measurements. The use of the results as a basis for the assessment of permissible thermal use of ground water is discussed.

  9. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  10. Artificial recharge of humic ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzfar, M; Villumsen, A; Grøn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of soil in removing natural organic matter from humic ground waters using artificial recharge. The study site, in western Denmark, was a 10,000 ml football field of which 2,000 m2 served as an infiltration field. The impact of the artificial recharge was studied by monitoring the water level and the quality of the underlying shallow aquifer. The humic ground water contained mainly humic adds with an organic carbon (OC) concentration of 100 to 200 mg C L(-1). A total of 5,000 mS of humic ground water were sprinkled onto the infiltration field at an average rate of 4.25 mm h(-1). This resulted in a rise in the water table of the shallow aquifer. The organic matter concentration of the water in the shallow aquifer, however, remained below 2.7 mg C L(-1). The organic matter concentration of the pore water in the unsaturated zone was measured at the end of the experiment. The organic matter concentration of the pore water decreased from 105 mg C L(-1) at 0.5 m to 20 mg C L(-1) at 2.5 m under the infiltration field indicating that the soil removed the organic matter from the humic ground water. From these results we conclude that artificial recharge is a possible method for humic ground water treatment.

  11. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  12. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  13. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  14. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics.

  15. Hydrology and geochemistry of thermal ground water in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The study area occupies about 14,500 square miles in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada. Thermal ground water occurs under artesian conditions, in discontinuous or compartmented zones, in igneous or sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age. Ground-water movement is generally northward. Temperatures of the ground water range from about 30/sup 0/ to more than 80/sup 0/C. Chemical analyses of water from 12 wells and 9 springs indicate that nonthermal waters are a calcium bicarbonate type; thermal waters are a sodium bicarbonate type. Chemical geothermometers indicate probable maximum reservoir temperatures are near 100/sup 0/C. Concentration of tritium in the thermal water water is near zero.

  16. Field-scale testing of a two-stage bioreactor for removal of creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: Chemical and biological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middaugh, D.P.; Lantz, S.E.; Heard, C.S.; Mueller, J.G.

    1993-11-15

    A two-stage, field-scale bioreactor system was used to determine the efficacy of bioremediation of creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)- contaminated ground water at the abandoned American Creosote Works (ACW) site in Pensacola, Florida. In separate 15-day runs of the field-scale (454L) system, bioreactor performance in the presence of specially-selected microbial inoculants was compared to that observed using non-specific biomass. Results obtained with specialty organisms in the first run of the field-scale bioreactor showed that, on average, 70.6% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles were degraded. Only 36.9% of the pentachlorophenol (PCP) present was biodegraded. In the second run, microorganisms from an industrial waste water treatment facility averaged 51.0% biodegradation of PAHs and heterocycles. Degradaton of PCP was 81.0%, a value substantially higher than in the first run. Reductions in toxicity/teratogenicity were also observed for effluent from the second run of the field-scale bioreactor but the magnitude of toxicity reduction was less than in the first run.

  17. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  18. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  19. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

  20. Water law, with special reference to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1951-01-01

    This report was prepared in July 1950 at the request of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission. It followed the report entitled Water facts in relation to a national water-resources policy," which, in part, has been published as Geological Survey Circular 114 under the title "The water situation in the United States, with special reference to ground water.''

  1. Ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of selected ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Iron and Washington Counties, Utah. The records of the wells include such information as driller 's logs, yield, drawdown, use, and temperature of the well water. There are also records of water levels in selected wells for the period 1973-79, chemical analyses of ground water, records of selected springs, and a tabulation of ground-water withdrawals for 1937-78. (USGS)

  2. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  3. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  4. Chemical Characteristics, Water Sources and Pathways, and Age Distribution of Ground Water in the Contributing Recharge Area of a Public-Supply Well near Tampa, Florida, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Metz, Patricia A.; McBride, William S.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of studies on the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. The main goal of the TANC program was to better understand the source, transport, and receptor factors that control contaminant movement to public-supply wells in representative aquifers of the United States. Studies were first conducted at regional scales at four of the eight TANC study areas during 2002-03 and at small (local) scales during 2003-05 in California, Nebraska, Connecticut, and Florida. In the Temple Terrace study area near Tampa, Florida, multiple chemical indicators and geochemical and ground-water flow modeling techniques were used to assess the vulnerability of a public-supply well in the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer to contamination from anthropogenic and naturally occurring contaminants. During 2003-05, water samples were collected from the public-supply well and 13 surrounding monitoring wells that all tap the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 15 monitoring wells in the overlying surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit that are located within the modeled ground-water contributing recharge area of the public-supply well. Six volatile organic compounds and four pesticides were detected in trace concentrations (well below drinking-water standards) in water from the public-supply well, which had an open interval from 36 to 53 meters below land surface. These contaminants were detected more frequently in water samples from monitoring wells in the overlying clastic surficial aquifer system than in water from monitoring wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. Likewise, nitrate-N concentrations in the public-supply well (0.72-1.4 milligrams per liter) were more similar to median concentrations in the oxic surficial aquifer system (2.1 milligrams per liter) than to median nitrate-N concentrations in the anoxic

  5. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999).In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns.As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of collecting

  6. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  7. Depth to ground water of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a raster-based, depth to ground-water data set for the State of Nevada. The source of this data set is a statewide water-table contour data set constructed...

  8. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  9. Isotopic composition of ground waters from Kufra (Lybia) as indicator for ground water formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swailem, F.M.; Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M. (Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo (Egypt))

    1984-02-01

    The results of the isotopic composition of shallow and deep ground waters from the Kufra region indicate the fossil origin of these waters and that they are not recharged under the present climatic conditions. The virtual absence of tritium and the radiocarbon ages of these waters show that they were formed mainly in the past pluvial periods. Deuterium and oxygen-18 data indicate that the ground waters were recharged under cooler climatic conditions. These results may explain the origin of the large amounts of ground water which existed in the region.

  10. Assessment of physico-chemical characteristics of water in Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, R; Manivannan, P; Raghu, K; Vaideki, S

    2016-12-01

    Water is an important component to human life. The major aims of the present work are to assess the quality of the ground water and its impact in Villupuram District of Tamilnadu. The present study focus to bring an awareness among the people about the quality of ground water by taking water samples from various locations for Physico - Chemical analysis of the ground water. This analysis result was compared with the WHO, ICMR, USPH and European standards of drinking water quality parameters with the following water quality parameters namely pH, Electrical conductivity, Cl, , Na, K, Ca , Mg, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Dissolved oxygen, Fluoride etc. Various chemical methods have been employed to investigate the extent level of pollution in ground water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ground-water flow simulation and chemical and isotopic mixing equation analysis to determine source contributions to the Missouri River alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of the Independence, Missouri, well field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    The city of Independence, Missouri, operates a well field in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Steady-state ground-water flow simulation, particle tracking, and the use of chemical and isotopic composition of river water, ground water, and well-field pumpage in a two-component mixing equation were used to determine the source contributions of induced inflow from the Missouri River and recharge to ground water from precipitation in well-field pumpage. Steady-state flow-budget analysis for the simulation-defined zone of contribution to the Independence well field indicates that 86.7 percent of well-field pumpage is from induced inflow from the river, and 6.7 percent is from ground-water recharge from precipitation. The 6.6 percent of flow from outside the simulation-defined zone of contribution is a measure of the uncertainty of the estimation, and occurs because model cells are too large to uniquely define the actual zone of contribution. Flow-budget calculations indicate that the largest source of water to most wells is the Missouri River. Particle-tracking techniques indicate that the Missouri River supplies 82.3 percent of the water to the Independence well field, ground-water recharge from precipitation supplies 9.7 percent, and flow from outside defined zones of contribution supplies 8.0 percent. Particle tracking was used to determine the relative amounts of source water to total well-field pumpage as a function of traveltime from the source. Well-field pumpage that traveled 1 year or less from the source was 8.8 percent, with 0.6 percent from the Missouri River, none from precipitation, and 8.2 percent between starting cells. Well-field pumpage that traveled 2 years or less from the source was 10.3 percent, with 1.8 percent from the Missouri River, 0.2 percent from precipitation, and 8.3 percent between starting cells. Well-field pumpage that traveled 5 years or less from the source was 36.5 percent, with 27.1 percent from the Missouri River, 1.1 percent

  12. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    percent of the total ground-water flow in the study area. Ground waters in the vicinity of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base can be classified into two compositional groups on the basis of their chemical composition: calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type and sodium chloride-type waters. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type waters are found in the glacial deposits and the Brassfield Limestone, whereas the sodium chloride waters are exclusively associated with the shales. Equilibrium speciation calculations indicate that ground water of the glacial drift aquifer is in equilibrium with calcite, dolomite, and chalcedony, but is undersaturated with respect to gypsum and fluorite. Waters from the shales are slightly supersaturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, and siderite but are undersaturated with respect to chalcedony. Simple-mass balance calculations treating boron as a conservative species indicate that little (< 5 percent) or no recharge from the shales to the glacial drift aquifer takes place. Data on the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicate a meteoric origin for all ground water beneath Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, but the data were inconclusive with respect to identification of distinct isotopic differences between water collected from the glacial drift and bedrock aquifers. Tritium concentrations used to distinguish waters having a pre-and post-1953 recharge component indicate that most water entered the glacial drift aquifer after 1953. This finding indicates that recharge from shallow to deep parts (greater than 150 feet) of the aquifer takes place over time intervals of a few years or decades. However, the fact that some deep parts of the glacial aquifer did not contain measurable tritium indicates that ground-water flow from recharge zones to these parts of the aquifer takes decades or longer.

  13. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  14. Selenium speciation in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.

    1990-07-10

    Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

  15. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    the Upper Floridan aquifer. Ground-water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer is monitored in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County; and monitored in the Lower Floridan aquifer in the Savannah and Brunswick areas. In the Albany area since 1998, nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer have increased in 4 of the 11 wells monitored, and in 1 well, concentrations were above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) drinking-water standard. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration in water from four wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer showed no appreciable change during 2001, remaining within the USEPA 250 mg/L drinking-water standard; in seven wells completed in the Lower Floridan aquifer and in underlying zones, the chloride concentration remained above the drinking-water standard, with one well showing an increase over previous years. In the Brunswick area, water samples from 66 wells completed in the Upper or Lower Floridan aquifers were collected during June 2001 and analyzed for chloride. A map showing chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during June 2001 indicates that concentrations remained above USEPA drinking-water standards across a 2-square-mile area. In the north Brunswick area, chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer continued to increase, whereas in the south Brunswick area, concentrations continued to decrease. In the Camden County area, chloride concentrations in six wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer remained within drinking-water standards. With the exception of one well, concentrations remained the same and were below 40 mg/L. In one well, concentrations showed a sharp decline during 2001, but remained above 130 mg/L. Ongoing studies during 2001 include evaluation of agricultural chemicals in shallow ground water in southwestern Georgia; evaluation of saltwater intrusion and water-level and water-quality m

  16. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  17. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  18. Engineering water repellency in granular materials for ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Sergio; Saulick, Yunesh; Zheng, Shuang; Kang, Hengyi; Liu, Deyun; Lin, Hongjie

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic water repellent granular materials are a novel technology for constructing water-tight barriers and fills that is both inexpensive and reliant on an abundant local resource - soils. Our research is verifying its stability, so that perceived risks to practical implementation are identified and alleviated. Current ground stabilization measures are intrusive and use concrete, steel, and glass fibres as reinforcement elements (e.g. soil nails), so more sustainable approaches that require fewer raw materials are strongly recommended. Synthetic water repellent granular materials, with persistent water repellency, have been tested for water harvesting and proposed as landfill and slope covers. By chemically, physically and biologically adjusting the magnitude of water repellency, they offer the unique advantage of controlling water infiltration and allow their deployment as semi-permeable or impermeable materials. Other advantages include (1) volumetric stability, (2) high air permeability and low water permeability, (3) suitability for flexible applications (permanent and temporary usage), (4) improved adhesion aggregate-bitumen in pavements. Application areas include hydraulic barriers (e.g. for engineered slopes and waste containment), pavements and other waterproofing systems. Chemical treatments to achieve water repellency include the use of waxes, oils and silicone polymers which affect the soil particles at sub-millimetric scales. To date, our research has been aimed at demonstrating their use as slope covers and establishing the chemical compounds that develop high and stable water repellency. Future work will determine the durability of the water repellent coatings and the mechanics and modelling of processes in such soils.

  19. Ground-water flow and the possible effects of remedial actions at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, has been used since World War II to test and dispose of explosives, chemical warfare agents, and industrial chemicals resulting in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contami- nation. The U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model was used to better understand ground-water flow at the site and to simulate the effects of remedial actions. A surficial aquifer and a confined aquifer were simulated with the model. A confining unit separates these units and is represented by leakance between the layers. The area modeled is 3.65 mi2; the model was constructed with a variably spaced 40 X 38 grid. The horizontal and lower boundaries of the model are all no-flow boundaries. Steady-state conditions were used. Ground water at the areas under investigation flows from disposal pit areas toward discharge areas in adjacent estuaries or wetlands. Simulations indicate that capping disposal areas with an impermeable cover effectively slows advective ground water flow by 0.7 to 0.5 times. Barriers to lateral ground-water flow were simulated and effectively prevented the movement of ground water toward discharge areas. Extraction wells were simulated as a way to contain ground-water contamination and to extract ground water for treatment. Two wells pumping 5 gallons per minute each at the toxic-materials disposal area and a single well pumping 2.5 gallons per minute at the riot-control-agent disposal area effectively contained contamination at these sites. A combi- nation of barriers to horizontal flow east and south of the toxic-materials disposal area, and a single extraction well pumping at 5 gallons per minute can extract contaminated ground water and prevent pumpage of marsh water.

  20. Delineating ground water recharge from leaking irrigation canals using water chemistry and isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F E; Sibray, S S

    2001-01-01

    Across the Great Plains irrigation canals are used to transport water to cropland. Many of these canals are unlined, and leakage from them has been the focus of an ongoing legal, economic, and philosophical debate as to whether this lost water should be considered waste or be viewed as a beneficial and reasonable use since it contributes to regional ground water recharge. While historically there has been much speculation about the impact of canal leakage on local ground water, actual data are scarce. This study was launched to investigate the impact of leakage from the Interstate Canal, in the western panhandle of Nebraska, on the hydrology and water quality of the local aquifer using water chemistry and environmental isotopes. Numerous monitoring wells were installed in and around a small wetland area adjacent to the canal, and ground water levels were monitored from June 1992 until January 1995. Using the water level data, the seepage loss from the canal was estimated. In addition, the canal, the monitoring wells, and several nearby stock and irrigation wells were sampled for inorganic and environmental isotope analysis to assess water quality changes, and to determine the extent of recharge resulting from canal leakage. The results of water level monitoring within study wells indicates a rise in local ground water levels occurs seasonally as a result of leakage during periods when the canal is filled. This rise redirects local ground water flow and provides water to nearby wetland ecosystems during the summer months. Chemical and isotopic results were used to delineate canal, surface, and ground water and indicate that leaking canal water recharges both the surface alluvial aquifer and upper portions of the underlying Brule Aquifer. The results of this study indicate that lining the Interstate Canal could lower ground water levels adjacent to the canal, and could adversely impact the local aquifer.

  1. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  2. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  3. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna *; Surinder K. Sharma; Ranbir Chander Sobti

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  4. CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

  5. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  6. Salinity of the ground water in western Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Lester Ray; Hardt, W.F.

    1966-01-01

    The chemical quality of the ground water in western Pinal County is nonuniform areally and stratigraphically. The main areas of highly mineralized water are near Casa Grande and near Coolidge. Striking differences have been noted in the quality of water from different depths in the same well. Water from one well, (D-6-7) 25cdd, showed an increase in chloride content from 248 ppm (parts per million) at 350 feet below the land surface to 6,580 ppm at 375 feet; the concentration of chloride increased to 10,400 ppm at 550 feet below the land surface. This change was accompanied by an increase in the total dissolved solids as indicated by conductivity measurements. The change in water quality can be correlated with sediment types. The upper and lower sand and gravel units seem to yield water of better quality than the intermediate silt and clay unit. In places the silt and clay unit contains zones of gypsum and common table salt. These zones yield water that contains large amounts of the dissolved minerals usually associated with water from playa deposits. Highly mineralized ground water in an area near Casa Grande has moved southward and westward as much as 4 miles. Similar water near Coolidge has moved a lesser distance. Good management practices and proper use of soil amendments have made possible the use of water that is high in salinity and alkali hazard for agricultural purposes in western Pinal County. The fluoride content of the ground water in western Pinal County is usually low; however, water from wells that penetrate either the bedrock or unconsolidated sediments that contain certain volcanic rocks may have as much as 9 ppm of fluoride.

  7. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  9. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  10. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  11. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  12. Metrics for Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water at CAFO Land Application Site - Iowa Swine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the most common chemical contaminant found in ground water and there are increasing indications that agriculture contributes to this contamination. In the United States, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) are a common agricultural practice. CAFO lea...

  13. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  14. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of Ewekoro and Shagamu ... of the ground water distribution of the settlements around cement factories in ... The concentrations of lead and cadmium are above the World Health ...

  15. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  16. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  17. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  18. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardon, R.

    1989-11-01

    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  19. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardon, R.

    1989-11-01

    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  20. Pumpage for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents ground-water discharged from the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) through pumped wells. Pumping from wells in...

  1. Hydrogeologic setting, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow at the O-Field area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, W.S.; Smith, B.S.; Donnelly, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at O-Field in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from before World War II until at least the 1950's. Soil, ground water, surface water,and wetland sediments in the O-Field area were contaminated from the disposal activity. A ground-water-flow model of the O-Field area was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1989 to simulate flow in the central and southern part of the Gunpowder Neck. The USGS began an additional study of the contamination in the O-Field area in cooperation with the U.S. Army in 1990 to (1) further define the hydrogeologic framework of the O-Field area, (2) characterize the hydraulic properties of the aquifers and confining units, and (3) define ground-water flow paths at O-Field based on the current data and simulations of ground-water flow. A water-table aquifer, an upper confining unit, and an upper confined aquifer comprise the shallow ground-water aquifer system of the O-Field area. A lower confining unit, through which ground-water movement is negligible, is considered a lower boundary to the shallow aquifer system. These units are all part of the Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The model developed in the previous study was redesigned using the data collected during this study and emphasized New O-Field. The current steady-state model was calibrated to water levels of June 1993. The rate of ground-water flow calculated by the model was approximately 0.48 feet per day (ft/d) and the rate determined from chlorofluorocarbon dates was approximately 0.39 ft/d.

  2. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  3. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  4. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  5. Chemical contamination of water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

  6. Ground-water basic data for Griggs and Steele Counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Joe S.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the hydrologic investigation in Griggs and Steele Counties, N. Dak. (fig. 1) were to: (1) determine the location, extent, and nature of the major aquifers; (2) evaluate the occurrence and movement of ground water, including recharge and discharge; (3) estimate the quantities of water stored in the aquifers; (4) estimate the potential yields of wells tapping the major aquifers; and (5) determine the chemical quality of the ground water.

  7. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  8. HANFORD SITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1989 - GROUND WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce, R. W.; Gorst, W. R.

    1990-12-01

    In a continuing effort for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This document contains the data listing of monitoring results obtained by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company during the period January through December 1989. Samples taken during 1989 were analyzed and reported by United States Testing Company, Inc., Richland, Washington. The data listing contains all chemical results (above contractual reporting limits) and radiochemical results (for which the result is larger than two times the total error).

  9. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  10. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water provides drinking water for more than one-half of the Nation's population (Solley and others, 1993), and is the sole source of drinking water for many rural communities and some large cities. In 1990, ground water accounted for 39 percent of water withdrawn for public supply for cities and towns and 96 percent of water withdrawn by self-supplied systems for domestic use.

  11. Geostatical Modelling For Ground Water Pollution in Salem by Using Gis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground waters are the major resources to meet out the entire requirements. Pollution of air, water and land has an effect on the quality of the ground waters. The chemical characteristics of groundwater in Salem taluk of Salem district have been studied using Geostatistical modeling to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation and domestic uses. The 32 water samples from PWD wells taken during the years 1999 to 2009 for post monsson and pre monsoon were tested for various chemical parameters like pH and TDS .The Geostatistical analyst of mean, mode, standard deviation, cluster & simple to study the spatial pattern of contamination movement for the years 1999 to 2009. Trend analysis was performed to identify trends in the input dataset. The concentrations of physical and chemical constituents in the water samples were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO standard to know the suitability of water for drinking.

  12. Bioremediation of organic solvents in ground water: A case study--Grandview, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humenik, J.A. (American Compliance Technologies, Inc., Lakeland, FL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Organic solvents leaking from underground storage tanks or from spillage pose a serious threat to ground-water quality. Chemicals such as styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and methyl-methacrylate are commonly associated with the manufacturing of plastics and fiberglass. After pump-and-treat operations were unsuccessful in remediating ground water contaminated with ethylbenzene and styrene resulting from leaking underground chemical storage tanks, bioremediation was implemented to degrade the contaminants to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources target cleanup limits. Due to low permeability clays and anaerobic subsurface conditions, the bioremediation design consisted of a ground-water recovery system, an aboveground bioreactor to treat ground water, and a recharge network to introduce acclimated microbes, nutrients, and oxygen to the subsurface. Commercially prepared microbial strains and nutrients were utilized for the close-loop system, as insufficient indigenous microbes and nutrients were present in subsurface matrix.

  13. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  14. Ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas, southeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Paul J.; Soja, Constance M.; Sidle, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Appraisals of the resources of selected management areas in eastern Oregon are being made by the U.S. Bureau of Land Mangement. To provide needed hydrologic information, the Bureau of Land Management requested the U.S. Geological Survey to inventory ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas. The inventory included field location of selected wells and springs; measurement of ground-water levels, temperatures, specific conductance, and pH; and the collection of ground-water samples from selected sources to determine dissolved chemical constituents.

  15. Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products during extraction and processing operations is a serious and a growing environmental problem in Nigeria. Consequently, a study of the use of activated carbon (AC) in the clean up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination to a more acceptable level. In the experiments described, crude-oil contamination of ground water was simulated under laboratory conditions using ground-wat...

  16. Ground-water and precipitation data for South Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Jones, Kathy H.; Stringfield, Whitney J.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous water-level data collected from 53 wells in South Carolina during 1990 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs are presented for selected wells to illustrate the effects that changes in ground-water recharge and artificial ground-water discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are listed in tables. Monthly mean water levels for 1990 and for the entire period of record at each monitoring well are depicted in hydrographs. Also included are precipitation records from ten National Weather Service stations in South Carolina.

  17. Application of environmental tracers to mixing, evolution, and nitrate contamination of ground water in Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D.-C.; Niel, Plummer L.; Kip, Solomon D.; Busenberg, E.; Kim, Y.-J.; Chang, H.-W.

    2006-01-01

    Tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were investigated as environmental tracers in ground water from Jeju Island (Republic of Korea), a basaltic volcanic island. Ground-water mixing was evaluated by comparing 3H and CFC-12 concentrations with lumped-parameter dispersion models, which distinguished old water recharged before the 1950s with negligible 3H and CFC-12 from younger water. Low 3H levels in a considerable number of samples cannot be explained by the mixing models, and were interpreted as binary mixing of old and younger water; a process also identified in alkalinity and pH of ground water. The ground-water CFC-12 age is much older in water from wells completed in confined zones of the hydro-volcanic Seogwipo Formation in coastal areas than in water from the basaltic aquifer. Major cation concentrations are much higher in young water with high nitrate than those in uncontaminated old water. Chemical evolution of ground water resulting from silicate weathering in basaltic rocks reaches the zeolite-smectite phase boundary. The calcite saturation state of ground water increases with the CFC-12 apparent (piston flow) age. In agricultural areas, the temporal trend of nitrate concentration in ground water is consistent with the known history of chemical fertilizer use on the island, but increase of nitrate concentration in ground water is more abrupt after the late 1970s compared with the exponential growth of nitrogen inputs. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. General database for ground water site information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bodin, Jacques; Le Grand, Hervé; Davy, Philippe; Boulanger, Damien; Battais, Annick; Bour, Olivier; Gouze, Philippe; Porel, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In most cases, analysis and modeling of flow and transport dynamics in ground water systems require long-term, high-quality, and multisource data sets. This paper discusses the structure of a multisite database (the H+ database) developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://www.ore.fr). The database provides an interface between field experimentalists and modelers, which can be used on a daily basis. The database structure enables the storage of a large number of data and data types collected from a given site or multiple-site network. The database is well suited to the integration, backup, and retrieval of data for flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers. It relies on the definition of standards and uses a templated structure, such that any type of geolocalized data obtained from wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations can be handled. New types of platforms other than wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations, and new types of experiments and/or parameters could easily be added without modifying the database structure. Thus, we propose that the database structure could be used as a template for designing databases for complex sites. An example application is the H+ database, which gathers data collected from a network of hydrogeological sites associated with the French Environmental Research Observatory.

