WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground vehicle mobility

  1. Integrating intrinsic mobility into unmanned ground vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosinsky, Chris A.; Penzes, Steven G.; Buehler, Martin G.; Steeves, Carl

    2001-09-01

    The ability of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) to successfully move about in its environment is enabled by the synergistic combination of perception, control and platform (mobility and utility). Vast effort is being expended on the former technologies but little demonstrable evidence has been produced to indicate that the latter (mobility/utility) has been considered as an integral part of the UGV systems level capability; a concept commonly referred to as intrinsic mobility. While past work described the rationale for hybrid locomotion, this paper aims to demonstrate that integrating intrinsic mobility into a UGV systems mobility element or 'vehicle' will be a key contributor to the magnitude of autonomy that the system can achieve. This paper serves to provide compelling evidence that 1) intrinsic mobility improvements provided by hybrid locomotion configurations offer the best generic mobility, that 2) strict attention must be placed on the optimization of both utility (inherent vehicle capabilities) and mobility and that 3) the establishment of measures of performance for unmanned vehicle mobility is an unmet and latent need.

  2. Advanced Mobility Testbed for Dynamic Semi-Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Introduction Integrated simulation capabilities that are high-fidelity, fast, and have scalable architecture are essential to support autonomous vehicle ...TARDEC has attempted to develop a high-fidelity mobility simulation of an autonomous vehicle in an off-road scenario using integrated sensor...for Dynamic Semi- Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  3. Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility (GVPM) Powertrain Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    Transmission Multi K Factor Torque converter Powertrain Control and ECM Hardware Development Military Vehicle Fuel Economy Measurement Cycle...Military Engine Optimization Efficiency Gap Transmission -No Torque Converter - Multi-Cone clutches - Wide-spread, equally progressive gear ratios...advanced controls algorithms. • Improved torque capacity, better speed/load matching, reduced thermal loading, and improved control strategy for

  4. Control and learning for intelligent mobility of unmanned ground vehicles in complex terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, M.; Beckman, B.; Digney, B.

    2005-05-01

    The Autonomous Intelligent Systems program at Defence R&D Canada-Suffield envisions autonomous systems contributing to decisive operations in the urban battle space. Creating effective intelligence for these systems demands advances in perception, world representation, navigation, and learning. In the land environment, these scientific areas have garnered much attention, while largely ignoring the problem of locomotion in complex terrain. This is a gap in robotics research, where sophisticated algorithms are needed to coordinate and control robotic locomotion in unknown, highly complex environments. Unlike traditional control problems, intuitive and systematic control tools for robotic locomotion do not readily exist thus limiting their practical application. This paper addresses the mobility problem for unmanned ground vehicles, defined here as the autonomous maneuverability of unmanned ground vehicles in unknown, highly complex environments. It discusses the progress and future direction of intelligent mobility research at Defence R&D Canada-Suffield and presents the research tools, topics and plans to address this critical research gap.

  5. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  6. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  7. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  8. Mobility Modeling and Estimation for Delay Tolerant Unmanned Ground Vehicle Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    routing protocol such as Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) or Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), both of which can be found in the NS2 software...problem of routing information between pairs of UGV nodes requires effective path planning protocols to be developed. In order to implement such... routing ) protocols in ad hoc networks: (1) A new mobility estimation algorithm is proposed based upon a constrained spatial grid of cells and

  9. 螺旋地锚车的研制与应用%The Development and Application of the Spirally Mobile Ground Anchor Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟建团; 李姣姣; 谢玉敏

    2012-01-01

    针对直臂地锚车在近距离无法完成施工作业和复合臂地锚车结构复杂、故障率高等问题,研制了螺旋地锚车。该地锚车主要由汽车底盘、副车架、吊臂总成、回转工作台、锚头加压钻进装置、液压系统及蛙形液压支腿等组成,不仅可用于普通地层打地锚,还可用于西南及东北地区冻土层地锚的钻进与拧出。现场应用情况表明,该地锚车可节省人力达90%以上,提高工作效率50%以上。%The straight arm cannot complete the short-distance construction operation. The composite arm ground anchor vehicle is complex in structure and high in failure rate. Considering these problems, the spirally mobile ground anchor vehicle was developed. The vehicle mainly consists of chassis, subframe, rotary worktable, anchor head pressure drilling device, hydraulic system and frog-shape hydraulic outrigger. It cannot only be used in ordi- nary formation ground anchoring but also in ground anchor drilling and pulling out in the frozen layers of southwest- ern and northeastern regions. The field application shows that the vehicle can save over 90% manpower and im- prove the operating efficiency by over 50%.

  10. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  11. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  12. The 18th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: trends and influences for intelligent ground vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Frederick, Philip; Smuda, William

    2011-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 18 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 75 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  13. The 19th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: student built autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 19 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from almost 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  14. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China's autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approach, the test content is designed to be stage by stage, moving from simplicity to complexity and from individual modules to the entire vehicle. The hierarchical test environment is established according to the levels of test content. The test method based on multilevel platforms and sensors is put forward to ensure the accuracy of test results. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used for the comprehensive evaluation which can quantitatively evaluate the individual module and the overall technical performance of autonomous ground vehicles. The proposed test and evaluation system has been successfully applied to real autonomous ground vehicle competitions.

  15. Forecasting Vehicle Mobility in Remote Areas -An Aid to Military Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Paul

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Military vehicles are designed for off the road mobility. These are liable for deployment on varying ground conditions. Terrain parameters effecting vehicle systems design are listed. To avoid large scale measurement of terrain parameters, use of physiographic maps in forecasting these parameters has been suggested. Field tests to ascertain the similarity of soil strength parameter between the similar physiographic terrain units, called land facets were conducted and the tests confirmed the usefulness of the technique.

  16. Visual navigation for an autonomous mobile vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Kevin Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Image understanding for a mobile robotic vehicle is an important and complex task for ensuring safe navigation and extended autonomous operations. The goal of this work is to implement a working vision-based navigation control mechanism within a known environment onboard the autonomous mobile vehicle Yamabico-II. Although installing a working hardware system was not accomplished, the image processing, model description, pattern match...

  17. Unmanned vehicle mobility: Limits of autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormac, A. W.; Hanna, D. M.; McFee, J.

    Considerable research is being conducted on the development of unmanned vehicles for military and civilian applications, particularly for hostile environments. It is desirable to produce a vehicle which can select its own route, not requiring remote navigation, but then it would be required to sense its surroundings. Although imaging systems and modern computers make this possible, the extreme data processing demands usually make it impractical. It is suggested that an inverse relationship exists between vehicle mobility and the complexity of the autonomous navigation system required for an unmanned vehicle. An overview of vehicle navigation is presented which shows the degree to which navigation is affected by increasing inherent mobility. If the inherent mobility of a vehicle is greatly enhanced, the scene image processing requirements and navigational computations are greatly simplified. This means the vehicle path selection and speed and steering adjustments may be made more quickly, resulting in higher vehicle speeds whenever possible. Combined with reduced deviation from the intended path, this would greatly increase the speed of the vehicle from one given point to another, suggesting that high speed autonomous navigation may be feasible.

  18. Remote control of a small unmanned ground vehicle (SUGV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimie, Nicolae; Zorila, Alexandru; Nan, Alexandru; Schiopu, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Developing robot technology has gained an increasing dynamics. Small unmanned ground vehicle - SUGV has gained a place in the robotics field. This paper describes the possibility of remote control of the SUGV using a fuzzy algorithm. This designed algorithm specifically for controlling of a semi-autonomous mobile robot for research, observation, and surveillance. The device can provide 360-degree panoramic images using an image system which includes a hyperboloid mirror and a CCD camera, designed for this specific purpose. Both components, fuzzy algorithm and image system were implemented, tested in the laboratory condition and outdoor on a mobile robot for research, observation, and surveillance.

  19. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  20. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley, Jeremiah A.

    The Earth's magnetic field has been the bedrock of navigation for centuries. The latest research highlights the uniqueness of magnetic field measurements based on position due to large scale variations as well as localized perturbations. These observable changes in the Earth's magnetic field as a function of position provide distinct information which can be used for navigation. This dissertation describes ground vehicle navigation exploiting variation in Earth's magnetic field using a self-contained navigation system consisting of only a magnetometer and magnetic field maps. In order to achieve navigation, effective calibration enables repeatable magnetic field measurements from different vehicles and facilitates mapping of the observable magnetic field as a function of position. A new modified ellipsoid calibration technique for strapdown magnetometers in large vehicles is described, as well as analysis of position measurement generation comparing a multitude of measurement compositions using existing and newly developed likelihood techniques. Finally, navigation solutions are presented using both a position measurement and direct incorporation of the magnetometer measurements via a particle filter to demonstrate road navigation in three different environments. Emphatically, the results affirm that navigation using magnetic field variation in ground vehicles is viable and achieves adequate performance for road level navigation.

  1. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  2. NASA's mobile satellite communications program; ground and space segment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, F.; Weber, W. J.; Knouse, G. H.

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the Mobile Satellite Communications Program of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The program's objectives are to facilitate the deployment of the first generation commercial mobile satellite by the private sector, and to technologically enable future generations by developing advanced and high risk ground and space segment technologies. These technologies are aimed at mitigating severe shortages of spectrum, orbital slot, and spacecraft EIRP which are expected to plague the high capacity mobile satellite systems of the future. After a brief introduction of the concept of mobile satellite systems and their expected evolution, this paper outlines the critical ground and space segment technologies. Next, the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) is described. MSAT-X is the framework through which NASA will develop advanced ground segment technologies. An approach is outlined for the development of conformal vehicle antennas, spectrum and power-efficient speech codecs, and modulation techniques for use in the non-linear faded channels and efficient multiple access schemes. Finally, the paper concludes with a description of the current and planned NASA activities aimed at developing complex large multibeam spacecraft antennas needed for future generation mobile satellite systems.

  3. NASA's mobile satellite communications program; ground and space segment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, F.; Weber, W. J.; Knouse, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the Mobile Satellite Communications Program of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The program's objectives are to facilitate the deployment of the first generation commercial mobile satellite by the private sector, and to technologically enable future generations by developing advanced and high risk ground and space segment technologies. These technologies are aimed at mitigating severe shortages of spectrum, orbital slot, and spacecraft EIRP which are expected to plague the high capacity mobile satellite systems of the future. After a brief introduction of the concept of mobile satellite systems and their expected evolution, this paper outlines the critical ground and space segment technologies. Next, the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) is described. MSAT-X is the framework through which NASA will develop advanced ground segment technologies. An approach is outlined for the development of conformal vehicle antennas, spectrum and power-efficient speech codecs, and modulation techniques for use in the non-linear faded channels and efficient multiple access schemes. Finally, the paper concludes with a description of the current and planned NASA activities aimed at developing complex large multibeam spacecraft antennas needed for future generation mobile satellite systems.

  4. Unmanned ground vehicles for integrated force protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Daniel M.; Mikell, Kenneth; Denewiler, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The combination of Command and Control (C2) systems with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provides Integrated Force Protection from the Robotic Operation Command Center. Autonomous UGVs are directed as Force Projection units. UGV payloads and fixed sensors provide situational awareness while unattended munitions provide a less-than-lethal response capability. Remote resources serve as automated interfaces to legacy physical devices such as manned response vehicles, barrier gates, fence openings, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for unmanned systems. The Robotic Operations Command Center executes the Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) to simultaneously control heterogeneous unmanned systems. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. A control hierarchy of missions and duty rosters support autonomous operations. This paper provides an overview of the key technology enablers for Integrated Force Protection with details on a force-on-force scenario to test and demonstrate concept of operations using Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Special attention is given to development and applications for the Remote Detection Challenge and Response (REDCAR) initiative for Integrated Base Defense.

  5. Guidance and control for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Peter J.

    1994-06-01

    Techniques for the guidance, control, and navigation of unmanned ground vehicles are described in terms of the communication bandwidth requirements for driving and control of a vehicle remote from the human operator. Modes of operation are conveniently classified as conventional teleoperation, supervisory control, and fully autonomous control. The fundamental problem of maintaining a robust non-line-of-sight communications link between the human controller and the remote vehicle is discussed, as this provides the impetus for greater autonomy in the control system and the greatest scope for innovation. While supervisory control still requires the man to be providing the primary navigational intelligence, fully autonomous operation requires that mission navigation is provided solely by on-board machine intelligence. Methods directed at achieving this performance are described using various active and passive sensing of the terrain for route navigation and obstacle detection. Emphasis is given to TV imagery and signal processing techniques for image understanding. Reference is made to the limitations of current microprocessor technology and suitable computer architectures. Some of the more recent control techniques involve the use of neural networks, fuzzy logic, and data fusion and these are discussed in the context of road following and cross country navigation. Examples of autonomous vehicle testbeds operated at various laboratories around the world are given.

  6. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  7. Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Gaylard; Essam F Abo-Serie; Nor Elyana Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters.  The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE) method to be able to work in a...

  8. Estimating Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    organizations use price indices to distinguish sector-specific real price growth from general inflation  OMB uses price indices to estimate the relative...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Estimating Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles (Presentation) David M. Tate Stanley...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estimating Hedonic Price

  9. Mobile satellite communications - Vehicle antenna technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D.; Naderi, F. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses options for vehicle antennas to be used in mobile satellite communications systems. Two types of antennas are identified. A non-steerable, azimuthally omnidirectional antenna with a modest gain of 3 to 5 dBi is suggested when a low cost is desired. Alternatively, mechanically or electronically steerable antennas with a higher gain of 10 to 12 dBi are suggested to alleviate power and spectrum scarcity associated with mobile satellite communications. For steerable antennas, both open-loop and closed-loop pointing schemes are discussed. Monopulse and sequential lobing are proposed for the mechanically steered and electronically steered antennas, respectively. This paper suggests a hybrid open-loop/closed-loop pointing technique as the best performer in the mobile satellite environment.

  10. Demo III: Department of Defense testbed for unmanned ground mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Chuck M.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.; Myers, Scott D.; Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Robotics has been identified by numerous recent Department of Defense (DOD) studies as a key enabling technology for future military operational concepts. The Demo III Program is a multiyear effort encompassing technology development and demonstration on testbed platforms, together with modeling simulation and experimentation directed toward optimization of operational concepts to employ this technology. Primary program focus is the advancement of capabilities for autonomous mobility through unstructured environments, concentrating on both perception and intelligent control technology. The scout mission will provide the military operational context for demonstration of this technology, although a significant emphasis is being placed upon both hardware and software modularity to permit rapid extension to other military missions. The Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV) is a small (approximately 1150 kg, V-22 transportable) technology testbed vehicle designed for experimentation with multiple military operational concepts. Currently under development, the XUV is scheduled for roll-out in Summer 1999, with an initial troop experimentation to be conducted in September 1999. Though small, and relatively lightweight, modeling has shown the chassis capable of automotive mobility comparable to the current Army lightweight high-mobility, multipurpose, wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The XUV design couples multisensor perception with intelligent control to permit autonomous cross-country navigation at speeds of up to 32 kph during daylight and 16 kph during hours of darkness. A small, lightweight, highly capable user interface will permit intuitive control of the XUV by troops from current-generation tactical vehicles. When it concludes in 2002, Demo III will provide the military with both the technology and the initial experience required to develop and field the first generation of semi-autonomous tactical ground vehicles for combat, combat support, and logistics applications.

  11. Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer for Ground and Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENT Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer for Ground and Air Vehicles Monthly Technical Report for the Period: January 20, 2017...Objective: To further develop the Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer systems for Air and Ground Vehicles while addressing the objective requirements... Epoxy Primers in order to afford a lower initial viscosity allowing for better application properties; lower VOC; and the incorporation of various

  12. Frameworks and middleware for umanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Greg S.; Monckton, Simon P.

    2005-05-01

    Modern unmanned vehicles (UV) are complex systems. The current generation of UVs have extensive capabilities allowing the UV to sense its environment, create an internal representation of the environment, navigate within this environment by commanding movement and accomplish this in real-time. This proliferation of UV capabilities has resulted in large and complex software systems that are often distributed across multiple processors. Such systems have a reputation for convoluted implementations that result in software that is difficult to understand, expand, debug and repair. In order for a UV to operate successfully this issue of complex distributed software systems must be mastered. The computing science field views a modular, component based design as the best approach for implementing complex distributed software systems. Methodologies and toolkits such as frameworks and middleware have been developed to enable and simplify the implementation of distributed software systems. DRDC and other research institutions are developing UVs frameworks using CORBA middleware. A CORBA interface enables location transparency, thus it does not matter whether the component is locally or remotely located. The UV autonomy framework developed at DRDC is based upon the Miro framework which was originally developed for soccer playing robots. The Miro framework implements many key features and methods required by autonomous systems and Miro's basis in CORBA allows it to be easily modified and extended to support the unique requirements of military UVs. DRDC has modified and extended Miro so that it now supports autonomous unmanned ground vehicles. The process of implementing these changes substantiated the advantages of frameworks and middleware since Miro proved to be highly flexible and easy to extend.

  13. Semi-Empiric Algorithm for Assessment of the Vehicle Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticusor CIOBOTARU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mobility of military vehicles plays a key role in operation. The ability to reach the desired area in war theatre represents the most important condition for a successful accomplishment of the mission for military vehicles. The off-road vehicles face a broad spectrum of terrains to cross. These terrains differ by geometry and the soil characteristics.NATO References Mobility Model (NRMM software is based on empirical relationship between the terrain characteristics, running conditions and vehicles design. The paper presents the main results of a comparative mobility analysis for M1 and HMMWV vehicles obtained using NRMM.

  14. Steerable wheel structure for ground vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, N.V.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes a ground vehicle having a fore-and-aft body including transversely spaced apart, right and left, fore-and-aft supports: steerable wheel structure comprising transverse axle means disposed between the supports and having right and left end portions respectively adjacent to the right and left supports, a wheel journaled on the axle means intermediate the supports on a transverse horizontal axis, right and left carriers respectively on the right and left supports, each including a fixed element mounted fixedly on the associated support and a movable member arranged for selective fore-and-aft movement relative to the support and relative to each other, right and left connecting means connecting the right and left movable members respectively to the right and left end portions of the axle means for effecting steering of the wheel as one carrier moves forward and the other moves simultaneously rearwardly, and vice versa, at least one of the members at each side of the body being constructed to accommodate fore-and-aft swinging of the axle means during steering of the wheel, and means for moving the movable members simultaneously, one forwardly and the other rearwardly.

  15. An unmanned ground vehicle for landmine remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Steven R.; Guilberto, Jose; Ogg, Wade; Wedeward, Kevin; Bruder, Stephen; El-Osery, Aly

    2004-09-01

    Anti-tank (AT) landmines slow down and endanger military advances and present sizeable humanitarian problems. The remediation of these mines by direct human intervention is both dangerous and costly. The Intelligent Systems & Robotics Group (ISRG) at New Mexico Tech has provided a partial solution to this problem by developing an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) to remediate these mines without endangering human lives. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of this UGV. Current results and future work are also described herein. To initiate the remediation process the UGV is given the GPS coordinates of previously detected landmines. Once the UGV autonomously navigates to an acceptable proximity of the landmine, a remote operator acquires control over a wireless network link using a joystick on a base station. Utilizing two cameras mounted on the UGV, the operator is able to accurately position the UGV directly over the landmine. The UGV houses a self-contained drill system equipped with its own processing resources, sensors, and actuators. The drill system deploys a neutralizing device over the landmine to neutralize it. One such device, developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), employs incendiary materials to melt through the container of the landmine and slowly burn the explosive material, thereby safely and remotely disabling the landmine.

  16. Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gaylard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters.  The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE method to be able to work in a limited memory environment and in a reasonable amount of time but without compromising the accuracy of results. The study was further extended to take into account the car model size effect. Three car model sizes have been investigated and compared with MIRA scale wind tunnel results. Parameters that lead to drag value closer to experiment with less memory and computational time have been identified. Scaling the optimized mesh size with the length of car model was successfully used to predict the drag of the other car sizes with reasonable accuracy. This investigation was carried out using STARCCM+ commercial software package, however the findings can be applied to any other CFD package.

  17. Mobility2.0: co-operative ITS systems for enhanced electric vehicle mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Dimitrova, D.C.; Brogle, M.; Braun, T.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Mobility2.0 will develop and test an in-vehicle commuting assistant for FEV mobility, resulting in more reliable and energy-efficient electro-mobility. In order to achieve a maximum impact, Mobility2.0 takes an integrated approach of ad- dressing the main bottlenecks of urban FEV mobility: range

  18. Mobility2.0: co-operative ITS systems for enhanced electric vehicle mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, G.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Brogle, M.; Braun, T.; Heijenk, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mobility2.0 will develop and test an in-vehicle commuting assistant for FEV mobility, resulting in more reliable and energy-efficient electro-mobility. In order to achieve a maximum impact, Mobility2.0 takes an integrated approach of ad- dressing the main bottlenecks of urban FEV mobility: range anx

  19. Calculation of ground vibration spectra from heavy military vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.; Pickup, S.; McNuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    The demand for reliable autonomous systems capable to detect and identify heavy military vehicles becomes an important issue for UN peacekeeping forces in the current delicate political climate. A promising method of detection and identification is the one using the information extracted from ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, often termed as their seismic signatures. This paper presents the results of the theoretical investigation of ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, such as tanks and armed personnel carriers. A simple quarter car model is considered to identify the resulting dynamic forces applied from a vehicle to the ground. Then the obtained analytical expressions for vehicle dynamic forces are used for calculations of generated ground vibrations, predominantly Rayleigh surface waves, using Green's function method. A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with the published experimental data shows that analytical techniques based on the simplified quarter car vehicle model are capable of producing ground vibration spectra of heavy military vehicles that reproduce basic properties of experimental spectra.

  20. Performance and Stability of a Winged Vehicle in Ground Effect

    CERN Document Server

    de Divitiis, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Present work deals with the dynamics of vehicles which intentionally operate in the ground proximity. The dynamics in ground effect is influenced by the vehicle orientation with respect to the ground, since the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, which in turn depend on height and angle of attack, also vary with the Euler angles. This feature, usually neglected in the applications, can be responsible for sizable variations of the aircraft performance and stability. A further effect, caused by the sink rate, determines unsteadiness that modifies the aerodynamic coefficients. In this work, an analytical formulation is proposed for the force and moment calculation in the presence of the ground and taking the aircraft attitude and sink rate into account. The aerodynamic coefficients are firstly calculated for a representative vehicle and its characteristics in ground effect are investigated. Performance and stability characteristics are then discussed with reference to significant equilibrium conditions, w...

  1. Robust position estimation of a mobile vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conan, V. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Boulanger, P.; Elgazzar, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The ability to estimate the position of a mobile vehicle is a key task for navigation over large distances in complex indoor environments such as nuclear power plants. Schematics of the plants are available, but they are incomplete, as real settings contain many objects, such as pipes, cables or furniture, that mask part of the model. The position estimation method described in this paper matches 3-D data with a simple schematic of a plant. It is basically independent of odometer information and viewpoint, robust to noisy data and spurious points and largely insensitive to occlusions. The method is based on a hypothesis/verification paradigm and its complexity is polynomial; it runs in O(m{sup 4} n{sup 4}), where m represents the number of model patches and n the number of scene patches. Heuristics are presented to speed up the algorithm. Results on real 3-D data show good behaviour even when the scene is very occluded. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Objectives and Progress on Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing for the Ares Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Asloms. Brice R.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA begins design and development of the Ares launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and explore beyond low Earth orbit, Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component of ensuring that those vehicles can perform the missions assigned to them. A ground vibration test (GVT) is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. This data is then used to calibrate loads and control systems analysis models for verifying analyses of the launch vehicle. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be conducting IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2011 to 2012 using the venerable Test Stand (TS) 4550, which supported similar tests for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicle stacks.

  3. Mobile Crowd Sensing for Traffic Prediction in Internet of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiafu; Liu, Jianqi; Shao, Zehui; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Imran, Muhammad; Zhou, Keliang

    2016-01-11

    The advances in wireless communication techniques, mobile cloud computing, automotive and intelligent terminal technology are driving the evolution of vehicle ad hoc networks into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) paradigm. This leads to a change in the vehicle routing problem from a calculation based on static data towards real-time traffic prediction. In this paper, we first address the taxonomy of cloud-assisted IoV from the viewpoint of the service relationship between cloud computing and IoV. Then, we review the traditional traffic prediction approached used by both Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communications. On this basis, we propose a mobile crowd sensing technology to support the creation of dynamic route choices for drivers wishing to avoid congestion. Experiments were carried out to verify the proposed approaches. Finally, we discuss the outlook of reliable traffic prediction.

  4. Behaviour recognition of ground vehicle using airborne monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyondong; Kim, Seungkeun; Shin, Hyo-Sang; Tsourdos, Antonios; White, Brian A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a behaviour recognition methodology for ground vehicles moving within road traffic using unmanned aerial vehicles in order to identify suspicious or abnormal behaviour. With the target information acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles and estimated by filtering techniques, ground vehicle behaviour is first classified into representative driving modes, and then a string pattern matching theory is applied to detect suspicious behaviours in the driving mode history. Furthermore, a fuzzy decision-making process is developed to systematically exploit all available information obtained from a complex environment and confirm the characteristic of behaviour, while considering spatiotemporal environment factors as well as several aspects of behaviours. To verify the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach, numerical simulations on moving ground vehicles are performed using realistic car trajectory data from an off-the-shelf traffic simulation software.