  19. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  20. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Recycling water within the local ground-water system can increase the quantity of water available for use, control or avoid environmental pollution, and control temperature of the water supply. Pumped ground water supplied a fish-rearing facility for 15 months, and the waste water recharged the local ground-water system through an infiltration pond. Eighty-three percent of the recharged water returned to the well (recycled). Make-up water from the ground-water system provided the remaining 17 percent.

  1. Water in Biological and Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-01

    Part I. Bulk Water: 1. Uniqueness of water; 2. Anomalies of water; 3. Dynamics of water: molecular motions and hydrogen bond breaking kinetics; 4. Inherent structures of liquid water; 5. pH of water; Part II. Water in Biology: Dynamical View and Function: 6. Biological water; 7. Explicit role of water in biological functions; 8. Hydration of proteins; 9. Can we understand protein hydration layer: lessons from computer simulations; 10. Water in and around DNA and RNA; 11. Role of water in protein-DNA interaction; 12. Water surrounding lipid bilayers; 13. Water in Darwin's world; Part III. Water in Complex Chemical Systems: 14. Hydrophilic effects; 15. Hydrophobic effects; 16. Aqueous binary mixtures: amphiphilic effect; 17. Water in and around micelles, reverse micelles and microemulsions; 18. Water in carbon nanotubes; Part IV. Bulk Water: Advanced Topics: 19. Entropy of water; 20. Freezing of water into ice; 21. Supercritical water; 22. Microscopic approaches to understand water anomalies.

  2. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Identification of septic system effluent in ground water using small catchment hydrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, M.B.J.; Alexander, E.C. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    In many areas the contribution of septic system effluent to ground water contamination is still uncertain because of ambiguous provenance of chemical constituents. The problem is to establish a diagnostic chemical signature for the septic system effluent. Chlorides, nitrogen isotopes and optical brighteners have all been used as single constituent tracers for this purpose. These tracers tend to have limited range of application and cannot resolve ambiguity in areas with multiple potential contaminant sources. The authors addressed this problem using eight major ions to characterize the ground water chemistry, graphically or statistically. They identify the chemical signatures of septic system effluent and other non-point source contamination from the ground water chemistry of small ground water catchments overlain by single or very restricted land use types. They studied five small catchments near Rochester, Minnesota to isolate pre-development and non-septic system components of the ground water chemistry. Five small isolated hills were selected each with a distinct land-use type; natural forest, agricultural, unsewered residential, mixed agricultural/residential and fully sewered residential. The results show that Piper diagrams and statistical analysis can be used to define chemical signatures for the unsewered residential area using septic systems, the natural forest, and the agricultural catchments. The signatures of the mixed agriculture/residential and the fully sewered catchments are very similar to that of the agricultural catchment.

  4. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  5. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded th...

  6. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  7. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  8. Assessment of soil and ground water quality in Rewa district of Vindhyan Plateau (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, A P; Tripathi, I P; Kumar, M Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A systematic seasonal study has been carried out to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of ground water and soils in Rewa district of India. The drinking water in the study area is supplied mainly through Public Health Engineering (PHE) department from river (Bichhia, Bihar) and ground water. Water and soil samples were collected from different locations in the Rewa district, i.e. 10 hand pumps and 10 bore wells around all over the district. Regular monitoring was carried out during summer, rainy and winter seasons, to study the seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters and metals concentration. The parameters like pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulphate, phosphate and heavy metals were estimated for water and soil samples collected from the Rewa district. The results obtained are discussed, correlated with probable sources of contamination and suggested the measures to minimize the pollution.

  9. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  10. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  11. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  12. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  13. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  14. Radiological status of the ground water beneath the Hanford project, January-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, P.A.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1980-04-01

    Operations on the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and low-level liquid radioactive waste to the ground. Radioactivity and chemical substances have been carried with these discharges and have reached the Hanford ground water. For may years wells have been used as groundwater sampling structures to gather data on the distribution and movement of these discharges as they interact with the unconfined ground water beneath the site. During 1979, 317 wells were sampled on various frequencies from weekly to annually. This report is one of a series prepared annually to document the evaluation of the status of ground water on the Hanford Site. Data collected during 1979 describe the movement of radionuclide (Tritium and Beta) and nitrate plumes that respond to the influence of groundwater flow, ionic dispersion and radioactive decay.

  15. Monitoring of the antioxidant BHT and its metabolite BHT-CHO in German river water and ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Elke; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2004-02-05

    The behavior of anthropogenic polar organic compounds in ground water during infiltration of river water to ground water was studied at the Oderbruch area on the eastern border of Germany. Additionally, waste water sewage treatment works (STWs) discharging their treated waste water into the Oder River and rain water precipitation from the Oderbruch area were investigated. The study was carried out from March 2000 to July 2001 to investigate seasonal variations of the target analytes. Samples were collected from four sites along the Oder River, from 24 ground water monitoring wells located close to the Oder, from one rain water collection station, from two roof runoffs, and from four STWs upstream of the Oderbruch. Results of the investigations of the antioxidant 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-toluene (BHT) and its degradation product 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO) are presented. BHT and BHT-CHO were detected in all samples of the Oder River with mean concentrations of 178 and 102 ngl(-1), respectively. BHT and BHT-CHO were also detected in effluent waste water samples from municipal STWs at mean concentrations of 132 and 70 ngl(-1), respectively. Both compounds are discharged into river water directly via treated waste water. In the rain water sample, 308 ngl(-1) of BHT and 155 ngl(-1) of BHT-CHO were measured. Both compounds were detected in roof runoff with mean concentrations of 92 ngl(-1) for BHT and 138 ngl(-1) for BHT-CHO. The median values of BHT and BHT-CHO in ground water samples were 132 and 84 ngl(-1), respectively. The chemical composition of ground water from parts of the aquifer located less than 4.5 m distant from the river are greatly influenced by bank filtration. However, wet deposition followed by seepage of rain water into the aquifer is also a source of BHT and BHT-CHO in ground water.

  16. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  17. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  18. Ground-water quality in the Davie Landfill, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattraw, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water adjacent to a disposal pond for septic tank sludge, oil, and grease at the Davie landfill, Broward County, Florida was tested for a variety of ground-water contaminants. Three wells adjacent to the disposal pond yielded water rich in nutrients, organic carbon and many other chemical constituents. Total coliform bacteria ranged from less than 100 to 660 colonies per 100 milliliters in samples collected from the shallowest well (depth 20 feet). At well depths of 35 and 45 feet bacterial counts were less than 20 colonies per 100 milliliters or zero. Concentrations of several constituents in water samples collected from the wells downgradient from the landfill, disposal pond, and an incinerator wash pond were greater than in samples collected from wells immediately upgradient of the landfill. A comparison of sodium-chloride ion ratios indicated that downgradient ground-water contamination was related to the incinerator wash water pond rather than the septic tank sludge pond. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  20. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.

    1949-01-01

    best site shown by the test drilling is on the south bank of the Huron River opposite the bomber-plant well field, where a Well with a capacity of several thousand gallons per minute could be constructed if necessary. Three wells in the outwash-filled valley now occupied by Fleming Creek, on two of which pumping tests were made, show that emergency supplies ranging from a few hundred thousand to a million gallons per day could be developed at these test-well sites if necessary. Smaller Supplies ranging from a gallon or two per minute to perhaps 100,000 or 200,000 gallons per day could be developed at the sites of the remaining test Wells.Pumping tests made on the supply wells of the three major water users by the consulting-engineering firms who designed the systems are analyzed and discussed briefly by the authors.The report includes maps and graphs showing the surficial geology of the area, the location of wells, and fluctuations of water level in selected wells. Alsp included are tables giving data on water levels and pumpage, chemical analyses of representative ground waters, and records of wells.

  1. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 3.2 milligrams per liter. Water samples from wells MW1 and MW2 were analyzed for volatile organic compounds for the first quarter; no confirmed volatile organic compounds were detected above laboratory reporting limits. Detected chemical concentrations in water from the chromic acid pit monitoring wells during the four sampling periods were below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant levels for public drinking-water supplies. Overall, water-quality characteristics of water from the chromic acid pit ground-water monitoring wells are similar to those of other wells in the surrounding area. Statistical analyses were performed on 56 of the chemical constituents analyzed for in ground water from the chromic acid pit monitoring wells. Concentrations of chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and potassium were significantly less in water from one or both downgradient wells than in water from the upgradient well. Concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and dissolved solids were significantly greater in water from the downgradient wells than in water from the upgradient well. Concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen, chloride, and potassium were significantly different in water from the two downgradient wells. Statistical analysis of chemical constituents in water from the chromic acid pit monitoring wells did not appear to indicate a release of hazardous chemicals from the chromic acid pit. There was no indication of ground-water contamination in either downgradient well.

  2. Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic macroinvertebrates of Lake ... Saline lakes are known to be amongst the most productive ecosystems in the world. ... birds, knowledge of its water characteristics and aquatic biota is scarce.

  3. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950' s. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well- cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. Bottom- sediment data include inorganic properties and constituents; organic chemistry; detection limits for organic chemicals; a compilation of information on acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water- level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. (USGS)

  4. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  5. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  6. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in warm ground water aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseke, Ian; Korte, Jill; Lamendella, Regina; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Oerther, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri was identified as the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis that caused the deaths of two children in Peoria, Arizona, in autumn of 2002. It was suspected that the source of N. fowleri was the domestic water supply, which originates from ground water sources. In this study, ground water from the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area was tested for the presence of N. fowleri using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial populations in the ground water were performed to examine the potential link between the presence of N. fowleri and bacterial groups inhabiting water wells. The results showed the presence of N. fowleri in five out of six wells sampled and in 26.6% of all ground water samples tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed that beta- and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial populations present in the ground water. Bacterial community analyses revealed a very diverse community structure in ground water samples testing positive for N. fowleri.

  8. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  9. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  10. Ground water stratification and delivery of nitrate to an incised stream under varying flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J K; O'Connell, Michael E; Prestegaard, Karen L

    2007-01-01

    Ground water processes affecting seasonal variations of surface water nitrate concentrations were investigated in an incised first-order stream in an agricultural watershed with a riparian forest in the coastal plain of Maryland. Aquifer characteristics including sediment stratigraphy, geochemistry, and hydraulic properties were examined in combination with chemical and isotopic analyses of ground water, macropore discharge, and stream water. The ground water flow system exhibits vertical stratification of hydraulic properties and redox conditions, with sub-horizontal boundaries that extend beneath the field and adjacent riparian forest. Below the minimum water table position, ground water age gradients indicate low recharge rates (2-5 cm yr(-1)) and long residence times (years to decades), whereas the transient ground water wedge between the maximum and minimum water table positions has a relatively short residence time (months to years), partly because of an upward increase in hydraulic conductivity. Oxygen reduction and denitrification in recharging ground waters are coupled with pyrite oxidation near the minimum water table elevation in a mottled weathering zone in Tertiary marine glauconitic sediments. The incised stream had high nitrate concentrations during high flow conditions when much of the ground water was transmitted rapidly across the riparian zone in a shallow oxic aquifer wedge with abundant outflow macropores, and low nitrate concentrations during low flow conditions when the oxic wedge was smaller and stream discharge was dominated by upwelling from the deeper denitrified parts of the aquifer. Results from this and similar studies illustrate the importance of near-stream geomorphology and subsurface geology as controls of riparian zone function and delivery of nitrate to streams in agricultural watersheds.

  11. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Recharge of aquifers within arid and semiarid environments is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed over the landscape, such as across broad interarroyo areas within an alluvial ground-water basin. The occurrence of recharge at discreet locations is referred to as focused recharge, whereas the occurrence of recharge over broad regions is referred to as diffuse recharge. The primary interest of this appendix is focused recharge, but regardless of the type of recharge, estimation of downward fluxes is essential to its quantification. Like chemical tracers, heat can come from natural sources or be intentionally introduced to infer transport properties and aquifer recharge. The admission and redistribution of heat from natural processes such as insolation, infiltration, and geothermal activity can be used to quantify subsurface flow regimes. Heat is well suited as a ground-water tracer because it provides a naturally present dynamic signal and is relatively harmless over a useful range of induced perturbations. Thermal methods have proven valuable for recharge investigations for several reasons. First, theoretical descriptions of coupled water-and-heat transport are available for the hydrologic processes most often encountered in practice. These include land-surface mechanisms such as radiant heating from the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspiration, in addition to the advective and conductive mechanisms that usually dominate at depth. Second, temperature is theoretically well defined and readily measured. Third, thermal methods for depths ranging from the land surface to depths of hundreds of meters are based on similar physical principles. Fourth, numerical codes for simulating heat and water transport have become increasingly reliable and widely available. Direct measurement of water

  12. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  13. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, P.A.; Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents, which have reached the unconfined ground water, contain low levels of radioactive and chemical substances. The movement of these constituents in the unconfined ground water is monitored as part of the Ground-Water Surveillance Program. During 1982, 324 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Tritium are the primary ones used to monitor the movement of the ground water. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium and nitrate plumes. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. The general plume configuration is much the same as in 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from an evaporation facility.

  14. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    changes by region. In recent years, pumping depressions have developed southeast of Sonoma and southwest of El Verano. Water-chemistry data for samples collected from 75 wells during 2002-04 indicate that the ground-water quality in the study area generally is acceptable for potable use. The water from some wells, however, contains one or more constituents in excess of the recommended standards for drinking water. The chemical composition of water from creeks, springs, and wells sampled for major ions plot within three groups on a trilinear diagram: mixed-bicarbonate, sodium-mixed anion, and sodium-bicarbonate. An area of saline ground water in the southern part of the Sonoma Valley appears to have shifted since the late 1940s and early 1950s, expanding in one area, but receding in another. Sparse temperature data from wells southwest of the known occurrence of thermal water suggest that thermal water may be present beneath a larger part of the valley than previously thought. Thermal water contains higher concentrations of dissolved minerals than nonthermal waters because mineral solubilities generally increase with temperature. Geohydrologic Characterization, Water-Chemistry, and Ground-Water Flow Simulation Model of the Sonoma Valley Area, Sonoma County, California Oxygen-18 (d18 O) and deuterium (dD) values for water from most wells plot along the global meteoric water line, indicating that recharge primarily is derived from the direct infiltration of precipitation or the infiltration of seepage from creeks. Samples from shallow- and intermediate-depth wells located near Sonoma Creek and (or) in the vicinity of Shellville plot to the right of the global meteoric water line, indicating that these waters are partly evaporated. The d18 O and dD composition of water from sampled wells indicates that water from wells deeper than 200 feet is isotopically lighter (more negative) than water from wells less than 200 feet deep, possibly indicating that older ground wate

  15. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  16. Statistical evaluation of effects of riparian buffers on nitrate and ground water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, T.B.

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted to statistically evaluate the effectiveness of riparian buffers for decreasing nitrate concentrations in ground water and for affecting other chemical constituents. Values for pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), silica, ammonium, phosphorus, iron, and manganese at 28 sites in the Contentnea Creek Basin were significantly higher (p 20 yr) discharging ground water draining areas with riparian buffers compared with areas without riparian buffers. No differences in chloride, nitrate nitrogen, calcium, sodium, and dssolved oxygen concentrations in old ground water between buffer and nonbuffer areas were detected. Comparison of samples of young (20 yr) discharging ground water draining areas with riparian buffers compared with areas without riparian buffers. No differences in chloride, nitrate nitrogen, calcium, sodium, and dissolved oxygen concentrations in old ground water between buffer and nonbuffer areas were detected. Comparison of samples of young (water samples from buffer and nonbuffer areas indicated significantly higher specific conductance, calcium, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen in nonbuffer areas. Riparian buffers along streams can affect the composition of the hyporheic zone by providing a source of organic carbon to the streambed, which creates reducing geochemical conditions that consequently can affect the chemical quality of old ground water discharging through it. Buffer zones between agricultural fields and streams facilitate dilution of conservative chemical constituents in young ground water that originate from fertilizer applications and also allow denitrification in ground water by providing an adequate source of organic carbon generated by vegetation in the buffer zone. Based on the median chloride and nitrate values for young ground water in the Contentnea Creek Basin, nitrate was 95% lower in buffer areas compared with nonbuffer areas, with a 30 to 35% reduction estimated to be due to

  17. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  18. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  19. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations to measure the depth and characteristics of solid waste. Four sampling wells were made for the collection of ground water samples and they were analyzed for various parameters. All parameters were measured based on Standard methods. It is found that the ground water is contaminated due leachates of Landfill to the large extent and is not suitable for Drinking, Domestic and Irrigation purposes.

  20. Ground and Intermediate Water Equilibrium with Water-Bearing Rock Minerals (Moldova) under Anthropogenic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenkova, A. N.; Moraru, C. Ye; Pasechnik, Ye Yu; Tokarenko, O. G.; Butoshina, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    The calculation results of ground water equilibrium with the major water-bearing rock minerals (Moldova) are presented under the condition of anthropogenic impact. As a calculation model the HydroGeo software is used. It is shown that both “ground water-rock” and “intermediate water-rock” systems are in equilibrium with a number of minerals.

  1. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  2. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  3. Ground Water Monitoring Using Laser Fluorescence And Fiber Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Wayne; Pohlig, Kenneth; Rico, Nicola; Johnson, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    In-situ measurement of aromatic ground water contaminants, including the benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX) fraction of gasoline, has been demonstrated using fiber optic systems. A prototype field instrument has shown that this method has advantages over traditional sampling and analysis. Problems encountered and solved include coupling of the laser energy into to fiber, sensor design, and detector configuration to optimize instrument sensitivity. The effects of sensor length, corresponding to well depth, on limits of detection are presented. Effects of potential interferences, including external fluorescence quenchers, are discuss-ed. The resolution of complex mixtures is addressed, with modifications to the detector shown to be effective in separation of groups of contaminants. Instrument design considerations include the need for portability, ruggedness at field sites, and ease of operation. The modular instrument design used is shown to help solve these potential problems, while maintaining analytical sensitivity and reproducibility. Modular optical system design has also shown to be useful when modifications are made. Changes in the detector as well as provisions for multiple laser sources have allowed a flexible system to be configured to meet analytical demands as they arise. Sensor design considerations included high ultraviolet transmission, physical flexibility, resistance to breakage, and resistance to chemical and/or biological fouling. The approach to these problem areas is presented, as well as discussion of the methods used to minimize effects of fiber solarization. Results of testing the field portable prototype are presented for a variety of typical ground water analysis sites, illustrating the usefulness of this new technology in environmental monitoring.

  4. Geospatial Database of Ground-Water Altitude and Depth-to-Ground-Water Data for Utah, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buto, Susan G.; Jorgensen, Brent E.

    2007-01-01

    A geospatial database of ground-water-level altitude and depth-to-ground-water data for Utah was developed. Water-level contours from selected published reports were converted to digital Geographic Information System format and attributes describing the contours were added. Water-level altitude values were input to an inverse distance weighted interpolator to create a raster of interpolated water-level altitude for each report. The water-level altitude raster was subtracted from digital land-surface altitude data to obtain depth-to-water rasters for each study. Comparison of the interpolated rasters to actual water-level measurements shows that the interpolated water-level altitudes are well correlated with measured water-level altitudes from the same time period. The data can be downloaded and displayed in any Geographic Information System or can be explored by downloading a data package and map from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  5. Ground-water flow and the potential effects of remediation at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, F.J.; Fleck, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water in the east-central part of Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent test facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The U.S. Geological Survey's finite- difference model was used to help understand ground-water flow and simulate the effects of alternative remedial actions to clean up the ground water. Scenarios to simulate unstressed conditions and three extraction well con- figurations were used to compare alternative remedial actions on the contaminant plume. The scenarios indicate that contaminants could migrate from their present location to wetland areas within 10 years under unstressed conditions. Pumping 7 gal/min (gallons per minute) from one well upgradient of the plume will not result in containment or removal of the highest contaminant concentrations. Pumping 7 gal/min from three wells along the central axis of the plume should result in containment and removal of dissolved contami- nants, as should pumping 7 gal/min from three wells at the leading edge of the plume while injecting 7 gal/min back into an upgradient well.

  6. Radon concentrations of ground waters in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kawamura, Norihisa [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health has been collecting the data concerning the spacial distribution of Rn concentration of groundwater in Aichi Prefecture and its time course changes. In this report, the data was described chiefly from 1991 and the availability of newly developed polyethylene vessel was discussed. Determination of Rn concentration was performed at a total of 104 sites within the range from the horizon to the depth of 1800 m. The measurement has been repeatedly conducted for ca. 20 years. The maximum level of Rn was 896 Bq/l and the minimum was 0.3 Bq/l for the groundwater samples collected from different springs. Correlation of Rn concentration with other chemical and physical factors for ground water was investigated and a significant correlation was found only between Rn concentration and pH ({gamma}=0.304, p<0.01). No time course changes in Rn concentration was observed except for the water sample from the site affected by some newly dug wells. In addition, the newly developed extraction vessel was shown to be available for the determination and its operability in the field was superior to the conventional glass ware. (M.N.)

  7. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    once in 2006 and once in 2007 at Moenkopi School Spring. Flow decreased by 18.9 percent at Moenkopi School Spring. During the period of record, flow fluctuated, and a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi (1976 to 2006), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs (1993 to 2006), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa (1994 to 2006), and Pasture Canyon Springs (August 2004 to December 2006). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained even, showing neither a significant increase nor decrease in flows. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring for a trend to be apparent. In 2007, water samples were collected from 1 well and 1 spring in the Black Mesa area and were analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at Peabody well 5 for the period of record, and there is an apparent increasing trend. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record.

  8. Geology and ground-water resources of the lower Little Bighorn River Valley, Big Horn County, Montana, with special reference to the drainage of waterlogged lands, with a section on chemical quality of the water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, E.A.; Klug, M.F.; Morris, D.A.; Swenson, F.A.; Krieger, R.A.

    1960-01-01

    The lower Little Bighorn River valley, Montana, is in the unglaciated part of the Missouri Plateau section of the Great Plains physiographic province. The river and its principal tributaries rise in the Bighorn Mountains, and the confluence of this northward-flowing stream with the Bighorn River is near the east edge of Hardin, Mont. The normal annual precipitation ranges from about 12 inches in the northern part of the area to 15 inches in the southern part. The economy of the area is founded principally on farming, much of the low-lying land adjacent to the river being irrigated. The irrigated land is within the Crow Indian Reservation, although a part is privately owned. The bedrock formations exposed in the area are of Cretaceous age and include the Parkman sandstone, Claggett shale, Eagle sandstone, Telegraph Creek shale, and Cody shale. The Cloverly formation, Tensleep sandstone, and Madison limestone, which underlie but are not exposed in the area, and the Parkman sandstone in the southern half of the area appear to be the principal bedrock aquifers. All except the Parkman lie at depths ranging from a few feet to several thousand feet, and all appear to be capable of yielding water in commercial quantities. Some of the other formations arc capable of yielding enough water for domestic and stock needs. The river alluvium of Recent age and the Pleistocene terrace deposits are the principal unconsolidated formations in the area with respect to water supply and drainage. Wells yielding as much as 100 gallons per minute may be developed in favorable areas. Pumping tests reveal that the transmissibility of the coarser unconsolidated materials probably ranges from about 15,000 to 30,000 gallons per day per foot. Two tests of the Parkman sandstone showed transmissibilities of 6,000 and 20,000 gallons per day per foot. Although a test of the Cloverly formation showed a transmissibility of only 3,000 gallons per day per foot, the high artesian pressure--80 pounds per

  9. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal at the old O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at the Old O-Field landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, beginning prior to World War II and continuing until at least the 1950?s. Soil, ground water, surface water, and wetland sediments in the Old O-Field area were contaminated by the disposal of these materials. The site is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and is characterized by a complex series of Pleistocene and Holocene sediments formed in various fluvial, estuarine, and marine-marginal hydrogeologic environments. A previously constructed transient finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to simulate ground-water flow and the effects of a pump-and-treat remediation system designed to prevent contaminated ground water from flowing into Watson Creek (a tidal estuary and a tributary to the Gunpowder River). The remediation system consists of 14 extraction wells located between the Old O-Field landfill and Watson Creek.Linear programming techniques were applied to the results of the flow-model simulations to identify optimal pumping strategies for the remediation system. The optimal management objective is to minimize total withdrawal from the water-table aquifer, while adhering to the following constraints: (1) ground-water flow from the landfill should be prevented from reaching Watson Creek, (2) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate that exceeds its capacity, and (3) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate below its minimum capacity, the minimum rate at which an Old O-Field pump can function. Water withdrawal is minimized by varying the rate and frequency of pumping at each of the 14 extraction wells over time. This minimizes the costs of both pumping and water treatment, thus providing the least-cost remediation alternative while simultaneously meeting all operating constraints.The optimal strategy identified using this objective and constraint set involved operating 13 of the 14

  10. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  11. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  12. Quality of the ground water in basalt of the Columbia River group, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair

    1972-01-01

    The ground water within the 50,000-square-mile area of the layered basalt of the Columbia River Group is a generally uniform bicarbonate water having calcium and sodium in nearly equal amounts as the principal cations. water contains a relatively large amount of silica. The 525 chemical analyses indicate that the prevalent ground water is of two related kinds--a calcium and a sodium water. The sodium water is more common beneath the floors of the main synclinal valleys; the calcium water, elsewhere. In addition to the prevalent type, five special types form a small part of the ground water; four of these are natural and one is artificial. The four natural special types are: (1) calcium sodium chloride waters that rise from underlying sedimentary rocks west of the Cascade Range, (2) mineralized water at or near warm or hot springs, (3) water having unusual ion concentrations, especially of chloride, near sedimentary rocks intercalated at the edges of the basalt, and (4) more mineralized water near one locality of excess carbon dioxide. The one artificial kind of special ground water has resulted from unintentional artificial recharge incidental to irrigation in parts of central Washington. The solids dissolved in the ground water have been picked up on the surface, within the overburden, and from minerals and glasses within the basalt. Evidence for the removal of ions from solution is confined to calcium and magnesium, only small amounts of which are present in some of the sodium-rich water. Minor constituents, such as the heavy metals, alkali metals, and alkali earths, occur in the ground water in trace, or small, amounts. The natural radioactivity of the ground waters is very low. Except for a few of the saline calcium sodium chloride waters and a few occurrences of excessive nitrate, the ground water generally meets the common standards of water good for most ordinary uses, but some of it can be improved by treatment. The water is clear and colorless and has a

  13. Coliphages and bacteria in ground water from Tehran, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the microbial quality of Tehran's ground water and selected springs, using coliphages and selected bacteria as indicator organisms. The water table in Tehran varies from approximately 160 meters in the north to approximately 5 meters in the south. Individual wells and subterranean man-made aqueducts (qanate) tap the ground water. Since Tehran lacks municipal sewage facilities, waste disposal is by means of seepage pits, privies and leaching cesspools. There is potential for waste from these sites to leach into the ground water, particularly in the south where the water table is near the surface and the clay content of the soil holds moisture during periods of heavy rainfall.

  14. Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    areas in three drainages, the Wissahickon, Towamencin, and Neshaminy Creeks.Ground-water flow was simulated for different pumping patterns representing past and current conditions. The three-dimensional numerical flow model (MODFLOW) was automatically calibrated by use of a parameter estimation program (MODFLOWP). Steady-state conditions were assumed for the calibration period of 1996. Model calibration indicates that estimated recharge is 8.2 inches (208 millimeters) and the regional anisotropy ratio for the sedimentary-rock aquifer is about 11 to 1, with permeability greatest along strike. The regional anisotropy is caused by up- and down-dip termination of high-permeability bed-oriented features, which were not explicitly simulated in the regional-scale model. The calibrated flow model was used to compare flow directions and capture zones in Lansdale for conditions corresponding to relatively high pumping rates in 1994 and to lower pumping rates in 1997. Comparison of the 1994 and 1997 simulations indicates that wells pumped at the lower 1997 rates captured less ground water from known sites of contamination than wells pumped at the 1994 rates. Ground-water flow rates away from Lansdale increased as pumpage decreased in 1997.A preliminary evaluation of the relation between ground-water chemistry and conditions favorable for the degradation of chlorinated solvents was based on measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentration and other chemical constituents in water samples from 92 wells. About 18 percent of the samples contained less than or equal to 5 milligrams per liter dissolved oxygen, a concentration that indicates reducing conditions favorable for degradation of chlorinated solvents.

  15. Temporal trends in nitrate and selected pesticides in mid-atlantic ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrewer, L.M.; Ator, S.W.; Denver, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating long-term temporal trends in regional ground-water quality is complicated by variable hydrogeologic conditions and typically slow flow, and such trends have rarely been directly measured. Ground-water samples were collected over near-decadal and annual intervals from unconfined aquifers in agricultural areas of the Mid-Atlantic region, including fractured carbonate rocks in the Great Valley, Potomac River Basin, and unconsolidated sediments on the Delmarva Peninsula. Concentrations of nitrate and selected pesticides and degradates were compared among sampling events and to apparent recharge dates. Observed temporal trends are related to changes in land use and chemical applications, and to hydrogeology and climate. Insignificant differences in nitrate concentrations in the Great Valley between 1993 and 2002 are consistent with relatively steady fertilizer application during respective recharge periods and are likely related to drought conditions in the later sampling period. Detecting trends in Great Valley ground water is complicated by long open boreholes characteristic of wells sampled in this setting which facilitate significant ground-water mixing. Decreasing atrazine and prometon concentrations, however, reflect reported changes in usage. On the Delmarva Peninsula between 1988 and 2001, median nitrate concentrations increased 2 mg per liter in aerobic ground water, reflecting increasing fertilizer applications. Correlations between selected pesticide compounds and apparent recharge date are similarly related to changing land use and chemical application. Observed trends in the two settings demonstrate the importance of considering hydrogeology and recharge date along with, changing land and chemical uses when interpreting trends in regional ground-water quality. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    , selenium, and gross-alpha activity that exceed drinking-water standards. Suspected problems include possible contamination of the aquifer by oil-field brines and drilling fluids, pesticides, industrial chemicals, septic-tank effluent, fertilizers, and leakage from sewage systems and underground tanks used for storage of hydrocarbons. There are four major components of the Central Oklahoma aquifer project. The first component is the collection and analysis of existing information, including chemical, hydrologic, and land-use data. The second component is the geohydrologic and geochemical investigations of the aquifer flow system. The third component is the sampling for a wide variety of inorganic, organic, and radioactive constituents as part a regional survey that will produce a consistent set of data among all ground-water pilot projects. These data can be used to: (1) Define regional ground-water quality within the Central Oklahoma aquifer, and (2) compare water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer to the water quality in the other ground-water study units of the NAWQA program. The fourth component is topical studies that will address, in more detail, some of the major water-quality issues pertaining to the aquifer.

  17. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  18. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Rajajinagar of Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water borne diseases continue to be a dominant cause of water borne morbidities and mortality all over the world. Hence, drinking water needs to be protected from pollution and biological contamination. Ground water samples were collected from ten different sampling point in Rajajinagar area of Bangalore and analysed for water quality parameters viz. pH , total alkalinity, chloride, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and total hardness. The pH value of the study area ranges between 7.3 to 8.4 indicating that ground water is slightly alkaline. The total alkalinity are varied in the range from 122 to 282 mg/l which is well within the limit prescribed by BIS. The TDS value found from 397 to 546 mg/l. The values of hardness of water ranges from 125 to 267 mg/l which is within the prescribed limit as per BIS.

  19. Determination of 210Pb and 222Rn in ground water of Okinawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, M.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed the method of 210Pb measurement from a large amount of ground water. The chelating resin (NOBIAS CHELATE-PA1; Hitachi High-technology) column combined with the ion-exchange resin (DOWEX-88; Dow Chemical Company) column were used for pre-treatment of 210Pb from ground water of 20 litter. It should be mentioned that this determination procedure is simple, fast, and give high recovery (more than 80 %). It avoids precipitation and large consumption of chemicals. Finally 210Pb was precipitated as PbSO4 and determined with low background 2πgas flow counter. 210Pb concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 1.40-16.7 mBq/L. We also found that the organo-210Pb complex which could not be detected by this method was involved in some water samples. By increasing the column radius and the resin mass, while keeping a constant height of the resin column, it is possible to additionally increase the flow rate and accelerate the isolation procedure. 222Rn was determined by the direct method. The emulsion scintillation cocktail (10 mL) and water sample (10 mL) were put into a vial. After shaking and stand for 200 min, 222Rn was counted by LSC for 120 min. 222Rn concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 0.71-14.0 Bq/L.

  20. THE DYNAMICS OF WATER RESERVES ON POST MINING GROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Stachowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The report shows the results of investigations and analyses on four experimental areas located at the “Kazimierz” quarry (in Pojezierze Kujawskie latitude 52o20’ N, longitude 18o05’ E. The results of the investigations show the dynamics of moisture in the upper layer of post mining grounds are formed under metrological conditions. It shows that the most important dynamic of water retention occurred on the upper cultivated layer of post mining grounds in which there was a moisture reaction to the water precipitation. An unprofitable distribution of precipitation during the vegetation period 2013 caused this water deficit to the plants cultivated on post mining grounds. The longest water deficit (63 days occurred in profiles typical to crop cultivation (average 12 mm. The results of the investigation confirm that post mining grounds should cultivate plants which are resistant to water deficit and which would benefit from the water reserves in the deeper layers of post mining grounds and which have deep roots system, such as lucerne.

  1. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed.

  2. Regional estimation of total recharge to ground water in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 mm per year was estimated in eastern Nebraska, having the highest annual precipitation rates within the state, along the Elkhorn, Platte, Missouri, and Big Nemaha River valleys where ground water is very close to the surface. Similarly high recharge values were obtained for the Sand Hills sections of the North and Middle Loup, as well as Cedar River and Beaver Creek valleys due to high infiltration rates of the sandy soil in the area. The westernmost and southwesternmost parts of the state were estimated to typically receive recharge a year.

  3. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  5. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean ground-water-level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2006. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2006 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 3 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 5, and below normal in the remaining 3 wells.

  6. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  7. Influence on shallow ground water by nitrogen in polluted river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-ping; CAO Lian-hai; CHEN Xiao-gang; SHEN Zhao-li; ZHONG Zuo-shen

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to discuss the influence on ground water by NH4-N in polluted river and river bed. In the lab-scale experiment three kinds of natural sand were chosen as infiltration medium, and polluted rivers were simulated by domestic sewage, after 10-month sand column test it was found that NH4-N came to adsorption sa-turation on the 17th day in coarse sand and on the 130~140th day in medium sand, then had a higher effluent concentration because of desorption. It is concluded that NH4-N eas-ily moved to ground water. When the concentration of NH4-N in Liangshui River were 46.86, 26.95 mg/L, that in groundwater are less than 1.10 mg/L. It is found that Liangshui River have a little influence on groundwater because of bottom mud, thickness and char-acter of the infiltration medium under the river bed and seepage quantity of river water.Clean water leaching test states that after the silt is cleared away and clean water is poured, NH4-N in the penetration media under the polluted river is obviously carried into ground water, and ground water is polluted secondly.

  8. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. The Use Of Permeable Concrete For Ground Water Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Tejankar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop Smart Cities in India, we need to develop smart technologies and smart construction materials. Permeable concrete an innovative material is environment friendly and a smart material which can be used for construction of several structures. In India, the ground water table is decreasing at a faster rate due to reduction in ground water recharge. These days, the vegetation cover is replaced by infrastructure hence the water gets very less opportunity to infiltrate itself into the soil. If the permeable concrete which has a high porosity is used for the construction of pavements, walking tracks, parking lots, well lining, etc. then it can reduce the runoff from the site and help in the ground water recharge. Such type of smart materials will play an important role for Indian conditions where government is putting lot of efforts to implement ground water recharging techniques. During the research work, the runoff for a particular storm was calculated for a bitumen pavement on a sloping ground. Later after studying the various topographical features, the traffic intensity and the rainfall for that particular area, the concrete was designed and tested for the different proportion and thus the mix design for the permeable concrete was finalized based upon its permeability and strength characteristics. Later by using this permeable concrete the infiltration and runoff for the same storm was compared and studied. The research paper will thus give an account of the properties of permeable concrete where it can be used over an existing road.

  10. GWVis: A tool for comparative ground-water data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application ( GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. GWVis works with ground-water level elevation data collected or modeled over a given time span, together with a matching fixed underlying terrain. GWVis was developed using the Python programming language in conjunction with associated extension packages and application program interfaces such as OpenGLTM to improve performance and allow us fine control of attributes of the model such as lighting, material properties, transformations, and interpolation. There are currently several systems available for visualizing ground-water data. We classify these into two categories: research-oriented models and static presentation-based models. While both of them have their strengths, we find the former overly complex and non-intuitive and the latter not engaging and presenting problems showing multiple data dimensions. GWVis bridges the gap between static and research based visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives, infer information about simulations, and view a comparison of two datasets. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows that information to be presented to a large audience base.

  11. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  12. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  13. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Kimball, Briant A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for developing oil-shale resources in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado has created the need for information on the quantity and quality of water available in the area. This report describes the availability and chemical quality of ground water, which might provide a source or supplement of water supply for an oil-shale industry. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin occurs in three major aquifers. Alluvial aquifers of small areal extent are present in valley-fill deposits of six major drainages. Consolidated-rock aquifers include the bird?s-nest aquifer in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer, which includes parts of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation and parts of the intertonguing Renegade Tongue of the Wasatch Formation; this aquifer underlies most of the study area. The alluvial aquifers are recharged by infiltration of streamflow and leakage from consolidated-rock aquifers. Recharge is estimated to average about 32,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge from alluvial aquifers, primarily by evapotranspiration, also averages about 32,000 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in alluvial aquifers is about 200,000 acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells are less than 1,000 gallons per minute. Recharge to the bird's-nest aquifer, primarily from stream infiltration and downward leakage from the overlying Uinta Formation, is estimated to average 670 acre-feet per year. Discharge from the bird's-nest aquifer, which is primarily by seepage to Bitter Creek and the White River, is estimated to be at 670 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in the bird's-nest aquifer is 1.9 million acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells in some areas may be as much as 5,000 gallons per minute. A digital-computer model of the flow system was used to

  14. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  15. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  16. National water-information clearinghouse activities; ground-water perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, C.A.; Jensen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has functioned for many years as an informal clearinghouse for water resources information, enabling users to access groundwater information effectively. Water resources clearinghouse activities of the USGS are conducted through several separate computerized water information programs that are involved in the collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of different types of water information. The following USGS programs perform water information clearinghouse functions and provide the framework for a formalized National Water-Information Clearinghouse: (1) The National Water Data Exchange--a nationwide confederation of more than 300 Federal, State, local, government, academic, and private water-oriented organizations that work together to improve access to water data; (2) the Water Resources Scientific Information Center--acquires, abstracts, and indexes the major water-resources-related literature of the world, and provides this information to the water resources community; (3) the Information Transfer Program--develops innovative approaches to transfer information and technology developed within the USGS to audiences in the public and private sectors; (4) the Hydrologic Information Unit--provides responses to a variety of requests, both technical and lay-oriented, for water resources information , and helps efforts to conduct water resources research; (5) the Water Data Storage and Retrieval System--maintains accessible computerized files of hydrologic data collected nationwide, by the USGS and other governmental agencies, from stream gaging stations, groundwater observation wells, and surface- and groundwater quality sampling sites; (6) the Office of Water Data Coordination--coordinate the water data acquisition activities of all agencies of the Federal Government, and is responsible for the planning, design, and inter-agency coordination of a national water data and information network; and (7) the Water Resources Research

  17. Impacts of Irrigation and Drought on Salem Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is the first of three phases of a ground-water management study. In this report, effects of irrigation and drought on the ground-water resources of Salem are examined. Irrigation water use for five soil types is estimated from a monthly water budget model on the basis of precipitation and temperature data from the last 30 years at selected weather stations across Salem. Moisture deficits are computed for each soil type on the basis of the water requirements of a corn crop. It is assumed that irrigation is used to make up the moisture deficit in those places where irrigation systems already exist. Irrigation water use from each township with irrigated acreage is added to municipal and industrial ground-water use data and then compared to aquifer potential yields. The spatial analysis is accomplished with a statewide geographic information system. An important distinction is made between the seasonal effects of irrigation water use and the annual or long-term effects.

  18. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  19. Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Philip A.

    1964-01-01

    Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.

  20. Selenium speciation in ground water. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.

    1990-07-10

    Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

  1. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md. Samiur; Iqubal, Md. Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem. PMID:27625765

  2. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md Samiur; Iqubal, Md Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  3. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  4. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  5. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  6. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  7. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow...

  8. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  9. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  10. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge...

  11. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kostik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used in...

  13. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater- level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2007. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2007 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 6 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 1 well, and below normal in the remaining 4 wells.

  14. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  15. Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mulvihill, D.A.; Mikels, John; Langer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  16. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  17. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  18. [Metal contamination of the ground water in Mohammedia (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serghini, Amal; Fekhaoui, Mohammed; El Abidi, Abdellah; Tahri, Latifa; Bouissi, Mostafa; El Houssine, Zaid

    2003-01-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the heavy metal contamination of the ground water in the Moroccan city of Mohammedia and its relation to the highly developed industrial and domestic activities in the region. Six heavy metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Fe and Pb, were assayed in the waters of 19 wells throughout the city, in industrial areas, public landfills, and residential zones. Four sampling campaigns were conducted between January and May 1999. Analysis of the heavy metal levels revealed a causal relation between the human activities at the sites studied and the degree of contamination recorded. The sites in the industrial areas had elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu or Pb and most often a combination of at least two of these at a single site. Moreover, the spatial distribution of this pollution showed water in S7 areas to be high in iron and that in S5 and S7 (industrial) areas high in mercury. The concentrations measured are respectively 2.5 and 3-5 times greater than the Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) recommended by WHO for potable water. This work has conclusively proven the presence of dangerous heavy metal contamination of the ground water supply in the area of Mohammedia; it demonstrates the need for conservation and antipollution measures aimed against heavy metal contamination of the overall water supply and in particular the ground water.

  19. Hydrogeologic, soil, and water-quality data for j-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1989-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Disposal of chemical-warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination. This report presents data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Novembr 1989 through September 1994 as part of a remedial investigation of J-Field in response to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Hydrogeologic data, soil-gas and soil-quality data, and water-qualtiy data are included.

  20. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  1. SITE-94. Glaciation and regional ground-water flow in the Fennoscandian shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I.; Neuzil, C.E. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Results from a regional-scale ground-water flow model of the Fennoscandian shield suggest that ground-water flow is strongly affected by surface conditions associated with climatic change and glaciation. The model was used to run a series of numerical simulations of variable-density ground-water flow in a 1500-km-long and approximately 10-km-deep cross-section that passes through southern Sweden. Ground-water flow and shield brine transport in the cross-sectional model are controlled by an assumed time evolution of surface conditions over the next 140 ka. The simulation results suggest that vertical movement of deep shield brines induced by the next few glacial cycles should not increase the concentration of dissolved solids significantly above present-day levels. However, the concentration of dissolved solids should decrease significantly at depths of up to several kilometers during periods of glacial melt water recharge. The melt water may reside in the subsurface for periods exceeding 10 ka and may bring oxygenated conditions to an otherwise reducing chemical environment 33 refs, 32 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  4. Reduction of large-scale numerical ground water flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.; Heemink, A.W.; Testroet, C.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical models are often used for simulating ground water flow. Written in state space form, the dimension of these models is of the order of the number of model cells and can be very high (> million). As a result, these models are computationally very demanding, especially if many different scena

  5. RESEARCH TO SUPPORT RESTORATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief programmatic overview will be presented to highlight research and technical support efforts underway at the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division in Ada, Oklahoma. Details from a case study will be presented to emphasize the technical challenges encountered du...

  6. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  7. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin and 5 in the Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin) between 1980 and 2002 and analyzing the samples for major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. Selected samples also were analyzed for oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, and carbon-14. The water-quality data indicated that dissolved solids and nitrate concentrations were below regulatory limits for potable water; however, fluoride concentrations in the lower aquifer exceeded regulatory limits. Arsenic concentrations and chromium concentrations were generally below regulatory limits; however, arsenic concentrations measured in water from wells perforated in the lower aquifer exceeded regulatory limits. The carbon-14 activities ranged from 2 to 72 percent modern carbon and are consistent with uncorrected ground-water ages (time since recharge) of about 32,300 to 2,700 years before present. The oxygen-18 and deuterium composition of water sampled from the upper aquifer is similar to the volume-weighted composition of present-day winter precipitation indicating that winter precipitation was the predominant source of ground-water recharge. Field studies, conducted during water years 2001 through 2003 to determine the distribution and quantity of recharge, included installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Core material and cuttings from the boreholes were analyzed for physical, chemical, and hydraulic properties. Instruments installed in the boreholes were monitored to measure changes in matric potential and temperature. Borehole data were supplemented with temperature data collected from access tubes installed at additional sites along study washes. Streambed hydraulic properties and the response of instruments to infiltration were measured using infiltrometers. Physical and geochemical data collected away from the stream channels show that direct infiltration of precipitation to depths below the root zone and subsequent gro

  8. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  9. Ground-water geology of the Bruneau-Grand View area, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Robert Thomas; Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1957-01-01

    water does not exceed about 2,700 feet above mean sea level. In some areas, where the land surface is below that altitude, the artesian system discharges water through springs and seeps and locally causes waterlogging and development of alkali soil. In chemical quality much of the water is unsuitable for irrigation and domestic use. The water contains a relatively moderate amount of dissolved solids, but the percent sodium and the concentration of fluoride are excessive for some uses. The quality of the water for irrigation ranges from excellent in the southern part of the artesian system to unsuitable in the northern part. All the artesian ground water that was sampled contained excessive amounts of fluoride. There is a substantial supply of undeveloped artesian water in the area, but

  10. Characterization of lake water and ground water movement in the littoral zone of Williams Lake, a closed-basin lake in North central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Parkhurst, R.S.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.; Antweiler, R.C.; Dean, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Williams Lake, Minnesota is a closed-basin lake that is a flow-through system with respect to ground water. Ground-water input represents half of the annual water input and most of the chemical input to the lake. Chemical budgets indicate that the lake is a sink for calcium, yet surficial sediments contain little calcium carbonate. Sediment pore-water samplers (peepers) were used to characterize solute fluxes at the lake-water-ground-water interface in the littoral zone and resolve the apparent disparity between the chemical budget and sediment data. Pore-water depth profiles of the stable isotopes ??18O and ??2H were non-linear where ground water seeped into the lake, with a sharp transition from lake-water values to ground-water values in the top 10 cm of sediment. These data indicate that advective inflow to the lake is the primary mechanism for solute flux from ground water. Linear interstitial velocities determined from ??2H profiles (316 to 528 cm/yr) were consistent with velocities determined independently from water budget data and sediment porosity (366 cm/yr). Stable isotope profiles were generally linear where water flowed out of the lake into ground water. However, calcium profiles were not linear in the same area and varied in response to input of calcium carbonate from the littoral zone and subsequent dissolution. The comparison of pore-water calcium profiles to pore-water stable isotope profiles indicate calcium is not conservative. Based on the previous understanding that 40-50 % of the calcium in Williams Lake is retained, the pore-water profiles indicate aquatic plants in the littoral zone are recycling the retained portion of calcium. The difference between the pore-water depth profiles of calcium and ??18O and ??2H demonstrate the importance of using stable isotopes to evaluate flow direction and source through the lake-water-ground-water interface and evaluate mechanisms controlling the chemical balance of lakes. Published in 2003 by John Wiley

  11. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, northern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.

    2003-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer, composed of Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks, largely controls the ground-water hydrology in the study area of northern Bexar County, Texas. Discharge from the Trinity aquifer recharges the downgradient, hydraulically connected Edwards aquifer one of the most permeable and productive aquifers in the Nation and the sole source of water for more than a million people in south-central Texas. The unconfined, karstic outcrop of the Edwards aquifer makes it particularly vulnerable to contamination resulting from urbanization that is spreading rapidly northward across an "environmentally sensitive" recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer and its upgradient "catchment area," composed mostly of the less permeable Trinity aquifer.A better understanding of the Trinity aquifer is needed to evaluate water-management decisions affecting the quality of water in both the Trinity and Edwards aquifers. A study was made, therefore, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System to assess northern Bexar County's vulnerability to ground-water contamination. The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in this area varies with the effects of five categories of natural features (hydrogeologic units, faults, caves and (or) sinkholes, slopes, and soils) that occur on the outcrop and in the shallow subcrop of the Glen Rose Limestone.Where faults affect the rates of recharge or discharge or the patterns of ground-water flow in the Glen Rose Limestone, they likewise affect the risk of water-quality degradation. Caves and sinkholes generally increase the vulnerability of ground water to contamination, especially where their occurrences are concentrated. The slope of land surface can affect the vulnerability of ground water by controlling where and how long a potential contaminant remains on the surface. Disregarding the exception of steep slopes which are assumed to have no soil cover the greater the slope, the less the risk of ground-water contamination. Because most

  12. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  13. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  14. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  15. Practical Guidelines for Water Percolation Capacity Determination of the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of water infiltration capacity of ground soils and rocks represents important part of design and construction procedures of the facilities for the infiltration of clean precipitation water. With their help percolation capacity of ground as well as response of the infiltration facilities to the inflowing precipitation water is estimated.Comparing to other in situ hydrogeological tests they can be understood as simple. However, in every day’s practiceseveral problems during their on site application and desk interpretation can arise. Paper represents review of existingpractical engineering procedures during the performance of percolation tests. Procedures are described for the borehole and shaft percolation tests execution and calculation theory for stationary and non‑stationary percolation tests are given. Theory is illustrated with practical exercises. Interpretations of typical departures from theoretical presumptions according to Hvorslev test of non-stationary test are illustrated.