  5. Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    portion of price change that is unexplainable by other means. In previous work with aircraft, Harmon et al. (2014) found that cost progress curves...same time, we noticed that year-over-year price growth for most vehicle systems seemed higher than could be accounted for by simple inflation...quality growth terms attribute some of the observed price growth to that, leaving less unexplained price growth to be accounted for by the price index

  6. S@tMax—A space-based system enabling mobile IP applications in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcioni, Marco; Daehler, Erik; Mueller, Robert P.; van der Meulen, Wencke

    2009-06-01

    As personal mobility increases, people spend more time in their vehicles. Furthermore, a large segment of today's workforce is part of a growing mobile service industry. This mobile society creates opportunities to increase productivity which do not yet exist. Today's commuting time could be better utilized and mobile business transactions could be more efficiently conducted, by integrating mobile IP wireless services in vehicles. By means of a direct to mobile user Internet access, and total IP services, integrated into automobiles, S@tMax services can empower the mobile business movement therefore improving productivity. This paper presents a commercial system architecture that will deliver an optimized solution for direct to mobile user Internet access, through an integration of a ground based network infrastructure, use of existing communications satellites and the development of a proprietary satellite system. As a result of a detailed systems engineering process, the architectures of the space, ground and infrastructures segments will be presented. Furthermore, the benefits of on-orbit servicing were examined in the S@tMax context. The approach proposed is considered as an important step towards enforcing main roadway IP coverage in the US, for near-continuous communications and services.

  7. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  8. Test of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A test engineer drives a Mobility Test Article (MTA) during a test of a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) concept through the mountains of Arizona. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  9. Test of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A test engineer drives a Mobility Test Article (MTA) during a test of a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) concept through the mountains of Arizona. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  10. Mobile vehicle road and weather observation quality check methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel Raymond

    Today State Departments of Transportation rely more and more on road weather data to make maintenance decisions. Inaccurate data can result in wrong treatment applications or inadequate staffing levels to maintain the roadway at the desired level of service. Previous methods of road condition data reporting have been limited to static in situ sensor stations. These road weather information systems (RWIS) provide varied data about precipitation, winds, temperature, and more, but their siting does not always provide an accurate representation of weather and road conditions along the roadway. The use of mobile data collection from vehicles travelling the highway corridors may assist in the locations where RWIS sitings are sparse or non-existent. The United States Department of Transporation's "Connected Vehicle" (formally IntelliDrive) research project is designed to create a fully connected transportation system providing road and weather data collection from an extensive array of vehicles. While the implementation of Connected Vehicle is in the future, some of the theories and technologies are already in place today. Several states, as a part of the Pooled Fund Study Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS), have equipped their winter maintenance vehicles with Mobile Data Collection Automated / Vehicle Location (MDC/AVL) systems. In addition, since 1996, automobiles sold in the United States are required to be equipped with an Onboard Diagnostic Version 2 (OBDII) port that streams live data from sensors located in and around the vehicle. While these sensors were designed for vehicle diagnostics, some of the data can be used to determine weather characteristics around the vehicle. The OBDII data can be collected by a smartphone and sent to a server in real time to be processed. These mobile systems may fill the information gap along the roads that stationary environmental sensor stations are not able to collect. Particular concern and care needs to be focused on

  11. Design of a Smart Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Hazardous Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Saurav

    2010-01-01

    A smart Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) is designed and developed for some application specific missions to operate predominantly in hazardous environments. In our work, we have developed a small and lightweight vehicle to operate in general cross-country terrains in or without daylight. The UGV can send visual feedbacks to the operator at a remote location. Onboard infrared sensors can detect the obstacles around the UGV and sends signals to the operator.

  12. Wireless Control of Miniaturized Mobile Vehicle for Indoor Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha Saquib, Syed M.; Hameed, Sarmad; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Jafri, Raza; Amin, Imran

    2013-12-01

    This work is based upon electronic automation and Smart Control techniques, which constitute the basis of Control Area Network (CAN) and Personal Area Network (PAN). Bluetooth technology has been interfaced with a programmable controller to provide multi-dimensional vehicle control. A network is proposed which contains a remote, mobile host controller and an android operating system based mobile set (Client). The client communicates with a host controller through a Bluetooth device. The system incorporates duplex communication after successful confirmation between the host and the client; the android based mobile unit controls the vehicle through the Bluetooth module.

  13. Autonomous Navigation Apparatus With Neural Network for a Mobile Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Naveed (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An autonomous navigation system for a mobile vehicle arranged to move within an environment includes a plurality of sensors arranged on the vehicle and at least one neural network including an input layer coupled to the sensors, a hidden layer coupled to the input layer, and an output layer coupled to the hidden layer. The neural network produces output signals representing respective positions of the vehicle, such as the X coordinate, the Y coordinate, and the angular orientation of the vehicle. A plurality of patch locations within the environment are used to train the neural networks to produce the correct outputs in response to the distances sensed.

  14. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    Fuel energy is a basic necessity for this planet and the modern technology to perform many activities on earth. On the other hand, quadrupled automotive vehicle usage by the commercial industry and military has increased fuel consumption. Military readiness of Army ground vehicles is very important for a country to protect its people and resources. Fuel energy is a major requirement for Army ground vehicles. According to a report, a department of defense has spent nearly $13.6 billion on fuel and electricity to conduct ground missions. On the contrary, energy availability on this plant is slowly decreasing. Therefore, saving energy in Army ground vehicles is very important. Army ground vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic systems to conduct missions such as silent and normal stationary surveillance missions. Increasing electrical energy consumption of these systems is influencing higher fuel consumption of the vehicle. To save energy, the vehicles can use any of the existing techniques, but they require complex, expensive, and time consuming implementations. Therefore, cheaper and simpler approaches are required. In addition, the solutions have to save energy according to mission needs and also overcome size and weight constraints of the vehicle. Existing research in the current literature do not have any mission aware approaches to save energy. This dissertation research proposes mission aware online energy saving strategies for stationary Army ground vehicles to save energy as well as to meet the electrical needs of the vehicle during surveillance missions. The research also proposes theoretical models of surveillance missions, fuzzy logic models of engine and alternator efficiency data, and fuzzy logic algorithms. Based on these models, two energy saving strategies are proposed for silent and normal surveillance type of missions. During silent mission, the engine is on and batteries power the systems. During normal surveillance mission, the engine is

  15. A usage-centered evaluation methodology for unmanned ground vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Looije, R.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a usage-centered evaluation method to assess the capabilities of a particular Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for establishing the operational goals. The method includes a test battery consisting of basic tasks (e.g., slalom, funnel driving, object detection). Tests can be of diffe

  16. A usage-centered evaluation methodology for unmanned ground vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Looije, R.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a usage-centered evaluation method to assess the capabilities of a particular Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for establishing the operational goals. The method includes a test battery consisting of basic tasks (e.g., slalom, funnel driving, object detection). Tests can be of diffe

  17. Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Wilhelm, A. N., Surgenor, B. W., and Pharoah, J. G., “Design and evaluation of a micro-fuel-cell-based power system for a mobile robot ,” Mechatronics ...of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA bU.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC, Warren, MI, USA ABSTRACT Long-duration missions challenge ground robot systems with respect...to energy storage and efficient conversion to power on demand. Ground robot systems can contain multiple power sources such as fuel cell, battery and

  18. Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stanfield, R. [US Army CECOM, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Fort Belvoir, VA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems.

  19. Acoustic and Vibration Environment for Crew Launch Vehicle Mobile Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.

    2007-01-01

    A launch-induced acoustic environment represents a dynamic load on the exposed facilities and ground support equipment (GSE) in the form of random pressures fluctuating around the ambient atmospheric pressure. In response to these fluctuating pressures, structural vibrations are generated and transmitted throughout the structure and to the equipment items supported by the structure. Certain equipment items are also excited by the direct acoustic input as well as by the vibration transmitted through the supporting structure. This paper presents the predicted acoustic and vibration environments induced by the launch of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) from Launch Complex (LC) 39. The predicted acoustic environment depicted in this paper was calculated by scaling the statistically processed measured data available from Saturn V launches to the anticipated environment of the CLV launch. The scaling was accomplished by using the 5-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) engine parameters. Derivation of vibration environment for various Mobile Launcher (ML) structures throughout the base and tower was accomplished by scaling the Saturn V vibration environment.

  20. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  1. Improved obstacle avoidance and navigation for an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Binod; Cho, Hyunsu; Williams, Benjamin C.; Tann, Hokchhay; Shakya, Bicky; Bharam, Vishal; Ahlgren, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents improvements made to the intelligence algorithms employed on Q, an autonomous ground vehicle, for the 2014 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). In 2012, the IGVC committee combined the formerly separate autonomous and navigation challenges into a single AUT-NAV challenge. In this new challenge, the vehicle is required to navigate through a grassy obstacle course and stay within the course boundaries (a lane of two white painted lines) that guide it toward a given GPS waypoint. Once the vehicle reaches this waypoint, it enters an open course where it is required to navigate to another GPS waypoint while avoiding obstacles. After reaching the final waypoint, the vehicle is required to traverse another obstacle course before completing the run. Q uses modular parallel software architecture in which image processing, navigation, and sensor control algorithms run concurrently. A tuned navigation algorithm allows Q to smoothly maneuver through obstacle fields. For the 2014 competition, most revisions occurred in the vision system, which detects white lines and informs the navigation component. Barrel obstacles of various colors presented a new challenge for image processing: the previous color plane extraction algorithm would not suffice. To overcome this difficulty, laser range sensor data were overlaid on visual data. Q also participates in the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) challenge at IGVC. For 2014, significant updates were implemented: the JAUS component accepted a greater variety of messages and showed better compliance to the JAUS technical standard. With these improvements, Q secured second place in the JAUS competition.

  2. The Role of Model Fidelity in Model Predictive Control Based Hazard Avoidance in Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using Lidar Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance", Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Harbin, China, pp. 2784-2788. [10...military and commercial applications. Although earlier UGV platforms were typically exclusively small ground robots , recent efforts started...targeting passenger vehicle and larger size platforms. Due to their size and speed, these platforms have significantly different dynamics than small robots

  3. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Perception Using Thermal Infrared Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellut, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    TIR cameras can be used for day/night Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation when stealth is required. The quality of uncooled TIR cameras has significantly improved over the last decade, making them a viable option at low speed Limiting factors for stereo ranging with uncooled LWIR cameras are image blur and low texture scenes TIR perception capabilities JPL has explored includes: (1) single and dual band TIR terrain classification (2) obstacle detection (pedestrian, vehicle, tree trunks, ditches, and water) (3) perception thru obscurants

  4. Utah's Mobile Earth Science Outreach Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessow, F. S.; Christian, L.

    2016-12-01

    Students at Utah State University's College of Natural Resources have engineered the first mobile Earth Science outreach platform capable of delivering high-tech and interactive solar-powered educational resources to the traditionally-underserved, remote communities of rural Utah. By retrofitting and modifying an industrial box-truck, this project effectively created a highly mobile and energy independent "school in a box" which seeks to help change the way that Earth science is communicated, eliminate traditional barriers, and increase science accessibility - both physically and conceptually. The project's education platform is focused on developing a more effective, sustainable, and engaging platform for presenting Earth science outreach curricula to community members of all ages in an engaging fashion. Furthermore, this project affords university students the opportunity to demonstrate innovative science communication techniques, translating vital university research into educational outreach operations aimed at doing real, measurable good for local communities.

  5. Learning feedforward controller for a mobile robot vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, J.G.; Starrenburg, J.G.; van Luenen, W.T.C.; van Luenen, W.T.C.; Oelen, W.; Oelen, W.; van Amerongen, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design and realisation of an on-line learning posetracking controller for a three-wheeled mobile robot vehicle. The controller consists of two components. The first is a constant-gain feedback component, designed on the basis of a second-order model. The second is a learning

  6. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2017-01-01

    From mobile, cable-free re-charging of electric vehicles, smart phones and laptops to collecting solar electricity from orbiting solar farms, wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies offer consumers and society enormous benefits. Written by innovators in the field, this comprehensive resource explains the fundamental principles and latest advances in WPT and illustrates key applications of this emergent technology.

  7. Magnesium Technology and Manufacturing for Ultra Lightweight Armored Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Bruce Davis and Rick DeLorme Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc. A reprint from the Proceedings of the 2008 Army Science Conference...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES *Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc., 1001 College St., Madison, IL 62060 A reprint from the Proceedings of the 2008 Army Science...initial emphasis on the Elektron WE43 alloy system for lightweight armored ground vehicle applications. Engineering design factors are reviewed and

  8. Evaluation of connected vehicle impact on mobility and mode choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Minelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Connected vehicle is emerging as a solution to exacerbating congestion problems in urban areas. It is important to understand the impacts of connected vehicle on network and travel behavior of road users. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of connected vehicle on the mode choice and mobility of transportation networks. An iterative methodology was used in this paper where demands for various modes were modified based on the changes in travel time between each origin-destination (OD pair caused by introduction of connected vehicle. Then a traffic assignment was performed in a micro-simulation model, which was able to accurately simulate vehicle-to-vehicle communication. It is assumed that vehicles are equipped with a dynamic route guidance technology to choose their own route using real-time traffic information obtained through communication. The travel times obtained from the micro-simulation model were compared with a base scenario with no connected vehicle. The methodology was tested for a portion of Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In order to quantify changes in mode share with changes in travel time associated with each OD pair, mode choice models were developed for auto, transit, cycling and pedestrians using data mainly from the Transportation Tomorrow Survey. The impact of connected vehicle on mode choice was evaluated for different market penetrations of connected vehicle. The results of this study show that average travel times for the whole auto mode will generally increase, with the largest increase from connected vehicles. This causes an overall move away from the auto mode for high market penetrations if a dynamic route guidance algorithm is implemented.

  9. Description and History of the MOBILE Highway Vehicle Emission Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOBILE is an EPA model for estimating pollution from highway vehicles. It has been superseded by the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). MOBILE calculates emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO).

  10. Mobile system for locating and tracking vehicles in distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Giuliano; Stoica, Axente D.

    2000-02-01

    This report relates to a mobile system for tracking and protection of vehicles owned by some banking organizations, security institutions or by some social service for fire, medical rescue or taxicabs, by an operator placed also aboard of a vehicle in which he has at his disposal all the necessary means for precise determination of the position and the state of each vehicle from the fleet that is under his surveying. Therefore in contrast to the operating mode of the localization systems known in present and which have in its composition a stable center for permanent surveying, the operator of the system presented in this report can intervene personally and in an efficient mode in the aid of the vehicle in distress.

  11. The 21st annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: robotists for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2013-12-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 21 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the fourday competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  12. The 20th annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: building a generation of robotists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Kosinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 20 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  13. Adaptive and mobile ground sensor array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, Michael Warren; O' Rourke, William T.; Zenner, Jennifer; Maish, Alexander B.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to demonstrate the use of robotic vehicles for deploying and autonomously reconfiguring seismic and acoustic sensor arrays with high (centimeter) accuracy to obtain enhancement of our capability to locate and characterize remote targets. The capability to accurately place sensors and then retrieve and reconfigure them allows sensors to be placed in phased arrays in an initial monitoring configuration and then to be reconfigured in an array tuned to the specific frequencies and directions of the selected target. This report reviews the findings and accomplishments achieved during this three-year project. This project successfully demonstrated autonomous deployment and retrieval of a payload package with an accuracy of a few centimeters using differential global positioning system (GPS) signals. It developed an autonomous, multisensor, temporally aligned, radio-frequency communication and signal processing capability, and an array optimization algorithm, which was implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP). Additionally, the project converted the existing single-threaded, monolithic robotic vehicle control code into a multi-threaded, modular control architecture that enhances the reuse of control code in future projects.

  14. Application of parallelized software architecture to an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Rahul; Wright, Adam; Shin, Young Ho; Momin, Orko; Petkovsek, Steven; Wortman, Paul; Gautam, Prasanna; Norton, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents improvements made to Q, an autonomous ground vehicle designed to participate in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). For the 2010 IGVC, Q was upgraded with a new parallelized software architecture and a new vision processor. Improvements were made to the power system reducing the number of batteries required for operation from six to one. In previous years, a single state machine was used to execute the bulk of processing activities including sensor interfacing, data processing, path planning, navigation algorithms and motor control. This inefficient approach led to poor software performance and made it difficult to maintain or modify. For IGVC 2010, the team implemented a modular parallel architecture using the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The new architecture divides all the necessary tasks - motor control, navigation, sensor data collection, etc. into well-organized components that execute in parallel, providing considerable flexibility and facilitating efficient use of processing power. Computer vision is used to detect white lines on the ground and determine their location relative to the robot. With the new vision processor and some optimization of the image processing algorithm used last year, two frames can be acquired and processed in 70ms. With all these improvements, Q placed 2nd in the autonomous challenge.

  15. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  16. Arm7 Based Evolution in Vehicle Mobility and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. N. S. Vaidya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Arm7 Based Evolution In Vehicle Mobility And Automation”, various sensor is used to detect various parameters of the vehicle system like Temperature sensor is used to detect engine temperature, Light sensor is used to switch on head light at night automatically, proximity sensor are used for driver as well as driver side seat belt wearing information, figure print sensor are used to open the vehicle as well as start the car. Micro serial data card reader is used here to work as a black box of the vehicle, whenever accident happen it can give all the last information which is stored in to memory card to the investigator, which is easy to detect the cause of accident. The smartness of this vehicle is to tell all the information or sensor output data audibly to the vehicle owner or driver and driver side seat passenger. All the things can be controlled by one system which is ARM7 and information is also displayed on LCD monitor

  17. Passive Night Vision Sensor Comparison for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Stereo Vision Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ken; Matthies, Larry

    2000-01-01

    One goal of the "Demo III" unmanned ground vehicle program is to enable autonomous nighttime navigation at speeds of up to 10 m.p.h. To perform obstacle detection at night with stereo vision will require night vision cameras that produce adequate image quality for the driving speeds, vehicle dynamics, obstacle sizes, and scene conditions that will be encountered. This paper analyzes the suitability of four classes of night vision cameras (3-5 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer uncooled FLIR, and image intensifiers) for night stereo vision, using criteria based on stereo matching quality, image signal to noise ratio, motion blur and synchronization capability. We find that only cooled FLIRs will enable stereo vision performance that meets the goals of the Demo III program for nighttime autonomous mobility.

  18. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines ] EPA is, pursuant... standards relating to the control of emissions for new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines...

  19. Reconfigurable Mobile System - Ground, sea and air applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamonica, Gary L.; Sturges, James W.

    1990-11-01

    The Reconfigurable Mobile System (RMS) is a highly mobile data-processing unit for military users requiring real-time access to data gathered by airborne (and other) reconnaissance data. RMS combines high-performance computation and image processing workstations with resources for command/control/communications in a single, lightweight shelter. RMS is composed of off-the-shelf components, and is easily reconfigurable to land-vehicle or shipboard versions. Mission planning, which involves an airborne sensor platform's sensor coverage, considered aircraft/sensor capabilities in conjunction with weather, terrain, and threat scenarios. RMS's man-machine interface concept facilitates user familiarization and features iron-based function selection and windowing.

  20. Single Fuel Concept for Croatian Army Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Spudić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available During the process of approaching the European associationsand NATO the Republic of Croatia has accepted the singlefuel concept for all ground vehicles of the Croatian Army.Croatia has also undertaken to insure that all aircraft, motorvehicles and equipment with turbo-engines or with pressurizedfuel injection, for participation in NATO and PfP led operationscan • operate using the kerosene-based aviation fuel(NATO F-34. The paper gives a brief overview and the resultsof the earned out activities in the Armed Forces of the Republicof Croatia, the expected behaviour of the motor vehicle andpossible delays caused by the use of kerosene fuel (NATOF-34 as fuel for motor vehicles. The paper also gives the advantagesand the drawbacks of the single fuel concept. By acquiringnew data in the Croatian Armed Forces and experienceexchange with other nations about the method of using fuelF-34, the development of the technologies of engine manufacturingand its vital parts or by introducing new standards in theproductjon of fuels and additives new knowledge will certainlybe acquired for providing logistics support in the area of operations,and its final implementation will be a big step forward forthe Republic of Croatia towards Europe and NATO.

  1. Intelligence algorithms for autonomous navigation in a ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovsek, Steve; Shakya, Rahul; Shin, Young Ho; Gautam, Prasanna; Norton, Adam; Ahlgren, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will discuss the approach to autonomous navigation used by "Q," an unmanned ground vehicle designed by the Trinity College Robot Study Team to participate in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). For the 2011 competition, Q's intelligence was upgraded in several different areas, resulting in a more robust decision-making process and a more reliable system. In 2010-2011, the software of Q was modified to operate in a modular parallel manner, with all subtasks (including motor control, data acquisition from sensors, image processing, and intelligence) running simultaneously in separate software processes using the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. This eliminated processor bottlenecks and increased flexibility in the software architecture. Though overall throughput was increased, the long runtime of the image processing process (150 ms) reduced the precision of Q's realtime decisions. Q had slow reaction times to obstacles detected only by its cameras, such as white lines, and was limited to slow speeds on the course. To address this issue, the image processing software was simplified and also pipelined to increase the image processing throughput and minimize the robot's reaction times. The vision software was also modified to detect differences in the texture of the ground, so that specific surfaces (such as ramps and sand pits) could be identified. While previous iterations of Q failed to detect white lines that were not on a grassy surface, this new software allowed Q to dynamically alter its image processing state so that appropriate thresholds could be applied to detect white lines in changing conditions. In order to maintain an acceptable target heading, a path history algorithm was used to deal with local obstacle fields and GPS waypoints were added to provide a global target heading. These modifications resulted in Q placing 5th in the autonomous challenge and 4th in the navigation challenge at IGVC.

  2. Mobile virtual synchronous machine for vehicle-to-grid applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelczar, Christopher

    2012-03-20

    The Mobile Virtual Synchronous Machine (VISMA) is a power electronics device for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) applications which behaves like an electromechanical synchronous machine and offers the same beneficial properties to the power network, increasing the inertia in the system, stabilizing the grid voltage, and providing a short-circuit current in case of grid faults. The VISMA performs a real-time simulation of a synchronous machine and calculates the phase currents that an electromagnetic synchronous machine would produce under the same local grid conditions. An inverter with a current controller feeds the currents calculated by the VISMA into the grid. In this dissertation, the requirements for a machine model suitable for the Mobile VISMA are set, and a mathematical model suitable for use in the VISMA algorithm is found and tested in a custom-designed simulation environment prior to implementation on the Mobile VISMA hardware. A new hardware architecture for the Mobile VISMA based on microcontroller and FPGA technologies is presented, and experimental hardware is designed, implemented, and tested. The new architecture is designed in such a way that allows reducing the size and cost of the VISMA, making it suitable for installation in an electric vehicle. A simulation model of the inverter hardware and hysteresis current controller is created, and the simulations are verified with various experiments. The verified model is then used to design a new type of PWM-based current controller for the Mobile VISMA. The performance of the hysteresis- and PWM-based current controllers is evaluated and compared for different operational modes of the VISMA and configurations of the inverter hardware. Finally, the behavior of the VISMA during power network faults is examined. A desired behavior of the VISMA during network faults is defined, and experiments are performed which verify that the VISMA, inverter hardware, and current controllers are capable of supporting this

  3. Probabilistic Tracking and Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Ground Vehicles in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The aim of this research is to develop a unified theory for perception and planning in autonomous ground vehicles , with a...Pine Tree Road Ithaca, NY 14850 -2820 ABSTRACT Probabilistic Tracking and Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Ground Vehicles in Urban Environments...Report Title The aim of this research is to develop a unified theory for perception and planning in autonomous ground vehicles , with a specific focus on

  4. Emerging vehicle technologies & the search for urban mobility solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra N. Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of the ongoing innovations to make vehicles driverless, carbon free and accessible on ‘as needed’ basis, is evolving fast. A review of available information suggests that these technologies have substantial potential to generate positive externalities by improving road safety, lowering of fuel consumption and emissions in vehicles, and providing mobility options for vulnerable population including young, old and persons with disability. However, given the limited commercialization it is difficult to discern the nature of impact these technologies will have in reducing the two negative travel externalities, road congestion and low density expansion of cities. Gradual mainstreaming of these technologies will offer opportunities for further research in understanding the behavioral responses of their end users, and the risks that these technologies may pose to manufacturers, consumers, and stakeholders.