  16. Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Stream temperature has long been recognized as an important water quality parameter. Temperature plays a key role in the health of a stream?s aquatic life, both in the water column and in the benthic habitat of streambed sediments. Many fish are sensitive to temperature. For example, anadromous salmon require specific temperature ranges to successfully develop, migrate, and spawn [see Halupka and others, 2000]. Metabolic rates, oxygen requirements and availability, predation patterns, and susceptibility of organisms to contaminants are but a few of the many environmental responses regulated by temperature. Hydrologists traditionally treated streams and ground water as distinct, independent resources to be utilized and managed separately. With increasing demands on water supplies, however, hydrologists realized that streams and ground water are parts of a single, interconnected resource [see Winter and others, 1998]. Attempts to distinguish these resources for analytical or regulatory purposes are fraught with difficulty because each domain can supply (or drain) the other, with attendant possibilities for contamination exchange. Sustained depletion of one resource usually results in depletion of the other, propagating adverse effects within the watershed. An understanding of the interconnections between surface water and ground water is therefore essential. This understanding is still incomplete, but receiving growing attention from the research community. Exchanges between streams and shallow ground-water systems play a key role in controlling temperatures not only in streams, but also in their underlying sediments. As a result, analyses of subsurface temperature patterns provide information about surface-water/ground-water interactions. Chemical tracers are commonly used for tracing flow between streams and ground water. Introduction of chemical tracers in near-stream environments is, however, limited by real and perceived issues regarding introduced contamination

  17. Ground-water research in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1967-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs and the overlying unsaturated zone-collectively, the "subsurface"-have an enormous capacity to supply water to wells and useful plants, to store water to meet future needs for the same purposes, and, under suitable precautions, to accept wastes. This capacity can be exploited on a maximum scale, however, only on the basis of information one or more orders of magnitude greater than that available at present on the distribution, recoverability, and replenishability of subsurface water. Because usable water must be made available, and waste water must be disposed of, at costs of only a cent or a few cents per cubic meter, there is a critical need for research to devise methods of accomplishing these water-management tasks at reasonable cost. Among the chief target areas for research in subsurface hydrology are permeability distribution, including vertical permeability; prediction of the departure of the storage coefficient from the theoretically "instantaneous" property assumed in flow equations; theory of unsaturated flow based on fundamental soil characteristics that can be measured practicably; geochemical relations including the effects of injecting water of one composition into zones occupied by waters of different composition, generation of acid mine water, occurrence of saline water, and salt-fresh-water relations in coastal and other areas; prediction of the fate of wastes injected underground; geophysical techniques both surface and subsurface to extend, at low cost, information obtained by other means; and practical techniques of artificial recharge, especially through wells. ?? 1967.

  18. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  19. Ground-Water Flow, 2004-07, and Water Quality, 1992-2007, in McBaine Bottoms, Columbia, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda Joyce; Richards, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Columbia, Missouri, and the Missouri Department of Conservation, collected ground-water quality data, surface-water quality data, and water-level data in McBaine Bottoms, southwest of Columbia. McBaine Bottoms, adjacent to the Missouri River, is the location of the municipal-supply well field for the city of Columbia, the city of Columbia wastewater-treatment wetlands, and the Missouri Department of Conservation Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area. This report describes the ground-water flow and water quality of McBaine Bottoms and provides information to better understand the interaction between treated effluent from the wetlands used on the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area and the water in the alluvial aquifer that is pumped from the city of Columbia municipal-supply well field. Changes in major chemical constituent concentrations have been detected at several sampling sites between pre- and post-effluent application data. Analysis of post-effluent data indicates substantial changes in calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in ground water. These changes became apparent shortly after the beginning of the operation of the wastewater-treatment wetland in 1994 and the formation of the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, which uses the treated effluent as a water source for the management of migratory water fowl. The changes have continued throughout the 15 years of sample collection. The concentrations of these major chemical constituents are on the mixing continuum between pre-effluent ground water as one end member and the treated wastewater effluent as the other end member. For monitoring wells that had changes in major chemical constituent concentrations, the relative percentage of treated effluent in the ground water, assuming chloride is conservative, ranged from 6 to 88 percent. Twenty-two monitoring wells throughout McBaine Bottoms have been affected by effluent based on chloride

  20. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Harold E.

    1964-01-01

    Washington County, in northeastern Colorado, has an area of 2,520 square miles. The eastern two-thirds of the county, part of the High Plains physiographic section, is relatively flat and has been moderately altered by the deposition of loess and dune sand, and by stream erosion. The western one-third is a part of the South Platte River basin and has been deeply dissected by tributary streams. The soils and climate of the county are generally suited for agriculture, which is the principal industry. The rocks that crop out in the county influence the availability of ground water. The Pierre Shale, of Late Cretaceous age, underlies the entire area and ranges in thickness from 2,000 to 4,500 feet. This dense shale is a barrier to the downward movement of water and yields little or no water to wells. The Chadron Formation, of Oligocene age, overlies the Pierre Shale in the northern and central parts of the area. The thickness of the formation ranges from a few feet to about 300 feet. Small to moderate quantities of water are available from the scattered sand lenses and from the highly fractured zones of the siltstone. The Ogallala Formation, of Pliocene age, overlies the Chadron Formation and in Washington County forms the High Plains section of the Great Plains province. The thickness of the Ogallala Formation ranges from 0 to about 400 feet, and the yield from wells ranges from a few gallons per hour to about 1,500 gpm. Peorian loess, of Pleistocene age, and dune sand, of Pleistocene to Recent age, mantle a large pan of the county and range in thickness from a few inches to about 120 feet Although the loess and dune sand yield little water to wells, they absorb much of the precipitation and conduct the water to underlying formations. Alluvium, of Pleistocene and Recent age, occupies most of the major stream valleys in thicknesses of a few feet to about 250 feet. The yield of wells tapping the alluvium ranges from a few gallons per minute to about 3,000 gpm, according

  1. Ground-water resources of Catron County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabilvazo, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water and related surface-water resources in Catron County, the largest county in New Mexico. The county is located in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Rio Grande Basin, and the Continental Divide is the boundary between the two river basins. Increases in water used for mining activities (coal, mineral, and geothermal), irrigated agriculture, reservoir construction, or domestic purposes could affect the quantity or quality of ground- water and surface-water resources in the county. Parts of seven major drainage basins are within the two regional river basins in the county--Carrizo Wash, North Plains, Rio Salado, San Agustin, Alamosa Creek, Gila, and San Francisco Basins. The San Francisco, Gila, and Tularosa Rivers typically flow perennially. During periods of low flow, most streamflow is derived from baseflow. The stream channels of the Rio Salado and Carrizo Wash Basins are commonly perennial in their upper reaches and ephemeral in their lower reaches. Largo Creek in the Carrizo Wash Basin is perennial downstream from Quemado Lake and ephemeral in the lower reaches. Aquifers in Catron County include Quaternary alluvium and bolson fill; Quaternary to Tertiary Gila Conglomerate; Tertiary Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Datil Group, and Baca Formation; Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Crevasse Canyon Formation, Gallup Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone; Triassic Chinle Formation; and undifferentiated rocks of Permian age. Water in the aquifers in the county generally is unconfined; however, confined conditions may exist where the aquifers are overlain by other units of lower permeability. Yields of ground water from the Quaternary alluvium in the county range from 1 to 375 gallons per minute. Yields of ground water from the alluvium in the Carrizo Wash Basin are as much as 250 gallons per minute for short time periods. North of the Plains of San Agustin, ground-water yields from the

  2. Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2004-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were obtained from ground water and surface water throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB), New Mexico, and supplemented with selected data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and City of Albuquerque water-quality database in an effort to refine the conceptual model of ground-water flow in the basin. The ground-water data collected as part of this study include major- and minor-element chemistry (30 elements), oxygen-18 and deuterium content of water, carbon-13 content and carbon-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfur-34 content of dissolved sulfate, tritium, and dissolved atmospheric gases including nitrogen, argon, helium, chlorofluorocarbons,

  3. Use of environmental tracers to evaluate ground-water age and water-quality trends in a buried-valley aquifer, Dayton area, southwestern, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; Schlosser, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC method) and tritium and helium isotopes (3H-3He method) were used as environmental tracers to estimate ground-water age in conjunction with efforts to develop a regional ground-water flow model of the buried-valley aquifer in the Dayton area, southwestern Ohio. This report describes results of CFC and water-quality sampling, summarizes relevant aspects of previously published work, and describes the use of 3H-3He ages to characterize temporal trends in ground-water quality of the buried-valley aquifer near Dayton, Ohio. Results of CFC sampling indicate that approximately 25 percent of the 137 sampled wells were contaminated with excess CFC's that rendered the ground water unsuitable for age dating. Evaluation of CFC ages obtained for the remaining samples indicated that the CFC compounds used for dating were being affected by microbial degradation. The degradation occurred under anoxic conditions that are found in most parts of the buried-valley aquifer. As a result, ground-water ages derived by the CFC method were too old and were inconsistent with measured tritium concentrations and independently derived 3H-3He ages. Limited data indicate that dissolved methane may play an important role in the degradation of the CFC's. In contrast, the 3H-3He technique was found to yield ground-water ages that were chemically and hydrologically reasonable. Ground-water ages derived by the 3H-3He technique were compared to values for selected water- quality characteristics to evaluate temporal trends in ground-water quality in the buried- valley aquifer. Distinct temporal trends were not identified for pH, alkalinity, or calcium and magnesium because of rapid equilibration of ground-water with calcite and dolomite in aquifer sediments. Temporal trends in which the amount of scatter and the number of outlier concentrations increased as ground-water age decreased were noted for sodium, potassium, boron, bromide, chloride, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate

  4. Transport and fate of nitrate at the ground-water/surface-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.; Zamora, C.; Essaid, H.; Wilson, J.T.; Johnson, H.M.; Brayton, M.J.; Vogel, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous studies of hyporheic exchange and denitrification have been conducted in pristine, high-gradient streams, few studies of this type have been conducted in nutrient-rich, low-gradient streams. This is a particularly important subject given the interest in nitrogen (N) inputs to the Gulf of Mexico and other eutrophic aquatic systems. A combination of hydrologic, mineralogical, chemical, dissolved gas, and isotopic data, were used to determine the processes controlling transport and fate of NO3- in streambeds at five sites across the USA. Water samples were collected from streambeds at depths ranging from 0.3 to 3 m at three to five points across the stream and in two to five separate transects. Residence times of water ranging from 0.28 to 34.7 d m-1 in the streambeds of N-rich watersheds played an important role in allowing denitrification to decrease NO3- concentrations. Where potential electron donors were limited and residence times were short, denitrification was limited. Consequently, in spite of reducing conditions at some sites, NO3- was transported into the stream. At two of the five study sites, NO3- in surface water infiltrated the streambeds and concentrations decreased, supporting current models that NO3- would be retained in N-rich streams. At the other three study sites, hydrogeologic controls limited or prevented infiltration of surface water into the streambed, and ground-water discharge contributed to NO 3- loads. Our results also show that in these low hydrologic-gradient systems, storm and other high-flow events can be important factors for increasing surface-water movement into streambeds. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. Geohydrology, simulation of ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills, Marion County, Indiana. Water Resources Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duwelius, R.F.; Greeman, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    The report presents the results of a study to provide a quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system at the Julietta and Tibbs-Banta landfills and provide a general description of the ground-water quality beneath and near the two landfills. These objectives provide the information necessary to evaluate the effects of the landfills on ground-water quality. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected in 1985 and 1986 at the Julietta and Tibbs-Banta landfills to fulfill the study objectives. Ground-water models were used to investigate the flow systems and estimate the volume of flow at the landfills. The report includes descriptions of the data collection, geologic and hydrologic descriptions of the two landfills, and brief histories of trash and sludge disposal. Ground-water-flow models are described and estimates of the volume of flow are discussed. A description of the quality-assurance plan used in conjunction with the water-quality data collection and analysis is included. Water-quality data are presented with statistical summaries of ground-water quality related to well depth and position in the flow system.

  6. Saline Ground Water and Irrigation Water on Root Zone Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinisation of land and rivers is a problem of national importance in India. Appropriate land management options to alleviate salinisation should be chosen with knowledge of the effects of land management on stream flow, stream salinity, stream salt load and land productivity. The Management of Catchment Salinisation (MCS modelling approach has been described in earlier work. It links a one-dimensional soil water model with a groundwater model to investigate the effects of management options in study areas of approximately 50 km2. The one dimensional model is used to characterize the annual soil water balance as a function of underlying aquifer Vpotential for all required combinations of soil, vegetation and groundwater salinity. It includes the effect of salt accumulation on plant water use. A groundwater model is then used to estimate the depth to water table across the study area that reflects the topography, hydrogeology and the distribution of vegetation. The MCS model is used to investigate the potential effects of future land use scenarios on catchment salt and water balance. Land use scenarios that have been considered include: forest plantations, revegetation with native trees and shrubs, and development of small areas of crops (10 to 20 ha irrigated with groundwater. This project focuses on the development of small crop areas irrigated with groundwater and investigates the sustainability of these schemes. It also compares the reduction of catchment salt load export under irrigation development with the reduction under afforestation

  7. Projected effects of proposed chloride-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the Wichita River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' plan to control the natural chloride pollution in the Wichita River basin includes the construction of Truscott Brine Lake on a tributary of the North Wichita River. In connection with the proposed brine lake, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to: (1) Define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow fresh-water system of the project area; and (2) project the post-construction effects of the proposed lake on the fresh-water aquifer, especially in relation to hydraulic-head changes but also with respect to possible changes in the chemical quality of the ground water.

  8. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of Wichita and Greeley Counties, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, G.C.; Branch, J.R.; Wilson, W.W.

    1954-01-01

    supplies are obtained from wells. It is estimated that probably more than 2 billion gallons of water is pumped annually from wells in the area. Since 1947, ground-water recharge has been about equal to ground-water discharge.The use of ground water for irrigation has increased greatly since 1946 and indications are that many more wells may be drilled and pumped without dangerously lowering the water table. Approximately 11,000 to 12,000 acres were irrigated in 1951. A map showing the thickness of water-bearing materials indicates that although much of the area has enough water-bearing material to support irrigation wells, parts of Wichita and Greeley counties have little or none.The Ogallala is the principal water-bearing formation in the area. Small amounts of water may also be obtained locally from alluvial deposits and from cracks in the Niobrara formation. Two deep test wells to the Dakota formation have been drilled but, because of the poor quality of the water, have never been used.The ground water in Wichita and Greeley counties, though hard, is suitable for most purposes. Water from the Ogallala is generally high in fluoride and in some cases may be injurious to the teeth of children. Water from the Dakota, though soft, is unfit for irrigation because of a high content of sodium.The field data upon which most of this report is based are given in tables; they include records of 417 wells, chemical analyses of 31 samples of water, and logs of 57 test holes and wells.

  10. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    recently developed urban areas. Five arsenic sample concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) primary maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter adopted in 2001. Measurements that exceeded USEPA or California Department of Health Services recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels include manganese, iron, chloride, total dissolved solids, and specific conductance. These exceedances are probably a result of natural processes. Variations in stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) may indicate different sources or a mixing of recharge waters to the urban ground water. These variations also may indicate recharge directly from surface water in one well adjacent to the Sacramento River. Tritium concentrations indicate that most shallow ground water has been recharged since the mid-1950s, and tritium/helium-3 age dates suggest that recharge has occurred in the last 2 to 30 years in some areas. In areas where water table depths exceed 20 meters and wells are deeper, ground-water recharge may have occurred prior to 1950, but low concentrations of pesticides and VOCs detected in these deeper wells indicate a mixing of younger and older waters. Overall, the recently urbanized areas can be divided into two groups. One group contains wells where few VOCs and pesticides were detected, nitrate mostly was not detected, and National and State maximum contaminant levels, including the USEPA MCL for arsenic, were exceeded; these wells are adjacent to rivers and generally are characterized by younger water, shallow (1 to 4 meters) water table, chemically reducing conditions, finer grained sediments, and higher organics in the soils. In contrast, the other group contains wells where more VOCs, pesticides, and elevated nitrate concentrations were detected; these wells are farther from rivers and are generally characterized by a mixture of young and old waters, intermediate to deep (7 to 35 meters) wate

  11. Effect of well disinfection on arsenic in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkowitz, M.; Ellickson, K.; Clary, A.; Bowman, G.; Standridge, J.; Sonzogni, W.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic water wells are routinely subjected to in situ chemical disinfection treatments to control nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. Most treatments are chlorine based and presumably cause strongly oxidizing conditions in the wellbore. Water resource managers in Wisconsin were concerned that such treatments might facilitate release of arsenic from sulfide minerals disseminated within a confined sandstone aquifer. To test this hypothesis, a well was subjected to four disinfection treatments over 9 months time. The first treatment consisted of routine pumping of the well without chemical disinfection; three subsequent treatments included chlorine disinfection and pumping. Pretreatment arsenic concentrations in well water ranged from 7.4 to 18 ??g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations up to 57 ??g/L in the chemical treatment solutions purged from the well are attributed to the disintegration or dissolution of biofilms or scale. Following each of the four treatments, arsenic concentrations decreased to less than 10 ??g/L during a period of pumping. Arsenic concentrations generally returned to pretreatment levels under stagnant, nonpumping conditions imposed following each treatment. Populations of iron-oxidizing, heterotrophic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria decreased following chemical treatments but were never fully eradicated from the well. Strongly oxidizing conditions were induced by the chlorine-based disinfections, but the treatments did not result in sustained increases in well water arsenic. Results suggest that disruption of biofilm and mineral deposits in the well and the water distribution system in tandem with chlorine disinfection can improve water quality in this setting. ?? 2008 The Author(s).

  12. Study on the quality of ground, spring and river waters in south-east Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zorica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with mineral characterization of natural waters from South-East Serbia. The contents of aluminium, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, cooper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, nickel, lead and zinc were analysed in spring, ground and river waters by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES technique. The study area was in the Southern Serbia, and included slopes of Rtanj, Ozren, Bukovik, Vrdenik and Čemernik mountains, and the valley of South Morava. Obtained contents were compared with Serbian regulations on the quality of water for human use, and directive of World Health Organization (WHO for maximum allowed concentrations of chemical substances. High contents of macro-elements, namely calcium, magnesium and potassium, were detected in several spring and ground water samples which are believed to be due to direct influence of rock minerals. Some water samples contained iron, manganese and copper in concentration up to 84.2 μg dm-3, 8.10 μg dm-3 and 14.9 μg dm-3, respectively, but within the permissible limits. Other heavy metals were not detected in analysed samples. Based on the derived results, tested ground and spring water samples have significant potential to be used as sources for the production of bottled water, but further investigations are necessary. Additional investigations have to be focused on complete physical, chemical and microbiological assessments of water resources. Systematic hydrogeological assessment also should be performed in all seasons. In the meantime, precautionary measures should be immediately taken to protect and preserve these water resources. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  13. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  14. Tomography of ground water flow from self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Jardani, A.

    2007-12-01

    An inversion algorithm is developed to interpret self-potential (SP) data in terms of distribution of the seepage velocity of the ground water. The model is based on the proportionality existing between the electrokinetic source current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase. As the inverse problem is underdetermined, we use a Tikhonov regularization method with a smoothness constraint based on the differential Laplacian operator to solve the inverse problem. The regularization parameter is determined by the L-shape method. The recovery of the distribution of the seepage velocity vector of the ground water flow depends on the localization and number of non-polarizing electrodes and information relative to the distribution of the electrical resistivity of the ground. The inversion method is tested on two 2D synthetic cases and on two real SP data. The first field test corresponds to the infiltration of water from a ditch. The second one corresponds to large flow at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja California.

  15. Strontium isotopic identification of water-rock interaction and ground water mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Carol D; Toner, Rachel N

    2004-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratios of ground waters in the Bighorn and Laramie basins' carbonate and carbonate-cemented aquifer systems, Wyoming, United States, reflect the distinctive strontium isotope signatures of the minerals in their respective aquifers. Well water samples from the Madison Aquifer (Bighorn Basin) have strontium isotopic ratios that match their carbonate host rocks. Casper Aquifer ground waters (Laramie Basin) have strontium isotopic ratios that differ from the bulk host rock; however, stepwise leaching of Casper Sandstone indicates that most of the strontium in Casper Aquifer ground waters is acquired from preferential dissolution of carbonate cement. Strontium isotope data from both Bighorn and Laramie basins, along with dye tracing experiments in the Bighorn Basin and tritium data from the Laramie Basin, suggest that waters in carbonate or carbonate-cemented aquifers acquire their strontium isotope composition very quickly--on the order of decades. Strontium isotopes were also used successfully to verify previously identified mixed Redbeds-Casper ground waters in the Laramie Basin. The strontium isotopic compositions of ground waters near Precambrian outcrops also suggest previously unrecognized mixing between Casper and Precambrian aquifers. These results demonstrate the utility of strontium isotopic ratio data in identifying ground water sources and aquifer interactions.

  16. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Appendixes to Attachment 3: Appendix A, Hydrological services calculations: Appendix B, Ground water quality by location, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report contains chemical analysis data for ground water for the following: elements; cyanides; chlorides; dissolved organic carbon; fluorides; silica; sulfates; sulfides; dissolved solids; nitrates; and nitrites.

  17. Ground-water resources of the Yucca Valley-Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    The southeastern part of the Mojave Water Agency area included in this report comprises about 600 square miles. Recharge into the area is almost exclusively from precipitation in the San Bernardino and Little San Bernardino Mountains. About 500 acre-feet per year of recharge enters the western part of the area as underflow through Pipes Wash. Little direct recharge occurs as a result of precipitation directly on the unconsolidated deposits. Presently about 11,000 persons reside in the area and current gross pumpage is about 1,600 acre-feet annually. By the year 2000 the population is estimated to be 62,000 and annual gross pumpage is expected to be nearly 11,000 acre-feet. Although over 1,200,000 acre-feet of ground water are presently in storage, most of the population is centered in the southern part of the area around the towns of Yucca Valley and Joshua Tree. About 70 percent of the population resides in the vicinity of Yucca Valley and is supplied by ground water pumped from the Warren Valley basin. Of the 96,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage in that basin in 1969, about 80,000 acre-feet will be necessary to sustain projected growth there until 2000. Assuming negligible recharge and only about 50 percent recovery of the ground water in storage, if imported water from northern California is not available before about 1990, additional local supplies will have to be developed, possibly in the adjacent Pipes subbasin to the north. Ground water in the southern part of the study area generally contains less than 250 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and 1.0 mg/l fluoride. A general degradation of ground-water quality occurs northward toward the dry lakes where the concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride approach 2,000 and 5.0 mg/l, respectively. In Reche subbasin some isolated occurrences of fluoride exceeding 1.5 mg/l were noted. The chemical character of ground water in Johnson Valley and Morongo Valley basins differs from well to well

  18. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  20. Ground-Water Quality and its Relation to Land Use on Oahu, Hawaii, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2003-01-01

    Water quality in the main drinking-water source aquifers of Oahu was assessed by a one-time sampling of untreated ground water from 30 public-supply wells and 15 monitoring wells. The 384 square-mile study area, which includes urban Honolulu and large tracts of forested, agricultural, and suburban residential lands in central Oahu, accounts for 93 percent of the island's ground-water withdrawals. Organic compounds were detected in 73 percent of public-supply wells, but mostly at low concentrations below minimum reporting levels. Concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards in just a few cases: the solvent trichloroethene and the radionuclide radon-222 exceeded Federal standards in one public-supply well each, and the fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) exceeded State standards in three public-supply wells each. Solvents, fumigants, trihalomethanes, and herbicides were prevalent (detected in more than 30 percent of samples) but gasoline components and insecticides were detected in few wells. Most water samples contained complex mixtures of organic compounds: multiple solvents, fumigants, or herbicides, and in some cases compounds from two or all three of these classes. Characteristic suites of chemicals were associated with particular land uses and geographic locales. Solvents were associated with central Oahu urban-military lands whereas fumigants, herbicides, and fertilizer nutrients were associated with central Oahu agricultural lands. Somewhat unexpectedly, little contamination was detected in Honolulu where urban density is highest, most likely as a consequence of sound land-use planning, favorable aquifer structure, and less intensive application of chemicals (or of less mobile chemicals) over recharge zones in comparison to agricultural areas. For the most part, organic and nutrient contamination appear to reflect decades-old releases and former land use. Most ground-water ages were decades old, with recharge

  1. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  2. Selected coal-related ground-water data, Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area in east-central Utah consists of about 8,000 square miles within the upper Colorado River drainage system. Coal production in the area is expected to increase from 8 million tons to as much as 30 million tons annually within the next 10 years. Most sources of water supply will be subjected to possible contamination and increased demands by coal-related municipal and industrial growth in the area. The report presents a compilation of coal-related ground-water data from many unpublished sources for the use of local and regional water planners and users. The report includes generalized stratigraphic sections and hydrologic characteristics of rocks in the Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area , records of selected test holes and water wells, logs of selected test holes and water wells, water levels in selected wells, records of selected springs, records of ground-water discharge from selected mines, and chemical analyses of water from selected test holes, water wells, springs, and mines. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton,Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Nelson, K.J.; Regan, C.P.; Lamb, J.A.; Larson, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The research area was located in the Anoka Sand Plain about 5 kilometers southwest of Princeton, Minnesota. The ground-water-quality monitoring network within and immediately surrounding the research area consisted of 73 observation wells and 25 multiport wells. The primary objectives of the ground-water monitoring program at the Minnesota MSEA were to: (1) determine the effects of three farming systems on ground-water quality, and (2) understand the processes and factors affecting the loading, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals in ground water at the site. This report presents well construction, geologic, water-level, chemical application, water-quality, and quality-assurance data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality during 1991-95.

  4. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  5. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  6. The ion chemistry of surface and ground waters in the Taklimakan Desert of Tarim Basin, western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU BingQi; YANG XiaoPing

    2007-01-01

    The physio-chemical and chemical features of water in natural conditions are controlled by the weathering of bedrocks, local climate, landforms and other geo-environmental parameters. In order to understand the characteristics of water and the origins of the dissolved loads in the rivers and in the ground waters of the Taklimakan Desert, western China, we studied the ions in the water samples collected from rivers and wells. We collected water samples from four rivers (Keriya River, Cele River, Tumiya River and Yulongkashi River) in the southern desert and ground water samples from many parts of the desert. Major cations and anions were measured using ion-chromatograph and titration with HCl. The total dissolved solids (TDS), pH and conductivity were examined on site by a portable multi-parameter analyzer. The data show that the water in the rivers of southern Taklimakan is still of fresh water quality and slight alkalinity, although the TDS is comparatively higher than that of many other rivers of the world. The ground water is fresh to slightly saline, with TDS a little higher than that of river water in the study area. The concentration of ions is slightly different between the four rivers in the southern Taklimakan. However, the chemistries of ground water in all samples are to a large degree controlled by sodium and chloride. The ions in the ground water are concluded to be mainly from dissolving of evaporites, consistent with the dry climate in the region, whereas the ions in the rivers are mainly from rock weathering. Low-level human imprints are recognized in the ground water samples also.

  7. Determining extreme parameter correlation in ground water models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Mary Cole; Østerby, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In ground water flow system models with hydraulic-head observations but without significant imposed or observed flows, extreme parameter correlation generally exists. As a result, hydraulic conductivity and recharge parameters cannot be uniquely estimated. In complicated problems, such correlation...... correlation coefficients, but it required sensitivities that were one to two significant digits less accurate than those that required using parameter correlation coefficients; and (3) both the SVD and parameter correlation coefficients identified extremely correlated parameters better when the parameters...

  8. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  9. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    , and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

  10. Photodegradation of dimethenamid-P in deionised and ground water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavaški O.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of photodegradation of dimethenamid-P herbicide was performed in deionised and ground water using TiO2 as a catalyst under UV light. The effect of electron acceptor (H2O2, scavenger of •OH radicals (C2H5OH and scavenger of holes (NaCl and Na2SO4 as well as solution pH was analyzed. The photodegradation of dimethenamid-P was followed by HPLC. The formation of transformation products was followed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Ion chromatography and total organic carbon measurements were used for the determination of the mineralization level. HPLC analysis showed the almost complete removal of herbicide after 90 min in deionised and ground water, while total organic carbon analysis showed that dimethenamid-P was mineralized 64 and 50 % in deionised and ground water, respectively. The ion chromatography results showed that the mineralization process leads to the formation of chloride, sulphate and nitrate anions during the process. Transformation products were identified and the degradation mechanism was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  11. User interface for ground-water modeling: Arcview extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, M.-S.; Whittemore, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation for ground-water modeling often involves handling large input and output data sets. A geographic information system (GIS) provides an integrated platform to manage, analyze, and display disparate data and can greatly facilitate modeling efforts in data compilation, model calibration, and display of model parameters and results. Furthermore, GIS can be used to generate information for decision making through spatial overlay and processing of model results. Arc View is the most widely used Windows-based GIS software that provides a robust user-friendly interface to facilitate data handling and display. An extension is an add-on program to Arc View that provides additional specialized functions. An Arc View interface for the ground-water flow and transport models MODFLOW and MT3D was built as an extension for facilitating modeling. The extension includes preprocessing of spatially distributed (point, line, and polygon) data for model input and postprocessing of model output. An object database is used for linking user dialogs and model input files. The Arc View interface utilizes the capabilities of the 3D Analyst extension. Models can be automatically calibrated through the Arc View interface by external linking to such programs as PEST. The efficient pre- and postprocessing capabilities and calibration link were demonstrated for ground-water modeling in southwest Kansas.

  12. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  13. Relationship between precipitation quality, shallow ground-water geochemistry, and dissolved aluminum in eastern Maryland. Final report, November 1983-April 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, L.J.; Katz, B.G.

    1986-04-01

    Precipitation, surface water, and shallow ground-water samples were collected in eastern Maryland to determine if acidic precipitation is affecting the chemical quality of water in the Columbia aquifer--an unconsolidated sand and gravel deposit. Thirty-eight water samples were collected from 11 wells, and 9 samples from 3 stream sites between February and June 1984. Ground-water and surface-water samples contained chemical species with significantly different concentration from those of precipitation. Ground-water samples were enriched with bicarbonate, silica, potassium, chloride, and sulfate and had lower hydrogen-ion concentrations than precipitation. Dissolved aluminum in most of the other ground-water samples was at or near the detection limit of 0.01 mg/l.

  14. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  15. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  16. Chemical Composition of Ground Pearl (Eurhizococcus colombianus Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Echeverri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground pearl (Eurhizococcus colombianus is a crop pest in Colombia, withspecial impact on fig, grass, rubus and tomato plants. The insect is resistant to externalinsecticide application because it produces a thick waxy shell that isolates it from theenvironment. The composition of this shell was determined by NMR and MS as atriglyceride, whose fatty acid is transformed into other products with the metamorphosis ofthe insect. Additionally, several enzymatic inhibitors were assayed to control the insectwith negative results.

  17. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns.

  18. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  19. Ground Water Issue: Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground Water at Hazardous Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    phytomining. J. Geochem. Explor. 60(2):115-126. Rogers, R.D., and S.E. Williams. 1986. Vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhiza : influence on plant uptake of...surrounding plant roots). Fungi associated with some plant roots (i.e., mycorrhizae ) can also influence the chemical conditions within the soil...arundinacea Schreb.), revealed the importance of mycorrhizae and adding organic waste amendments in establishing plants on the metal-contaminated mine wastes

  20. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  1. CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY INDICATORS IN BASIN FOREST PARCZEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Grzywna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the chemistry of surface and ground water in the bottom of the river valley reclaimed Ochoza. Drained grassland accounts for 20% of the total catchment area and are located on organic soils in the valley Tyśmienica classified to the Natura 2000 sites. Analysis of physico-chemical properties of water are to assess the effects of anthropogenic transformation and identify factors that influence water quality in the study area. Water samples were collected in the years 2011–2012 in several points. The walls were characterized by surface water stagnant in the trenches, in July, blueberry plantation. Characterized by the highest quality of surface water runoff river with the test object. Occurring here throughout the growing season water flow reed growing on the bed and temporary impoundment of water contribute to the self-cleaning effect of water. Conducted at different times of the growing season (winter, spring, summer, autumn of water chemistry analysis allows to assess the impact of vegetation on the process of self-purification of water. Based on the survey it was found that the river is reduced by 26% BOD 5, COD by 37%, 12% phosphate and potassium by 13%. Concurrently, an increase in the content of nitrogen compounds – ammonia at 27% and 15% nitrate. The increase in the content of nitrogen compounds is particularly evident in the bottom of the object, which is probably associated with the deep trench causing excessive drying of the soil. The highest values of pollutants were recorded mostly in the spring probably due to the outflow of water from the drans.

  2. Ground water distillation by basin type solar still for different basin water depth under the climatic condition of Rewa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbhayAgrawal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate quality and reliability of drinking water supply is a fundamental need. Without potable water or drinking water (less than about 500 ppm of salt human life is not possible. Only 1% of Earth's water is in a fresh, liquid state, and nearly all of this is polluted by both diseases and toxic chemicals. For this reason, purification of water supplies is extremely important. Keeping these things in mind, we have devised a model which will convert the saline ground water into pure and potable water using the renewable source of energy (i.e. solar energy. Solar energy is an abundant, never lasting, and available on site and pollution free energy.Solar Energy is freely available and can be used as a very cheap option to convert saline ground Water through Solar Distillation, by using Solar Stills. The conventional single basin and single slop Passive Solar Still can be used to purify water but the main problem is that the per square meter distillate output is less. So it is need to modify the design of solar still for high output of solar distillate Solar still is easy to construct, can be done by local people from locally available materials, simple in operation by unskilled Personnel, no hard maintenance requirements and almost no operation cost. Simplest basin type models of solar still in earlier days, researchers have progressed a lot to increase its efficiency. Suitable modification of solar still can produce high output using minimum areas of land and even in cloudy days. Experimental study is done at Rewa M.P. on two different basin water depth solar stills. Low water depth solar water still is produced more distillate than high water depth still by the experiment.

  3. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  4. Ground Water Quality of Gandhinagar Taluka, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur C. Shah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present communication deals with study of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, total alkalinity (TA, calcium hardness (CaH, magnesium hardness (MgH, total hardness (TH, chloride (Cl-, fluoride (F-, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and sulphate (SO42- of water samples of bore wells of forty villages of Gandhinagar taluka of Gujarat state,India. The experimental values of water samples were compared with standard values given by World Health Organization (WHO and United State Salinity Laboratory for drinking and irrigation purposes respectively. Water Quality Index (WQI was also calculated to know the over all quality of water samples. The statistical analysis like mean, standard deviation (SD, coefficient of variance (% CV, analysis of variance (ANOVA, t-test, coefficient of correlation (r and regression analysis of obtained data were carried out. The results show that the quality of water is poor and quite good for drinking and irrigation purposes respectively. The variance was found significant at 1% level of significance in case of sodium and potassium content and at 5% in case of total alkalinity and dissolved oxygen among the four regions (North, South, East and West of Gandhinagar taluka. The linear relation also established for each pair of water quality parameters of studied water samples.

  5. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  7. Subregions of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the subregions of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS). Subregions are...

  8. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  9. Depth to ground water contours of hydrographic area 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of depth to ground water contours for hydrographic-area (HA) 153, Diamond Valley, Nevada. These data represent static ground-water levels...

  10. Digital data set describing ground-water regions with unconsolidated watercourses in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes ground-water regions in the United States defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. These ground-water regions are useful for dividing the...

  11. Ground-based Remote Sensing of Cloud Liquid Water Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewell, S.; Loehnert, U.

    Within the BALTEX Cloud LIquid WAter NETwork (CLIWA-NET) measurements of cloud parameters were performed to improve/evaluate cloud parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The key variable is the cloud liq- uid water path (LWP) which is measured by passive microwave radiometry from the ground during three two-month CLIWA-NET observational periods. Additionally to the high temporal resolution time series from the ground, LWP fields are derived from satellite measurements. During the first two campaigns a continental scale network consisting of 12 stations was established. Most stations included further cloud sen- sitive instruments like infrared radiometer and lidar ceilometer. The third campaign started with a two-week long microwave intercomparison campaign (MICAM) in Cabauw, The Netherlands, and proceeded with a regional network within a 100 by 100 km area. The presentation will focus on the accuracy of LWP derived from the ground by in- vestigating the accuracy of the microwave brightness temperature measurement and examining the LWP retrieval uncertainty. Up to now microwave radiometer are no standard instruments and the seven radiometer involved in MICAM differ in frequen- cies, bandwidths, angular resolution, integration time etc. The influence of this instru- ment specifications on the LWP retrieval will be discussed.

  12. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, P.D.; Voss, C.I. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The present report analyzes the geochemical data in order to evaluate collection and interpretation techniques that will be used to site the repository and to assess its safety. Ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) may be grouped into five chemically and isotopically distinct water types, on the basis of their deuterium and chloride contents: 1) recent waters, 2) 5 g/L chloride waters, 3) deep waters, 4) seawater imprint waters, and 5) glacial melt waters. The sampled ground waters show a progressive change from a predominantly NaHCO{sub 3} composition at shallow depth to a CaCl{sub 2}-rich composition at depth. Despite the proximity of the Baltic, relatively few of the sampled ground waters contain any evidence of a seawater component. This finding, together with the rather shallow depths at which saline waters were found, indicates that Aespoe island is presently in a regional ground-water discharge area. The chemical and isotopic composition of the sampled waters also indicates that local recharge of dilute recent waters occurs only down to shallow depths (generally less than 100 in). The Aespoe ground waters are sulfidic and do not presently contain any dissolved oxygen. Measured E{sub H} values are generally near -300 mV, and on average are only about 50 mV lower than E{sub H} values calculated from the sulfide/sulfate couple. Maintenance of reducing conditions, such as presently found at the Aespoe HRL, is an important consideration in assessing the performance of nuclear waste disposal sites. Measurements of dissolved radon and of uranium concentrations in fracture-fill materials were used to calculate an average effective flow-wetted surface area of 3.1 m{sup 2} per liter of water for the Aespoe site. Estimation of flow-wetted surface areas is essential in determining the importance of matrix diffusion and surface sorption processes for radionuclide release calculations. The Rn calculation technique shows promise in helping narrow the

  13. Ground-water resources of Pavant Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1965-01-01

    Pavant Valley, in eastern Millard County in west-central Utah, is in the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range province. The area of investigation is 34 miles long from north to south and 9 miles wide from east to west and comprises about 300 square miles. Agriculture, tourist trade, and mining are the principal industries. The population of the valley is about 3,500, of which about half live in Fillmore, the county seat of Millard County. The climate is semiarid and temperatures are moderate. Average normal annual precipitation in the lowlands is estimated to range from 10 to 14 inches. Precipitation is heaviest during the late winter and spring, January through May. The average monthly temperature at Fillmore ranges from 29?F in January to 76?F in July; the average annual temperature is 52?F. Because of the aridity, most crops cannot be grown successfully without irrigation. Irrigation requirements were satisfied for about 60 years after the valley was settled by diverting streams tributary to the valley. Artesian water was discovered near Flowell in 1915. By 1920 flowing artesian wells supplied about 10 percent of the irrigation water used in the valley, not including water from the Central Utah Canal. The Central Utah Canal was constructed in 1916 to convey water to the Pavant Valley from the Sevier River. Especially since 1916, the quantity of surface water available each year for irrigation has changed with the vagaries of nature. The total percentage of irrigation water contributed by ground water, on the other hand, gradually increased to about 15 percent in 1945 and then increased rapidly to 45 percent in 1960; it will probably stabilize at about 50 percent. Sand and gravel deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age are the principal aquifers in Pavant Valley. These deposits are coarser, more extensive, and more permeable near the mountains and become progressively finer .and less .permeable westward away from the mountains. As ground water moves westward

  14. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  15. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; analysis of available water-quality data through 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Schlottmann, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Beginning in 1986, the Congress annually has appropriated funds for the U.S. Geological Survey to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of a full-scale program would be to: (1) Provide a nationally consistent description of current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources; (2) Define long-term trends (or lack of trends) in water quality; and (3) Identify, describe, and explain, as possible, the major factors that affect the observed water-quality conditions and trends. The results of the NAWQA Program will be made available to water managers, policy makers, and the public, and will provide an improved scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of water-quality management programs. At present (1988), the assessment program is in a pilot phase in seven project areas throughout the country that represent diverse hydrologic environments and water-quality conditions. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three pilot ground-water projects. One of the initial activities performed by each pilot project was to compile, screen, and interpret the large amount of water-quality data available within each study area. The purpose of this report is to assess the water quality of the Central Oklahoma aquifer using the information available through 1987. The scope of the work includes compiling data from Federal, State, and local agencies; evaluating the suitability of the information for conducting a regional water-quality assessment; mapping regional variations in major-ion chemistry; calculating summary statistics of the available water-quality data; producing maps to show the location and number of samples that exceeded water-quality standards; and performing contingency-table analyses to determine the relation of geologic unit and depth to the occurrence of chemical constituents that exceed water-quality standards. This report provides an initial

  16. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  17. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  18. Simulation of ground-water flow and transport of chlorinated hydrocarbons at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Fleck, William B.

    2001-01-01

    Military activity at Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons. As part of a ground-water remediation feasibility study, a three-dimensional model was constructed to simulate transport of four chlorinated hydrocarbons (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform) that are components of a contaminant plume in the surficial and middle aquifers underlying the east-central part of Graces Quarters. The model was calibrated to steady-state hydraulic head at 58 observation wells and to the concentration of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in 58 observation wells and 101direct-push probe samples from the mid-1990s. Simulations using the same basic model with minor adjustments were then run for each of the other plume constituents. The error statistics between the simulated and measured concentrations of each of the constituents compared favorably to the error statisticst,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane calibration. Model simulations were used in conjunction with contaminant concentration data to examine the sources and degradation of the plume constituents. It was determined from this that mixed contaminant sources with no ambient degradation was the best approach for simulating multi-species solute transport at the site. Forward simulations were run to show potential solute transport 30 years and 100 years into the future with and without source removal. Although forward simulations are subject to uncertainty, they can be useful for illustrating various aspects of the conceptual model and its implementation. The forward simulation with no source removal indicates that contaminants would spread throughout various parts of the surficial and middle aquifers, with the100-year simulation showing potential discharge areas in either the marshes at the end of the Graces Quarters peninsula or just offshore in the estuaries. The

  19. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  1. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE AND CLINOPTILOLITE ZEOLITE FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE: LABORATORY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are tens of thousands of closed landfills in the United States, many of whicih are unlined and sited on alluvial deposits. Landfills are of concern because leachate contains a variety of pollutants that can contaminate ground and surface water. Data from chemical analysis...

  2. U and sr isotopes in ground water and calcite, yucca mountain, nevada: evidence against upwelling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J S; Peterman, Z E; Muhs, D R

    1991-10-25

    Hydrogenic calcite and opaline silica deposits in fault zones at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have created considerable public and scientific controversy because of the possible development of a high-level nuclear waste repository at this location. Strontium and uranium isotopic compositions of hydrogenic materials were used to test whether the veins could have formed by upwelling of deep-seated waters. The vein deposits are isotopically distinct from ground water in the two aquifers that underlie Yucca Mountain, indicating that the calcite could not have precipitated from ground water. The data are consistent with a surficial origin for the hydrogenic deposits.

  3. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James M.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the quality of ground water in the Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys as part of the Carson River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) pilot study. Four aquifer systems have been de- lineated in the study area. Principal aquifers are unconsolidated deposits at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet above sea level and more than 50 feet below land surface. Shallow aquifers are at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet and less than 50 feet below land surface. Upland aquifers are above 4,900 feet and provide recharge to the principal aquifers. Thermal aquifers, defined as those having a water temperature greater than 30 degrees Celsius, are also present. Ground water used in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys is pumped from principal aquifers in unconsolidated basin-fill deposits. Ground water in these aquifers originates as precipitation in the adjacent mountains and is recharged by the Carson River and by underflow from adjacent upstream valleys. Ground-water flow is generally parallel to the direction of surface-water flow in the Carson River. Ground water is discharged by pumping, evapo- transpiration, and underflow into the Carson River. The results of geochemical modeling indicate that as ground water moves from upland aquifers in mountainous recharge areas to principal aquifers in basin-fill deposits, the following processes probably occur: (1) plagioclase feldspar, sodium chloride, gypsum (or pyrite), potassium feldspar, and biotite dissolve; (2) calcite precipitates; (3) kaolinite forms; (4) small amounts of calcium and magnesium in the water exchange for potassium on aquifer minerals; and (5) carbon dioxide is gained or lost. The geochemical models are consistent with (1) phases identified in basin- fill sediments; (2) chemical activity of major cations and silica; (3) saturation indices of calcite and amorphous silica; (4) phase relations for aluminosilicate minerals indicated by activity diagrams; and

  4. Kinetic modeling of water sorption by roasted and ground coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Baptestini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to model the kinetics of water sorption in roasted and ground coffee. Crude Arabica coffee beans with an initial moisture content of 0.1234 kgwkgdm-1 were used. These beans were roasted to a medium roast level (SCCA # 55 and ground at three particle sizes: coarse (1.19 mm, medium (0.84 mm and fine (0.59 mm. To obtain the water sorption isotherms and the isosteric heat, different conditions of temperature and relative humidity were analyzed using the dynamic method at 25ºC (0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 of RH and 30°C (0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 of RH and using the static method at 25ºC (0.332 and 0.438 of RH. The GAB model best represented the hygroscopic equilibrium of roasted coffee at every particle size. Isosteric heat of sorption for the fine particle size increased with increments of equilibrium moisture content, indicating a strong bond energy between water molecules and the product components. The Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in equilibrium moisture content and with temperature.

  5. Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Microplastics, are plastics particles with a size smaller than 5mm. They are formed by the fragmentation of plastic wastes. They are present in the air, soil and water. But only in aquatic systems (ocean and rivers) are studies over their distribution, and the effect of microplastics on organisms. There is a lack of information of what is the distribution of microplastics in the soil, and in the ground water. This study tries to estimate the potential risk of microplastics transportation into the ground water by the activity of earthworms. Earthworms can produce burrows and/or galleries inside the soil, with the presence of earthworms some ecosystem services are enhanced, as infiltration. In this study we observed after 14 days with 5 treatments (0, 7, 28 and 60% w/w microplastics mixed with Populus nigra litter) and the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, in microcosms (3 replicas per treatment) that macroplastics are indeed deposit inside earthworms burrows, with 7% microplastics on the surface is possible to find 1.8 g.kg-1 microplastics inside the burrows, with a bioaumentation factor of 0.65. Burrows made by earthworms under 60% microplastics, are significant bigger (pmicroplastics in their soil surface. The amount of litter that is deposit inside the burrows is significant higher (pmicroplastics on the surface than without microplastics. The microplastics size distribution is smaller inside the burrows than on the surface, with an abundance of particles under 63 μm.

  6. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  7. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William S.; Mirecki, June E.; Kingsbury, James A.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1992 to 1994 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and water-quality data to determine the source of ground water causing water-quality changes in water from wells screened in the Memphis aquifer in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee. Water-quality changes in aquifers used for water supply are of concern because these changes can indicate a potential for contamination of the aquifers by downward leakage from near-surface sources.

  8. NEUTRALIZATION OF ACIDIC GROUND WATER NEAR GLOBE, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; ,

    1985-01-01

    Highly acidic contaminated water is moving through a shallow aquifer and interacting with streams near Globe, Arizona. Dissolved concentrations reach 3,000 mg/L iron, 150 mg/L copper, and 16,400 mg/L total dissloved solids; pH is as low as 3. 6. Samples from 16 PVC-cased observation wells include uncontaminated, contaminated, transition, and neutralized waters. Chemical reaction with sediments and mixing with uncontaminated water neutralizes the acidic water. The reactions form a transition zone where gypsum replaces calcite and most metals precipitate. Ferric hydroxide also precipitates if sufficient oxygen is available. Abundant gypsum crystals and ferric hydroxide coatings have been recovered from well cuttings. Large sulfate concentrations produce sulfate complexes with many metals that inhibit removal of metals from solution.