  5. Ensuring Safe Exploration: Ares Launch Vehicle Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, M. L.; Chenevert, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA's next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be leading the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO is responsible for performing the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orionilander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. For the Ares IVGVT, the current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at liftoff (using inert first stage segments). Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and reactivated to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. The electrical power distribution system for TS 4550 was

  6. Infrared stereo calibration for unmanned ground vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harguess, Josh; Strange, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    The problem of calibrating two color cameras as a stereo pair has been heavily researched and many off-the-shelf software packages, such as Robot Operating System and OpenCV, include calibration routines that work in most cases. However, the problem of calibrating two infrared (IR) cameras for the purposes of sensor fusion and point could generation is relatively new and many challenges exist. We present a comparison of color camera and IR camera stereo calibration using data from an unmanned ground vehicle. There are two main challenges in IR stereo calibration; the calibration board (material, design, etc.) and the accuracy of calibration pattern detection. We present our analysis of these challenges along with our IR stereo calibration methodology. Finally, we present our results both visually and analytically with computed reprojection errors.

  7. Modeling and control for hydraulic transmission of unmanned ground vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 张泽; 秦绪情

    2014-01-01

    Variable pump driving variable motor (VPDVM) is the future development trend of the hydraulic transmission of an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). VPDVM is a dual-input single-output nonlinear system with coupling, which is difficult to control. High pressure automatic variables bang-bang (HABB) was proposed to achieve the desired motor speed. First, the VPDVM nonlinear mathematic model was introduced, then linearized by feedback linearization theory, and the zero-dynamic stability was proved. The HABB control algorithm was proposed for VPDVM, in which the variable motor was controlled by high pressure automatic variables (HA) and the variable pump was controlled by bang-bang. Finally, simulation of VPDVM controlled by HABB was developed. Simulation results demonstrate the HABB can implement the desired motor speed rapidly and has strong robustness against the variations of desired motor speed, load and pump speed.

  8. Designing for sustainability - mobility systems based on electrical vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Hansen, Ole Erik

    2013-01-01

    in interaction with public authorities and transportation companies), configuring the electric car sharing system as an element in an alternative mobility service system, and designing the technical and organizational system The concluding discussion falls into two parts: an assessment of the design process......-design, concerned with design as meta-level processes of regime transformation and the constructive configuration of design spaces. The case study examines an attempt to integrate electric vehicles in the Danish mobility systems. It maps the framework conditions and contemporary (competing) strategies....../projects, but focuses on a specific car-sharing project (‘Cleardrive’), with the objective to examine the early and constitutive stages of the design-process. It is conducted as an intensive study tracing elements of interpretation, interaction and intervention, which have been part of the project formation process...

  9. A Taxonomy of Vision Systems for Ground Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Martínez-Gómez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a taxonomy of vision systems for ground mobile robots. In the last five years, a significant number of relevant papers have contributed to this subject. Firstly, a thorough review of the papers is proposed to discuss and classify both past and the most current approaches in the field. As a result, a global picture of the state of the art of the last five years is obtained. Moreover, the study of the articles is used to put forward a comprehensive taxonomy based on the most up-to-date research in ground mobile robotics. In this sense, the paper aims at being especially helpful to both budding and experienced researchers in the areas of vision systems and mobile ground robots. The taxonomy described is devised from a novel perspective, namely in order to respond to the main questions posed when designing robotic vision systems: why?, what for?, what with?, how?, and where? The answers are derived from the most relevant techniques described in the recent literature, leading in a natural way to a series of classifications that are discussed and contextualized. The article offers a global picture of the state of the art in the area and discovers some promising research lines.

  10. A survey of unmanned ground vehicles with applications to agricultural and environmental sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadies, Stephanie; Lefcourt, Alan; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have been utilized in the last few decades in an effort to increase the efficiency of agriculture, in particular, by reducing labor needs. Unmanned vehicles have been used for a variety of purposes including: soil sampling, irrigation management, precision spraying, mechanical weeding, and crop harvesting. In this paper, unmanned ground vehicles, implemented by researchers or commercial operations, are characterized through a comparison to other vehicles used in agriculture, namely airplanes and UAVs. An overview of different trade-offs of configurations, control schemes, and data collection technologies is provided. Emphasis is given to the use of unmanned ground vehicles in food crops, and includes a discussion of environmental impacts and economics. Factors considered regarding the future trends and potential issues of unmanned ground vehicles include development, management and performance. Also included is a strategy to demonstrate to farmers the safety and profitability of implementing the technology.

  11. A framework for the natural-language-perception-based creative control of unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-09-01

    Mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. That is why mobile robotics problems are complex with many unanswered questions. To reach a high degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. On the one hand, promising learning theories such as the adaptive critic and creative control have been proposed, while on other hand the human brain"s processing ability has amazed and inspired researchers in the area of Unmanned Ground Vehicles but has been difficult to emulate in practice. A new direction in the fuzzy theory tries to develop a theory to deal with the perceptions conveyed by the natural language. This paper tries to combine these two fields and present a framework for autonomous robot navigation. The proposed creative controller like the adaptive critic controller has information stored in a dynamic database (DB), plus a dynamic task control center (TCC) that functions as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and multi-criteria functions. The TCC module utilizes computational theory of perceptions to deal with the high levels of task planning. The authors are currently trying to implement the model on a real mobile robot and the preliminary results have been described in this paper.

  12. The influence of vehicle front-end design on pedestrian ground impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetta, Gianmarco; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco; Simms, Ciaran

    2015-06-01

    Accident data have shown that in pedestrian accidents with high-fronted vehicles (SUVs and vans) the risk of pedestrian head injuries from the contact with the ground is higher than with low-fronted vehicles (passenger cars). However, the reasons for this remain poorly understood. This paper addresses this question using multibody modelling to investigate the influence of vehicle front height and shape in pedestrian accidents on the mechanism of impact with the ground and on head ground impact speed. To this end, a set of 648 pedestrian/vehicle crash simulations was carried out using the MADYMO multibody simulation software. Impacts were simulated with six vehicle types at three impact speeds (20, 30, 40km/h) and three pedestrian types (50th % male, 5th % female, and 6-year-old child) at six different initial stance configurations, stationary and walking at 1.4m/s. Six different ground impact mechanisms, distinguished from each other by the manner in which the pedestrian impacted the ground, were identified. These configurations have statistically distinct and considerably different distributions of head-ground impact speeds. Pedestrian initial stance configuration (gait and walking speed) introduced a high variability to the head-ground impact speed. Nonetheless, the head-ground impact speed varied significantly between the different ground impact mechanisms identified and the distribution of impact mechanisms was strongly associated with vehicle type. In general, impact mechanisms for adults resulting in a head-first contact with the ground were more severe with high fronted vehicles compared to low fronted vehicles, though there is a speed dependency to these findings. With high fronted vehicles (SUVs and vans) the pedestrian was mainly pushed forward and for children this resulted in high head ground contact speeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Technique for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auday Al-Mayyahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for solving navigation problems of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV. The system consists of four ANFIS controllers; two of which are used for regulating both the left and right angular velocities of the AGV in order to reach the target position; and other two ANFIS controllers are used for optimal heading adjustment in order to avoid obstacles. The two velocity controllers receive three sensor inputs: front distance (FD; right distance (RD and left distance (LD for the low-level motion control. Two heading controllers deploy the angle difference (AD between the heading of AGV and the angle to the target to choose the optimal direction. The simulation experiments have been carried out under two different scenarios to investigate the feasibility of the proposed ANFIS technique. The simulation results have been presented using MATLAB software package; showing that ANFIS is capable of performing the navigation and path planning task safely and efficiently in a workspace populated with static obstacles.

  14. Ground control stations for unmanned air vehicles (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Natarajan

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available "During the last five decades, the world has witnessed tremendous growth in the military aircraft technology and the air defence weapons technology. Use of manned aircraft for routine reconnaissance/surveillance missions has become a less preferred option due to possible high attrition rate. Currently, the high political cost of human life has practically earmarked the roles of reconnaissance and surveillance missions to the unmanned air vehicles (UAVs. Almost every major country has a UAV program of its own and this interest has spawned intensive research in the field of UAVs. Presently, the UAVs come in all shapes and sizes, from palm top micro UAVs to giant strategic UAVs that can loiter over targets for extended periods of time. Though UAVs are capable of operating at different levels of autonomy, these are generally controlled from a ground control station (GCS. The GCS is the nerve centre of activity during UAV missions and provides necessary capability to plan and execute UAV missions. The GCS incorporates facilities, such as communication, displays, mission planning and data exploitation. The GCS architecture is highly processor-oriented and hence the computer hardware and software technologies play a major role in the realisation of this vital system. This paper gives an overview of the GCS, its architecture and the current state-of-the-art in various subsystem technologies.

  15. Microstrip Yagi array antenna for mobile satellite vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John; Densmore, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    A novel antenna structure formed by combining the Yagi-Uda array concept and the microstrip radiator technique is discussed. This antenna, called the microstrip Yagi array, has been developed for the mobile satellite (MSAT) system as a low-profile, low-cost, and mechanically steered medium-gain land-vehicle antenna. With the antenna's active patches (driven elements) and parasitic patches (reflector and director elements) located on the same horizontal plane, the main beam of the array can be tilted, by the effect of mutual coupling, in the elevation direction providing optimal coverage for users in the continental United States. Because the parasitic patches are not connected to any of the lossy RF power distributing circuit the antenna is an efficient radiating system. With the complete monopulse beamforming and power distributing circuits etched on a single thin stripline board underneath the microstrip Yagi array, the overall L-band antenna system has achieved a very low profile for vehicle's rooftop mounting, as well as a low manufacturing cost. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of this antenna.

  16. Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Ippolito, C.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, R.; Yeh, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are cooperatively investigating the utility of unmanned vehicles for near-real-time autonomous surveys of geophysical data collection. Initially focused on unmanned ground vehicle collection of magnetic data, this cooperative effort has brought unmanned surveying, precision guidance, near-real-time communication, on-the-fly data processing, and near-real-time data interpretation into the realm of ground geophysical surveying, all of which offer advantages over current methods of manned collection of ground magnetic data. An unmanned ground vehicle mission has demonstrated that these vehicles can successfully complete missions to collect geophysical data, and add advantages in data collection, processing, and interpretation. We view the current experiment as an initial phase in further unmanned vehicle data-collection missions, including aerial surveying.

  17. Low gain and steerable vehicle antennas for communications with land mobile satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K.

    1982-01-01

    Current development activities at JPL for ground mobile vehicle antennas to be used with the Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) system are described. Both low gain and electronically steerable high gain type antennas are discussed in terms of their design concept and RF performance. For the low gain type, three classes of antennas are under various stages of development. These are the crossed-drooping dipole, quadrifilar helix, and microstrip patch designs. The antennas are intended to provide circularly-polarized radiation with a minimum of 3-dB gain in the angular region from 19 degrees to 60 deg from the horizon in elevation plane and with an omnidirectional pattern in azimuthal plane. For the electronically steerable high gain type, circularly-polarized microstrip patch phased arrays formed on a planar surface and on the surface of a truncated cone are under study. The arrays are intended to provide a minimum of 12 dB gain in the same angular region in elevation plane at all azimuthal angles. This coverage is accomplished by scanning the high gain pencil beam in both elevation and azimuthal directions. Both types of antennas are to transmit at 821-831 MHz band and to receive at 866-876 MHz band. They must be of low cost design and reasonably conformal to the vehicle.

  18. Unmanned ground vehicle perception using thermal infrared cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

    2011-05-01

    The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5μm) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (7-14μm). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

  19. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Perception Using Thermal Infrared Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5?m) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (8-12?m). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

  20. Environmental Perception and Sensor Data Fusion for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs that can drive autonomously in cross-country environment have received a good deal of attention in recent years. They must have the ability to determine whether the current terrain is traversable or not by using onboard sensors. This paper explores new methods related to environment perception based on computer image processing, pattern recognition, multisensors data fusion, and multidisciplinary theory. Kalman filter is used for low-level fusion of physical level, thus using the D-S evidence theory for high-level data fusion. Probability Test and Gaussian Mixture Model are proposed to obtain the traversable region in the forward-facing camera view for UGV. One feature set including color and texture information is extracted from areas of interest and combined with a classifier approach to resolve two types of terrain (traversable or not. Also, three-dimension data are employed; the feature set contains components such as distance contrast of three-dimension data, edge chain-code curvature of camera image, and covariance matrix based on the principal component method. This paper puts forward one new method that is suitable for distributing basic probability assignment (BPA, based on which D-S theory of evidence is employed to integrate sensors information and recognize the obstacle. The subordination obtained by using the fuzzy interpolation is applied to calculate the basic probability assignment. It is supposed that the subordination is equal to correlation coefficient in the formula. More accurate results of object identification are achieved by using the D-S theory of evidence. Control on motion behavior or autonomous navigation for UGV is based on the method, which is necessary for UGV high speed driving in cross-country environment. The experiment results have demonstrated the viability of the new method.

  1. Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-03

    AND SUBTITLE Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle...college. Three students have gone through the NRL internships and now are full time employees at NRL. This pattern of direct corporate, government and

  2. Mobility Performance Algorithms for Small Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    following: min , BFMX MAX T SFTYPC B DCL W æ ö÷ç= ´ ÷ç ÷çè ø100 (5) where: BMX = total braking force used DCLMAX = maximum braking...V = maximum speed limited by visibility BMX = braking force (Equation 5). The reaction time between recognition and application of the brakes

  3. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhigang; Collu, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  4. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  5. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  6. Navigation and Hazard Avoidance for High-Speed Unmanned Ground Vehicles in Rough Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-07

    Potential Field Navigation of High Speed Vehicles on Rough Terrain,” Robotica , Vol. 25, No. 4, pp 409-424, July 2007 Udengaard, M., and Iagnemma, K...Navigation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles on Uneven Terrain using Potential Fields," to appear in Robotica , 2007 [16] Spenko, M., Kuroda, Y., Dubowsky, S

  7. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  8. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-09-16

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  9. Traversability Analysis for Unmanned Ground Vehicles: Interpreting the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Koren, Y. (1991), The Vector Field Histogram - Fast Obstacle Avoidance for Mobile Robots, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 7(3), 535–539...Utz, H., Sablatnog, S., Enderle, S., and Kraetzschmar, G. (2002), Miro - MIddleware for Mobile Robot Applications, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and

  10. Scalable and Detail-Preserving Ground Surface Reconstruction from Large 3D Point Clouds Acquired by Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, D.; Serna Morales, A.; Deschaud, J.-E.; Marcotegui, B.; Goulette, F.

    2014-08-01

    The currently existing mobile mapping systems equipped with active 3D sensors allow to acquire the environment with high sampling rates at high vehicle velocities. While providing an effective solution for environment sensing over large scale distances, such acquisition provides only a discrete representation of the geometry. Thus, a continuous map of the underlying surface must be built. Mobile acquisition introduces several constraints for the state-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithms. Smoothing becomes a difficult task for recovering sharp depth features while avoiding mesh shrinkage. In addition, interpolation-based techniques are not suitable for noisy datasets acquired by Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems. Furthermore, scalability is a major concern for enabling real-time rendering over large scale distances while preserving geometric details. This paper presents a fully automatic ground surface reconstruction framework capable to deal with the aforementioned constraints. The proposed method exploits the quasi-flat geometry of the ground throughout a morphological segmentation algorithm. Then, a planar Delaunay triangulation is applied in order to reconstruct the ground surface. A smoothing procedure eliminates high frequency peaks, while preserving geometric details in order to provide a regular ground surface. Finally, a decimation step is applied in order to cope with scalability constraints over large scale distances. Experimental results on real data acquired in large urban environments are presented and a performance evaluation with respect to ground truth measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  11. Vector Pursuit Path Tracking for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    collision avoidance for a mobile robot,” Robotica , v12, 1994, p521-527. [30] Saffiotti, A., Ruspini, E. H. and Konolige, K., “Blending Reactivity and...based collision avoidance for a mobile robot,” Robotica , v15, 1997, p627-632. [43] Hoffman, F. and Pfister, G., “Evolutionary Design of a Fuzzy...DeSantis, R. M., “Modeling and path-tracking control of a mobile wheeled robot with a differential drive,” Robotica , v13, 1995, p401-410. [49

  12. New vision system and navigation algorithm for an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tann, Hokchhay; Shakya, Bicky; Merchen, Alex C.; Williams, Benjamin C.; Khanal, Abhishek; Zhao, Jiajia; Ahlgren, David J.

    2013-12-01

    Improvements were made to the intelligence algorithms of an autonomously operating ground vehicle, Q, which competed in the 2013 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). The IGVC required the vehicle to first navigate between two white lines on a grassy obstacle course, then pass through eight GPS waypoints, and pass through a final obstacle field. Modifications to Q included a new vision system with a more effective image processing algorithm for white line extraction. The path-planning algorithm adopted the vision system, creating smoother, more reliable navigation. With these improvements, Q successfully completed the basic autonomous navigation challenge, finishing tenth out of over 50 teams.

  13. A study on the nondestructive test optimum design for a ground tracked combat vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Byeong Ho; Seo, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyeon Jun [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hyeong [Hanwha Techwin Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sang Chul [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, a nondestructive test (NDT) is performed to inspect the optimal design of a ground tracked combat vehicle for self-propelled artillery, tank, and armored vehicles. The minimum qualification required for personnel performing the NDT of a ground tracked combat vehicle was initially established in US military standards, and then applied to the Korean defense specifications to develop a ground tracked combat vehicle. However, the qualification standards of an NDT inspector have been integrated into NAS410 through the military and commercial specifications unification project that were applied in the existing aerospace/defense industry public standard. The design method for this study was verified by applying the optimal design to the liquid penetrant testing Al forging used in self-propelled artillery. This confirmed the reliability and soundness of the product.

  14. Smart mobile in-vehicle systems next generation advancements

    CERN Document Server

    Abut, Huseyin; Takeda, Kazuya; Hansen, John

    2014-01-01

    This is an edited collection by world-class experts, from diverse fields, focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. The book presents developments on road safety, in-vehicle technologies and state-of-the art systems. Includes coverage of DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, algorithms and evaluation of in-car communication systems, driver-status monitoring and stress detection, in-vehicle dialogue systems and human-machine interfaces, challenges in video and audio processing for in-vehicle products, multi-sensor fusion for driver identification and vehicle to infrastructure wireless technologies.

  15. Wind Tunnel Investigation of Ground Wind Loads for Ares Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Donald F.; Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    A three year program was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Aeroelasticity Branch (AB) and Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) with the primary objective to acquire scaled steady and dynamic ground-wind loads (GWL) wind-tunnel data for rollout, on-pad stay, and on-pad launch configurations for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV). The experimental effort was conducted to obtain an understanding of the coupling of aerodynamic and structural characteristics that can result in large sustained wind-induced oscillations (WIO) on such a tall and slender launch vehicle and to generate a unique database for development and evaluation of analytical methods for predicting steady and dynamic GWL, especially those caused by vortex shedding, and resulting in significant WIO. This paper summarizes the wind-tunnel test program that employed two dynamically-aeroelastically scaled GWL models based on the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The first model tested, the GWL Checkout Model (CM), was a relatively simple model with a secondary objective of restoration and development of processes and methods for design, fabrication, testing, and data analysis of a representative ground wind loads model. In addition, parametric variations in surface roughness, Reynolds number, and protuberances (on/off) were investigated to determine effects on GWL characteristics. The second windtunnel model, the Ares I-X GWL Model, was significantly more complex and representative of the Ares I-X FTV and included the addition of simplified rigid geometrically-scaled models of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) and Launch Complex 39B primary structures. Steady and dynamic base bending moment as well as model response and steady and unsteady pressure data was acquired during the testing of both models. During wind-tunnel testing of each model, flow conditions (speed and azimuth) where significant WIO occurred, were identified and thoroughly investigated. Scaled data from

  16. Extrinsic Calibration for Vehicle-based Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Limei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Having the advantage of 360° imaging and rotation invariance, panoramic camera has gradually been used in mobile mapping systems(MMS. Calibration is an essential requirement to make sure that MMS can get high quality geo-information. This paper presents a way to address the extrinsic calibration for vehicle-based MMS composed of panoramic camera and Position and Orientation System (POS. Firstly, control points in the natural scene are set up, whose spatial coordinates are measured with high precision. Secondly, a panoramic spherical model is constructed and panoramic image can be projected to this model by means of spherical reverse transformation projection. Then, localize and select the control points in 3D spherical panoramic view but not in panoramic distorted image directly, the spherical coordinates of control points in panoramic image are gotten. After points correspondence is established, make use of direct geo-reference positioning equation and coordinate transformation, the translation and rotation parameters of panoramic camera relative to POS are computed. Experiments are conducted separately in space city calibration site located in Beijing and the Binhai New Area in Tianjin using our approach. Test results are listed as follows. When the GPS signal are of good quality, absolute positioning mean square error of a point is 10.3 cm in two-dimension plane and 16.5 cm in height direction; Otherwise, it is 35.4 cm in two-dimension plane and 54.8 cm in height direction. The max relative error of distance measurement is about 5 cm over a short distance (distance<3 km, which is not obviously affected by the GPS signal quality.

  17. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Kuo, Calvin; Jain, Abhi; Grip, Havard; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Overholt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative project between U.S. Army TARDEC and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) simulation model using the ROAMS vehicle modeling framework. Besides modeling the physical suspension of the vehicle, the sensing and navigation of the HMMWV vehicle are simulated. Using models of urban and off-road environments, the HMMWV simulation was tested in several ways, including navigation in an urban environment with obstacle avoidance and the performance of a lane change maneuver.

  18. Road-Following Formation Control of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Droge, Greg; Grip, Havard; Toupet, Olivier; Scrapper, Chris; Rahmani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel cooperative path planning for formation keeping robots traversing along a road with obstacles and possible narrow passages. A unique challenge in this problem is a requirement for spatial and temporal coordination between vehicles while ensuring collision and obstacle avoidance.

  19. Passive Fuel Tank Inerting Systems for Ground Combat Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    34Fire Protection Handbook,"Natioaal girt Pro~dction Association (NFPA), 14th es., Dos on, cu (January 1976) 25 American Petroleum Institute, API ...System on the X60 Series Combat Vehicles," Report No. 79-04A, U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research and Development I Command, DRDTA-V, Warren, MI (October

  20. Landmark-Based Navigation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    against large measurement errors. 20090710280 RELEASE LIMITATION Approved for public release 4p fv^-Jo-osiit? Published by Weapons Systems Division...achieved as numerous low cost gyroscopes in the market meet this requirement. 24 DSTO-TR-2260 3.5.4 Sensitivity to Vehicle Speed In this subsection

  1. Demonstration of Tar Removal from Paving Equipment and Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    difficult job . Red River Army Depot has about 25 vehicles for refurbishing. Other equipment can also be recovered if a convenient solvent and process...solvents including ethyl lactate , dibasic esters, and X-Force were tested with little success. An aqueous solution formulated with

  2. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  3. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2016-10-25

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  4. Simultaneous Planning and Control for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    obstacle avoidance were not part of the problem. Pioneering work was done by Dubins during the late 1950’s. He proved that optimal paths connecting a car...motion. Reeds and Shepp extended the work of Dubins to include motion for a vehicle traveling both forwards and backwards [REE91]. There are several...use of receding horizon control for electro -mechanical systems. This limitation is primarily due to the time critical nature of the required control

  5. Real-Time Identification of Wheel Terrain Interaction Models for Enhanced Autonomous Vehicle Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    capable instrumentation. • A system reliant on RTK GPS would not be very practical and we show it to be unnecessary. 7/6/2014 Vehicle - Ground...includes: – Moblility logs (post-processed RTK - GPS pose, wheel odometry) for 3 different terrain (grass, dirt, parking lot) on the LandTamer (6x6...Platform Retrofit 7/6/2014 Vehicle - Ground Model Identification 12 AVT GT1920C GigE Camera Pose System: Novatel OEMV-3 GPS Receiver + Honeywell

  6. Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles using a High Performance Computing Simulation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad; Melanz, Daniel; Lamb, David; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Letherwood, Michael; Jain, Abhinandan; Quadrelli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the physics-based simulation of light tracked vehicles operating on rough deformable terrain. The focus is on small autonomous vehicles, which weigh less than 100 lb and move on deformable and rough terrain that is feature rich and no longer representable using a continuum approach. A scenario of interest is, for instance, the simulation of a reconnaissance mission for a high mobility lightweight robot where objects such as a boulder or a ditch that could otherwise be considered small for a truck or tank, become major obstacles that can impede the mobility of the light autonomous vehicle and negatively impact the success of its mission. Analyzing and gauging the mobility and performance of these light vehicles is accomplished through a modeling and simulation capability called Chrono::Engine. Chrono::Engine relies on parallel execution on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) cards.

  7. Dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles on the move with Mobile Energy Disseminators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros A. Maglaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs is becoming a preferred method since it enables power exchange between the vehicle and the grid while the vehicle is moving. In this article, we present mobile energy disseminators (MED, a new concept, that can facilitate EVs to extend their range in a typical urban scenario. Our proposed method exploits Inter-Vehicle (IVC communications in order to eco-route electric vehicles taking advantage of the existence of MEDs. Combining modern communications between vehicles and state of the art technologies on energy transfer, vehicles can extend their travel time without the need for large batteries or extremely costly infrastructure. Furthermore, by applying intelligent decision mechanisms we can further improve the performance of the method.

  8. Unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperative techniques:Current status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation is a novel and challenging filed.Heterogeneous cooperative techniques can widen the application fields of unmanned air or ground vehicles,and enhance the effectiveness of implementing detection,search and rescue tasks.This paper mainly focused on the key issues in multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation,including heterogeneous flocking,formation control,formation stability,network control,and actual applications.The main problems and future directions in this field were also analyzed in detail.These innovative technologies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of implementing complicated tasks,which definitely provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future robot systems.

  9. Near real-time operation of public image database for ground vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E.; Kozaitis, S. P.

    2015-02-01

    An effective color night vision system for ground vehicle navigation should operate in near real-time to be practical. We described a system that uses a public database as a source of color information to colorize night vision imagery. Such an approach presents several problems due to differences between acquired and reference imagery. Our system performed registration, colorizing, and reference updating in near real-time in an effort to help drivers of ground vehicles during night to see a colored view of a scene.

  10. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios. PMID:25591168

  11. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  12. Inexpensive semi-autonomous ground vehicles for defusing IEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Chris; Lodmell, James; Womble, Phillip C.; Barzilov, Alexander; Paschal, Jon; Hernandez, Robert; Moss, Kyle T.; Hopper, Lindsay

    2008-04-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are an important concern to coalition forces during the conflicts in the Middle East. These devices are responsible for many casualties to American armed forces in the Middle East. These explosives are particularly dangerous because they are improvised with materials readily available to the designer, and there is no systematic way of explosive ordinance disposal. IEDs can be made from things such as standard military ammunition and can be detonated with common electronic devices such as cell phones and garage door openers. There is a great need for a low cost solution to neutralize these IEDs. At the Applied Physics Institute we are building a single function disrupter robot whose sole purpose is to neutralize these IEDs. We are modifying a toy remote control car to control it either wirelessly using WI-FI (IEEE 802.11) or wired by tethering the vehicle with an Ethernet cable (IEEE 802.3). The robot will be equipped with a high velocity fuze disrupter to neutralize the IED as well as a video camera for inspection and aiming purposes. This robot utilizes commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components which keeps the cost relatively low. Currently, similar robot systems have been deployed in Iraq and elsewhere but their method of operation is such that it is impractical to use in non-combat situations. We will discuss our design and possible deployment scenarios.

  13. Color night vision system for ground vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. A.; Qadir, H.; Kozaitis, S. P.

    2014-06-01

    Operating in a degraded visual environment due to darkness can pose a threat to navigation safety. Systems have been developed to navigate in darkness that depend upon differences between objects such as temperature or reflectivity at various wavelengths. However, adding sensors for these systems increases the complexity by adding multiple components that may create problems with alignment and calibration. An approach is needed that is passive and simple for widespread acceptance. Our approach uses a type of augmented display to show fused images from visible and thermal sensors that are continuously updated. Because the raw fused image gave an unnatural color appearance, we used a color transfer process based on a look-up table to replace the false colors with a colormap derived from a daytime reference image obtained from a public database using the GPS coordinates of the vehicle. Although the database image was not perfectly registered, we were able to produce imagery acquired at night that appeared with daylight colors. Such an approach could improve the safety of nighttime navigation.

  14. 2007 Tactical Wheeled Vehicles Conference (TWV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-06

    Ground Mobility Enhancements 7322 Vehicles MRAP Vehicles Survivability Bridge to JLTV / MIC -- Current Theater Requirements Ground Mobility...DAB/MS B ASARC PROPOSAL SUBMISSION Stand-up JPO JROC ICD Approval 801/805/818 Certifications 1 2 3 TMA TRA Concept Decision/ MS A JLTV Acquisition

  15. Impact of Vehicle Mobility on Performance of Vehicular Ad Hoc Network IEEE 1609.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET is a new communications system for moving vehicles at high speed, which are equipped with wireless communication devices, together with additional wireless roadside units, enabling communications among nearby vehicles (vehicle-to-vehicle communication as well as between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment (vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. Inter-vehicular communications aim to improve road traffic safety and provide multimedia services. VANET has become an important communication infrastructure for the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In this work we have studied the impact of vehicle mobility on the quality of service in VANET based on IEEE 1609.4. The performance of this network is evaluated through exhaustive simulations using the VanetMobiSim and Network Simulator-NS2 under different parameters like delay, packet delivery ratio, packet loss and throughput. The simulation results are obtained when vehicles are moving according to a freeway mobility model is significantly different from results based on Manhattan model. When the Manhattan model is used, there is an increase in the average end-to-end delay and packet loss.

  16. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation and Coverage Hole Patching in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guyu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation and coverage hole patching in coordinate-free and localization-free Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Navigation and coverage maintenance are related problems since coverage hole patching requires effective navigation in the sensor network environment. A…

  17. Nearly time-optimal paths for a ground vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A. ANISI; Johan HAMBERG; Xiaoming HU

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that the sufficient family of time-optimal paths for both Dubins' as well as Reeds-Shepp' s car models consist of the concatenation of circular arcs with maxmum curvature and straight line segments, all tangentially connected.These time-optimal solutions suffer from some drawbacks. Their discontinuous curvature profde, together with the wear and impairment on the control equipment that the bang-bang solutions induce, calls for "smoother" and more supple reference paths to follow. Avoiding the bang-bang solutions also raises the robustness with respect to any possible uncertainties. In this paper, our main tool for generating these "nearly time-optimal", but nevertheless continuous-curvature paths, is to use the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP) and make an appropriate and cunning choice of the Lagrangian function. Despite some rewarding simuhtion results, this concept tums out to be numerically divergent at some instances. Upon a more careful investigation, it can be concluded that the problem at hand is nearly singular. This is seen by applying the PMP to Dubins' car and studying the corresponding two point boundary value problem, which turn out to be singuhr. Realizing this, one is able to contradict the widespread belief that all the information about the motion of a mobile platform lies in the initial values of the auxiliary variables associated with the PMP.

  18. Foundations for learning and adaptation in a multi-degree-of-freedom unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael R.; Bailey, Richard

    2004-04-01

    The real-time coordination and control of a many motion degrees of freedom (dof) unmanned ground vehicle under dynamic conditions in a complex environment is nearly impossible for a human operator to accomplish. Needed are adaptive on-board mechanisms to quickly complete sensor-effector loops to maintain balance and leverage. This paper contains a description of our approach to the control problem for a small unmanned ground vehicle with six dof in the three spatial dimensions. Vehicle control is based upon seven fixed action patterns that exercise all of the motion dof of which the vehicle is capable, and five basic reactive behaviors that protect the vehicle during operation. The reactive behaviors demonstrate short-term adaptations. The learning processes for long-term adaptations of the vehicle control functions that we are implementing are composed of classical and operant conditionings of novel responses to information available from distance sensors (vision and audition) built upon the pre-defined fixed action patterns. The fixed action patterns are in turn modulated by the pre-defined low-level reactive behaviors that, as unconditioned responses, continuously serve to maintain the viability of the robot during the activations of the fixed action patterns, and of the higher-order (conditioned) behaviors. The sensors of the internal environment that govern the low-level reactive behaviors also serve as the criteria for operant conditioning, and satisfy the requirement for basic behavioral motivation.

  19. A time-slotted on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc unmanned vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsmann, J. Hope; Hiromoto, Robert E.; Svoboda, John

    2007-04-01

    Successful deployment of Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) in military operations has increased their popularity and utility. The ability to sustain reliable mobile ad hoc formations dramatically enhances the usefulness and performance of UVS. Formation movement increases the amount of ground coverage in less time, decreases fuel consumption of the individual nodes, and provides an avenue for mission expansion through cooperative maneuvers such as refueling. In this paper, we study the wireless communication demands that arise from formation and maintenance of UVS within the context of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). A MANET in formation is typically characterized by tradeoffs between network congestion and the ability to maintain useable communication bandwidth. Maintenance of UVS formations requires each node in the network to be peer-aware, which places a heavy demand on inner node communication. In order to mitigate the inner node network congestion, we introduce a time-slotted communication protocol. The protocol assigns time-slots and allows the designated nodes to communicate directly with other peer-nodes. This approach has been introduced within the context of the Time-Slotted Aloha protocol for station-to-station communication. The approach taken here is to embed the time-slotted reservation protocol into a standard on-demand routing protocol to also address the need to reactively and proactively respond to formation maintenance. The time-slotted on-demand routing protocol is shown to eliminate collisions due to route determination and, therefore, enhance quality of service as well as ensure necessary support for formation movement. A worst-case scenario is described and simulations performed to comparatively demonstrate the advantages of the new protocol.

  20. A New Curb Detection Method for Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using 2D Sequential Laser Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curb detection is an important research topic in environment perception, which is an essential part of unmanned ground vehicle (UGV operations. In this paper, a new curb detection method using a 2D laser range finder in a semi-structured environment is presented. In the proposed method, firstly, a local Digital Elevation Map (DEM is built using 2D sequential laser rangefinder data and vehicle state data in a dynamic environment and a probabilistic moving object deletion approach is proposed to cope with the effect of moving objects. Secondly, the curb candidate points are extracted based on the moving direction of the vehicle in the local DEM. Finally, the straight and curved curbs are detected by the Hough transform and the multi-model RANSAC algorithm, respectively. The proposed method can detect the curbs robustly in both static and typical dynamic environments. The proposed method has been verified in real vehicle experiments.

  1. Prediction of Vehicle Mobility on Large-Scale Soft-Soil Terrain Maps Using Physics-Based Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    suitable for mud and snow type materials. Then the governing equations of motion of both the vehicle and the soil particles are solved along with joint...The actual steady- state maximum vehicle speed in the desired travel direction is the speed-made-good and the rest of the vehicle mobility measures...are also extracted at this steady- state . If the vehicle follows the desired velocity profile then to reach its maximum speed the vehicle needs at

  2. Theatre as a Vehicle for Mobilizing Knowledge in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segedin, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    In the field of education, there has been an increased emphasis on evidence-based practice. Yet, traditional dissemination methods continue to be used. Using more creative and innovative strategies to disseminate research are needed. Theatre is one such method. Stemming from the research on knowledge mobilization and theatre as a method for social…

  3. MEASUREMENT OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A HANG-GLIDER-WING BY GROUND RUN TESTS USING A TEST VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Hozumi, Koki; KOMODA, Masaki; Ono, Takatsugu; TSUKANO, Yukichi; 穂積, 弘毅; 古茂田, 真幸; 小野, 孝次; 塚野, 雄吉

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate longitudinal force and moment characteristics of a hang-glider-wing, ground run tests were conducted using a test vehicle. A hang-glider-wing was installed on a test vehicle using a six-components-balance for wind tunnel use. Aerodynamic force and moment were measrued during the vehicle run at various constant speeds. Geometrical twist distribution along the wing span was recorded as well. Measured force and moment data were corrected for possible ground effect and upw...

  4. Function-based design process for an intelligent ground vehicle vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Robert L.; Perry, Kenneth L.; Stone, Robert B.; McAdams, Daniel A.

    2010-10-01

    An engineering design framework for an autonomous ground vehicle vision system is discussed. We present both the conceptual and physical design by following the design process, development and testing of an intelligent ground vehicle vision system constructed for the 2008 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. During conceptual design, the requirements for the vision system are explored via functional and process analysis considering the flows into the vehicle and the transformations of those flows. The conceptual design phase concludes with a vision system design that is modular in both hardware and software and is based on a laser range finder and camera for visual perception. During physical design, prototypes are developed and tested independently, following the modular interfaces identified during conceptual design. Prototype models, once functional, are implemented into the final design. The final vision system design uses a ray-casting algorithm to process camera and laser range finder data and identify potential paths. The ray-casting algorithm is a single thread of the robot's multithreaded application. Other threads control motion, provide feedback, and process sensory data. Once integrated, both hardware and software testing are performed on the robot. We discuss the robot's performance and the lessons learned.

  5. Towards collaboration between unmanned aerial and ground vehicles for precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Subodh; Raheja, Amar; Green, Robert L.; Do, Dat

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the work being conducted at Cal Poly Pomona on the collaboration between unmanned aerial and ground vehicles for precision agriculture. The unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with multispectral/hyperspectral cameras and RGB cameras, take images of the crops while flying autonomously. The images are post processed or can be processed onboard. The processed images are used in the detection of unhealthy plants. Aerial data can be used by the UAVs and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) for various purposes including care of crops, harvest estimation, etc. The images can also be useful for optimized harvesting by isolating low yielding plants. These vehicles can be operated autonomously with limited or no human intervention, thereby reducing cost and limiting human exposure to agricultural chemicals. The paper discuss the autonomous UAV and UGV platforms used for the research, sensor integration, and experimental testing. Methods for ground truthing the results obtained from the UAVs will be used. The paper will also discuss equipping the UGV with a robotic arm for removing the unhealthy plants and/or weeds.

  6. The Embudito Mission: A Case Study of the Systematics of Autonomous Ground Mobile Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EICKER,PATRICK J.

    2001-02-01

    Ground mobile robots are much in the mind of defense planners at this time, being considered for a significant variety of missions with a diversity ranging from logistics supply to reconnaissance and surveillance. While there has been a very large amount of basic research funded in the last quarter century devoted to mobile robots and their supporting component technologies, little of this science base has been fully developed and deployed--notable exceptions being NASA's Mars rover and several terrestrial derivatives. The material in this paper was developed as a first exemplary step in the development of a more systematic approach to the R and D of ground mobile robots.

  7. Dynamic Performance on Multi Storey Structure Due to Ground Borne Vibrations Input from Passing Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Norhayati Tuan Chik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground borne vibration from passing vehicles could excite the adjacent ground, hence produces a vibration waves that will propagate through layers of soil towards the foundations of any adjacent building. This vibration could affects the structure of the building at some levels and even the low sensitivity equipment are also could be affected as well. The objectives of this study are to perform the structural response on multi storey building subjected to ground vibrations input and to determine the level of vibration at each floor from road traffic on the observed building. The scopes of the study are focused on the groundborne vibrations induced by the passing vehicles and analyse the data by using dynamic software such as ANSYSv14 and MATLAB. The selected building for this study is the Registrar Office building which is located in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM. The inputs of the vibration were measured by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV equipment. By conducting the field measurement, a real input of ground borne vibration from the loads of vehicle towards any adjacent building can be obtained. Finally, the vibration level from road traffic on office building can be determined using overseas generic criteria guidelines. The vibration level achieved for this building is at above the ISO level, which is suitable for office building and within acceptable limit.

  8. [New vehicle technologies for supporting the mobility of the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, B

    2000-06-01

    Starting point for this analysis are the mobility needs and requirements of elderly, as well as problems concerning access and use of public transport. Elderly people as car drivers suffer from several performance deficits which are currently compensated by mobility restrictions and changed driving behaviour. Driver assistance systems, just available or soon on the market, are demonstrated and analysed with respect to their impact on elderly drivers. An expert evaluation comes to the conclusion that the most important systems for elderly are: emergency systems, enhanced vision systems and parking aids. Emergency systems can call rescue teams automatically or at driver's request, and direct them to the emergency location. Self imposed restrictions of elderly concerning night driving can partly be compensated by means of curve lightning and automatic dipping. Parking aids, using cameras or infrared technique are especially helpful for persons with moveability problems. The group of helpful, but not highly important driver assistance systems covers several means for longitudinal and lateral control of the car, comprising autonomous cruise control, antilock systems and electronic stability programmes. The value and impact of these systems are analysed in the light of risk homeostasis theory. Reduced work load and ease of mobility will at last result from user centered navigation systems, helping the elder driver also to move to new areas without orientational problems. The article demonstrates the particular importance of specific layouts of the man-machine-interface for elderly, to guarantee high acceptance and minimal distraction from traffic.

  9. FLEXIBLE MOBILE COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING GROUND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Habarov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of highways environmental condition, in particular air pollution due to emission of hazardous substances into the atmosphere produced by exhaust gases of vehicles and the matters concerning traffic environment protection from hazardous radiation impact are considered.

  10. Ground based mobile isotopic methane measurements in the Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, B. H.; Rella, C.; Petron, G.; Sherwood, O.; Mielke-Maday, I.; Schwietzke, S.

    2014-12-01

    Increased development of unconventional oil and gas resources in North America has given rise to attempts to monitor and quantify fugitive emissions of methane from the industry. Emission estimates of methane from oil and gas basins can vary significantly from one study to another as well as from EPA or State estimates. New efforts are aimed at reconciling bottom-up, or inventory-based, emission estimates of methane with top-down estimates based on atmospheric measurements from aircraft, towers, mobile ground-based vehicles, and atmospheric models. Attributing airborne measurements of regional methane fluxes to specific sources is informed by ground-based measurements of methane. Stable isotopic measurements (δ13C) of methane help distinguish between emissions from the O&G industry, Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFO), and landfills, but analytical challenges typically limit meaningful isotopic measurements to individual point sampling. We are developing a toolbox to use δ13CH4 measurements to assess the partitioning of methane emissions for regions with multiple methane sources. The method was applied to the Denver-Julesberg Basin. Here we present data from continuous isotopic measurements obtained over a wide geographic area by using MegaCore, a 1500 ft. tube that is constantly filled with sample air while driving, then subsequently analyzed at slower rates using cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS). Pressure, flow and calibration are tightly controlled allowing precise attribution of methane enhancements to their point of collection. Comparisons with point measurements are needed to confirm regional values and further constrain flux estimates and models. This effort was made in conjunction with several major field campaigns in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2014, including FRAPPÉ (Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment), DISCOVER-AQ, and the Air Water Gas NSF Sustainability Research Network at the University of Colorado.

  11. Effect of vehicle front end profiles leading to pedestrian secondary head impact to ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Yang, King H

    2013-11-01

    Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models. Mesh morphing is used to explore changes to the bumper height, bonnet leading-edge height, and bonnet rear reference-line height. Simulations leading up to pedestrian secondary impact with ground are conducted at impact speeds of 40 and 30 km/h. In addition, three pedestrian sizes (50th, 5th and 6yr old child) are used to enable us to search for a front-end profile that performs well for multiple sizes of pedestrians, not just one particular size. In most of the simulations, secondary ground impact with pedestrian head/neck/shoulder region occurred. However, there were some front-end profiles that promoted secondary ground impact with pedestrian lower extremities, thus avoiding pedestrian secondary head impact with ground. Previous pedestrian safety research work has suggested the use of active safety methods, such as 'pop up hood', to reduce pedestrian head injury during primary impact. Accordingly, we also conducted simulations using a model with the hood raised to capture the effect of a pop-up hood. These simulations indicated that even though pop-up hood helped reducing the head injury

  12. Extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troglauer, Thomas; Hels, Tove; Christens, P.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that use of mobile phones while driving can impair driving performance and increase the risk of being involved in accidents. Similarly, mobile phone use seems to be an increasing activity thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. This paper...... investigates the extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. The data was collected through written questionnaires and had a response rate of 58%. It was found that more than 99% of the drivers used mobile phones while driving. Despite a prohibition of hand-held mobile...... phone use while driving 31% of the drivers reported to do so. Analysis of the variations in usage found a positive significant relationship between driving hours and phone use. A negative linear effect was found between age and phone use. Similarly, a positive significant association was found between...

  13. Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System Jarrett Goodell and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System 5a...for ~ 22 ton tracked vehicle • Tested and Developed: – Motors, Generators, Batteries, Inverters, DC-DC Converters , Thermal Management, Pulse Power

  14. Distributed pheromone-based swarming control of unmanned air and ground vehicles for RSTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, John A.; Mathews, Robert S.; Yinger, Andrew; Robinson, Joshua S.; Moody, John; Riddle, Stephanie

    2008-04-01

    The use of unmanned vehicles in Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) applications has received considerable attention recently. Cooperating land and air vehicles can support multiple sensor modalities providing pervasive and ubiquitous broad area sensor coverage. However coordination of multiple air and land vehicles serving different mission objectives in a dynamic and complex environment is a challenging problem. Swarm intelligence algorithms, inspired by the mechanisms used in natural systems to coordinate the activities of many entities provide a promising alternative to traditional command and control approaches. This paper describes recent advances in a fully distributed digital pheromone algorithm that has demonstrated its effectiveness in managing the complexity of swarming unmanned systems. The results of a recent demonstration at NASA's Wallops Island of multiple Aerosonde Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and Pioneer Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) cooperating in a coordinated RSTA application are discussed. The vehicles were autonomously controlled by the onboard digital pheromone responding to the needs of the automatic target recognition algorithms. UAVs and UGVs controlled by the same pheromone algorithm self-organized to perform total area surveillance, automatic target detection, sensor cueing, and automatic target recognition with no central processing or control and minimal operator input. Complete autonomy adds several safety and fault tolerance requirements which were integrated into the basic pheromone framework. The adaptive algorithms demonstrated the ability to handle some unplanned hardware failures during the demonstration without any human intervention. The paper describes lessons learned and the next steps for this promising technology.

  15. Computational Simulation of Dynamic Response of Vehicle Tatra T815 and the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlček, Jozef; Valašková, Veronika

    2016-10-01

    The effect of a moving load represents the actual problem which is analysed in engineering practice. The response of the vehicle and its dynamic effect on the pavement can be analysed by experimental or computational ways. The aim of this paper was to perform computer simulations of a vehicle-ground interaction. For this purpose, a half-part model of heavy lorry Tatra 815 and ground was modelled in computational programmes ADINA and PLAXIS based on FEM methods, utilizing analytical approaches. Two procedures were then selected for further calculations. The first one is based on the simplification of the stiffer pavement layers to the beam element supported by the springs simulating the subgrade layers using Winkler-Pasternak theory of elastic half-space. Modulus of subgrade reaction was determined in the standard programme trough the simulation of a plate load test. Second approach considers a multi-layered ground system with layers of different thicknesses and material properties. For comparison of outputs of both approaches, the same input values were used for every calculation procedure. Crucial parameter for the simulations was the velocity of the passing vehicle with regard to the ground response to the impulse of the pass. Lower velocities result in almost static response of the pavement, but higher velocities induce response that can be better described by the dynamic theory. For small deformations, an elastic material model seems to be sufficient to define the ground response to the moving load, but for larger deformations advanced material models for the ground environment would be more reliable.

  16. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  17. On the radar cross section (RCS) prediction of vehicles moving on the ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabihi, Ahmad [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-10

    As readers should be aware, Radar Cross Section depends on the factors such as: Wave frequency and polarization, Target dimension, angle of ray incidence, Target’s material and covering, Type of radar system as monostatic or bistatic, space in which contains target and propagating waves, and etc. Having moved or stationed in vehicles can be effective in RCS values. Here, we investigate effective factors in RCS of moving targets on the ground or sea. Image theory in electromagnetic applies to be taken into account RCS of a target over the ground or sea.

  18. Military Specification: Mobility, Towed Aerospace Ground Equipment General Requirements for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Seven Conductor Electrical Connector for Truck Trailer Jumper Cable J585 Tail Lamps (Rear Position Light) J586 Stop Lamps J588 Turn Signal Lamps J592...Wiring: NOTE: Normally not required for Groups A, B, and C items; equipment specification. Lighting Complete Complete Turn signals Yes Yes Voltage 12V...J585 Turn signals SAE J588, class A. 3.11.2 Vehicles less than 80 inches wide. Items less than 80 inches wide shall contain the lighting devices, and

  19. Large eddy simulation of flows around ground vehicles and other bluff bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnovic, Sinisa

    2009-07-28

    A brief review of large eddy simulation (LES) applications for different bluff-body flows performed by the author and his co-workers is presented. Examples of flows range from simple cube flows characterized by sharp edge separation over a three-dimensional hill where LES relies on good near-wall resolution, to complex flows of a tall, finite cylinder that contains several flow regimes that cause different challenges to LES. The second part of the paper is devoted to flows around ground vehicles at moderate Reynolds numbers. Although the present review proves the applicability of LES for various bluff-body flows, an increase of the Reynolds number towards the operational speeds of ground vehicles requires accurate near-wall modelling for a successful LES.

  20. Study on shift schedule saving energy of automatic transmission of ground vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚捷; 赵丁选; 陈鹰; 陈宁

    2004-01-01

    To improve ground vehicle efficiency, shift schedule energy saving was proposed for the ground vehicle automatic transmission by studying the function of the torque converter and transmission in the vehicular drivetrain. The shift schedule can keep the torque converter working in the high efficiency range under all the working conditions except in the low efficiency range on the left when the transmission worked at the lowest shift, and in the low efficiency range on the right when the transmission worked at the highest shift. The shift quality key factors were analysed. The automatic trans-mission's bench-test adopting this shift schedule was made on the automatic transmission's test-bed. The experimental results showed that the shift schedule was correct and that the shift quality was controllable.