  9. Expertise in exploiting ground water in Australian prehistory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, H. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    The presence of human beings on the Australian continent has been established to go back to at least 40 000 years. Recent research has put this back to about 60 000 years B.P. (Before Present). With the awareness of living on an extremely arid continent, the need to satisfy water demands was a constant concern. Finding water for all members of the various groups, but especially for those living in the Australian inland with extremely low precipitation, was a perpetual challenge. Thus, in desert areas seeking, finding and protecting ground water was demanded continuously. Native wells were established and used for many centuries often when surface water had dried in nearby watercourses. A number of wells found in the Simpson Desert, with habitation around them until recently, are most interesting. In Central Australia, in the Cleland Hills, the location of habitation has been found at a huge rock shelter close to a rock hole providing permanent ground water when all other sources in the vicinity have dried out. It was scientifically established that this occupation goes back 22 000 years. These examples of obtaining ground water in Australian prehistory many thousands of years ago by Aborigines show a highly developed culture. (orig.) [German] Bisher wurde angenommen, dass die Besiedelung des australischen Kontinents durch den Menschen vor 40 000 Jahren begann. Neueste Untersuchungen datieren diesen Zeitpunkt jedoch auf 60 000 Jahre zurueck. Fuer das Leben auf diesem extrem trockenen Erdteil war die Sicherung des Wasserbedarfs von jeher existenziell. Lebenswichtiges Wasser zu finden war fuer alle Mitglieder der verschiedenen Bevoelkerungsgruppen, vor allem aber fuer diejenigen, die sich im australischen Hinterland ansiedelten, von hoechster Bedeutung. Grundwasser in der Wueste zu suchen, zu finden und zu schuetzen war oberstes Ziel. Urspruengliche Brunnen wurden errichtet und ueber Jahrhunderte hindurch genutzt, wenn alle anderen Wasserressourcen versiegten. Hierbei

  10. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; geochemical and geohydrologic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Breit, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer examined the chemical and isotopic composition of ground water, the abundances and textures of minerals in core samples, and water levels and hydraulic properties in the flow system to identify geochemical reactions occurring in the aquifer and rates and directions of ground-water flow. The aquifer underlies 3,000\\x11square miles of central Oklahoma and consists of Permian red beds, including parts of the Permian Garber Sandstone, Wellington Formation, and Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits. In the part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that is not confined by the Permian Hennessey Group, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water; in the confined part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation and in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, sodium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water. Nearly all of the Central Oklahoma aquifer has an oxic or post-oxic environment as indicated by the large dissolved concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, arsenic (V), chromium (VI), selenium (VI), vanadium, and uranium. Sulfidic and methanic environments are virtually absent. Petrographic textures indicate dolomite, calcite, sodic plagioclase, potassium feldspars, chlorite, rock fragments, and micas are dissolving, and iron oxides, manganese oxides, kaolinite, and quartz are precipitating. Variations in the quantity of exchangeable sodium in clays indicate that cation exchange is occurring within the aquifer. Gypsum may dissolve locally within the aquifer, as indicated by ground water with large concentrations of sulfate, but gypsum was not observed in core samples. Rainwater is not a major source for most elements in ground water, but evapotranspiration could cause rainwater to be a significant source of potassium, sulfate, phosphate and nitrogen species. Brines derived from

  11. Ground-water flow and quality near Canon City, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, G.A.; Litke, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water in aquifers that underlie the Lincoln Park area near Canon City, Colorado, contains measurable concentrations of chemical constituents that are similar to those in raffinate (liquid waste) produced by a nearby uranium ore processing mill. The objective of this study was to expand the existing geohydrologic data base by collecting additional geohydrologic and water quality, in order to refine the description of the geohydrologic and geochemical systems in the study area. Geohydrologic data were collected from nine tests wells drilled in the area between the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam and Lincoln Park. Lithologic and geophysical logs of these wells indicated that the section of Vermejo Formation penetrated consisted of interbedded sandstone and shale. The sandstone beds had a small porosity and small hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater flow from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam to Lincoln Park seemed to be along an alluvium-filled channel in the irregular and relatively undescribed topography of the Vermejo Formation subcrop. North of the De Weese Dye Ditch, the alluvium becomes saturated and groundwater generally flows to the northeast. Water samples from 28 sites were collected and analyzed for major ions and trace elements; selected water samples also were analyzed for stable isotopes; samples were collected from wells near the uranium ore processing mill, from privately owned wells in Lincoln Park, and from the test wells drilled in the intervening area. Results from the quality assurance samples indicate that cross-contamination between samples from different wells was avoided and that the data are reliable. Water in the alluvial aquifer underlying Lincoln Park is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type. Small variations in the composition of water in the alluvial aquifer appears to result from a reaction of water leaking from the De Weese Dye Ditch with alluvial material. Upward leakage from underlying aquifers does not seem to be significant in

  12. Determination of barium in surface and ground waters at Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CEA/CTMS), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange, E-mail: cadore@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analica

    2015-07-01

    Barium can be found in waters up to 1 mg L{sup -1} and came from natural sources such as sedimentary rocks erosion rich in feldspar and barite. Also anthropogenic activities can release this element such as oil and gas industry, agricultural defensives, chemical industry and waste disposal. At high doses, barium can be harmful to human central nervous system and can also cause high blood pressure, heart problems, fatigue and anxiety. The water potability defined by Brazilian's Ministry of Healthy sets barium concentration up to 0.7 mg L{sup -1} and official regulation defines the same limit of this element to superficial waters (according CONAMA resolution 357/2005) and ground waters (Sao Paulo state regulation). In this work, barium was analyzed monthly in superficial waters from 4 different sampling locations, located in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) at Ipanema River, during one year, in order to evaluate the river in different conditions (seasons, temperature and rain period). The ground water was collected every six months. The analytical technique applied was ICP OES and the method conditions were optimized: wavelength, linearity, signal background ratio, detection and quantification limits. Data obtained in this work will contribute to evaluate the presence of barium at CEA region and nearby in order to compare it with current Brazilian regulations. (author)

  13. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent.

  14. Computer simulation models relevant to ground water contamination from EOR or other fluids - state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, M.B.; Collins, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    Ground water contamination is a serious national problem. The use of computers to simulate the behavior of fluids in the subsurface has proliferated extensively over the last decade. Numerical models are being used to solve water supply problems, various kinds of enertgy production problems, and ground water contamination problems. Modeling techniques have progressed to the point that their accuracy is only limited by the modeller's ability to describe the reservoir in question and the heterogeneities therein. Pursuant to the Task and Milestone Update of Project BE3A, this report summarizes the state of the art of computer simulation models relevant to contamination of ground water by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemicals and/or waste fluids. 150 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  16. Passive sampling of perfluorinated chemicals in water: Flow rate effects on chemical uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaserzon, S.L.; Vermeirssen, E.L.M.; Hawker, D.W.; Kennedy, K.; Bentley, C.; Thompson, J.; Booij, K.; Mueller, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    A recently developed modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) provides a means for monitoring perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water. However, changes in external flow rates may alter POCIS sampling behaviour and consequently affect estimated water concentrations of analytes. In

  17. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  18. Nitrate removal using Brevundimonas diminuta MTCC 8486 from ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Selvakumar, R; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P; Singh, A; Jain, S K

    2009-01-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta MTCC 8486, isolated from marine soil of coastal area of Trivandrum, Kerala, was used for biological removal of nitrate from ground water collected from Kar village of Pali district, Rajasthan. The organism was found to be resistance for nitrate up to 10,000 mg L(-1). The optimum growth conditions for biological removal of nitrate were established in batch culture. The effect of carbon sources on nitrate removal was investigated using mineral salt medium (MSM) containing 500 mg L(-1) of nitrate to select the most effective carbon source. Among glucose and starch as carbon source, glucose at 1% concentration increased the growth (182+/-8.24 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1)) and induced maximum nitrate reduction (86.4%) at 72 h. The ground water collected from Kar village, Pali district of Rajasthan containing 460+/-5.92 mg L(-1) of nitrate was subjected to three different treatment processes in pilot scale (T1 to T3). Higher removal of nitrate was observed in T2 process (88%) supplemented with 1% glucose. The system was scaled up to 10 L pilot scale treatment plant. At 72 h the nitrate removal was observed to be 95% in pilot scale plant. The residual nitrate level (23+/-0.41 mg L(-1)) in pilot scale treatment process was found to be below the permissible limit of WHO.

  19. Availability of ground water in parts of the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, George A.; Motts, Ward Sundt

    1964-01-01

    The need for additional water has increased in recent years on the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations in west-central New Mexico because the population and per capita use of water have increased; the tribes also desire water for light industry, for more modern schools, and to increase their irrigation program. Many wells have been drilled in the area, but most have been disappointing because of small yields and poor chemical quality of the water. The topography in the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations is controlled primarily by the regional and local dip of alternating beds of sandstone and shale and by the igneous complex of Mount Taylor. The entrenched alluvial valley along the Rio San Jose, which traverses the area, ranges in width from about 0.4 mile to about 2 miles. The climate is characterized by scant rainfall, which occurs mainly in summer, low relative humidity, and large daily fluctuations of temperature. Most of the surface water enters the area through the Rio San Jose. The average annual streamflow past the gaging station Rio San Jose near Grants, N. Mex. is about 4,000 acre-feet. Tributaries to the Rio San Jose within the area probably contribute about 1,000 acre-feet per year. At the present time, most of the surface water is used for irrigation. Ground water is obtained from consolidated sedimentary rocks that range in age from Triassic to Cretaceous, and from unconsolidated alluvium of Quaternary age. The principal aquifers are the Dakota Sandstone, the Tres Hermanos Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, and the alluvium. The Dakota Sandstone yields 5 to 50 gpm (gallons per minute) of water to domestic and stock wells. The Tres Hermanos sandstone Member generally yields 5 to 20 gpm of water to domestic and stock wells. Locally, beds of sandstone in the Chinle and Morrison Formations, the Entrada Sandstone, and the Bluff Sandstone also yield small supplies of water to domestic and stock wells. The alluvium yields from 2 gpm to as much as 150

  20. Environmental isotopes as indicators for ground water recharge to fractured granite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofterdinger, U S; Balderer, W; Loew, S; Renard, P

    2004-01-01

    To assess the contribution of accumulated winter precipitation and glacial meltwater to the recharge of deep ground water flow systems in fracture crystalline rocks, measurements of environmental isotope ratios, hydrochemical composition, and in situ parameters of ground water were performed in a deep tunnel. The measurements demonstrate the significance of these ground water recharge components for deep ground water flow systems in fractured granites of a high alpine catchment in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Hydrochemical and in situ parameters, as well as delta(18)O in ground water samples collected in the tunnel, show only small temporal variations. The precipitation record of delta(18)O shows seasonal variations of approximately 14% and a decrease of 0.23% +/- 0.03% per 100 m elevation gain. delta(2)H and delta(18)O in precipitation are well correlated and plot close to the meteoric water line, as well as delta(2)H and delta(18)O in ground water samples, reflecting the meteoric origin of the latter. The depletion of 18O in ground water compared to 18O content in precipitation during the ground water recharge period indicates significant contributions from accumulated depleted winter precipitation to ground water recharge. The hydrochemical composition of the encountered ground water, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4(-F), reflects an evolution of the ground water along the flowpath through the granite body. Observed tritium concentrations in ground water range from 2.6 to 16.6 TU, with the lowest values associated with a local negative temperature anomaly and anomalous depleted 18O in ground water. This demonstrates the effect of local ground water recharge from meltwater of submodern glacial ice. Such localized recharge from glaciated areas occurs along preferential flowpaths within the granite body that are mainly controlled by observed hydraulic active shear fractures and cataclastic faults.

  1. Simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Hyde Park landfill, Niagara Falls, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslia, M.L.; Johnston, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Hyde Park landfill is a 15-acre chemical waste disposal site located north of Niagara Falls, New York. Underlying the site in descending order are: (1) low permeability glacial till, (2) a moderately permeable fractured rock aquifer--the Lockport Dolomite, and (3) a low permeability unit--the Rochester Shale. The site is bounded on three sides by ground-water drains; the Niagara River Gorge, the Niagara Power Project canal, and the power project conduits. A finite element model was used to simulate ground-water flow along an east-west section through the Hyde Park site (from the power project conduits to the Niagara Gorge). Steady-state conditions were simulated with an average annual recharge rate of 5 inches per year. The calibrated model simulated measured water levels within 5 feet in the glacial till and upper unit of the Lockport Dolomite and approximated the configuration of the water table. Based on simulation, ground-water flow near the Hyde Park site can be summarized as follows: 1. Specific discharge (Darcy velocity) ranges from about 0.01 to 0.1 foot per day in the upper unit of the Lockport Dolomite to less than 0.00001 foot per day in the Rochester Shale. Real velocities are highest in the upper unit of the Lockport, ranging from about 1.5 to 4.8 feet per day. 2. A ground-water divide exists east of the landfill, indicating that all ground water originating near or flowing beneath the landfill will flow toward and discharge in the gorge. 3. The zone of highest velocities (and presumably greatest potential for transporting chemical contaminants) includes the upper unit of the Lockport and part of the lower unit of the Lockport Dolomite between the landfill and the gorge. The time required for ground water to move from the landfill to the gorge in the Lockport Dolomite is estimated to be 5 to 7 years.

  2. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data.

  3. Ground-water quality of the Upper Floridan Aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Manufactured gas plants produced gas for heating and lighting in the United States from as early as 1816 into the 1960's. By-products including, but not limited to, oil residues and tar, were generated during the gas-manufacturing process. Organic compounds (hydrocarbons) were detected in water in the upper water-bearing zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant (MGP) in Albany, Georgia, during an earlier investigation in 1990. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected from five existing monitoring wells in 1991 verify the presence of hydrocarbons and metals in the upper water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. One well was drilled into the lower water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer in 1991 for water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring. Analyses of ground water sampled from this well did not show evidence of benzene, toluene, xylene, napthalene, acenaphthlene, or other related compounds detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Low concentrations of tetrachloroethane, trichloromethane, and l,2-cisdichloroethene were detected in a water sample from the deeper well; however, these compounds were not detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Inorganic constituent concentrations also were substantially lower in the deeper well. Overall, ground water sampled from the lower water-bearing zone had lower specific conductance and alkalinity; and lower concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, and manganese compared to ground water sampled from the upper water-bearing zone. Water levels for the upper and lower water-bearing zones were similar throughout the study period.

  4. 焦作矿区地下水水化学特征及涌水水源判别的FDA模型%The chemical features of ground water and FDA model used to distinguish source of water burst in Jiaozuo mine area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平华; 陈建生

    2011-01-01

    Using the Fisher Discrimination Analysis Theory(FDA), and according to the analysis results of the water sample, the authors establish the mathematical recognition model of the source of water burst in the Jiaozuo mining area and do its discriminatory analysis and result verification. Using synthetic water chemical analytical method and the FDA model discriminatory analytical method of the source of water, and analyzing chemical characteristic of groundwater and forming mechanism in the mining area, the authors confirm source of water burst in the water-bearing strata. The research result shows that the result of FDA predicated water bursting source agrees with that of the chemical methods analysis of normal water; Ordovician groundwater recharges limestone in a remarkable way; the connection between sandstone water of the seam roof and deep karst water is weak; the FDA model is very powerful in identifying the source of water burst; by using back substitution estimation method, the error decreases continuously and it is of great applicability, easy to handle. It may offer scientific basis for the countermeasures of mine water burst.%运用统计学Fisher判别分析(FDA)理论,根据含水层涌水水样的水化学分析结果,建立焦作矿区涌水水源的数学识别模型,分析了矿区地下水水化学特征及形成机制,确定了含水层涌水的补给来源,并对它们进行判别分析及结果验证.结果表明:FDA模型预测涌水水源与常规水化学方法分析结果基本一致;矿区奥灰水补给太灰水特征明显,煤层顶板砂岩水与深部岩溶水联系较弱.FDA模型利用回代估计法所得到的误判率小,适用性强,简易方便,具有较强的涌水水源判别能力.

  5. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow model...

  6. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  7. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Surface- and Ground-Water Interactions in the Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Sacks, L.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    fertilizer or animal waste. Wells at the Blackwater Creek and Hillsborough River at State Road 39 transects showed little seasonal variation in dissolved organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations, however, were greater during the wet season than during the dry season at the Hillsborough River Tract transect, indicating some influence from surface-water sources. During dry periods, streamflow in the upper Hillsborough River was sustained by ground water from the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. During wet periods, streamflow had additional contributions from runoff, and release of water from extensive riverine wetlands, and by overflow from the Withlacoochee River. In contrast, streamflow in Blackwater and Itchepackesassa Creeks was less constant, with many no-flow days occurring during dry periods. During wet season storm events, streamflow peaks occur more rapidly because there is greater confinement between the surficial deposits and the Upper Floridan aquifer, and these creeks have been highly channelized, leaving less of the adjacent wetlands intact. During dry periods, Blackwater Creek is dry upstream from its confluence with Itchepackesassa Creek, and all downstream flow is from Itchepackesassa Creek. Much of the dry season flow in Itchepackesassa Creek originates from a treated wastewater effluent outfall located on East Canal. Long-term streamflow at the Hillsborough River and Blackwater Creek stations was greater than the discharge observed during the study period. Water quality in the upper Hillsborough River is influenced by ground-water discharge. The chemical composition of water from Blackwater Creek, Itchepackesassa Creek, and East Canal was more variable because there was less ground-water discharge to these creeks than to the upper Hillsborough River, and because of the influence of wastewater effluent. Strontium isotope data indicated that the source of the water at all Hillsborough River sites during the dry season was the Oli

  8. ESTIMATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF FARM INFRASTRUCTURE ON THE POLLUTION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Durkowski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In farm areas, evacuations of animal excrements (manure, liquid manure, slurry and domestic sewage are most dangerous for pure groundwater . For betterment sanitary condition villages and pure waters in their area will be a necessity of right infrastructure and good condition (sewers, water treatments and proper animal excrements management. Research conducted in 2001–2011 in six farms located in the area of a few villages in the basin of Miedwie lake. Researches points were placed (piezometer and wells in the area of these farms. High concentration of NH4+, NO3- and PO43- were found in a ground water which are exposed to contact inflow of pollutant from farms areas, and sources which are occurred in outlying from the source of pollutants. Also water from a farm wells, which are periodically used, manifested the presence of large chemical elements concentration, especially NO3- and PO43-, what proves a constant inflow of pollutants. For monitoring ground water in samples we marked the concentration of NH4+, NO3- i PO43- and pH.

  9. ESTIMATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF FARM INFRASTRUCTURE ON THE POLLUTION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Durkowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In farm areas, evacuations of animal excrements (manure, liquid manure, slurry and domestic sewage are most dangerous for pure groundwater. For betterment sanitary condition villages and pure waters in their area will be necessity of right infrastructure and good condition (canalization, water treatments and proper animal excrements management. Researches conducted in 2001–2011 years in six farms located in the area of a few villages in the basin of Miedwie lake. Researches points were put (piezometer and wells in the area of these farms. High concentration of NH4+, NO3- and PO43- were found in ground water which is exposed to contact inflow of pollutant from farms areas, and sources which are occurred in outlying from a source of pollutants. Also water from a farm wells, which are periodically used, showed the presence of large concentrations of chemical elements especially NO3- and PO43- what proves constant inflow of pollutants. For monitoring ground water we marked concentration of NH4+, NO3- i PO43- and pH in the samples.

  10. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  11. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  12. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  13. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.404 Treatment technique violations for...

  14. Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation, 7. A Pictorial Record of Chemical Weathering, Erosional Processes, and Potential Debris-flow Hazards in Scar Areas Developed on Hydrothermally Altered Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ludington, Steve; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Livo, K. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Erosional scar areas developed along the lower Red River basin, New Mexico, reveal a complex natural history of mineralizing processes, rapid chemical weathering, and intense physical erosion during periodic outbursts of destructive, storm-induced runoff events. The scar areas are prominent erosional features with craggy headwalls and steep, denuded slopes. The largest scar areas, including, from east to west, Hottentot Creek, Straight Creek, Hansen Creek, Lower Hansen Creek, Sulfur Gulch, and Goat Hill Gulch, head along high east-west trending ridges that form the northern and southern boundaries of the lower Red River basin. Smaller, topographically lower scar areas are developed on ridge noses in the inner Red River valley. Several of the natural scar areas have been modified substantially as a result of large-scale open-pit and underground mining at the Questa Mine; for example, much of the Sulfur Gulch scar was removed by open pit mining, and several scars are now partially or completely covered by mine waste dumps.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey ground-water studies in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is an important source of water supply in Illinois. The largest amount of ground*water withdrawal is in the northern one-third of the State where aquifers to a depth of about 1,500 feet below land surface contain large quantities of potable water. Approximately 74 percent of the public water-supply systems in Illinois use ground water to supply potable water to more than 5.5 million people. Ground-water withdrawals account for almost 25 percent of the total water withdrawn for public water supplies in Illinois. Many public water-supply systems in the Chicago area have recently changed from using ground water pumped from wells to using water delivered from Lake Michigan. The major issues related to ground water in Illinois are: Water- quality degradation or contamination from point and nonpoint sources, and Water availability, because of the lowering of ground-water levels in the bedrock aquifers in northeastern Illinois and elsewhere in the State where pumpage has exceeded aquifer recharge and the susceptibility of the limited surface-water supplies in central and southern Illinois to drought.

  16. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  18. Ground water quality in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bhoj Raj

    2011-07-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the quality of groundwaters in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The groundwater samples were randomly collected from shallow well, tube well, and deep-tube wells located at different places of Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur districts in the Kathmandu valley. Physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of the samples were evaluated to estimate the groundwater quality for drinking water. It was found that the groundwater in the valley is vulnerable to drink due to presence of iron and coliform bacteria. Iron was estimated to be much higher then the acceptable limit of World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water quality guidelines (1.9 mg/L). Total coliform bacteria enumerated in groundwaters significantly exceeded the drinking-water quality standard and observed maximum coliform (267 CFU/100 mL) in shallow wells. The electrical conductivity and turbidity were found to be 875 μS/cm and 55 NTU, respectively, which are above the WHO recommendations for drinking water guidelines. However, pH value was measured within the acceptable limit. Arsenic, chloride, fluoride, and hardness concentrations were found to be in agreement with the recommendations of WHO drinking-water quality guidelines.

  19. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Garcia; F. D. B. de Sousa; J.A. Lima; S. A. Cruz; C. H. Scuracchio

    2015-01-01

    Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natura...

  20. Ground-Water Quality in the Vicinity of Coal-Refuse Areas Reclaimed with Biosolids in Fulton County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has applied biosolids, followed by revegetation, to reclaim three coal-refuse areas. Most of the reclamation at the three sites was done from 1989 through 1992, and included the application of lime, clay, and various loads of biosolids up to 1,000 dry tons per acre. Water samples collected from 12 monitoring wells installed in the vicinity of the three reclaimed coal-refuse areas were analyzed to better understand the hydrogeology and water-quality effects. Ground water probably flows along preferential paths in the disturbed coal-refuse areas, and is impeded by undisturbed glacial till. Most of the samples contained elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese, constituents associated with ground water in coal-mined areas. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, nickel, or zinc were somewhat elevated in samples from four wells, and greatest in water samples with pH less than 5. The smaller nutrient concentrations indicate that the applied biosolids are not identifiably affecting nutrients or metal concentrations in shallow ground water near the refuse piles. The coal refuse likely is the primary influence on the chemical characterization of ground-water in the area.

  1. Ground-water quality in the central part of the Passaic River basin, northeastern New Jersey, 1959-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnik, T.S.; Kozinski, Jane

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 71 wells screened in or open to three aquifers in the central part of the Passaic River basin during 1959-88. Water samples from aquifers in glacial sediments and aquifers in sedimentary and igneous bedrock of the Newark Supergroup were analyzed for major ions. Most samples were analyzed for metals, nutrients, and tritium; 38 samples were analyzed for purgeable organic compounds. Calcium and bicarbonate were the predominant ions in ground water in the study area. Ground water was dilute (median dissolved-solids concentration 239 milligrams per liter) and slightly basic (median pH 7.89). Concentrations of inorganic constituents were within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) primary drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of benzene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene, however, were greater than USEPA primary drinking-water regulations in six samples. Ground-water samples from aquifers in sedimentary bedrock were enriched in barium, calcium, magnesium, strontium,and sulfate relative to samples form the other aquifers. Such ion enrichment can be attributed either to disolution of carbonate and sulfate-containing minerals or to human activities. Ground-water samples from two wells screened in glacial sediments near swamps contained sulfate in concentrations higher than the median for the aquifer. Sulfate enrichment could result from downward leaching of water enriched in sulfur from the decay of organic matter in the swamps, from the disolution of sulfate-containing minerals, or from human activities. No regional trends in the chemical composition of the ground water in the study area were identified. Sulfate concentrations in ground- water samples from the sedimentary bedrock tended to increase with decreasing altitude of the deepest opening of the well; the correlation coefficient for the ranks of sulfate concentration and the altitude of the deepest opening of the well for 17 pairs of data is -0

  2. Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, northwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lee R.; Bayless, E. Randall; Buszka, Paul M.; Wilson, John T.