  1. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  2. Study on shift schedule saving energy of automatic transmission of ground vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚捷; 赵丁选; 陈鹰; 陈宁

    2004-01-01

    To improve ground vehicle efficiency,shift schedule energy saving was proposed for the ground vehicle automatic transmission by studying the function of the torque converter and transmission in the vehicular drivetrain.The shift schedule can keep the torque converter working in the high efficiency range under all the working conditions except in the low efficiency range on the left when the transmission worked at the lowest shift,and in the low efficiency range on the right when the transmission worked at the highest shift.The shift quality key factors were analysed.The automatic transmission's bench-test adopting this shift schedule was made on the automatic transmission's test-bed.The experimental results showed that the shift schedule was correct and that the shift quality was controllable.

  3. Realistic Simulation of IEEE 802.11p Channel in Mobile Vehicle to Vehicle Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, T.; Hu, Y.; Onur, E.; Boltjes, B.; Jongh, J.F.C.M de

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is becoming an important paradigm, because of its ability to enhance safety and to mitigate congestion on road traffic scenarios. Realizing the fact that data collection scheme from in-situ test beds for large number of vehicles is always expensive and time c

  4. Realistic Simulation of IEEE 802.11p Channel in Mobile Vehicle to Vehicle Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, T.; Hu, Y.; Onur, E.; Boltjes, B.; Jongh, J.F.C.M de

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is becoming an important paradigm, because of its ability to enhance safety and to mitigate congestion on road traffic scenarios. Realizing the fact that data collection scheme from in-situ test beds for large number of vehicles is always expensive and time c

  5. Robust H∞ output-feedback control for path following of autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuan; Jing, Hui; Wang, Rongrong; Yan, Fengjun; Chadli, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a robust H∞ output-feedback control strategy for the path following of autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). Considering the vehicle lateral velocity is usually hard to measure with low cost sensor, a robust H∞ static output-feedback controller based on the mixed genetic algorithms (GA)/linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is proposed to realize the path following without the information of the lateral velocity. The proposed controller is robust to the parametric uncertainties and external disturbances, with the parameters including the tire cornering stiffness, vehicle longitudinal velocity, yaw rate and road curvature. Simulation results based on CarSim-Simulink joint platform using a high-fidelity and full-car model have verified the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  6. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Las Fargeas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles’ paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders’ locations and selects the vehicles’ paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm’s completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios.

  7. Constrained low-cost GPS/INS filter with encoder bias estimation for ground vehicles' applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun F.; Saadeddin, Kamal; Amin Jarrah, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a constrained, fault-tolerant, low-cost navigation system is proposed for ground vehicle's applications. The system is designed to provide a vehicle navigation solution at 50 Hz by fusing the measurements of the inertial measurement unit (IMU), the global positioning system (GPS) receiver, and the velocity measurement from wheel encoders. A high-integrity estimation filter is proposed to obtain a high accuracy state estimate. The filter utilizes vehicle velocity constraints measurement to enhance the estimation accuracy. However, if the velocity measurement of the encoder is biased, the accuracy of the estimate is degraded. Therefore, a noise estimation algorithm is proposed to estimate a possible bias in the velocity measurement of the encoder. Experimental tests, with simulated biases on the encoder's readings, are conducted and the obtained results are presented. The experimental results show the enhancement in the estimation accuracy when the simulated bias is estimated using the proposed method.

  8. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-546 Teleoperated Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Latency Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), AD No.: 14. ABSTRACT...discrete system components or measurements of latency in autonomous systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Unmanned Ground Vehicles, Basic Video Latency, End -to... End System Latency, Command-to-Action Latency 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 23 19a

  9. Using acoustic sensor technologies to create a more terrain capable unmanned ground vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odedra, Sid; Prior, Stephen D.; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Erbil, Mehmet Ali; Shen, Siu-Tsen; International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicle’s (UGV) have to cope with the most complex range of dynamic and variable obstacles and therefore need to be highly intelligent in order to cope with navigating in such a cluttered environment. When traversing over different terrains (whether it is a UGV or a commercial manned vehicle) different drive styles and configuration settings need to be selected in order to travel successfully over each terrain type. These settings are usually selected by a human operator in ma...

  10. Using High Performance Computing to Realize a System-Level RDDO for Military Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    Using High Performance Computing to Realize a System-Level RBDO for Military Ground Vehicles • David A. Lamb, Ph.D. • Computational Reliability and...fictitious load cases is number of design variables X number of static load cases (6 X 24 = 144 for Stryker A-arm). RBDO Flowchart Pre-processor Morpher...Based Geometry Morpher Mesh Finite Element Analysis Durability Sensitivity RBDO /PBDO FE Analysis FE re-analysis for DSA Sensitivity of SIC and Fatigue

  11. Determining the Forces Generated by the Contact of an Electrically-Operated Vehicle with the Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the motion of an electric vehicle,when there is only the pure rolling of the wheels on the ground.The equations of holonomic and non-holonomic constraints have been rendered explicitly obtaining 27 equations algebraic-differential system with the same number of unknowns.Besides,this system supplies a model to calculate the bonding reaction forces.

  12. Multi- and Hyper-Spectral Sensing for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGLER, ROBERT J.

    2003-06-01

    Robotic vehicles that navigate autonomously are hindered by unnecessary avoidance of soft obstacles, and entrapment by potentially avoidable obstacles. Existing sensing technologies fail to reliably distinguish hard obstacles from soft obstacles, as well as impassable thickets and other sources of entrapment. Automated materials classification through advanced sensing methods may provide a means to identify such obstacles, and from their identity, to determine whether they must be avoided. Multi- and hyper-spectral electro-optic sensors are used in remote sensing applications to classify both man-made and naturally occurring materials on the earth's surface by their reflectance spectra. The applicability of this sensing technology to obstacle identification for autonomous ground vehicle navigation is the focus of this report. The analysis is restricted to system concepts in which the multi- or hyper-spectral sensor is on-board the ground vehicle, facing forward to detect and classify obstacles ahead of the vehicle. Obstacles of interest include various types of vegetation, rocks, soils, minerals, and selected man-made materials such as paving asphalt and concrete.

  13. Resolving ranges of layered objects using ground vehicle LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Jim; Kutscher, Brett; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Lidar systems are well known for their ability to measure three-dimensional aspects of a scene. This attribute of Lidar has been widely exploited by the robotics community, among others. The problem of resolving ranges of layered objects (such as a tree canopy over the forest floor) has been studied from the perspective of airborne systems. However, little research exists in studying this problem from a ground vehicle system (e.g., a bush covering a rock or other hazard). This paper discusses the issues involved in solving this problem from a ground vehicle. This includes analysis of extracting multi-return data from Lidar and the various laser properties that impact the ability to resolve multiple returns, such as pulse length and beam size. The impacts of these properties are presented as they apply to three different Lidar imaging technologies: scanning pulse Lidar, Geiger-mode flash Lidar, and Time-of-Flight camera. Tradeoffs associated with these impacts are then discussed for a ground vehicle Lidar application.

  14. 美军无人地面车辆发展综述%Development Survey of US Army Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 王立操; 李联邦; 左志奇

    2012-01-01

    US army unmanned ground vehicles are primitively introduced. The development course of US army unmanned ground vehicles is expatiated, present condition and development trends are given. Some suggestions on developing military unmanned ground vehicles are presented.%对美军无人地面车辆进行简要介绍,阐述美军无人地面车辆发展历程,给出了其研究现状与趋势,提出了对我国无人地面车辆发展的几点启示。

  15. A Modular Approach for a Family of Ground Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Quaglia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Epi.q, a family of mobile robots whose main characteristic is a wheel-legged hybrid locomotion. These multi-purpose robots can be successfully exploited for security and surveillance tasks. The document presents state of the art security robotics, the Epi.q mechanical architecture, the concept behind the robot driving unit, three prototypes and the design of a new one.

  16. Adaptation of mobile ad-hoc network protocols for sensor networks to vehicle control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenya; Matsui, Yosuke; Koita, Takahiro

    2005-12-01

    As sensor network applications to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations, a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) has been the focus of many recent research and development efforts. A MANET, autonomous system of mobile hosts, is characterized by multi-hop wireless links, absence of any cellular infrastructure, and frequent host mobility. Many kinds of routing protocols for ad-hoc network have been proposed and still actively updated, because each application has different characteristics and requirements. Since the current studies show it is almost impossible to design an efficient routing protocol to be adapted for all kinds of applications. We, therefore, have focused a certain application, inter-vehicle communication for ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), to evaluate the routing protocols. In our experiment, we defined several traffic flow models for inter-vehicle communication applications. By using simulation, we evaluated end-to-end delay and throughput performance of data transmission for inter-vehicle communications with the existing routing protocols. The result confirms the feasibility of using some routing protocols for inter-vehicle communication services.

  17. Evaluation of Co and Cr mobility in soil profiles collected in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G., E-mail: clange@usp.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Enzweiler, Jacinta, E-mail: jacinta@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2015-07-01

    The number of motor vehicles in urban environments has increased dramatically in the past years. As a result, so has the number of impounded and end-of-life vehicles. Car wastes can have a very high metal content, which can cause important environmental impacts to the soil where these vehicles are kept. Most Brazilian vehicle impound scrapyards are currently operating at their maximum capacity and soils may have become contaminated by past or current vehicle handling practices. Most of these areas do not present an impermeable surface. The level of soil contamination with heavy metals depends on the type of soil, climate and management practices. Metals, such as Co and Cr, that are present in many auto-parts, may be considered potentially toxic elements in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate Co and Cr levels and behavior in soil profiles located in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles of Ribeirao Pires-SP city. For this purpose, samples from distinct horizons of three soil profiles were collected. Element concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Soil parameters such as pH, organic matter content and clay, silt and sand percentage were also determined. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in order to establish correlations between elemental concentrations and the impounded vehicles scrapyard soil. Soil acidity showed to be the most remarkable property for Cr and Co mobility through soil profile. (author)

  18. Control performance evaluation of railway vehicle MR suspension using fuzzy sky-ground hook control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, S. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, G. S.; Yoo, W. H.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of railway vehicle featured by semi-active suspension system using magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. In order to achieve this goal, a nine degree of freedom of railway vehicle model, which includes car body and bogie, is established. The wheel-set data is loaded from measured value of railway vehicle. The MR damper system is incorporated with the governing equation of motion of the railway vehicle model which includes secondary suspension. To illustrate the effectiveness of the controlled MR dampers on suspension system of railway vehicle, the control law using the sky-ground hook controller is adopted. This controller takes into account for both vibration control of car body and increasing stability of bogie by adopting a weighting parameter between two performance requirements. The parameters appropriately determined by employing a fuzzy algorithm associated with two fuzzy variables: the lateral speed of the car body and the lateral performance of the bogie. Computer simulation results of control performances such as vibration control and stability analysis are presented in time and frequency domains.

  19. Towards the development of tamper-resistant, ground-based mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Mobile sensor nodes hold great potential for collecting field data using fewer resources than human operators would require and potentially requiring fewer sensors than a fixed-position sensor array. It would be very beneficial to allow these mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended with a minimum of human intervention. In order to allow mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended in a field environment, it is imperative that they be capable of identifying and responding to external agents that may attempt to tamper with, damage or steal the mobile sensor nodes, while still performing their data collection mission. Potentially hostile external agents could include animals, other mobile sensor nodes, or humans. This work will focus on developing control policies to help enable a mobile sensor node to identify and avoid capture by a hostile un-mounted human. The work is developed in a simulation environment, and demonstrated using a non-holonomic, ground-based mobile sensor node. This work will be a preliminary step toward ensuring the cyber-physical security of ground-based mobile sensor nodes that operate unattended in potentially unfriendly environments.

  20. An MPC Algorithm with Combined Speed and Steering Control for Obstacle Avoidance in Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    be an adequate interpretation in certain applications such as small ground robots . However, for the AGVs that are at least the size of a passenger... problematic , because the OCP solver requires all functions to be twice continuously differentiable. To address this challenge, the safe region is...avoidance for manipulators and mobile robots ,” International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 5, pp. 90-98, 1986. [4] S. Shimoda, Y. Kuroda, and K

  1. Increasing the Mobility of Dismounted Marines. Small Unit Mobility Enhancement Technologies: Unmanned Ground Vehicles Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    a large dog or small mule, BigDog is about 3 feet long and 2.5 feet tall. It is powered by a small engine (a Leopard one-cylinder, two- stroke , water...DSTO http://www.dsto.defence.gov.au Austria Crayler BM Portable Forklift PALFINGER CRAYLER STAPLERTECHNIK GMBH www.palfinger.com Austria FMR

  2. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Seong Lee; Moo-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2) for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experim...

  3. Dynamic Axle Load of an Automotive Vehicle When Driven on a Mobile Measurement Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełowicz-Ryznar C.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the dynamic axle load of an automotive vehicle (AV when it is driven on a mobile measurement platform is presented in this paper. During the ride, the time characteristic of the dynamic force N(t, acting on the axle, was recorded. The effect of the vehicle axle mass on the maximum dynamic force value and the dynamic coefficient were studied. On this basis it was attempted to calculate the total vehicle’s weight. Conclusions concerning the dynamic loads of the vehicle axles in relation to the reduced axle mass, were drawn. The optimal axle mass value, for which the dynamic coefficient reaches a minimum, was calculated

  4. Hybrid Map-Based Navigation Method for Unmanned Ground Vehicle in Urban Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the data size of metric map and map matching computational cost in unmanned ground vehicle self-driving navigation in urban scenarios, a metric-topological hybrid map navigation system is proposed in this paper. According to the different positioning accuracy requirements, urban areas are divided into strong constraint (SC areas, such as roads with lanes, and loose constraint (LC areas, such as intersections and open areas. As direction of the self-driving vehicle is provided by traffic lanes and global waypoints in the road network, a simple topological map is fit for the navigation in the SC areas. While in the LC areas, the navigation of the self-driving vehicle mainly relies on the positioning information. Simultaneous localization and mapping technology is used to provide a detailed metric map in the LC areas, and a window constraint Markov localization algorithm is introduced to achieve accurate position using laser scanner. Furthermore, the real-time performance of the Markov algorithm is enhanced by using a constraint window to restrict the size of the state space. By registering the metric maps into the road network, a hybrid map of the urban scenario can be constructed. Real unmanned vehicle mapping and navigation tests demonstrated the capabilities of the proposed method.

  5. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Passivity-based model predictive control for mobile vehicle motion planning

    CERN Document Server

    Tahirovic, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Passivity-based Model Predictive Control for Mobile Vehicle Navigation represents a complete theoretical approach to the adoption of passivity-based model predictive control (MPC) for autonomous vehicle navigation in both indoor and outdoor environments. The brief also introduces analysis of the worst-case scenario that might occur during the task execution. Some of the questions answered in the text include: • how to use an MPC optimization framework for the mobile vehicle navigation approach; • how to guarantee safe task completion even in complex environments including obstacle avoidance and sideslip and rollover avoidance; and  • what to expect in the worst-case scenario in which the roughness of the terrain leads the algorithm to generate the longest possible path to the goal. The passivity-based MPC approach provides a framework in which a wide range of complex vehicles can be accommodated to obtain a safer and more realizable tool during the path-planning stage. During task execution, the optimi...

  7. LWIR passive perception system for stealthy unmanned ground vehicle night operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daren; Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Nash, Jeremy; Ahuja, Gaurav; Matthies, Larry

    2016-05-01

    Resupplying forward-deployed units in rugged terrain in the presence of hostile forces creates a high threat to manned air and ground vehicles. An autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) capable of navigating stealthily at night in off-road and on-road terrain could significantly increase the safety and success rate of such resupply missions for warfighters. Passive night-time perception of terrain and obstacle features is a vital requirement for such missions. As part of the ONR 30 Autonomy Team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a passive, low-cost night-time perception system under the ONR Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare and Combating Terrorism Applied Research program. Using a stereo pair of forward looking LWIR uncooled microbolometer cameras, the perception system generates disparity maps using a local window-based stereo correlator to achieve real-time performance while maintaining low power consumption. To overcome the lower signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution of LWIR thermal imaging technologies, a series of pre-filters were applied to the input images to increase the image contrast and stereo correlator enhancements were applied to increase the disparity density. To overcome false positives generated by mixed pixels, noisy disparities from repeated textures, and uncertainty in far range measurements, a series of consistency, multi-resolution, and temporal based post-filters were employed to improve the fidelity of the output range measurements. The stereo processing leverages multi-core processors and runs under the Robot Operating System (ROS). The night-time passive perception system was tested and evaluated on fully autonomous testbed ground vehicles at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) and Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. This paper describes the challenges, techniques, and experimental results of developing a passive, low-cost perception system for night-time autonomous navigation.

  8. Conversion and control of an all-terrain vehicle for use as an autonomous mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, John S.; Gunderson, Robert W.; Fullmer, R. R.

    1998-08-01

    A systematic approach to ground vehicle automation is presented, combining low-level controls, trajectory generation and closed-loop path correction in an integrated system. Development of cooperative robotics for precision agriculture at Utah State University required the automation of a full-scale motorized vehicle. The Triton Predator 8- wheeled skid-steering all-terrain vehicle was selected for the project based on its ability to maneuver precisely and the simplicity of controlling the hydrostatic drivetrain. Low-level control was achieved by fitting an actuator on the engine throttle, actuators for the left and right drive controls, encoders on the left and right drive shafts to measure wheel speeds, and a signal pick-off on the alternator for measuring engine speed. Closed loop control maintains a desired engine speed and tracks left and right wheel speeds commands. A trajectory generator produces the wheel speed commands needed to steer the vehicle through a predetermined set of map coordinates. A planar trajectory through the points is computed by fitting a 2D cubic spline over each path segment while enforcing initial and final orientation constraints at segment endpoints. Acceleration and velocity profiles are computed for each trajectory segment, with the velocity over each segment dependent on turning radius. Left and right wheel speed setpoints are obtained by combining velocity and path curvature for each low-level timestep. The path correction algorithm uses GPS position and compass orientation information to adjust the wheel speed setpoints according to the 'crosstrack' and 'downtrack' errors and heading error. Nonlinear models of the engine and the skid-steering vehicle/ground interaction were developed for testing the integrated system in simulation. These test lead to several key design improvements which assisted final implementation on the vehicle.

  9. Real-Time Mobile Communication of Power Requirements for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The periodic power requirements of an electric vehicle are difficult to predict because the vehicle's location, the amount of charge remaining in its batteries, and the timing of its next charge are not known. For clusters of electric vehicles, the problem is magnified, and there is a risk that the demand will strain and overload a power utility’s infrastructure. Operational managers are left with reactive management of the infrastructure that may defer or prevent a vehicle charge to balance power demands and safeguard the infrastructure. In this article, the following key concepts are analyzed to provide background on the problem and to outline the requirements of any solution: i demand uncertainty and reactive management approaches, ii electric vehicle power requirements, and iii demand-management telecommunication capabilities. Then, by abstraction, induction, and creative synthesis, a novel solution to the problem is proposed to provide real-time mobile communication of power requirements. The proposed solution has potential to create new service and business opportunities to managers and entrepreneurs.

  10. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  11. Impact of mesh tracks and low-ground-pressure vehicle use on blanket peat hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick-Smith, Kathryn; Holden, Joseph; Parry, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are subject to multiple uses including drainage, farming and recreation. Low-ground-pressure vehicle access is desirable by land owners and tracks facilitate access. However, there is concern that such activity may impact peat hydrology and so granting permission for track installation has been problematic, particularly without evidence for decision-making. We present the first comprehensive study of mesh track and low-ground-pressure vehicle impacts on peatland hydrology. In the sub-arctic oceanic climate of the Moor House World Biosphere Reserve in the North Pennines, UK, a 1.5 km long experimental track was installed to investigate hydrological impacts. Surface vegetation was cut and the plastic mesh track pinned into the peat surface. The experimental track was split into 7 treatments, designed to reflect typical track usage (0 - 5 vehicle passes per week) and varying vehicle weight. The greatest hydrological impacts were expected for sections of track subject to more frequent vehicle use and in close proximity to the track. In total 554 dipwells (including 15 automated recording at 15-min intervals) were monitored for water-table depth, positioned to capture potential spatial variability in response. Before track installation, samples for vertical and lateral hydraulic conductivity (Ks) analysis (using the modified cube method) were taken at 0-10 cm depth from a frequently driven treatment (n = 15), an infrequently driven treatment (0.5 passes per week) (n = 15) and a control site with no track/driving (n = 15). The test was repeated after 16 months of track use. We present a spatially and temporally rich water-table dataset from the study site showing how the impacts of the track on water table are spatially highly variable. Water-table depths across the site were shallow, typically within the upper 10 cm of the peat profile for > 75% of the time. We show that mesh track and low-ground-pressure vehicle impacts on water-table depth were small except

  12. The study of coastal ground surfaces to predict the ways of increasing efficiency of research mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir; Kurkin, Andrey; Belyalov, Vladimir; Tyugin, Dmitry; Zezyulin, Denis

    2017-04-01

    The increase in spatial scales of studying coastal areas can be achieved by the use of mobile robotic systems (MRS) equipped with scanning equipment, video inspection system and positioning system. The project aims at increasing the capabilities for designing effective ground MRS through the use of advanced methods of forecasting characteristics of vehicle-terrain interaction in coastal zones, where hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere interact. In the period from 14 May to 18 June 2016 there was organized the expedition to Sakhalin Island for conducting full-scale testing autonomous MRS for coastal monitoring and forecasting marine natural disasters [Kurkin A.A., Zeziulin D.V., Makarov V.S., Zaitsev A.I., Belyaev A.M., Beresnev P.O., Belyakov V.V., Pelinovsky E.N., Tyugin D.Yu. Investigations of coastal areas of the Okhotsk sea using a ground mobile robot // Ecological systems and devices. 2016. No. 8. P. 11-17]. Within the framework of the expedition specific areas of terrain in the vicinity of Cape Svobodny were investigated (with the support of SRB AMR FEB RAS). Terrain areas were studied from the standpoint of possibility of the MRS movement. As a result of measuring all the necessary data on the physical-mechanical and geometric characteristics of the coastal zones, required to calculate the force factors acting on the MRS, and, accordingly, the parameters of its motion were received. The obtained data will be used for developing new statistical models of the physical-mechanical and geometrical characteristics of the coastal ground surfaces, creating methodology for assessing the efficiency and finding ways to optimize the design of the MRS.

  13. Nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectra from ion mobility spectrometers mounted in an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Libo; Harrington, Peter de B; Harden, Charles S; McHugh, Vincent M; Thomas, Martin A

    2004-02-15

    Linear and nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) data are compared and evaluated. IMS provides low detection limits and rapid response for many compounds. Nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectra reduced the data to 4-5% of its original size, while eliminating artifacts in the reconstructed spectra that occur with linear compression, and the root-mean-square reconstruction error was 0.17-0.20% of the maximum intensity of the uncompressed spectra. Furthermore, nonlinear wavelet compression precisely preserves the peak location (i.e., drift time). Small variations in peak location may occur in the reconstructed spectra that were linearly compressed. A method was developed and evaluated for optimizing the compression. The compression method was evaluated with in-flight data recorded from ion mobility spectrometers mounted in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Plumes of dimethyl methylphosphonate were disseminated for interrogation by the UAV-mounted IMS system. The daublet 8 wavelet filter exhibited the best performance for these evaluations.

  14. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  15. 78 FR 43262 - Use of Wireless Mobile Data Devices as Transponders for the Commercial Motor Vehicle Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... and the use of hand-held wireless mobile phones by commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. FOR FURTHER... transponders use commercially available mobile radio transmission frequencies to access cellular data networks... transponders are hardware neutral, drivers can install a variety of cellular-enabled GPS-connected devices...

  16. Estimation of longitudinal speed robust to road conditions for ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Kasaiezadeh, Alireza; Khosravani, Saeid; Khajepour, Amir; Moshchuk, Nikolai; Chen, Shih-Ken

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to develop a longitudinal vehicle velocity estimator robust to road conditions by employing a tyre model at each corner. Combining the lumped LuGre tyre model and the vehicle kinematics, the tyres internal deflection state is used to gain an accurate estimation. Conventional kinematic-based velocity estimators use acceleration measurements, without correction with the tyre forces. However, this results in inaccurate velocity estimation because of sensor uncertainties which should be handled with another measurement such as tyre forces that depend on unknown road friction. The new Kalman-based observer in this paper addresses this issue by considering tyre nonlinearities with a minimum number of required tyre parameters and the road condition as uncertainty. Longitudinal forces obtained by the unscented Kalman filter on the wheel dynamics is employed as an observation for the Kalman-based velocity estimator at each corner. The stability of the proposed time-varying estimator is investigated and its performance is examined experimentally in several tests and on different road surface frictions. Road experiments and simulation results show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed approach in estimating longitudinal speed for ground vehicles.

  17. Monocular Camera/IMU/GNSS Integration for Ground Vehicle Navigation in Challenging GNSS Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Akos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF. Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations.

  18. Monocular camera/IMU/GNSS integration for ground vehicle navigation in challenging GNSS environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tianxing; Guo, Ningyan; Backén, Staffan; Akos, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations.

  19. Functional safety for road vehicles new challenges and solutions for e-mobility and automated driving

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Hans-Leo

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the current challenges for engineers involved in product development and the associated changes in procedure they make necessary. Methods for systematically analyzing the requirements for safety and security mechanisms are described using examples of how they are implemented in software and hardware, and how their effectiveness can be demonstrated in terms of functional and design safety are discussed. Given today’s new E-mobility and automated driving approaches, new challenges are arising and further issues concerning “Road Vehicle Safety” and “Road Traffic Safety” have to be resolved. To address the growing complexity of vehicle functions, as well as the increasing need to accommodate interdisciplinary project teams, previous development approaches now have to be reconsidered, and system engineering approaches and proven management systems need to be supplemented or wholly redefined. The book presents a continuous system development process, starting with the basic requiremen...

  20. Evaluation of unmanned airborne vehicles and mobile robotic telesurgery in an extreme environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Brett M; Doarn, Charles R; Rosen, Jacob; Hannaford, Blake; Broderick, Timothy J

    2008-08-01

    As unmanned extraction vehicles become a reality in the military theater, opportunities to augment medical operations with telesurgical robotics become more plausible. This project demonstrated an experimental surgical robot using an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) as a network topology. Because battlefield operations are dynamic and geographically challenging, the installation of wireless networks is not a feasible option at this point. However, to utilize telesurgical robotics to assist in the urgent medical care of wounded soldiers, a robust, high bandwidth, low latency network is requisite. For the first time, a mobile surgical robotic system was deployed to an austere environment and surgeons were able to remotely operate the systems wirelessly using a UAV. Two University of Cincinnati surgeons were able to remotely drive the University of Washington's RAVEN robot's end effectors. The network topology demonstrated a highly portable, quickly deployable, bandwidth-sufficient and low latency wireless network required for battlefield use.

  1. Harnessing Vehicle Automation for Public Mobility -- An Overview of Ongoing Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E.

    2015-11-05

    This presentation takes a look at the efforts to harness automated vehicle technology for public transport. The European CityMobil2 is the leading demonstration project in which automated shuttles were, or are planned to be, demonstrated in several cities and regions. The presentation provides a brief overview of the demonstrations at Oristano, Italy (July 2014), LaRochelle, France (Dec 2014), Lausanne, Switzerland (Apr 2015), Vantaa, Finland (July 2015), and Trikala, Greece (Sept 2015). In addition to technology exposition, the objectives included generating a legal framework for operation in each location and gaging the reaction of the public to unmanned shuttles, both of which were successfully achieved. Several such demonstrations are planned throughout the world, including efforts in North America in conjunction with the GoMentum Station in California. These early demonstration with low-speed automated shuttles provide a glimpse of the possible with a fully automated fleet of driverless vehicle providing a public transit service.

  2. Ground moving target geo-location from monocular camera mounted on a micro air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Ang, Haisong; Zheng, Xiangming

    2011-08-01

    The usual approaches to unmanned air vehicle(UAV)-to-ground target geo-location impose some severe constraints to the system, such as stationary objects, accurate geo-reference terrain database, or ground plane assumption. Micro air vehicle(MAV) works with characteristics including low altitude flight, limited payload and onboard sensors' low accuracy. According to these characteristics, a method is developed to determine the location of ground moving target which imaged from the air using monocular camera equipped on MAV. This method eliminates the requirements for terrain database (elevation maps) and altimeters that can provide MAV's and target's altitude. Instead, the proposed method only requires MAV flight status provided by its inherent onboard navigation system which includes inertial measurement unit(IMU) and global position system(GPS). The key is to get accurate information on the altitude of the ground moving target. First, Optical flow method extracts background static feature points. Setting a local region around the target in the current image, The features which are on the same plane with the target in this region are extracted, and are retained as aided features. Then, inverse-velocity method calculates the location of these points by integrated with aircraft status. The altitude of object, which is calculated by using position information of these aided features, combining with aircraft status and image coordinates, geo-locate the target. Meanwhile, a framework with Bayesian estimator is employed to eliminate noise caused by camera, IMU and GPS. Firstly, an extended Kalman filter(EKF) provides a simultaneous localization and mapping solution for the estimation of aircraft states and aided features location which defines the moving target local environment. Secondly, an unscented transformation(UT) method determines the estimated mean and covariance of target location from aircraft states and aided features location, and then exports them for the

  3. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  4. Vision-Based Detection and Tracking of a Mobile Ground Target Using a Fixed-Wing UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for tracking a mobile ground target (MGT using a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Challenges from pure theories to practical applications, including varying illumination, computational limits and a lack of clarity are considered. The procedure consists of four steps, namely: target detection, target localization, states estimation and UAV guidance. Firstly, the MGT in the wild is separated from the background using a Laplacian operator-based method. Next, the MGT is located by performing coordinate transformations with the assumption that the altitude of the ground is invariant and known. Afterwards, a Kalman filter is used to estimate the location and velocity of the MGT. Finally, a modified guidance law is developed to guide the UAV to circle and track the MGT. The performance of our framework is validated by simulations and a number of actual flight tests. The results indicate that the framework is effective and of low computational complexity, and in particular our modified guidance law can reduce the error of the tracking distance by about 75% in specified situations. With the proposed framework, such challenges caused by the actual system can be tackled effectively, and the fixed-wing UAV can track the MGT stably.

  5. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H., E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk; Ou, J.M.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO{sub 2}-equivelant (CO{sub 2}-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10{sup 5} tons CO{sub 2}-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  6. The simulation of occasional road disturbances for studying mobile vehicles dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Alexeeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for simulating random road disturbances based on the method of non-canonically decomposing random functions in the form of deterministic functions depending on just three random quantities under any probability distribution law. The mathematical methods developed for modeling random road disturbances give an accurate representation of the random function perturbations in the framework of the correlation theory using just three random variables. The proposed approach allows to obtain more reliable data on the spectral composition of the microrelief, to simplify the study of the dynamics of mobile vehicles and reduce the amount of computation in comparison with other methods.

  7. Leader Follower Formation Control of Ground Vehicles Using Dynamic Pixel Count and Inverse Perspective Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.Vaitheeswarana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with leader-follower formations of non-holonomic mobile robots, introducing a formation control strategy based on pixel counts using a commercial grade electro optics camera. Localization of the leader for motions along line of sight as well as the obliquely inclined directions are considered based on pixel variation of the images by referencing to two arbitrarily designated positions in the image frames. Based on an established relationship between the displacement of the camera movement along the viewing direction and the difference in pixel counts between reference points in the images, the range and the angle estimate between the follower camera and the leader is calculated. The Inverse Perspective Transform is used to account for non linear relationship between the height of vehicle in a forward facing image and its distance from the camera. The formulation is validated with experiments.

  8. Open Platform Technology-Based Mobile Communications to Identify a Vehicle in Any Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Lupu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project is to develop an openservice platform for identifying a vehicle in any given locationusing Trimble GPS receivers Lasser SK II and necessary forthe Zapp mobile terminals mobile Internet connection basedon CDMA technology and TCP / IP.The analysis can be based on: studying the specific for thedomain of identification of persons that are moving in adelimited region inside the country; studying of theinformatics and communication technologies as a support fora new vision on the localization of persons; studying the GPStechnology; studying the actually GIS solutions; standardsregarding the information exchange at international level.The main object consists in the elaboration of a softwareapplication for the localization of persons that are in difficultyand the receiving of the first-aid in real-time. According tothis, the persons that are moving (in buses, auto, train,airplane, etc. can request the first-aid and they are spottedand identified using modern informatics technologies.

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Aerodynamic Analysis for High-Speed Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Ismail Haider

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis investigates the air flow around a proposed geometry for a high-speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) train. A numerical technique called the panel method has been applied to the representation of the body shape and the prediction of the potential flow and pressure distribution. Two computer programmes have been written, one for a single vehicle in the presence of the ground at different yaw angles, and the second for two-body problems, e.g. a train passing a railway station or a train passing the central part of another train. Two methods based on the momentum integral equations for three-dimensional boundary layer flow have been developed for use with the potential flow analysis; these predict the development of the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer on the central section (for the analysis of crosswind conditions) and on the nose of the train. Extensive wind tunnel tests were performed on four models of the high-speed train to measure aerodynamic forces, moments and pressures to establish ground effect characteristics. Flow visualisation showed that the wake vortices were stronger and larger in the presence of a ground. At small yaw angles ground clearance had little effect, but as yaw increased, larger ground clearance led to substantial increase in lift and side force coefficients. The tests also identified the differences between a moving and a fixed ground plane. Data showed that the type of ground simulation was significant only in the separated region. A comparison of the results predicted using potential flow theory for an EMS train model and the corresponding results from wind tunnel tests indicated good agreement in regions where the flow is attached. The turbulent boundary layer calculations for the train in a crosswind condition showed that the momentum thickness along the crosswind surface distance co-ordinate increased slowly at the beginning of the development of the

  10. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN); Scudiere, Matthew B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  11. Controlling and accessing vehicle functions by mobile from remote place by sending GPS Co-ordinates to the Web server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khanna SamratVivekanand Omprakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents how the co-ordinates from the Google map stored into database . It stored into the central web server . This co-ordinates then transfer to client program for searching the locations of particular location for electronic device . Client can access the data from internet and use into program by using API . Development of software for a particular device for putting into the vehicle has been develop. In the inbuilt circuit assigning sim card and transferring the signal to the network. Supplying a single text of co-ordinates of locations using google map in terms of latitudes and longitudes. The information in terms of string separated by comma can be extracted and stored into the database of web server . Different mobile number with locations can be stored into the database simultaneously into the server of different clients . The concept of 3 Tier Client /Server architecture is used. The sim card can access information of GPRS system with the network provider of card . Setting of electronic device signal for receiving and sending message done. Different operations can be performed on the device as it can be attached with other electronic circuit of vehicle. Windows Mobile application developed for client slide. User can take different decision of vehicle from mobile by sending sms to the device . Device receives the operation and send to the electronic circuit of vehicle for certain operations. From remote place using mobile you can get the information of your vehicle and also you can control vehicle it by providing password to the electronic circuit for authorization and authentication. The concept of vehicle security and location of vehicle can be identified. The functions of vehicle can be accessed and control like speed , brakes and lights etc as per the software application interface with electronic circuit of vehicle.

  12. Situational awareness for unmanned ground vehicles in semi-structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus; Stevens, Mark R.

    2002-07-01

    Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides SA for mobile robots in semi-structured scenes, such as parking lots and city streets. SESAME autonomously builds volumetric models for scene analysis. For example, a SES-AME equipped robot can build a low-resolution 3-D model of a row of cars, then approach a specific car and build a high-resolution model from a few stereo snapshots. The model can be used onboard to determine the type of car and locate its license plate, or the model can be segmented out and sent back to an operator who can view it from different viewpoints. As new views of the scene are obtained, the model is updated and changes are tracked (such as cars arriving or departing). Since the robot's position must be accurately known, SESAME also has automated techniques for deter-mining the position and orientation of the camera (and hence, robot) with respect to existing maps. This paper presents an overview of the SESAME architecture and algorithms, including our model generation algorithm.

  13. Simulation of Ground Winds Time Series for the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelfang, Stanley I.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of wind time series based on power spectrum density (PSD) and spectral coherence models for ground wind turbulence is described. The wind models, originally developed for the Shuttle program, are based on wind measurements at the NASA 150-m meteorological tower at Cape Canaveral, FL. The current application is for the design and/or protection of the CLV from wind effects during on-pad exposure during periods from as long as days prior to launch, to seconds or minutes just prior to launch and seconds after launch. The evaluation of vehicle response to wind will influence the design and operation of constraint systems for support of the on-pad vehicle. Longitudinal and lateral wind component time series are simulated at critical vehicle locations. The PSD model for wind turbulence is a function of mean wind speed, elevation and temporal frequency. Integration of the PSD equation over a selected frequency range yields the variance of the time series to be simulated. The square root of the PSD defines a low-pass filter that is applied to adjust the components of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of Gaussian white noise. The first simulated time series near the top of the launch vehicle is the inverse transform of the adjusted FFT. Simulation of the wind component time series at the nearest adjacent location (and all other succeeding next nearest locations) is based on a model for the coherence between winds at two locations as a function of frequency and separation distance, where the adjacent locations are separated vertically and/or horizontally. The coherence function is used to calculate a coherence weighted FFT of the wind at the next nearest location, given the FFT of the simulated time series at the previous location and the essentially incoherent FFT of the wind at the selected location derived a priori from the PSD model. The simulated time series at each adjacent location is the inverse Fourier transform of the coherence weighted FFT. For a selected

  14. Advances in ground vehicle-based LADAR for standoff detection of road-side hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Jim; Vessey, Alyssa; Close, Ryan; Middleton, Seth; Williams, Kathryn; Rupp, Ronald; Nguyen, Son

    2016-05-01

    Commercial sensor technology has the potential to bring cost-effective sensors to a number of U.S. Army applications. By using sensors built for a widespread of commercial application, such as the automotive market, the Army can decrease costs of future systems while increasing overall capabilities. Additional sensors operating in alternate and orthogonal modalities can also be leveraged to gain a broader spectrum measurement of the environment. Leveraging multiple phenomenologies can reduce false alarms and make detection algorithms more robust to varied concealment materials. In this paper, this approach is applied to the detection of roadside hazards partially concealed by light-to-medium vegetation. This paper will present advances in detection algorithms using a ground vehicle-based commercial LADAR system. The benefits of augmenting a LADAR with millimeter-wave automotive radar and results from relevant data sets are also discussed.

  15. Research of Obstacle Recognition Technology in Cross-Country Environment for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the obstacle recognition problem of unmanned ground vehicles in cross-country environment, this paper uses monocular vision sensor to realize the obstacle recognition of typical obstacles. Firstly, median filtering algorithm is applied during image preprocessing that can eliminate the noise. Secondly, image segmentation method based on the Fisher criterion function is used to segment the region of interest. Then, morphological method is used to process the segmented image, which is preparing for the subsequent analysis. The next step is to extract the color feature S, color feature a and edge feature “verticality” of image are extracted based on the HSI color space, the Lab color space, and two value images. Finally multifeature fusion algorithm based on Bayes classification theory is used for obstacle recognition. Test results show that the algorithm has good robustness and accuracy.

  16. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Vargas-Clara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we implement a novel control strategy for navigation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV. This strategy consisted in the development and implementation of the Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC for heading, and path control of a UGV. BELBIC is an intelligent controller based on the model of the Amygdala-Orbitofrontal system of mammalians, which is a region in the brain known to be responsible for emotional learning process. Simulation of this controller for the cases of heading, and path control showed to be very robust and adaptable to dynamical changes in the plant. A comparison between BELBIC and a traditional PID control is presented to illustrate the performance of this control strategy.

  17. Results of the second (1996) experiment to lead cranes on migration behind a motorized ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Clauss, B.; Watanabe, T.; Mykut, R.C.; Shawkey, M.; Mummert, D.P.; Sprague, D.T.; Ellis, Catherine H.; Trahan, F.B.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were trained to follow a specially-equipped truck and 12 were led along a ca 620-km route from Camp Navajo in northern Arizona to the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge near the Arizona/Mexico border. Ten survived the trek, 380 km of which were flown, although only a few cranes flew every stage of the route. Major problems during the migration were powerline collisions (ca 15, 2 fatal) and overheating (when air temperatures exceeded ca 25 C). The tenacity of the cranes in following both in 1995 and 1996 under unfavorable conditions (e.g., poor light, extreme dust, or heat) demonstrated that cranes could be led over long distances by motorized vehicles on the ground.

  18. Computational architecture for image processing on a small unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sean; Nguyen, Hung

    2010-08-01

    Man-portable Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have been fielded on the battlefield with limited computing power. This limitation constrains their use primarily to teleoperation control mode for clearing areas and bomb defusing. In order to extend their capability to include the reconnaissance and surveillance missions of dismounted soldiers, a separate processing payload is desired. This paper presents a processing architecture and the design details on the payload module that enables the PackBot to perform sophisticated, real-time image processing algorithms using data collected from its onboard imaging sensors including LADAR, IMU, visible, IR, stereo, and the Ladybug spherical cameras. The entire payload is constructed from currently available Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components including an Intel multi-core CPU and a Nvidia GPU. The result of this work enables a small UGV to perform computationally expensive image processing tasks that once were only feasible on a large workstation.

  19. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" technologies and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H 2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H 2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. This study integrates and extends previous analyses of H 2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. Further, it uses a new electric-drive-vehicle and vehicular-distributed-generation model to estimate zero-emission-power versus zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. By framing market development in terms of new consumer value flowing from Me-, this study suggests a way to move beyond the battery versus fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. As one possible extension of this Me- product platform, H 2FCVs might supply clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature.

  20. NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

  1. Phobetor: Princeton University's entry in the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joshua; Zhu, Han; Partridge, Brenton A.; Szocs, Laszlo J.; Abiola, Solomon O.; Corey, Ryan M.; Suresh, Srinivasan A.; Yu, Derrick D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present Phobetor, an autonomous outdoor vehicle originally designed for the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). We describe new vision and navigation systems that have yielded 3x increase in obstacle detection speed using parallel processing and robust lane detection results. Phobetor also uses probabilistic local mapping to learn about its environment and Anytime Dynamic A* (AD*) to plan paths to reach its goals. Our vision software is based on color stereo images and uses robust, RANSAC-based algorithms while running fast enough to support real-time autonomous navigation on uneven terrain. AD* allows Phobetor to respond quickly in all situations even when optimal planning takes more time, and uses incremental replanning to increase search efficiency. We augment the cost map of the environment with a potential field which addresses the problem of "wall-hugging" and smoothes generated paths to allow safe and reliable path-following. In summary, we present innovations on Phobetor that are relevant to real-world robotics platforms in uncertain environments.

  2. Counter tunnel exploration, mapping, and localization with an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jacoby; Okorn, Brian; Pastore, Tracy; Hooper, David; Edwards, Jim

    2014-06-01

    Covert, cross-border tunnels are a security vulnerability that enables people and contraband to illegally enter the United States. All of these tunnels to-date have been constructed for the purpose of drug smuggling, but they may also be used to support terrorist activity. Past robotic tunnel exploration efforts have had limited success in aiding law enforcement to explore and map the suspect cross-border tunnels. These efforts have made use of adapted explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) or pipe inspection robotic systems that are not ideally suited to the cross-border tunnel environment. The Counter Tunnel project was sponsored by the Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) to develop a prototype robotic system for counter-tunnel operations, focusing on exploration, mapping, and characterization of tunnels. The purpose of this system is to provide a safe and effective solution for three-dimensional (3D) localization, mapping, and characterization of a tunnel environment. The system is composed of the robotic mobility platform, the mapping sensor payload, and the delivery apparatus. The system is able to deploy and retrieve the robotic mobility platform through a 20-cm-diameter borehole into the tunnel. This requirement posed many challenges in order to design and package the sensor and robotic system to fit through this narrow opening and be able to perform the mission. This paper provides a short description of a few aspects of the Counter Tunnel system such as mobility, perception, and localization, which were developed to meet the unique challenges required to access, explore, and map tunnel environments.

  3. Financial Measures for Electric Vehicles:Supporting the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Mobility Sector in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bickert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EV are able to support the transition of sectors towards sustainability. The operation of these vehicles with renewable energies saves local and global emissions. Furthermore, fluctuating renewable energies can be integrated in existing energy systems by using electric vehicles for grid services. Thus, implementation of advantages requires market establishment of electric vehicles. The article provides a review on potentials of market development by comparing and studying costs of electric and conventional vehicles as well as effects of financial measures on costs of EV. These cost comparisons are based on market data and predictions of cost developments for private consumers in Germany. Costs are analysed by an economic model of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO, aiming to display financial proportionality between vehicles in different years of acquisition (2010 to 2030. In a further step, external financial measures are analysed and integrated in the cost model as one possibility to enhance and secure the market introduction. Findings demonstrate that higher costs of acquisition of electric vehicles cannot be compensated by lower costs of operation. While mobility costs of conventionally vehicles stay constant or even increase during the considered years, mobility costs of electric vehicles significantly decrease especially in the upcoming years. In all cases mobility costs of electric vehicles exceed costs of conventional vehicles, but differences are reduced from 19€ct in 2010 to 3€ct in 2030. Cost decreases of the battery have high influence on the increasing financial comparability of EV. Concerning financial measures especially a differentiation of energy prices and a compensation of grid services can help to decrease total costs of EV and to manage a shift from fossil energy resources to electricity in the mobility sector. The existing tax exemption for EV compensates only a little fraction (about 6% of the cost

  4. A Multidisciplinary Optimization Framework for Occupant Centric Ground Vehicle System Design. Part 1: Vehicle Design Parameter Screening Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    measured, such as at the pelvis location. Tibia vertical forces and lower lumbar spine forces were also measured and used as the responses to an...are four pillars mounted to the roof and the crew floor along the center line of the crew cabin to increase the vertical stiffness of the cabin...components of the simplified vehicle structure used for this study, including seat mounting options, and vehicle interior arrangements . In this study

  5. A new laser-based system for obstacle detection including step, hole and slope for Personal Mobility Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    POLLARD, Evangeline; Fawzi NASHASHIBI

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Personal Mobility Vehicles (PMV) is is an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) domain. These new transport systems have been designed for urban traffic areas, pedestrian streets, green zones and private parks. In these areas, steps and curbs make the movement of disable or mobility reduced people with PMV, and with standard chair wheels difficult. In this paper, we present a step and curb detection system based on laser sensors. This system is ...

  6. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  7. Review article: locomotion systems for ground mobile robots in unstructured environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bruzzone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The world market of mobile robotics is expected to increase substantially in the next 20 yr, surpassing the market of industrial robotics in terms of units and sales. Important fields of application are homeland security, surveillance, demining, reconnaissance in dangerous situations, and agriculture. The design of the locomotion systems of mobile robots for unstructured environments is generally complex, particularly when they are required to move on uneven or soft terrains, or to climb obstacles. This paper sets out to analyse the state-of-the-art of locomotion mechanisms for ground mobile robots, focussing on solutions for unstructured environments, in order to help designers to select the optimal solution for specific operating requirements. The three main categories of locomotion systems (wheeled – W, tracked – T and legged – L and the four hybrid categories that can be derived by combining these main locomotion systems are discussed with reference to maximum speed, obstacle-crossing capability, step/stair climbing capability, slope climbing capability, walking capability on soft terrains, walking capability on uneven terrains, energy efficiency, mechanical complexity, control complexity and technology readiness. The current and future trends of mobile robotics are also outlined.

  8. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Area (SWMU 056) Biosparge Expansion Interim Measures Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Michael S.; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the design details for an Interim Measure (IM) Work Plan (IMWP) for the Mobile Launch Platform/Vehicle Assembly Building (MLPV) Area, located at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The MLPV Area has been designated Solid Waste Management Unit Number 056 (SWMU 056) under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program. This report was prepared by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under contract number NNK09CA02B and NNK12CA13B, project control number ENV1642. The Advanced Data Package (ADP) presentation covering the elements of this IMWP report received KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) approval at the December 2015 Team Meeting; the meeting minutes are included in Appendix A.

  9. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks with Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Alshbatat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential of creating an ad hoc communication network in the air. Most UAVs used in communication networks are equipped with wireless transceivers using omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we consider a collection of UAVs that communicate through wireless links as a mobile ad-hoc network using directional antennas. The network design goal is to maximize the throughput and minimize the end-to-end delay. In this respect, we propose a new medium access control protocol for a network of UAVs with directional antennas. We analyze the communication channel between the UAVs and the effect of aircraft attitude on the network performance. Using the optimized network engineering tool (OPNET, we compare our protocol with the IEEE 802.11 protocol for omnidirectional antennas. The simulation results show performance improvement in end-to-end delay as well as throughput.

  10. Concepts and cost trade-offs for land vehicle antennas in satellite mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, H. A.

    1948-01-01

    Several antenna design concepts, operating at UHF (821 to 825 MHz transmit and 866 to 870 MHz receive bands), with gain ranging between 6 and 12 dBic, that are suitable for land mobile vehicles are presented. The antennas may be used within CONUS and ALASKA to communicate to and from a geosynchronous satellite. Depending on the type of steering mechanism, the antennas are broken down into three categories; (1) electronically scanned arrays with phase shifters, (2) electronically switched arrays with switchable power dividers/combiners, and (3) mechanically steered arrays. The operating characteristics of two of these design concepts, one a conformal antenna with electronic beam steering and the other a nonconformal design with mechanical steering, were evaluated with regard to two and three satellite system. Cost estimates of various antenna concepts were made and plotted against their overall gain performance.