    2002-01-01

    in ground water were determined in samples collected during the spring and summer from wells open to the water table within about 9 feet of the highway. Chloride concentrations in ground water that were attributable to highway deicers also were found in tested wells about 400 feet downgradient from US?12 during the fall and winter and at greater depths than in wells closer to US?12. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water at seven wells downgradient from the highway during late winter, spring, and summer samplings. The chloride standard was exceeded only in water from wells with total depths that are less than about 10 feet below land surface. Sodium concentrations in water periodically exceeded the USEPA drinking-water equivalency level of 20 milligrams per liter in both the uppermost (deicer affected) and lower one-thirds of the aquifer. Sodium concentrations in ground water downgradient from US?12 and in the upper 5 feet of the aquifer also occasionally exceeded drinking-water standards for sodium (160 milligrams per liter) as set by the State of Florida and a standard for taste (200 milligrams per liter) as set by the World Health Organization. Dispersion was identified by analysis of aquifer-test data, isotopic dating of ground water, and water-quality data to be the process most responsible for reducing concentrations of highway deicers in the aquifer. Chemical analyses of the sand composing the aquifer indicated that cation exchange decreased the mass of deicer-related sodium in ground water, although the sand has a limited capacity to sustain the process. Automated daily measurements of specific conductance, correlated to chloride concentrations, indicated that some deicer is retained in the aquifer near the highway throughout the entire year and acts as a continuous chloride source for ground water. Peak concentrations of

  3. Mercury migration into ground water, a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Carden, J.L.; Kury, R.; Eichholz, G.G.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents a broad review of the technical literature dealing with mercury migration in the soil. The approach followed was to identify relevant articles by searching bibliographic data bases, obtaining the promising articles and searching these articles for any additional relevant citations. Eight catagories were used to organize the literature, with a review and summary of each paper. Catagories used were the following: chemical states of mercury under environmental conditions; diffusion of mercury vapor through soil; solubility and stability of mercury in environmental waters; transport of mercury on colloids; models for mercury migration through the environment; analytical techniques; retention of mercury by soil components; formation of organomecurials.

  4. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  5. Ground water flow in a desert basin: challenges of simulating transport of dissolved chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Charles B; Neville, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    A large chromium plume that evolved from chromium releases in a valley near the Mojave River was studied to understand the processes controlling fate and migration of chromium in ground water and used as a tracer to study the dynamics of a basin and range ground water system. The valley that was studied is naturally arid with high evapotranspiration such that essentially no precipitation infiltrates to the water table. The dominant natural hydrogeologic processes are recharge to the ground water system from the Mojave River during the infrequent episodes when there is flow in the river, and ground water flow toward a playa lake where the ground water evaporates. Agricultural pumping in the valley from the mid-1930s to the 1970s significantly altered ground water flow conditions by decreasing water levels in the valley by more than 20 m. This pumping declined significantly as a result of dewatering of the aquifer, and water levels have since recovered modestly. The ground water system was modeled using MODFLOW, and chromium transport was simulated using MT3D. Several innovative modifications were made to these modeling programs to simulate important processes in this ground water system. Modifications to MODFLOW include developing a new well package that estimates pumping rates from irrigation wells at each time step based on available drawdown. MT3D was modified to account for mass trapped above the water table when the water table declines beneath nonirrigated areas and to redistribute mass to the system when water levels rise.

  6. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  7. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Active and inactive mine sites are challenging to remediate because of their complexity and scale. Regulations meant to achieve environmental restoration at mine sites are equally challenging to apply for the same reasons. The goal of environmental restoration should be to restore contaminated mine sites, as closely as possible, to pre-mining conditions. Metalliferous mine sites in the Western United States are commonly located in hydrothermally altered and mineralized terrain in which pre-mining concentrations of metals were already anomalously high. Typically, those pre-mining concentrations were not measured, but sometimes they can be reconstructed using scientific inference. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The State of New Mexico requires that ground-water quality standards be met on closure unless it can be shown that potential contaminant concentrations were higher than the standards before mining. No ground water at the mine site had been chemically analyzed before mining. The aim of this investigation, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality by an examination of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls on ground-water quality in a nearby, or proximal, analog site in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Twenty-seven reports contain details of investigations on the geological, hydrological, and geochemical characteristics of the Red River Valley that are summarized in this report. These studies include mapping of surface mineralogy by Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS); compilations of historical surface- and ground- water quality data; synoptic/tracer studies with mass loading and temporal water-quality trends of the Red River; reaction-transport modeling of the Red River; environmental geology of the Red River Valley; lake

  8. Extremely alkaline (pH > 12) ground water hosts diverse microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roadcap, George S; Sanford, Robert A; Jin, Qusheng; Pardinas, José R; Bethke, Craig M

    2006-01-01

    Chemically unusual ground water can provide an environment for novel communities of bacteria to develop. Here, we describe a diverse microbial community that inhabits extremely alkaline (pH > 12) ground water from the Lake Calumet area of Chicago, Illinois, where historic dumping of steel slag has filled in a wetland. Using microbial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing and microcosm experiments, we confirmed the presence and growth of a variety of alkaliphilic beta-Proteobacteria, Bacillus, and Clostridium species at pH up to 13.2. Many of the bacterial sequences most closely matched those of other alkaliphiles found in more moderately alkaline water around the world. Oxidation of dihydrogen produced by reaction of water with steel slag is likely a primary energy source to the community. The widespread occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria suggests that reduced iron serves as an additional energy source. These results extend upward the known range of pH tolerance for a microbial community by as much as 2 pH units. The community may provide a source of novel microbes and enzymes that can be exploited under alkaline conditions.

  9. Ground-water resources of north-central Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum

    1964-01-01

    The term 'north-central Connecticut' in this report refers to an area of about 640 square miles within the central lowland of the Connecticut River basin north of Middletown. The area is mostly a broad valley floor underlain by unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age which mantle an erosional surface formed on consolidated rocks of pre-Triassic and Triassic age. The mean annual precipitation at Hartford, near the center of the area, is 42.83 inches and is uniformly distributed throughout the year. The average annual streamflow from the area is about 22 inches or about half the precipitation. The consolidated water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Triassic age and sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Newark group of Triassic age. The crystalline rocks include the Middletown gneiss, the Maromas granite gneiss, the Glastonbury granite-gneiss of Rice and Gregory (1906), and the Bolton schist which form the basement complex and the Eastern Upland of north-central Connecticut. Enough water for domestic, stock, and small commercial use generally can be obtained from the crystalline rocks. Recoverable ground water occurs in the interconnected joints and fracture zones and is yielded in amounts ranging from 29 to 35 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells ranging in depth from 29 to 550 feet. The sedimentary rocks of Triassic age underlie all the Connecticut River Lowland and are predominantly arkosic sandstone and shale. Water supplies sufficient for domestic, stock, and small commercial use can be obtained from shallow wells penetrating these rocks, and larger supplies sufficient for industries and smaller municipalities can probably be obtained from deeper wells. Reported yields range from ? to 578 gpm; the larger yields are generally obtained from wells between 300 and 600 feet in depth. Yields are larger where the overlying material is sand and gravel or where the rocks are well fractured. The igneous rocks of Triassic age are basalt and have

  10. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.

    1998-01-01

    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused b

  11. Chemistry and origin of deep ground water in crystalline rocks; Kemi och genes av djupa grundvatten i kristallint berg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the interactions between water and crystalline rocks and its consequences for the chemical composition of the water. It also treats how flows of different types of water are modified by the rock, and the possible consequences for the ground water near a nuclear waste repository. The focus of the work is the changes in composition that ground water gets at deep levels in the rock. Data from Finnsjoen and Aespoe in Sweden show higher salinity in deep rock, which has been interpreted as a result of marine inflow of water during glaciation. Data from other, deeper boreholes in Finland, Canada, Russia, England and Sweden show that the increasing salinity is a rule and very high at great depths, higher than marine water can produce. Therefore, the deep waters from Finnsjoen and Aespoe are probably very old, and the high salinity a result from geological processes. Differing cation and isotopic composition than seawater also indicate geologic water. Differing theories on the origin of the ground water should be regarded in the safety analysis for a repository. 36 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  12. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  13. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  14. Geology and ground-water conditions in the Wilmington-Reading area, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John Augustus; Healy, H.G.; Hackett, O.M.

    1964-01-01

    withdrawn largely by municipal wells supplies the towns of North Reading, Reading, and Wilmington. In 1957 the average daily withdrawal from these wells was about 2.5 million gallons, of which about half was used outside the Ipswich River drainage basin. The chemical quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory except for local excessive concentrations of iron. The storage capacity of the ground-water reservoir and recharge in the Wilmington-Reading area are large enough to sustain a total withdrawal of ground water at several times the current rate, but the use of the reservoir probably will be limited by the extent to which wells of moderate or large capacity can be dispersed. This will depend upon the distribution of areas of thick permeable materials. Conditions in the Martins Brook-Skug River drainage basin seem generally favorable for increased development of water supplies. In the rest of the Wilmington-Reading area the chances of finding substantial bodies of thick permeable materials probably are small, but further exploration is desirable. Measures proposed to drain swampland by deepening and straightening the Ipswich River and its tributaries will have some effect upon the ground-water conditions. Probably the most obvious effect will be a lowering of water levels in wells near improved reaches of channel. Also important will b the effect of changes in low streamflow conditions on wells that induce infiltration from streams and the effect on well yields of an improved hydraulic connection between streams and the ground-water body. The Reading 100-acre well field, which derives part of its supply by inducing recharge from the Ipswich River, would be affected by the drainage measures. During a dry summer, such as that of 1957, the flow of the Ipswich is fully diverted by pumping at this well field, and drawdowns at some of the wells approach half the saturated thickness of the aquifer there. If the drainage measures are

  15. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  16. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India. There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi – a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat −1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer – inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer

  17. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  18. Inorganic and organic ground-water chemistry in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, M.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at

  19. Fracture control of ground water flow and water chemistry in a rock aquitard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Timothy T; Anderson, Mary P; Bradbury, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    There are few studies on the hydrogeology of sedimentary rock aquitards although they are important controls in regional ground water flow systems. We formulate and test a three-dimensional (3D) conceptual model of ground water flow and hydrochemistry in a fractured sedimentary rock aquitard to show that flow dynamics within the aquitard are more complex than previously believed. Similar conceptual models, based on regional observations and recently emerging principles of mechanical stratigraphy in heterogeneous sedimentary rocks, have previously been applied only to aquifers, but we show that they are potentially applicable to aquitards. The major elements of this conceptual model, which is based on detailed information from two sites in the Maquoketa Formation in southeastern Wisconsin, include orders of magnitude contrast between hydraulic diffusivity (K/S(s)) of fractured zones and relatively intact aquitard rock matrix, laterally extensive bedding-plane fracture zones extending over distances of over 10 km, very low vertical hydraulic conductivity of thick shale-rich intervals of the aquitard, and a vertical hydraulic head profile controlled by a lateral boundary at the aquitard subcrop, where numerous surface water bodies dominate the shallow aquifer system. Results from a 3D numerical flow model based on this conceptual model are consistent with field observations, which did not fit the typical conceptual model of strictly vertical flow through an aquitard. The 3D flow through an aquitard has implications for predicting ground water flow and for planning and protecting water supplies.

  20. A regression model to estimate regional ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, David L; Delin, Geoffrey N

    2007-01-01

    A regional regression model was developed to estimate the spatial distribution of ground water recharge in subhumid regions. The regional regression recharge (RRR) model was based on a regression of basin-wide estimates of recharge from surface water drainage basins, precipitation, growing degree days (GDD), and average basin specific yield (SY). Decadal average recharge, precipitation, and GDD were used in the RRR model. The RRR estimates were derived from analysis of stream base flow using a computer program that was based on the Rorabaugh method. As expected, there was a strong correlation between recharge and precipitation. The model was applied to statewide data in Minnesota. Where precipitation was least in the western and northwestern parts of the state (50 to 65 cm/year), recharge computed by the RRR model also was lowest (0 to 5 cm/year). A strong correlation also exists between recharge and SY. SY was least in areas where glacial lake clay occurs, primarily in the northwest part of the state; recharge estimates in these areas were in the 0- to 5-cm/year range. In sand-plain areas where SY is greatest, recharge estimates were in the 15- to 29-cm/year range on the basis of the RRR model. Recharge estimates that were based on the RRR model compared favorably with estimates made on the basis of other methods. The RRR model can be applied in other subhumid regions where region wide data sets of precipitation, streamflow, GDD, and soils data are available.

  1. Microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-04-15

    The spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a food industry by-product that can be used as a rich source of polysaccharides. In the present work, the feasibility of microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from SCG was studied. Different ratios of mass of SCG to water, from 1:30 to 1:5 (g:mL) were used for a total volume of 80 mL. Although the amount of material extracted/batch (MAE1) increased with the increase of the concentration of the sample, the amount of polysaccharides achieved a maximum of 0.57 g/batch for 1:10. Glycosidic-linkage composition showed that all extraction conditions allowed to obtain mainly arabinogalactans. When the unextracted insoluble material was re-extracted under the same conditions (MAE2), a further extraction of polysaccharides was observed (0.34 g/batch for 1:10), mainly galactomannans. Also, a high amount of oligosaccharides, mainly derived from galactomannans, can be obtained in MAE2 (0.96 g/batch for 1:10). This technology allows to obtain galactomannans and arabinogalactans in proportions that are dependent on the operating conditions.

  2. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....403 Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems with significant deficiencies or source water fecal contamination. (1) The treatment technique requirements of this... requirements of this section. (3) When a significant deficiency is identified at a Subpart H public...

  3. Monitoring of ground water aquifer by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three case studies for monitoring ground water aquifers by electrical prospecting. An example in the Hofu plain, Yamaguchi Prefecture is presented, where the ground water environment has been monitored for more than 30 years from the viewpoint of hydrology. Then, transition from the fresh ground water to sea water is evaluated by a sharp boundary as salt-water wedges through the field survey in a coastal area of a large city for a short term using vertical electrical prospecting. Moreover, streaming potential measurements are described to grasp the real-time behavior of ground water flow. From the long-term monitoring of ground water aquifer, it was found that the variation of ground water streaming can be evaluated by monitoring the long-term successive change in the resistivity of ground water aquifer. From the vertical electrical prospecting, water quality can be immediately judged through data analysis. From the results of streaming potential measurements and vertical electrical prospecting using Schlumberger method, streaming behavior of ground water in the area of spring water source can be estimated by determining three-dimensional resistivity structure. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  5. Ground cover influence on evaporation and stable water isotopes in soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Cesar D.; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Teuling, Adriaan J. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by complex structures which influence hydrological processes such as evaporation. The vertical stratification of the forest modifies the effect of the evaporation process due to the composition and local distribution of species within the forest. The evaluation of it will improve the understanding of evaporation in forest ecosystems. To determine the influence of forest understory on the fractionation front, four ground cover types were selected from the Speulderbos forest in the Netherlands. The native species of Thamariskmoss (Thuidium thamariscinum), Rough Stalked Feathermoss (Brachythecium rutabulum), and Haircapmoss (Polytrichum commune) as well as one type of litter made up of Douglas-Fir needles (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were used to analyse the rate of evaporation and changes on the isotopic concentration of the soil water on an in-situ basis in a controlled environment. Over a period of 4 weeks soil water content and atmospheric conditions were continuously measured, while the rainfall simulations were performed with different amounts and timings. The reference water added to the boxes keeps a stable composition along the trial period with a δ ^2H value of -42.59±1.15 \\permil} and δ 18O of -6.01±0.21 \\permil}. The evaporation front in the four ground covers is located between 5 and 10 cm depth and deuterium excess values are bigger than 5 \\permil. The litter layer of Douglas-Fir needles is the cover with higher fractionation in respect to the added water at 10 cm depth (δ ^2H: -29.79 \\permil), while the Haircapmoss keeps the lower fractionation rate at 5 cm and 10 cm (δ ^2H: -33.62 and δ ^2H: -35.34 \\permil). The differences showed by the soil water beneath the different ground covers depict the influence of ground cover on fractionation rates of the soil water, underlining the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of the evaporation front in the first 15 cm of soil.

  6. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  7. Probabilistic Modeling for Risk Assessment of California Ground Water Contamination by Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, M.; Troiano, J.; Spurlock, F.

    2007-12-01

    The California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) is responsible for the registration of pesticides in California. DPR's Environmental Monitoring Branch evaluates the potential for pesticide active ingredients to move to ground water under legal agricultural use conditions. Previous evaluations were primarily based on threshold values for specific persistence and mobility properties of pesticides as prescribed in the California Pesticide Contamination Prevention Act of 1985. Two limitations identified with that process were the univariate nature where interactions of the properties were not accounted for, and the inability to accommodate multiple values of a physical-chemical property. We addressed these limitations by developing a probabilistic modeling method based on prediction of potential well water concentrations. A mechanistic pesticide transport model, LEACHM, is used to simulate sorption, degradation and transport of a candidate pesticide through the root zone. A second empirical model component then simulates pesticide degradation and transport through the vadose zone to a receiving ground water aquifer. Finally, degradation during transport in the aquifer to the well screen is included in calculating final potential well concentrations. Using Monte Carlo techniques, numerous LEACHM simulations are conducted using random samples of the organic carbon normalized soil adsorption coefficients (Koc) and soil dissipation half-life values derived from terrestrial field dissipation (TFD) studies. Koc and TFD values are obtained from gamma distributions fitted to pooled data from agricultural-use pesticides detected in California ground water: atrazine, simazine, diuron, bromacil, hexazinone, and norflurazon. The distribution of predicted well water concentrations for these pesticides is in good agreement with concentrations measured in domestic wells in coarse, leaching vulnerable soils of Fresno and Tulure Counties. The leaching potential of a new

  8. Removing Iron and Manganese Simultaneously from Ground Water Using One-stage Biological Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Gang; GAO Pin; GONG Qing-jie

    2009-01-01

    A novel process for removing iron and manganese simultaneously in ground water, which consisted of simple aeration and one-stage filtration, was developed in this research. It was found that the biological process had much higher manganese removal efficiency than chemical contact oxidation process. At the same time, the optimal operation parameters of aeration and biological filtration such as DO concentration and pH after aeration, filtration rate before and after startup, filtration operation cycle and backwashing rate, etc., were also obtained by experiments. By analyzing water quafity in different positions of filter bed, it was found that the oxidation of Fe2+ in biological filter bed adapted to first-order reaction, whereas the oxidation of Mn2+ conformed to zero-order reaction, which could be explained by Michaelis-Menten enzyme reaction equation when substrate concentration was far more than bacteria amount.

  9. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  10. Projected effects of proposed salinity-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the upper Brazos River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio

    1982-01-01

    As part of the plan to control the natural salt pollution in the upper Brazos River basin of Texas, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers recommended construction of three impoundment and retention reservoirs. In connection with the proposed reservoirs, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow ground-water system of the area and to project the post-construction effects of the reservoirs on the shallow aquifer, especially in relation to aquifer-head changes but also with respect to possible changes in the chemical quality of the ground water.

  11. Changes in ground-water quality in the Canal Creek Aquifer between 1995 and 2000-2001, West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower

  12. Radon (222Rn) in ground water of fractured rocks: A diffusion/ion exchange model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W.W.; Kraemer, T.F.; Shapiro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion- exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (42??56???N, 71??43???W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model.

  13. Availability of ground water in the lower Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Joseph B.; Johnston, Herbert E.; Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1974-01-01

    streamflow downstream from pumping centers but generally will not result in streams going dry, provided the water is returned to the basin. Export of water from the basin will require careful consideration of the effects of such withdrawals on low streamflow. Export from the Pawcatuck basin of 27 million gallons per day, estimated to be available from ground-water reservoirs in the upper Pawcatuck basin, in addition to 37.5 million gallons per day available in the lower Pawcatuck basin, will markedly reduce low streamflow. The 90-percent duration flow of the Pawcatuck River at Westerly would be reduced from 75 million gallons per day to perhaps as little as 21 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of water from both the sand and gravel aquifer and associated streams is suitable for most purposes. The water is soft, slightly acidic, and typically has a dissolved-solids content of less than 75 milligrams per liter. Some treatment may be required locally for removal of iron and manganese to meet recommended standards of the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water.

  14. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas-Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32 cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  15. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, James Ray

    1974-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32.cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of Rock County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1964-01-01

    . This sandstone also yields some water to uncased wells that tap the deeper rocks of the Upper Cambrian series. East of the Rock River the Platteville, Decorah, and Galena formations undifferentiated, or Platteville-Galena unit, is the principal source of water for domestic and stock wells. Unconsolidated deposits of glacial origin cover most of Rock County and supply water to many small wells. In the outwash deposits along the Rock River, wells of extremely high capacity have been developed for industrial and municipal use. The most significant feature of the bedrock surface in Rock County is the ancestral Rock River valley, which has been filled with glacial outwash to a depth of at least 396 feet below the present land surface. East of the buried valley the bedrock has a fiat, relatively undissected surface. West of the valley the bedrock surface is rugged and greatly dissected. Ground water in Rock County occurs under both water-table and artesian conditions; however, because of the interconnection and close relation of all ground water in the county, the entire system is considered to be a single groundwater body whose surface may be represented by one piezometric map. Recharge occurs locally, throughout the county. Nearly all recharge is derived directly from precipitation that percolates downward to become a part of the groundwater body. Natural movement of water in the consolidated water-bearing units is generally toward the buried Rock and Sugar River valleys. Movement of water in the sandstones of Cambrian age was calculated to be about 44 million gallons a day toward the Rock River. Discharge from wells in Rock County in 1957 was about 23 million gallons a day. Nearly 90 percent of this water was drawn from the area along the Rock River. Drilled wells, most of which were drilled by the cable-tool method, range in diameter from 3 to 26 inches, and in depth from 46 to 1,225 feet. Driven wells in alluvium and glacial drift are usually 1? to 2? in

  17. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  18. Salinization of a fresh palaeo-ground water resource by enhanced recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaney, F W; Herczeg, A L; Walker, G R

    2003-01-01

    Deterioration of fresh ground water resources caused by salinization is a growing issue in many arid and semi-arid parts of the world. We discuss here the incipient salinization of a 10(4) km2 area of fresh ground water (Ground water 14C concentrations and unsaturated zone Cl soil water inventories indicate that the low salinity ground water originated mainly from palaeo-recharge during wet climatic periods more than 20,000 years ago. However, much of the soil water in the 20 to 60 m thick unsaturated zone throughout the area is generally saline (>15,000 mg/L) because of relatively high evapotranspiration during the predominantly semiarid climate of the last 20,000 years. Widespread clearing of native vegetation over the last 100 years and replacement with crops and pastures leads to enhancement of recharge rates that progressively displace the saline soil-water from the unsaturated zone into the ground water. To quantify the impact of this new hydrologic regime, a one-dimensional model that simulates projected ground water salinities as a function of depth to ground water, recharge rates, and soil water salt inventory was developed. Results from the model suggest that, in some areas, the ground water salinity within the top 10 m of the water table is likely to increase by a factor of 2 to 6 during the next 100 years. Ground water quality will therefore potentially degrade beyond the point of usefulness well before extraction of the ground water exhausts the resource.