  11. Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions in Australian landscapes: Comparing ground based mobile surveying data to GOSAT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, S.; Iverach, C.; Kelly, B. F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is threatening the health and stability of the natural world and human society. Such concerns were emphasized at COP21 conference in Paris 2015 which highlighted the global need to improve our knowledge of sources of greenhouse gas and to develop methods to mitigate the effects of their emissions. Ongoing spatial and temporal measurements of greenhouse gases at both point and regional scales is important for clarification of climate change mechanisms and accounting. The Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from orbit. As existing ground monitoring stations are limited and still unevenly distributed, satellite observations provide important frequent, spatially extensive, but low resolution observations. Recent developments in portable laser based greenhouse gas measurement systems have enabled the rapid measurement of greenhouse gases in ppb at the ground surface. This study was conducted to map major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the eastern states of Australia at the landscape scale and to compare the results to GOSAT observations. During April 2016 we conducted a regional CH4 and CO2 mobile survey, using an LGR greenhouse gas analyzer. Measurements were made along a 4000 KM circuit through major cities, country towns, dry sclerophyll forests, coastal wetlands, coal mining regions, coal seam gas developments, dryland farming and irrigated agricultural landscapes. The ground-based survey data were then compared with the data (L2) from GOSAT. Ground-based mobile surveys showed that there are clear statistical differences in the ground level atmospheric concentration of CH4 and CO2 associated with all major changes in land use. These changes extend for kilometers, and cover one or more GOSAT pixels. In the coal mining districts the ground-level atmospheric concentration of CH4 exceeded 2 ppm for over 40 km, yet this was not discernable in the retrieved data (L2

  12. Comparison between agricultural and urban ground-water quality in the Mobile River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2003-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer is a major source of public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The aquifer outcrop trends northwest - southeast across Mississippi and Alabama. A relatively thin shallow aquifer overlies and recharges the Black Warrior River aquifer in the flood plains and terraces of the Alabama, Coosa, Black Warrior, and Tallapoosa Rivers. Ground water in the shallow aquifer and the Black Warrior River aquifer is susceptible to contamination due to the effects of land use. Ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer and the shallow subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer, underlying an agricultural and an urban area, is described and compared. The agricultural and urban areas are located in central Alabama in Autauga, Elmore, Lowndes, Macon, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa Counties. Row cropping in the Mobile River Basin is concentrated within the flood plains of major rivers and their tributaries, and has been practiced in some of the fields for nearly 100 years. Major crops are cotton, corn, and beans. Crop rotation and no-till planting are practiced, and a variety of crops are grown on about one-third of the farms. Row cropping is interspersed with pasture and forested areas. In 1997, the average farm size in the agricultural area ranged from 196 to 524 acres. The urban area is located in eastern Montgomery, Alabama, where residential and commercial development overlies the shallow aquifer and subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer. Development of the urban area began about 1965 and continued in some areas through 1995. The average home is built on a 1/8 - to 1/4 - acre lot. Ground-water samples were collected from 29 wells in the agricultural area, 30 wells in the urban area, and a reference well located in a predominately forested area. The median depth to the screens of the agricultural and urban wells was 22.5 and 29 feet, respectively. Ground-water samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and pesticides

  13. A novel lidar-driven two-level approach for real-time unmanned ground vehicle navigation and map building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Cui, Bo; Zhang, Xingzhong

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a two-level LIDAR-driven hybrid approach is proposed for real-time unmanned ground vehicle navigation and map building. Top level is newly designed enhanced Voronoi Diagram (EVD) method to plan a global trajectory for an unmanned vehicle. Bottom level employs Vector Field Histogram (VFH) algorithm based on the LIDAR sensor information to locally guide the vehicle under complicated workspace, in which it autonomously traverses from one node to another within the planned EDV with obstacle avoidance. To find the least-cost path within the EDV, novel distance and angle based search heuristic algorithms are developed, in which the cost of an edge is the risk of traversing the edge. An EVD is first constructed based on the environment, which is utilized to generate the initial global trajectory with obstacle avoidance. The VFH algorithm is employed to guide the vehicle to follow the path locally. Its effectiveness and efficiency of real-time navigation and map building for unmanned vehicles have been successfully validated by simulation studies and experiments. The proposed approach is successfully experimented on an actual unmanned vehicle to demonstrate the real-time navigation and map building performance of the proposed method. The vehicle appears to follow a very stable path while navigating through various obstacles.

  14. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2 for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experiments under various operating conditions of inlet air temperature, air flow rates for the gas cooler side and evaporator side, and electric compressor revolution respectively. As a result, cooling performances of the tested air-conditioning system for the EDC driving mode (electricity driven compressor were better than those for the BDC driving mode (belt driven compressor. The cooling capacity and cooling COP of the tested air-conditioning system for both driving modes were over 5.0 kW and 2.0, respectively. The observed cooling performance of the tested air-conditioning system may be sufficient for the cabin cooling of hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Development of a vehicle capable of traveling on soft ground. Its application to investigation, survey and management of soft ground; Nanjakuchi sokosha no kaihatsu. Nanjakuchi deno chosa sokuryo kanri eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, R.; Yano, H. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-25

    An experimental vehicle is built and tested, which utilizes hovercraft technology, capable of travelling on a soft ground surface and therefore usable in reclamation work. When the ground is soft and viscous, merely increasing the vehicle driving force will futilely add to the vehicle weight, and this causes an adverse effect with the vehicle sinking deeper into the ground and the ground presenting higher resistance. In an effort to decrease the weight and resistance, a vehicle is built, capable of levitating itself by use of hovercraft technology and provided with retractable tracks and wheels for travelling. The targets are mostly attained in the test run, as far as speeds (5.5km/h at the maximum across a muddy ground section) and trekking across ground including an undulated surface are concerned, although the levitation level is found to be somewhat lower than the design value. Operating across a hard ground surface with the body elevated, the vehicle exhibits a higher performance in speed and drivability when the hovercraft effect is utilized. When travelling on the hovercraft effect, the frictional resistance of the skirt decreases as the vehicle moves from a hard surface section into a soft surface section, and this allows the vehicle to run more smoothly at higher speeds. 1 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Performance Evaluation of 802.11p-Based Ad Hoc Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications for Usual Applications Under Realistic Urban Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sondi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks, participating vehicles organize themselves in order to support lots of emerging applications. While network infrastructure can be dimensioned correctly in order to provide quality of service support to both vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, there are still many issues to achieve the same performance using only ad hoc vehicle-to-vehicle communications. This paper investigates the performance of such communications for complete applications including their specific packet size, packet acknowledgement mechanisms and quality of service requirements. The simulation experiments are performed using Riverbed (OPNET Modeler on a network topology made of 50 nodes equipped with IEEE 802.11p technology and following realistic trajectories in the streets of Paris at authorized speeds. The results show that almost all application types are well supported, provided that the source and the destination have a direct link. Particularly, it is pointed out that introducing supplementary hops in a communication has more effects on end-to-end delay and loss rate rather than mobility of the nodes. The study also shows that ad hoc reactive routing protocols degrade performance by increasing the delays while proactive ones introduce the same counter performance by increasing the network load with routing traffic. Whatever the routing protocol adopted, the best performance is obtained only while small groups of nodes communicate using at most two-hop routes.

  17. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  18. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  19. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  20. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  1. Absolute High-Precision Localisation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle by Using Real-Time Aerial Video Imagery for Geo-referenced Orthophoto Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Lars; Ax, Markus; Langer, Matthias; Nguyen van, Duong; Kuhnert, Klaus-Dieter

    This paper describes an absolute localisation method for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) if GPS is unavailable for the vehicle. The basic idea is to combine an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to the ground vehicle and use it as an external sensor platform to achieve an absolute localisation of the robotic team. Beside the discussion of the rather naive method directly using the GPS position of the aerial robot to deduce the ground robot's position the main focus of this paper lies on the indirect usage of the telemetry data of the aerial robot combined with live video images of an onboard camera to realise a registration of local video images with apriori registered orthophotos. This yields to a precise driftless absolute localisation of the unmanned ground vehicle. Experiments with our robotic team (AMOR and PSYCHE) successfully verify this approach.

  2. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vivet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground‐based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well‐suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory‐ oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego‐motion makes use of the Fourier‐Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real‐world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  3. Advanced Software Ground Station and UAV Development for NLoS Control Using Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr AbdElHamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs have gained much attention due to their various applications in different sections. However, their communication range is limited to utilized communication equipment. Therefore, utilization of GSM channels opens a new prospect towards long distance UAV missions and mobile command and control centers. This paper demonstrates new design and development of a small-scale UAV and a Ground Control Station (GCS using GSM bidirectional communications for Non-Line of Sight (NLoS long range control. GCSs are considered the front end node in UAV guidance process. Therefore, the proposed GCS employs a two-layer framework to consider all ground pilot requirements. Moreover, a new exploitation of global weather forecast data is added to the GCS. On the other hand, the proposed airborne system utilizes a new integration of different Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS components and excludes short range receivers. The ground and flight tests show that stable bidirectional GSM communication is established, reliable hardware integration is accomplished, real time performance is achieved, GCS functional fidelity is obtained, and low cost is maintained. Finally, some qualitative aspects of the proposed platform are presented to address the detailed features.

  4. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  5. Vehicle-mounted ground penetrating radar (Mine Stalker III) field evaluation in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudato, Stephen; Hart, Kerry; Nevard, Michael; Lauziere, Steven; Grant, Shaun

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technology (NIITEK), Inc. and The HALO Trust have over the last decade funded, developed and tested various prototype vehicle mounted ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems named the Mine Stalker. The HD R&D Program and NIITEK developed the Mine Stalker to detect low metal anti-tank (LM-AT) mines in roads. The country of Angola is severely affected by LM-AT mines in and off road, some of which are buried beyond the effective range of detection sensors current used in country. The threat from LM-AT mines such as the South African Number 8 (No. 8) and the Chinese Type 72 (72AT) still persist from Angola's 30 years of civil war. These LM-AT threats are undetectable at depths greater than 5 to 10 centimeters using metal detection technology. Clearing commerce routes are a critical requirement before Angola can rebuild its infrastructure and improve safety conditions for the local populace. The Halo Trust, a non-governmental demining organization (NGO) focused on demining and clearance of unexploded ordnance (UXO), has partnered with the HD R&D Program to conduct an operational field evaluation (OFE) of the Mine Stalker III (MS3) in Angola. Preliminary testing and training efforts yielded encouraging results. This paper presents a review of the data collected, testing results, system limitations and deficiencies while operating in a real world environment. Our goal is to demonstrate and validate this technology in live minefield environments, and to collect data to prompt future developments to the system.

  6. Robust Stability and Control of Multi-Body Ground Vehicles with Uncertain Dynamics and Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Modeling for Heavy Articulated Tractor Semi- Trailer Vehicle 2.2.3.1 Rollover Index (RI) for A single Unit Vehicle 2.2.3.2...increasing complexity to capture Roll Over phenomenon and Other Performance and Ride Quality requirements. In this connection, first simple ` Bicycle ...methodology to a specific heavy articulated vehicle with tractor semi- trailer shows that a single active anti-roll bar system at the trailer unit gives

  7. Measuring Sunflower Nitrogen Status from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based System and AN on the Ground Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.; Pérez, M.

    2011-09-01

    Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The md4

  8. MEASURING SUNFLOWER NITROGEN STATUS FROM AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE-BASED SYSTEM AND AN ON THE GROUND DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agüera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV, with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION ALGORITHMS ON TWO-WHEELED GROUND MOBILE ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Armah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an effective navigation architecture that combines ‘go-to-goal’, ‘avoid-obstacle’ and ‘follow-wall’ controllers into a full navigation system. A MATLAB robot simulator is used to implement this navigation control algorithm. The robot in the simulator moves to a goal in the presence of convex and non-convex obstacles. Experiments are carried out using a ground mobile robot, Dr Robot X80SV, in a typical office environment to verify successful implementation of the navigation architecture algorithm programmed in MATLAB. The research paper also demonstrates algorithms to achieve tasks such as ‘move to a point’, ‘move to a pose’, ‘follow a line’, ‘move in a circle’ and ‘avoid obstacles’. These control algorithms are simulated using Simulink models.

  10. A study on model fidelity for model predictive control-based obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the level of model fidelity needed in order for a model predictive control (MPC)-based obstacle avoidance algorithm to be able to safely and quickly avoid obstacles even when the vehicle is close to its dynamic limits. The context of this work is large autonomous ground vehicles that manoeuvre at high speed within unknown, unstructured, flat environments and have significant vehicle dynamics-related constraints. Five different representations of vehicle dynamics models are considered: four variations of the two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) representation as lower fidelity models and a fourteen DoF representation with combined-slip Magic Formula tyre model as a higher fidelity model. It is concluded that the two DoF representation that accounts for tyre nonlinearities and longitudinal load transfer is necessary for the MPC-based obstacle avoidance algorithm in order to operate the vehicle at its limits within an environment that includes large obstacles. For less challenging environments, however, the two DoF representation with linear tyre model and constant axle loads is sufficient.

  11. Enabling All-Access Mobility for Planetary Exploration Vehicles via Transformative Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott; Mazzoleni, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Effective large-scale exploration of planetary surfaces requires robotic vehicles capable of mobility across chaotic terrain. Characterized by a combination of ridges, cracks and valleys, the demands of this environment can cause spacecraft to experience significant reductions in operating footprint, performance, or even result in total system loss. Significantly increasing the scientific return of an interplanetary mission is facilitated by architectures capable of real-time configuration changes that go beyond that of active suspensions while concurrently meeting system, mass, power, and cost constraints. This Phase 1 report systematically explores how in-service architecture changes can expand system capabilities and mission opportunities. A foundation for concept generation is supplied by four Martian mission profiles spanning chasms, ice fields, craters and rocky terrain. A fifth mission profile centered on Near Earth Object exploration is also introduced. Concept generation is directed using four transformation principles - a taxonomy developed by the engineering design community to explain the cause of an architecture change and existing brainstorming techniques. This allowed early conceptual sketches of architecture changes to be organized by the principle driving the greatest increase in mission performance capability.

  12. MOBILE STEREO-MAPPER: A PORTABLE KIT FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li-Chee-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost portable light-weight mobile stereo-mapping system (MSMS is under development in the GeoICT Lab, Geomatics Engineering program at York University. The MSMS is designed for remote operation on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV for navigation and rapid collection of 3D spatial data. Pose estimation of the camera sensors is based on single frequency RTK-GPS, loosely coupled in a Kalman filter with MEMS-based IMU. The attitude and heading reference system (AHRS calculates orientation from the gyro data, aided by accelerometer and magnetometer data to compensate for gyro drift. Two low-cost consumer digital cameras are calibrated and time-synchronized with the GPS/IMU to provide direct georeferenced stereo vision, while a video camera is used for navigation. Object coordinates are determined using rigorous photogrammetric solutions supported by direct georefencing algorithms for accurate pose estimation of the camera sensors. Before the MSMS is considered operational its sensor components and the integrated system itself has to undergo a rigorous calibration process to determine systematic errors and biases and to determine the relative geometry of the sensors. In this paper, the methods and results for system calibration, including camera, boresight and leverarm calibrations are presented. An overall accuracy assessment of the calibrated system is given using a 3D test field.

  13. 3D unmanned aerial vehicle radiation mapping for assessing contaminant distribution and mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. G.; Kwong, S.; Smith, N. T.; Yamashiki, Y.; Payton, O. D.; Russell-Pavier, F. S.; Fardoulis, J. S.; Richards, D. A.; Scott, T. B.

    2016-10-01

    Following the events of March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, significant quantities of radioactive material were released into the local and wider global environment. At five years since the incident, much expense is being currently devoted to the remediation of a large portion of eastern Japan contaminated primarily by radiocesium, yet further significant expenditure will be required over the succeeding decades to complete this clean-up. People displaced from their homes by the incident are now increasingly keen to return, making it more important than ever to provide accurate quantification and representation of any residual radiological contamination. Presented here is the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a laser rangefinder unit to generate a three dimensional point-cloud of an area onto which a radiation contamination map, also obtained concurrently via the unmanned aerial platform, can be rendered. An exemplar site of an un-remediated farm consisting of multiple stepped rice paddy fields with a dedicated irrigation system was used for this work. The results obtained show that heightened radiological contamination exists around the site within the drainage network where material is observed to have collected, having been transported by transient water runoff events. These results obtained in May 2014 suggest that a proportion of the fallout material is highly mobile within the natural environment and is likely to be transported further through the system over the succeeding years.

  14. An adaptive finite element method for computing emergency manoeuvres of ground vehicles in complex driving scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.; Alirezaei, M.

    2015-01-01

    In emergency cases a vehicle has to avoid colliding with one or more obstacles, stay within road boundaries, satisfy acceleration and jerk limits, fulfil stability requirements and respect vehicle system dynamics limitations. The real time solution of such a problem is difficult and as a result vari

  15. A Compact MIMO Antenna with Inverted C-Shaped Ground Branches for Mobile Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact printed MIMO antenna for mobile terminals is presented. With two planar antenna elements, the −6 dB impedance bandwidth of 2.32 GHz (1.48–3.8 GHz is obtained, which covers GSM 1800/1900, UMTS, WLAN, Wimax, S-band, and most of LTE bands. Each antenna element with a small occupation of 15 × 20 mm2 consists of a driven strip and a shorted strip. Two inverted C-shaped ground branches are introduced between two elements to improve the isolation. The simulated results are studied and the measured results show that high isolation of more than 18 dB at the entire operating band is achieved. Meanwhile, the impedance performance is also improved by adding the branches. Furthermore, the measured radiation performances and envelope correlation coefficient also demonstrate that the proposed antenna could be a good candidate for mobile terminals.

  16. Navigation of military and space unmanned ground vehicles in unstructured terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescoe, Paul; Lavery, David; Bedard, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Development of unmanned vehicles for local navigation in terrains unstructured by humans is reviewed. Modes of navigation include teleoperation or remote control, computer assisted remote driving (CARD), and semiautonomous navigation (SAN). A first implementation of a CARD system was successfully tested using the Robotic Technology Test Vehicle developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Stereo pictures were transmitted to a remotely located human operator, who performed the sensing, perception, and planning functions of navigation. A computer provided range and angle measurements and the path plan was transmitted to the vehicle which autonomously executed the path. This implementation is to be enhanced by providing passive stereo vision and a reflex control system for autonomously stopping the vehicle if blocked by an obstacle. SAN achievements include implementation of a navigation testbed on a six wheel, three-body articulated rover vehicle, development of SAN algorithms and code, integration of SAN software onto the vehicle, and a successful feasibility demonstration that represents a step forward towards the technology required for long-range exploration of the lunar or Martian surface. The vehicle includes a passive stereo vision system with real-time area-based stereo image correlation, a terrain matcher, a path planner, and a path execution planner.

  17. Mobility potential of a robotic six-wheeled omnidirectional drive vehicle (ODV) with z-axis and tire inflation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witus, Gary

    2000-07-01

    Robot vehicle mobility is the product of the physical configuration, mechatronics (sensors, actuators, and control) and the motion programs for different obstacles, terrain conditions, and maneuver objectives. This paper examines the mobility potential of a robotic 6-by-6 wheeled omni-directional drive vehicle (ODV) with z-axis and tire inflation control. Ad ODV can steer and drive all wheels independently. The direction of motion is independent of the orientation of the body. Z- axis control refers to independent control of the suspension elevation at each wheel. Pneumatic tire inflation control provides the ability to inflate and deflate individual tires. The paper describes motion programs for various discrete obstacles and challenging terrain conditions. The paper illustrates how ODV control, z-axis control and tire inflation control interact to provide high mobility with respect to cornering, maneuvering on slopes, negotiating vertical step and horizontal gap obstacles, and braking/acceleration on soft soil and slick surfaces. The paper derives guidelines for the physical dimensions of the vehicle needed to achieve these capabilities.

  18. Seat belt and mobile phone use among vehicle drivers in the city of Doha, Qatar: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Cheema, Sohaila; Alrouh, Hekmat; Al-Thani, Mohammed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Mamtani, Ravinder

    2015-09-22

    In Qatar traffic injuries and fatalities are of serious concern. Mobile phone use whilst driving has been associated with increased risk of vehicular collisions and injuries. Seat belt use has been demonstrated to save lives and reduce the severity of road traffic injuries. Whereas previously published studies may have looked at all front passengers, this study aims to obtain reliable estimates of the prevalence of seat belt and mobile phone use among vehicle drivers in the city of Doha, Qatar. Additionally, we aim to investigate the association of these behaviors with other variables namely gender, time of the day and type of vehicle. An observational study on 2,011 vehicles was conducted in 2013. Data were collected at ten sites within Doha city over a two-week period. Two trained observers surveyed each car and recorded observations on a data collection form adapted from a form used in a 2012 Oklahoma observational study. Associations were assessed using the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. A p-value of .05 or less was considered statistically significant. Overall, 1,463 (72.7 %) drivers were found using a seat belt (95 % CI: 70.8-74.7 %) and 150 (7.5 %) their mobile phones (95 % CI: 6.3-8.6 %) during the observation period. Mobile phone use was significantly associated with not using a seat belt and driving a sport utility vehicle. Significantly lower rates of seat belt use were observed in the early morning and late afternoon. No gender differences were observed. Seatbelt use in Doha was found to be similar to countries in the region but lower than those in western countries. Also, studies from other high-income locations, reported lower rates of mobile phone use while driving than in Doha. Despite road traffic crashes being one of the leading causes of death in Qatar, three out of 10 drivers in Doha, Qatar, do not use a seat belt and about one in 12 use a mobile phone while driving. More efforts, in the form of awareness campaigns and increased law

  19. Tip-over Prevention Through Heuristic Reactive Behaviors for Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Mechatronics ], 1–6 (2006). [7] Peters, S. C. and Iagnemma, K., “An analysis of rollover stability measurement for high-speed mobile robots,” in...for a reconfigurable tracked mobile modular manipulator negotiating slopes,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 15(4), 623–635 (2010). [22

  20. Demonstration of Biodiesel in Non-deployed Ground Tactical Vehicles/Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    tactical vehicles in their March 2006 Position Statement – Stability of the biodiesel – Accelerated deterioration in high temperature environments...Concerns – Stability of the biodiesel – All sites – Accelerated deterioration in high temperature environments – Moody AFB (hot/humid) and MCAGCC 29... Palms (hot/dry) – Vehicle operation and fuel properties in low temperatures – NSWC Crane – Water affinity and microbial degradation – All sites

  1. A Conformal, Fully-Conservative Approach for Predicting Blast Effects on Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-09

    and hull. The decoupled inviscid CFD simulations (i.e. assuming a rigid vehicle) were used to examine the pressure variation and shock wave...interaction with the vehicle. Silver [8] used a commercial CFD code to predict the overpressure of a large caliber gun mounted on a simplified, rigid tank ...different locations under the crew cab and wheels. The pressures were calculated using the inviscid AUGUST-3D CFD code. The assessment of the structural

  2. Standards for the Mobility Common Operational Picture (M-COP): Elements of Ground Vehicle Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    essentially reducing large terrain data sets to their tactical essence and expressing the reduction in an ontology for interoperability at the...Enumeration Values or Units† 0022 cypress 0023 deciduous_unspecified 0024 dry_crops 0025 elm 0026 eucalyptus 0027 evergreen_unspecified 0028 filao

  3. Indices and Computational Strategy for Unmanned Ground Wheeled Vehicle Mobility Estimation and Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    proper tire to terrain interactions. The current work applies this strategic approach to both multi-wheel UGVs with mechanical/ mechatronic driveline...Coefficient”, IEEE/ASME Transactions of Mechatronics , Vol. 9, N 2, pp. 454-458. [37] Larin, V.V., 2010, “Theory of Motion of All-Wheel Drive

  4. Study of Model Predictive Control for Path-Following Autonomous Ground Vehicle Control under Crosswind Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of model predictive control approaches of two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and a combination of two-wheel steering with direct yaw moment control manoeuvres for path-following control in autonomous car vehicle dynamics systems. Single-track mode, based on a linearized vehicle and tire model, is used. Based on a given trajectory, we drove the vehicle at low and high forward speeds and on low and high road friction surfaces for a double-lane change scenario in order to follow the desired trajectory as close as possible while rejecting the effects of wind gusts. We compared the controller based on both simple and complex bicycle models without and with the roll vehicle dynamics for different types of model predictive control manoeuvres. The simulation result showed that the model predictive control gave a better performance in terms of robustness for both forward speeds and road surface variation in autonomous path-following control. It also demonstrated that model predictive control is useful to maintain vehicle stability along the desired path and has an ability to eliminate the crosswind effect.