  19. HYDROGEOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF GROUND WATER IN DIFFERENT GEOMARPHIC UNITS OF KRISHNA EASTERN DELTA, ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITARAMA PRASAD KUDARAVALLI,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Krishna Eastern delta is located South of Vijayawada City in Andhra Pradesh. The area of the Krishna Eastern delta enclosed between Latitude 15042’N – 16042’ N and Longitude 80042’ E – 81036’ E. The present study is done on Krishna Eastern delta separately because the physiographic and lithological configuration of this part of the delta varies widely with that of the Western part. Moreover, the aquifer of this region has unique hydrochemical characteristics. In recent years the ground water in this region has been subjected to intensive exploitation for both irrigation and domestic purposes and accordingly high seasonal hydrochemical modulations were noticed in this part of the delta region. Kulakarni KM et.al. (1998 have studied drinking water salinity problem in Coastal Orissa. In this context a detailed study has been made to update the hydrogeochemical information of the aquifer system of this region. In addition to the earlier works carried out by Nageswara Rao, K. et.al. in the year 1979 and 1985. The details viz., land form locations in the delta region were taken from the study. The seasonal variation of groundwater quality in different geological units in Krishna Eastern Delta has been subjected to study by collecting water samples in different open wells in the study area and subjecting them to detailed chemical analysis. This data has been utilized to draw contour diagrams of different water quality parameters for different seasons. The present study is an attempt to visualize the spatial water quality variations in different geomorphic units present in the deltaic environment. The chemical parameter of Electrical Conductivity was taken as the prime parameter to focus the seasonal spatial variations of different geomorphic forms and the data was used to draw contours for different seasons. The detailed studies of Ground Water Department, District Office were also studied in many unpublished reports for understanding

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  1. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  2. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  3. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  4. Initial hydraulic heads for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the hydraulic-head values in 16 model layers used to initiate the transient simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  5. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  6. Altitudes of the top of model layers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the altitudes of the tops of 16 model layers simulated in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient flow...

  7. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  8. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  9. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  10. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  11. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  12. Shallow ground-water quality beneath cropland in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1993-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    1997-01-01

    During 1993-95, the agriculture on two sandy, surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin affected the quality of shallow ground water in each aquifer differently. The Sheyenne Delta aquifer, in the western part of the basin, had land-use, hydrogeological, and rainfall characteristics that allowed few agricultural chemicals to reach or remain in the shallow ground water. The Otter Tail outwash aquifer, in the eastern part of the basin, had characteristics that caused significant amounts of nutrients and pesticides to reach and remain in the shallow ground water. Shallow ground water from both aquifers is dominated by calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions. During the respective sampling periods, water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer was mostly anoxic and water from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer had a median dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.6 mg/L (milligrams per liter). The median nitrate concentration was 0.03 mg/L as nitrogen (mg/L-N) in shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 6.1 mg/L-N in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. Of 18 herbicides and 4 insecticides commonly used in the aquifer areas and for which analyses were done, 5 herbicides and 1 herbicide metabolite were detected in the shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 8 herbicides and 2 metabolites were detected in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. The total herbicide concentration median was less than the detection limit in shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 0.023 μg/L (micorgrams per liter) in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. Triazine herbicides were the most commonly detected herbicides and were detected at the highest concentrations in the shallow ground water from both study areas. One sample from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer contained a high concentration of picloram. Agricultural chemicals in both aquifers were stratified vertically and their concentration correlated inversely with ground-water age. The

  13. Records of wells, ground-water levels, and ground-water withdrawals in the lower Goose Creek Basin, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1954-01-01

    Investigations by the United States Geological Survey of Ground Water in the Southern border area of the Snake Rive Plain, south of the Snake River, a re concerned at the present time with delineation of the principal ground-water districts, the extent and location of existing ground-water developments, the possibilities for additional development, and the effects of ground-water development on the regimen of streams and reservoirs whose waters are appropriate for beneficial use. The lower part of the Goose Creek Basin is one of the important ground-water districts of the southern plains area and there are substantial but spotty developments of ground water for irrigation in the basin. Several thousand irrigable acres that are now dry could be put under irrigation if a dependable supply of ground water could be developed. The relations of the ground-water reservoirs to the regime of the Snake River and Goose Cree, and to the large body of ground water in the Snake River Plain north of the Snake, are poorly known. A large amount of geologic and hydrologic study remains to be done before those relations can be accurately determined. Investigations will be continued in the future but file work and preparation of a comprehensive report inevitably will be delayed. Therefore the available records are presented herein in order to make them accessible to farmers, well drillers, government agencies, and the general public. Interpretation of the records is not attempted in this report and is deferred pending the accumulation of additional and quantitative information. The data summarized herein include records of the locations and physical characteristics of wells, the depth to water in wells, fluctuations of water levels in observation wells, and estimated rates and volumes of seasonal ans yearly ground-water pumpage for irrigation, municipal, and other uses. This information is complete for work done as of December 31, 1952. The investigations upon which this report is

  14. Ground-water resources in the lower Milliken--Sarco--Tulucay Creeks area, southeastern Napa County, California, 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.

    2003-01-01

    extraction produced three large pumping depressions in the northern and east-central parts of the area. The general decline in ground-water levels is a result of increases in ground-water pumpage and possibly changes in infiltration capacity caused by changes in land use. Ground-water-level declines during 1960-2002 are evident in the records for 9 of 10 key monitoring wells. In five of these wells, water levels dropped by greater than 20 feet since the 1980s. The largest water-level declines have occurred since the mid 1970s, corresponding with a period of accelerated well construction and ground-water extraction. Analysis of samples from 15 wells indicates that the chemical quality of ground water in the study generally is acceptable. However, arsenic concentrations in samples from five wells exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard of 10 micrograms per liter, and iron concentrations in samples from five wells exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Department of Health Services secondary drinking-water standard of 300 micrograms per liter. Water from 12 of 15 wells sampled contained concentrations of manganese that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Department of Health Services secondary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. Two wells produced water that had boron in excess of the California Department of Health Services action level of 1 milligram per liter. Stable isotope, chlorofluorocarbon, and tritium data indicate that ground water in the area is a mixture of waters that recharged the aquifer system at different times. The presence of chlorofluorocarbons and tritium in water from the study area is evidence that modern recharge (post 1950) does take place. Water-temperature logs indicate that ground-water temperatures throughout the study area exceed 30?C at depths in excess of 600 feet. Further, water at

  15. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  16. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  17. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... 1Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Unit, Department of Microbiology, ... Physico-chemical properties of the spring waters were mostly within ..... Standard methods for Examination of water and wastewater.

  18. Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water from ISS Expeditions 21 Through 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) performed detailed ground-based analyses of archival water samples for verification of the chemical quality of the International Space Station (ISS) potable water supplies for Expeditions 21 through 25. Over a 14-month period the Space Shuttle visited the ISS on four occasions to complete construction and deliver supplies. The onboard supplies of potable water available for consumption by the Expeditions 21 to 25 crews consisted of Russian ground-supplied potable water, Russian potable water regenerated from humidity condensate, and US potable water recovered from urine distillate and condensate. Chemical archival water samples that were collected with U.S. hardware during Expeditions 21 to 25 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-129 (ULF3), STS-130 (20A), STS-131 (19A), and STS-132 (ULF4), as well as on Soyuz flights 19-23. This paper reports the analytical results for these returned potable water archival samples and their compliance with ISS water quality standards.

  19. Data-driven prioritization of chemicals for various water types using suspect screening LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjerps, Rosa M A; Vughs, Dennis; van Leerdam, Jan A; ter Laak, Thomas L; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2016-04-15

    For the prioritization of more than 5200 anthropogenic chemicals authorized on the European market, we use a large scale liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) suspect screening study. The prioritization is based on occurrence in 151 water samples including effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water. The suspect screening linked over 700 detected compounds with known accurate masses to one or multiple suspects. Using a prioritization threshold and removing false positives reduced this to 113 detected compounds linked to 174 suspects, 24 compounds reflect a confirmed structure by comparison with the pure reference standard. The prioritized compounds and suspects are relevant for detailed risk assessments after confirmation of their identity. Only one of the 174 prioritized compounds and suspects is mentioned in water quality regulations, and only 20% is mentioned on existing lists of potentially relevant chemicals. This shows the complementarity to commonly used target-based methods. The semi-quantitative total concentration, expressed as internal standard equivalents of detected compounds linked to suspects, in effluents is approximately 10 times higher than in surface waters, while ground waters and drinking waters show the lowest response. The average retention time, a measure for hydrophobicity, of the detected compounds per sample decreased from effluent to surface- and groundwater to drinking water, confirming the occurrence of more polar compounds in drinking water. The semi-quantitative total concentrations exceed the conservative and precautionary threshold of toxicological concern. Therefore, adverse effects of mixtures cannot be neglected without a more thorough risk assessment.

  20. Ground-Water Resources in Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Island of Hawaii, and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Tribble, Gordon W.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.

    1999-01-01

    Within the Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, which was established in 1978, the ground-water flow system is composed of brackish water overlying saltwater. Ground-water levels measured in the Park range from about 1 to 2 feet above mean sea level, and fluctuate daily by about 0.5 to 1.5 feet in response to ocean tides. The brackish water is formed by mixing of seaward flowing fresh ground water with underlying saltwater from the ocean. The major source of fresh ground water is from subsurface flow originating from inland areas to the east of the Park. Ground-water recharge from the direct infiltration of precipitation within the Park area, which has land-surface altitudes less than 100 feet, is small because of low rainfall and high rates of evaporation. Brackish water flowing through the Park ultimately discharges to the fishponds in the Park or to the ocean. The ground water, fishponds, and anchialine ponds in the Park are hydrologically connected; thus, the water levels in the ponds mark the local position of the water table. Within the Park, ground water near the water table is brackish; measured chloride concentrations of water samples from three exploratory wells in the Park range from 2,610 to 5,910 milligrams per liter. Chromium and copper were detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park and one well upgradient of the Park at concentrations of 1 to 5 micrograms per liter. One semi-volatile organic compound, phenol, was detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park at concentrations between 4 and 10 micrograms per liter. A regional, two-dimensional (areal), freshwater-saltwater, sharp-interface ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of regional withdrawals on ground-water flow within the Park. For average 1978 withdrawal rates, the estimated rate of fresh ground-water discharge to the ocean within the Park is about 6.48 million gallons per day, or about 3 million gallons per day per mile of coastline

  1. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must include...

  2. Seepage laws in aquifer near a partially penetrating river with an intensive extraction of ground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国东; 李俊亭

    1997-01-01

    The intensive extraction of ground water from aquifers near a river is an efficient way to exploit ground water resources. A lot of problems, however, have arisen because the mechanism of ground water flow in this way has not been clear. A sand-box model and a numerical model are respectively used to simulate the extraction of ground water near a partially penetrating river physically and theoretically. The results show that the ground water will lose saturated hydraulic connection with the river water as the pumping intensity increases. The broken point of hydraulic connection is located in the interior of aquifers rather than on the riverbed. After hydraulic disconnection occurs, two saturated zones, a suspended saturated zone linked with river and an unconfined aquifer, are formed.

  3. Isotopic evidence of complex ground-water flow at Yucca mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Stuckless, John S.

    1993-01-01

    Strontium isotopes (expressed as per mill deviation from mean sea water, ??87Sr) reflect interaction between ground water and the aquifer through which it is flowing. In the Cenozoic aquifer of the Yucca Mountain region, ??87Sr values increase from north to south downgradient in the flow system. The largest ??87Sr values occur in the Amargosa Desert where ground water probably encounters alluvial basin fill derived from Precambrian rocks in the Funeral Range. Similarly, large ??87Sr values for ground water in the Paleozoic aquifer at the western end of the Spring Mountains also probably reflect an encounter with Precambrian rocks. In several wells into the volcanic rocks, apparent isotopic disequilibrium between ground water and the producing units suggests that the ground water probably integrates over a substantial part of the saturated section in attaining its strontium isotope signature.

  4. Ground water budget analysis and cross-formational leakage in an arid basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William R; Hibbs, Barry J

    2008-01-01

    Ground water budget analysis in arid basins is substantially aided by integrated use of numerical models and environmental isotopes. Spatial variability of recharge, storage of water of both modern and pluvial age, and complex three-dimensional flow processes in these basins provide challenges to the development of a good conceptual model. Ground water age dating and mixing analysis with isotopic tracers complement standard hydrogeologic data that are collected and processed as an initial step in the development and calibration of a numerical model. Environmental isotopes can confirm or refute a priori assumptions of ground water flow, such as the general assumption that natural recharge occurs primarily along mountains and mountain fronts. Isotopes also serve as powerful tools during postaudits of numerical models. Ground water models provide a means of developing ground water budgets for entire model domains or for smaller regions within the model domain. These ground water budgets can be used to evaluate the impacts of pumping and estimate the magnitude of capture in the form of induced recharge from streams, as well as quantify storage changes within the system. The coupled analyses of ground water budget analysis and isotope sampling and analysis provide a means to confirm, refute, or modify conceptual models of ground water flow.

  5. Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Comero, Sara; Contini, Serafino; Schwesig, David; Werres, Friedrich; Balsaa, Peter; Gans, Oliver; Weiss, Stefan; Blaha, Ludek; Bolchi, Monica; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

    2010-07-01

    This study provides the first pan-European reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European ground water. In total, 164 individual ground-water samples from 23 European Countries were collected and analysed (among others) for 59 selected organic compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, pesticides (and their transformation products), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), benzotriazoles, hormones, alkylphenolics (endocrine disrupters), Caffeine, Diethyltoluamide (DEET), and Triclosan. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and maximum concentrations detected were DEET (84%; 454 ng/L), Caffeine (83%; 189 ng/L), PFOA (66%; 39 ng/L), Atrazine (56%; 253 ng/L), Desethylatrazine (55%; 487 ng/L), 1H-Benzotriazole (53%; 1032 ng/L), Methylbenzotriazole (52%; 516 ng/L), Desethylterbutylazine (49%; 266 ng/L), PFOS (48%, 135 ng/L), Simazine (43%; 127 ng/L), Carbamazepine (42%; 390 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C) (42%; 11 microg/L), Bisphenol A (40%; 2.3 microg/L), PFHxS (35%; 19 ng/L), Terbutylazine (34%; 716 ng/L), Bentazone (32%; 11 microg/L), Propazine (32%; 25 ng/L), PFHpA (30%; 21 ng/L), 2,4-Dinitrophenol (29%; 122 ng/L), Diuron (29%; 279 ng/L), and Sulfamethoxazole (24%; 38 ng/L). The chemicals which were detected most frequently above the European ground water quality standard for pesticides of 0.1 microg/L were Chloridazon-desphenyl (26 samples), NPE(1)C (20), Bisphenol A (12), Benzotriazole (8), N,N'-Dimethylsulfamid (DMS) (8), Desethylatrazine (6), Nonylphenol (6), Chloridazon-methyldesphenyl (6), Methylbenzotriazole (5), Carbamazepine (4), and Bentazone (4). However, only 1.7% of all single analytical measurements (in total 8000) were above this threshold value of 0.1 microg/L; 7.3% were > than 10 ng/L.

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailing site Maybell, Colorado. Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from former uranium processing activities at inactive uranium processing sites (40 CFR Part 192 (1993)) (52 FR 36000 (1978)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has decided that each assessment will include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes the proposed action compliance with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4, Water Resources Protection Strategy. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include the following: (1) Definition of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the environment, including hydrostratigraphy, aquifer parameters, areas of aquifer recharge and discharge, potentiometric surfaces, and ground water velocities. (2) Definition of background ground water quality and comparison with proposed EPA ground water protection standards. (3) Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant source and/or residual radioactive materials. (4) Definition of existing ground water contamination by comparison with the EPA ground water protection standards. (5) Description of the geochemical processes that affect the migration of the source contaminants at the processing site. (6) Description of water resource use, including availability, current and future use and value, and alternate water supplies.

  7. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  8. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The areal concentration distribution of commonmineral constituents and properties of ground water in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system are described in this report. Maps depicting the water quality and the altitude of the water table are included. The shallow aquifer system in Wisconsin, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel and shallow bedrock, is the source of most potable ground-water supplies in the State. Most ground water in the shallow aquifer system moves in local flow systems, but it interacts with regional flow systems in some areas.

  9. Linking ground-water age and chemistry data along flow paths: Implications for trends and transformations of nitrate and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Saad, David A.; Burow, Karen R.; Frick, Elizabeth A.; Puckett, Larry J.; Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-10-01

    Tracer-based ground-water ages, along with the concentrations of pesticides, nitrogen species, and other redox-active constituents, were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals along flow paths in diverse hydrogeologic settings. A range of conditions affecting the transformation of nitrate and pesticides (e.g., thickness of unsaturated zone, redox conditions) was examined at study sites in Georgia, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California. Deethylatrazine (DEA), a transformation product of atrazine, was typically present at concentrations higher than those of atrazine at study sites with thick unsaturated zones but not at sites with thin unsaturated zones. Furthermore, the fraction of atrazine plus DEA that was present as DEA did not increase as a function of ground-water age. These findings suggest that atrazine degradation occurs primarily in the unsaturated zone with little or no degradation in the saturated zone. Similar observations were also made for metolachlor and alachlor. The fraction of the initial nitrate concentration found as excess N 2 (N 2 derived from denitrification) increased with ground-water age only at the North Carolina site, where oxic conditions were generally limited to the top 5 m of saturated thickness. Historical trends in fluxes to ground water were evaluated by relating the times of recharge of ground-water samples, estimated using chlorofluorocarbon concentrations, with concentrations of the parent compound at the time of recharge, estimated by summing the molar concentrations of the parent compound and its transformation products in the age-dated sample. Using this approach, nitrate concentrations were estimated to have increased markedly from 1960 to the present at all study sites. Trends in concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and their degradates were related to the timing of introduction and use of these compounds. Degradates, and to a lesser extent parent compounds, were detected

  10. Surface-water/ground-water interaction of the Spokane River and the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, Idaho and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Bowers, Craig L.

    2003-01-01

    Historical mining in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin of northern Idaho has resulted in elevated concentrations of some trace metals (particularly cadmium, lead, and zinc) in water and sediment of Coeur d’Alene Lake and downstream in the Spokane River in Idaho and Washington. These elevated trace-metal concentrations in the Spokane River have raised concerns about potential contamination of ground water in the underlying Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, the primary source of drinking water for the city of Spokane and surrounding areas. A study conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program examined the interaction of the river and aquifer using hydrologic and chemical data along a losing reach of the Spokane River. The river and ground water were extensively monitored over a range of hydrologic conditions at a streamflow-gaging station and 25 monitoring wells situated from 40 to 3,500 feet from the river. River stage, ground-water levels, water temperature, and specific conductance were measured hourly to biweekly. Water samples were collected on nearly a monthly basis between 1999 and 2001 from the Spokane River and were collected up to nine times between June 2000 and August 2001 from the monitoring wells.

  11. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water | Sahu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water. ... used and lot of wastewater generated from industries due their processes and washing purpose. A large number of chemicals are used for the production of potable water and ... powdered activated carbon (PAC) can remove taste and odour compounds and micro ...

  13. The Effect of Degradation of Ground water Resources on Capital of Pistachio Growers in Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mortazavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real cost evaluation of water is necessary in agricultural products depending on obtained value by this input. In most areas of world especially in arid and semiarid areas, exist over pumping of ground water because the real value of water is much most than the costs of water supply and the lack of fit management water resources. In this study, using a sample of 110 farmers, water dealing value of over using of groundwater in Rafsanjan pistachio production area were investigated. Analysis and regression methods were used in this regard. The average determined value obtained 24 cents, for each share of water in this region which with over drafting of ground water, and decreasing quality and quantity of water has had significant relationship in the one percent significance level. Finally, for elimination or reduction of ground water degradation and its effects, this paper recommended in addition to reduction of licenses for ground water pumping. Determination of optimal economic water/land ratio in new and old pistachio producing areas is the other proposal of this research for alleviation groundwater over drafting effects. Permission for water conduction between wells and combination of fresh and saline water and also using desalination systems are methods for solving low quality of ground water.

  14. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  15. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  16. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 257.23 Section 257.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  17. Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals in Ground Waters of Vijayawada Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiboyina, Ravisankar; Ptsrk, Prasada Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc., gives an attention to protect environment.one of the major source of contamination of ground water is improper discharge of industrial effluents these effluents contains so many heavy metals which…

  18. Combined ion exchange/biological denitrification for nitrate removal from ground water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der J.P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for nitrate removal from ground water. High nitrate concentrations in ground water are a result of fertilization in agriculture. According to a directive of the European Community the maximum admissible concentration of nitrate in drinking wate

  19. 1:750,000-scale static ground-water levels of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of static ground-water levels for the State of Nevada based on a 1974 ground-water map (Rush, 1974) published by the Nevada Department of...

  20. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvent Ground-Water Plumes Discharging into Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    ground water in highly saline wetlands (Swanson et al., 1984), and the distribution of marsh marigold (Caltha palustris L.) has been used to map...seeps and springs next to a lake and in wetlands in Minnesota (Rosenberry et al., 2000). Marsh marigold favors ground-water discharge areas across the

  1. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at http://www.census.gov). As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  2. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1979 to spring 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Withdrawal of ground water, about 4.0 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1979, is about 200,000 acre-feet less than the amount withdrawn in 1978. The withdrawals in 1978 and 1979 are the smallest since the mid-1950 's except in 1966. Nearly all the decrease was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. The large amount of water in storage in the surface-water reservoirs, release of water from the reservoirs, floods, and conservation practices contributed to the decrease in ground-water use and caused water-level rises in the Salt River Valley, Gila Bend basin, and Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill. Two small-scale maps show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1980, and change in water level in selected wells from 1975 to 1980. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  3. Ground water discharge and the related nutrient and trace metal fluxes into Quincy Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Moffett, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the rate and direction of ground water flow beneath Wollaston Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts by use of a heat-pulsing flowmeter shows a mean velocity in the bulk sediment of 40 cm d-1. The estimated total discharge of ground water into Quincy Bay during October 1990 was 1324-2177 m3 d-1, a relatively low ground Water discharge rate. The tides have only a moderate effect on the rate and direction of this flow. Other important controls on the rate and volume of ground water flow are the limited thickness, geographic extent, and permeability of the aquifer. Comparisons of published streamflow data and estimates of ground water discharge indicate that ground water makes up between 7.4-12.1% of the gaged freshwater input into Quincy Bay. The data from this study suggest the ground water discharge is a less important recharge component to Quincy Bay than predicted by National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) models. The high nitrate and low nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the ground water at the backshore we]l sites and low nitrate and high nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the water flowing from the foreshore suggests that denitrification is active in the sediments. The low ground water flow rates and low nitrate concentrations in the foreshore samples suggest that little or no nitrate is surviving the denitrification process to affect the planktonic community. Similarly, oxidizing conditions in the aquifer and low trace metal concentrations in the ground water samples suggest that the metals may be precipitating and binding to sedimentary phases before impacting the bay.

  4. Acid neutralization capacity measurements in surface and ground waters in the Upper River Severn, Plynlimon: from hydrograph splitting to water flow pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, C.; Hill, T.; Hill, S.; B. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    International audience; Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) data for ephemeral stream and shallow groundwater for the catchments of the upper River Severn show a highly heterogeneous system of within-catchment water flow pathways and chemical weathering on scales of less than 100m. Ephemeral streams draining permeable soils seem to be supplied mainly from shallow groundwater sources. For these streams, large systematic differences in pH and alkalinity occur due to the variability of the ground...

  5. GIS-Based Evaluation of Water Quality Index of Ground Water Resources in West Bokaro Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Tiwari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Quality Index (WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess quality and ensure sustainable safe use of water for drinking. The present work is aimed to assess the groundwater quality of West Bokaro coalfield region for knowing the suitability of drinking purpose by calculating the WQI and using Geographical Information System (GIS techniques. Thirty three groundwater samples were collected from dug wells during post-monsoon, 2012 for comprehensive physico-chemical analysis. Ten parameters were considered for calculating the WQI such as: pH, fluoride (F-, chloride (Cl-, nitrate (NO3-, sulphate(SO42-, bicarbonate (HCO3- calcium(Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, total hardness (TH and total dissolved solid (TDS. The spatial distribution maps of the above mentioned parameters were prepared by using GIS, software. The computed WQI value ranges from 21 to 131 with an overall average of WQI value 73. More than half of the locations fall in Excellent to Good category indicating the ground water in the study area is suitable for drinking purposes.

  6. Cleaning of polluted water using biological techniques. [Ground water]. Rensning af forurenet vand ved biologisk teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M. (Hedeselskabet (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water at many Danish locations has been polluted by organic substances. This pollution has taken place in relation to leaks or spills of, for example, petrol from leaky tanks or oil separators. The article describes a new biological technique for the purification of ground-water polluted by petrol and diesel oils leaked at a petrol station. The technique involves decompostion by bacteria. During decompostion the biomass in the filter increases and carbon dioxide and water is produced, so there is no waste product from this process. The two units consist of an oil-separator which separates the diesel oil and petrol from the water, and a bio-filter which is constructed as an aired-through inverted filter to which nutrient salts are continually added. The filter-material used is in the form of plastic rings on which the oil-decomposing bacteria grow and reproduce themselves. The system is further described. It is claimed that the bio-filter can decompose 7 kg of petrol and diesel oil in one week, larger ones decompose more. The servicelife of the system is expected to be 4-6 years. Current installation costs are 20.000 - 100.000 Danish kroner, according to size. (AB).

  7. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and dif