  5. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  6. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  7. Tip-over prevention through heuristic reactive behaviors for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talke, Kurt; Kelley, Leah; Longhini, Patrick; Catron, Garret

    2014-06-01

    Skid-steer teleoperated robots are commonly used by military and civilian crews to perform high-risk, dangerous and critical tasks such as bomb disposal. Their missions are often performed in unstructured environments with irregular terrain, such as inside collapsed buildings or on rough terrain covered with a variety of media, such as sand, brush, mud, rocks and debris. During such missions, it is often impractical if not impossible to send another robot or a human operator to right a toppled robot. As a consequence, a robot tip-over event usually results in mission failure. To make matters more complicated, such robots are often equipped with heavy payloads that raise their centers of mass and hence increase their instability. Should the robot be equipped with a manipulator arm or flippers, it may have a way to self-right. The majority of manipulator arms are not designed for and are likely to be damaged during self-righting procedures, however, which typically have a low success rate. Furthermore, those robots not equipped with manipulator arms or flippers have no self-righting capabilities. Additionally, due to the on-board camera frame of reference, the video feed may cause the robot to appear to be on at level ground, when it actually may be on a slope nearing tip-over. Finally, robot operators are often so focused on the mission at hand they are oblivious to their surroundings, similar to a kid playing a video game. While this may not be an issue in the living room, it is not a good scenario to experience on the battlefield. Our research seeks to remove tip-over monitoring from the already large list of tasks an operator must perform. An autonomous tip-over prevention behavior for a mobile robot with a static payload has been developed, implemented and experimentally validated on two different teleoperated robotic platforms. Suitable for use with both teleoperated and autonomous robots, the prevention behavior uses the force-angle stability measure

  8. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  9. A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Algorithm for Obstacle Avoidance in Autonomous Ground Vehicles within Unknown Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Allgwer and A. Zheng, Nonlinear model predictive control vol. 26: Springer , 2000. [10] J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Yoon, H. J. Kim, and K. S. Yi...include modeling, simulation, and control of dynamic systems, with applications to energy systems, multibody dynamics, vehicle systems, and biomechanics

  10. The In-Transit Vigilant Covering Tour Problem of Routing Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    15 Figure 2. A classic VRP ...17 Figure 3. Solution for a VRP ........................................................................................18 Figure 4. Solution...of NP-hard problems, such as the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ), and Covering Salesman Problem (CSP) etc. We will

  11. Mobility Prediction Progressive Routing (MP2R), a Cross-Layer Design for Inter-Vehicle Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Suhua; Kadowaki, Naoto; Obana, Sadao

    In this paper we analyze the characteristics of vehicle mobility and propose a novel Mobility Prediction Progressive Routing (MP2R) protocol for Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) that is based on crosslayer design. MP2R utilizes the additional gain provided by the directional antennas to improve link quality and connectivity; interference is reduced by the directional transmission. Each node learns its own position and speed and that of other nodes, and performs position prediction. (i) With the predicted progress and link quality, the forwarding decision of a packet is locally made, just before the packet is actually transmitted. In addition the load at the forwarder is considered in order to avoid congestion. (ii) The predicted geographic direction is used to control the beam of the directional antenna. The proposed MP2R protocol is especially suitable for forwarding burst traffic in highly mobile environments. Simulation results show that MP2R effectively reduces Packet Error Ratio (PER) compared with both topology-based routing (AODV [1], FSR [2]) and normal progressive routing (NADV [18]) in the IVC scenarios.

  12. Pheromone-based coordination strategy to static sensors on the ground and unmanned aerial vehicles carried sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Heimfarth, Tales; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Morado Ferreira, Armando; Rech Wagner, Flávio; Larsson, Tony

    2010-04-01

    A current trend that is gaining strength in the wireless sensor network area is the use of heterogeneous sensor nodes in one coordinated overall network, needed to fulfill the requirements of sophisticated emerging applications, such as area surveillance systems. One of the main concerns when developing such sensor networks is how to provide coordination among the heterogeneous nodes, in order to enable them to efficiently respond the user needs. This study presents an investigation of strategies to coordinate a set of static sensor nodes on the ground cooperating with wirelessly connected Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying a variety of sensors, in order to provide efficient surveillance over an area of interest. The sensor nodes on the ground are set to issue alarms on the occurrence of a given event of interest, e.g. entrance of a non-authorized vehicle in the area, while the UAVs receive the issued alarms and have to decide which of them is the most suitable to handle the issued alarm. A bio-inspired coordination strategy based on the concept of pheromones is presented. As a complement of this strategy, a utility-based decision making approach is proposed.

  13. Urban e-Mobility - Challenges and potential solutions using the example of the "E3W" concept vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perterer, M.; Martin, P.; Lochner, H.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the increasing number of people in urban areas, there is a need for affordable individual transportation. Limited space in cities together with the need for a significant reduction of pollution will lead to new mobility concepts in the near future. The aim of these concepts is not replacing the car itself, but to supply an additional personal transportation solution with local zero emission. Therefore, electrical powered vehicle concepts may be used. Due to the limited energy density and high cost of current Li-ion batteries, a significant weight reduction of the vehicle could lead to acceptable range and cost. In order to develop an affordable urban concept, the requirements for this kind of vehicle also have to be adjusted in comparison to conventional cars. This concept, the so called "E3W", combines the advantages of a two-wheeler with those of a four-wheeler, resulting in a lightweight and compact vehicle. This concept accommodates space for two persons with luggage and guarantees a high level of safety including wind and weather protection. The overall measures of this vehicle are smaller than current compact cars and allow therefore better use in cities. In order to fulfill technical and commercial requirements, a load carrying, short fiber reinforced thermoplastic body structure is chosen, combining good weight specific mechanical properties and low production costs. This highly integrated body structure also provides the body cover all in one. Pultruded glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) beams are used as the backbone for the vehicle by carrying the main loads, the front crash structure and the rear swingarm. Finally, two prototypes are built to investigate the driving behavior, proof the concept and the suitability for daily use.

  14. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John

    2011-01-01

    Proprietary or unique designs and operations are expected early in any industry's development, and often provide a competitive early market advantage. However, there comes a time when a product or industry requires standardization for the whole industry to advance...or survive. For the space industry, that time has come. Here, we will focus on standardization of ground processing for space vehicles and their ground systems. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and emergence of a new global space race, affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. The growing commercialization of the space industry and current global economic environment are driving greater need for efficiencies to save time and money. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability not achievable with traditional ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More crew/passenger vehicles are also being developed. All of this calls for more attention needed for ground processing-repeatedly before launch and after landing/recovery. RLV's should provide more efficiencies than ELV's, as long as MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) is well-planned-even for the unplanned problems. NASA's Space Shuttle is a primary example of an RLV which was supposed to thrive on reusability savings with efficient ground operations, but lessons learned show that costs were (and still are) much greater than expected. International standards and specifications can provide the commonality needed to simplify design and manufacturing as well as to improve safety, quality, maintenance, and operability. There are standards organizations engaged in the space industry, but ground processing is one of the areas least addressed. Challenges are encountered due to various factors often not considered during development. Multiple vehicle elements, sites, customers, and contractors pose various functional and integration difficulties. Resulting technical publication structures

  15. Selective mobilization of saturated fatty acids in isolated adipocytes of hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R; Armstrong, Christopher; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are not mobilized from adipocyte triacylglycerols uniformly but rather some are preferentially mobilized while others are preferentially retained. In many vertebrate species, the pattern of differential mobilization is determined by the physical and chemical properties of each fatty acid. Fatty acids with shorter chains and more double bonds tend to be more readily mobilized than others, a pattern observed both in whole-animal studies and in isolated adipocytes. Several hibernating species seem to break this pattern, however, and retain 18:2ω6 (linoleic acid) while mobilizing saturated fatty acids such as 18:0. We sought to confirm this pattern in adipocytes of a hibernator, the 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, and to investigate mobilization patterns for the first time at hibernation temperature. We isolated adipocytes from summer active and winter torpid squirrels and incubated them with 1 μM norepinephrine at 4°C (7 h) and 37°C (90 min). We measured the proportion of each fatty acid in the adipose tissue and in the buffer at the end of incubation. Patterns of mobilization were similar in both seasons and incubation temperatures. Saturated fatty acids (18:0 and 16:0) were highly mobilized relative to the average, while some unsaturated fatty acids (notably, 18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6) were retained. We conclude that hibernators have unique mechanisms at the level of adipose tissue that preferentially mobilize saturated fatty acids. Additionally, we found that adipocytes from hibernating squirrels produced more glycerol than those from summer squirrels (regardless of temperature), indicating a higher lipolytic capacity in hibernating squirrels.

  16. Evaluation of a wearable tele-echography robot system: FASTele in a vehicle using a mobile network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Keiichiro; Tsuruta, Koichi; Sugano, Shigeki; Iwata, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) performance of a wearable tele-echography robot system we have developed that we call "FASTele". FAST is a first-step way of assessing the injury severity of patients suffering from internal bleeding who may be some time away from hospital treatment. So far, we have only verified our system's effectiveness under constantly wired network conditions. To determine its FAST performance within an emergency vehicle, we extended it to a WiMAX mobile network and performed experiments on it. Experiment results showed that paramedics could attach the system to FAST areas on a patient's body on the basis of the attaching position and procedure. We also assessed echo images to confirm that the system is able to extract the echo images required for FAST under maximum vehicle acceleration.

  17. Multi-spectral synthetic image generation for ground vehicle identification training

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christopher M.; Pinto, Neil A.; Sanders, Jeffrey S.

    2016-05-01

    There is a ubiquitous and never ending need in the US armed forces for training materials that provide the warfighter with the skills needed to differentiate between friendly and enemy forces on the battlefield. The current state of the art in battlefield identification training is the Recognition of Combat Vehicles (ROC-V) tool created and maintained by the Communications - Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (CERDEC NVESD). The ROC-V training package utilizes measured visual and thermal imagery to train soldiers about the critical visual and thermal cues needed to accurately identify modern military vehicles and combatants. This paper presents an approach to augment the existing ROC-V imagery database with synthetically generated multi-spectral imagery that will allow NVESD to provide improved training imagery at significantly lower costs.

  18. Enabling All-Access Mobility for Planetary Exploration Vehicles via Transformative Reconfiguration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Similar to the concept seen in recent ‘Transformers’ movies, this work explores how reconfigurability can enable mobility across diverse, uncertain...

  19. A Conformal, Fully-Conservative Approach for Predicting Blast Effects on Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    time integration  Approximate Riemann Fluxes (HLLE, HLLC) ◦ Robust mixture model for multi-material flows  Multiple Equations of State ◦ Perfect Gas...Generic Hull geometry used to verify coupling for realistic configurations ◦ Qualitative results only UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED  Large weight used to...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED  Geometry represents a notional Army vehicle  Test conditions: ◦ Charge: 6kg cylinder of C4  STANAG 4569 Level 2 mine

  20. Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD Accommodation Model for Military Ground Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Standard: Human Engineering, 2012. The unifying factor amongst these is the requirement to accommodate the central 90% of the Soldier population . MIL...Heel Point (FHP), accommodation model, occupant work space, central 90% of the Soldier population , encumbrance, posture and position, computer aided...which the occupant is an integral element of vehicle workstation design. Ensuring that a given percentage of the population can sit safely and

  1. Understanding why a Ground Combat Vehicle that Carries Nine Dismounts is Important to the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    cites a quote by GEN Donn Starry, TRADOC commander from 1977 to 1981, in which he notes, “We in TRADOC . . . decided to put the TOW on the MICV because...Carmichael, John M., “Devising Doctrine for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Platoon Dismount Element—Finding the Right Starting Point,” Fort...Mahon, John K., and Romana Danysh, Army Lineage Series: Infantry, Part I: Regular Army, Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, United

  2. Practical To Tactical: Making the Case for a Shift in Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    Active Safety Vehicle Controls Automotive Sensors (CMOS Stereo Camera, Single Chip Radar , Low Cost Lidar) Drive-By-Wire (Electronically...UNCLASSIFIED 15 Forward Automotive Radar Camera Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS) Steering Position Sensor Steering Torque Sensor ESC...I C R M x x x V UNCLASSIFIED T 1 r t TECHNOLOGY DRNEN. WARF~n1a~ rUUI~~. 20 Automotive Radar Stereo Camera Side Blind Zone Radar RG31

  3. H2 control of a one-quarter semi-active ground vehicle suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Félix-Herrán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological (MR dampers are effective solutions in improving vehicle stability and passenger comfort. However, handling these dampers implies a strong effort in modeling and control. This research proposes an H2 controller, based on a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S fuzzy model, for a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF one-quarter vehicle semi-active suspension with an MR damper; a system with important applications in automotive industry. Regarding performance criteria (in frequency domain handled herein, the developed controller considerably improves the passive suspension's efficiency. Moreover, nonlinear actuator dynamics usually avoided in reported work, is included in controller's synthesis; improving the relevance of research outcomes because the controller is synthesized from a closer-to-reality suspension model. Going further, outcomes of this research are compared (based on frequency domain performance criteria and a common time domain test with reported work to highlight the outstanding results. H2 controller is given in terms of quadratic Lyapunov stability theory and carried out by means of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI, and the command signal is applied via the Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC approach. A case of study, with real data, is developed and simulation work supports the results. The methodology applied herein can be extended to include other vehicle suspension's dynamics towards a general chassis control.

  4. Active Vibration Isolation System for Mobile Launch Platform Ground Support Equipment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed for high performance off-road vehicles to address NASA's requirement for...

  5. A Systems Engineering Approach in Providing Air Defense Support to Ground Combat Vehicle Maneuver Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    http://www.strategypage.com/dls/ articles /SLAMRAAM-Dies-From-Loneliness-2- 5-2011.asp. Federation of American Scientists . 2000. “M6 Bradley Linebacker...MANPADS-under-armor (MUA) concept was adopted to provide mobile air defense to maneuver forces (Federation of American Scientists 2000). This involved... swim in water. The functional hierarchy for the Move function is shown in Figure 17. 39 Figure 17. Functional Hierarchy for F.3 Move d

  6. DoD Comprehensive Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Smart Device Ground Control Station Threat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    carriers. The open operating system has resulted in many variations of Android smartphones and tablets whereby differ- ent carriers with identical...Using smart device technology and supporting software apps , the DoD has taken the functionality of a traditional GCS and miniaturized it into a mobile...portable smart device. These apps provide near real-time avionics flight display, navigation systems, system health monitoring and prognostics

  7. Hybrid Video Stabilization for Mobile Vehicle Detection on SURF in Aerial Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chunxian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of moving vehicles in aerial video sequences is of great importance with many promising applications in surveillance, intelligence transportation, or public service applications such as emergency evacuation and policy security. However, vehicle detection is a challenging task due to global camera motion, low resolution of vehicles, and low contrast between vehicles and background. In this paper, we present a hybrid method to efficiently detect moving vehicle in aerial videos. Firstly, local feature extraction and matching were performed to estimate the global motion. It was demonstrated that the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF key points were more suitable for the stabilization task. Then, a list of dynamic pixels was obtained and grouped for different moving vehicles by comparing the different optical flow normal. To enhance the precision of detection, some preprocessing methods were applied to the surveillance system, such as road extraction and other features. A quantitative evaluation on real video sequences indicated that the proposed method improved the detection performance significantly.

  8. NPSNET: Real-Time 3D Ground-Based Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Meriam et.al., 86]1. Motion is produced by a simplified simulation of dynamics, that describes the linear and angular accelerations of a rigid body in...from the definition of the mass center as covered in statics, is given by 6 mr = Emir, (Eq. 2.1) where the total mass M = Emi [ Meriam et. al., 86]. At...Jurewicz, T., "A Real Time Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Dynamic Simulator," M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA., June 1989 [ Meriam et. al

  9. Mobile vehicles in the Netherlands. Prognoses to the year 2020. Description and application of the model PROMIN; Mobiele werktuigen in Nederland. Prognoses tot 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwman, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    Mobile machinery consists of `special vehicles` as well as `off-road vehicles`. According to the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) special vehicles are converted (pick-up) trucks for a specific function, e.g. ambulances, garbage trucks and concrete mixers. Off-road vehicles do not have licence plates, but are self-propelling, are converted (pick-up) trucks for a specific function, e.g. ambulances, garbage trucks and concrete mixers. A model to calculate energy use of and emissions from mobile machinery is described for the period 1990-2020. In 1990 the calculated energy use of off-road vehicles is 28.6 PJ, amounting to 1.0% of the total energy use in the Netherlands. Agricultural machinery (9 PJ) has the largest share in this use, followed by special vehicles, excavators and fork-lift trucks. Emissions from mobile machinery are calculated for a great diversity of compounds using the model. The most important are CO2, CO, VOC, NOx and aerosols. The two CPB scenarios Global Shift and European Renaissance are used in order to make prognoses of energy use of and emissions from mobile machinery. Three policy options are assumed: no policy, a policy in which the actual emission standards are used, and a policy in which the standards are accentuated further for the year 2020. 70 refs.

  10. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    of global urbanization, planning for urban operations is critical to the execution and success of any military campaign. The U.S. Army describes...for the enemy to prepare for the likely attack direction and to plan coordinated attacks against the incoming ground force. Enemy sensors can also...The Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) is developing an integrated counter IED suite known as the Counter IED & Mine Suite ( CIMS ). According to Eshel

  11. Finite Element Optimization for Nondestructive Evaluation on a Graphics Processing Unit for Ground Vehicle Hull Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    GPU ,GA, genetic algorithm, FE, optimization, CUDA , Damage, Evaluation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF... GPU with CUDA architecture [4]). There is however a severe memory limit – 4 GB at present. This would limit large problems as well as optimization...August 2013 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 FE Optimization for NDE on GPUs for Ground

  12. Optical embedded dust sensor for engine protection and early warning on M1 Abrams/ground combat vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Waldherr, Gregor A.; Burch, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    The Dual Optical Embedded Dust Sensor (DOEDS) is designed for the sensitive, accurate detection of particles for preventive health monitoring of the AGT1500 engine and M1 Abrams/Ground Combat Vehicles (GCVs). DOEDS is a real-time sensor that uses an innovative combination of optical particle sensing technologies and mechanical packaging in a rugged, compact and non-intrusive optical design. The optical sensor, implementing both a single particle sensor and a mass sensor, can operate in harsh environments (up to 400°F) to meet the particle size, size distribution, mass concentration, and response time criteria. The sensor may be flush- or inline-mounted in multiple engine locations and environments.

  13. Autonomous urban reconnaissance ingress system (AURIS): providing a tactically relevant autonomous door-opening kit for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, David J.; Rufo, Michael A.; Berkemeier, Matthew D.; Alberts, Joel A.

    2012-06-01

    The Autonomous Urban Reconnaissance Ingress System (AURIS™) addresses a significant limitation of current military and first responder robotics technology: the inability of reconnaissance robots to open doors. Leveraging user testing as a baseline, the program has derived specifications necessary for military personnel to open doors with fielded UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), and evaluates the technology's impact on operational mission areas: duration, timing, and user patience in developing a tactically relevant, safe, and effective system. Funding is provided through the US ARMY Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the project represents a leap forward in perception, autonomy, robotic implements, and coordinated payload operation in UGVs. This paper describes high level details of specification generation, status of the last phase of development, an advanced view of the system autonomy capability, and a short look ahead towards the ongoing work on this compelling and important technology.

  14. The Analytical Review of the Condition of Heavy Class Military and Dual-Purpose Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is the evaluation of the actual condition of heavy (weight more than 700 kg military robotics and dual-purpose robotics in the world. The extensive review of the world market of heavy class military unmanned ground vehicle was made. All reviewed robots are used at present time or exist like prototypes. All robots were systematized by most important technical characteristics. In the closing of article the analysis of the reviewed heavy class dual purpose UGVs are presented. Based on the analysis the conclusion about actual condition of the heavy military robotics and dual-purpose robotics was made. Also the most promising ways and tendencies of development are representeds.

  15. Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows noticeably high prevalence of people not wearing safety belt in the rear seats. Moreover, four out of one hundred drivers still use the mobile phone while driving during a moment of the trip.

  16. Vehicle fleet emissions of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants measured by a mobile laboratory in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of concern due to their effects on climate and health. The main goal of this research is to provide the first estimate of emissions of BC and particle-phase PAHs (PPAHs from motor vehicles in Mexico City. The emissions of other pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and particulate matter of diameter 2.5 μm and less (PM2.5 are also estimated. As a part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 (MCMA-2003, a mobile laboratory was driven throughout the city. The laboratory was equipped with a comprehensive suite of gas and particle analyzers, including an aethalometer that measured BC and a photoionization aerosol sensor that measured PPAHs. While driving through traffic, the mobile lab continuously sampled exhaust plumes from the vehicles around it. We have developed a method of automatically identifying exhaust plumes, which are then used as the basis for calculation of fleet-average emissions. In the approximately 75 h of on-road sampling during the field campaign, we have identified ~30 000 exhaust measurement points that represent a variety of vehicle types and driving conditions. The large sample provides a basis for estimating fleet-average emission factors and thus the emission inventory. Motor vehicles in the Mexico City area are estimated to emit 1700±200 metric tons BC, 57±6 tons PPAHs, 1 190 000±40 000 tons CO, 120 000±3000 tons NOx, 240 000±50 000 tons VOCs, and 4400±400 tons PM2.5 per year, not including cold start emissions. The estimates for CO, NOx, and PPAHs may be low by up to 10% due to the slower response time of analyzers used to measure these species. Compared to the government's official motor vehicle emission inventory for the year 2002, the estimates for CO, NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5 are 38% lower, 23% lower, 27% higher, and 25% higher, respectively. The

  17. Design of Secured Ground Vehicle Event Data Recorder for Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Love Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Event Data Recorder (EDR is now one of the important components installed in the vehicles by the automakers since it is helping in calculating an independent measurement of crash severity which is far better than the traditional systems used. There is limited research is done on the domain. In this paper we are going to propose an EDR which is based on ARM controller and will sense the alcohol, brake pressed, Speed, Location, Humidity, and Temperature. The data collected from the sensors is aggregated using a threshold-based technique, then the data is encrypted using RC6 and finally, the data is mined for knowledge using top k rules.

  18. Student Voice in the Mobile Phone Environment: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2017-01-01

    Student voice is recently attracting educational researchers' attention for its influence on various aspects of student lives and futures, as well as social life in general. Mobile technologies are proliferating in social and practical life. This article studies student voice in carrying out outdoor activities with mobile phones. Thirty middle…

  19. Diesel vehicles shortage mobilizes the automotive industry; La penurie de diesel mobilise la filiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, P.Y.; Deheunynck, P.Y.; Demoulin, L.

    2000-12-01

    The infatuation for diesel vehicles in Europe has led to an unexpected growth of this market. The reason is linked with the improvements made in diesel engine technology and with the rise of automotive fuel prices. Car and vehicle equipment manufacturers and sub-contractors have to increase their production and manpower and to adopt new work schedules for a better exploitation of factories capacity. However, the development of the direct injection (common-rail) technology for diesel engines requires complex and precise machining procedures that are hardly compatible with an enhanced mass production. (J.S.)

  20. GEMMP - A Google Maps Enabled Mobile Mission Planning Tool for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Seeley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many applications for mobile robotics involve operations in remote, outdoor environments. In these environments, it can be difficult to plan missions dynamically due to the lack of portability of existing mission planning software. Mobile platforms allow access to the Web from nearly anywhere while other features, like touch interfaces, simplify user interaction, and GPS integration allows developers and users to take advantage to location-based services. In this paper, we describe a prototype AUV mission planner developed on the Android platform, created to aid and enhance the capability of an existing AUV mission planner, VectorMap, developed and maintained by OceanServer Technology, by taking advantage of the capabilities of existing mobile computing technology.

  1. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model. PMID:26076406

  2. Mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Nho, Hyuchul C.; Salton, Jonathan Robert

    2007-08-01

    In the past decade, a great deal of effort has been focused in research and development of versatile robotic ground vehicles without understanding their performance in a particular operating environment. As the usage of robotic ground vehicles for intelligence applications increases, understanding mobility of the vehicles becomes critical to increase the probability of their successful operations. This paper describes a framework based on conservation of energy to predict the maximum mobility of robotic ground vehicles over general terrain. The basis of the prediction is the difference between traction capability and energy loss at the vehicle-terrain interface. The mission success of a robotic ground vehicle is primarily a function of mobility. Mobility of a vehicle is defined as the overall capability of a vehicle to move from place to place while retaining its ability to perform its primary mission. A mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy is described in this document. The tool is a graphical user interface application. The mobility analysis tool has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The tool is at an initial stage of development. In the future, the tool will be expanded to include all vehicles and terrain types.

  3. A mobile robot system for ground servicing operations on the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, K.; Bennett, R.; Blackwell, M.; Graham, T.; Gatrall, S.; O'Toole, R.; Schempf, H.

    1992-01-01

    A mobile system for space shuttle servicing, the Tessellator, has been configured, designed and is currently being built and integrated. Robot tasks include chemical injection and inspection of the shuttle's thermal protection system. This paper outlines tasks, rationale, and facility requirements for the development of this system. A detailed look at the mobile system and manipulator follow with a look at mechanics, electronics, and software. Salient features of the mobile robot include omnidirectionality, high reach, high stiffness and accuracy with safety and self-reliance integral to all aspects of the design. The robot system is shown to meet task, facility, and NASA requirements in its design resulting in unprecedented specifications for a mobile-manipulation system.

  4. Proceedings of the 7th Annual TARDEC Ground Vehicle Survivability Symposium, March 26-28, 1996, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA Volume 1 - Unclassified Session Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Submitted J. Cardenas , U.S. Army TARDEC P-10 Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability Database Vol. 1 517 J. Olejar, C. Glausier, D. Brassard, K. Gantt, N. Funk... algebra . This change in methodology should go a long way toward alleviating the sampling problem that has been identi- fied in the IDA and SIRVICE studies

  5. Policy and Policy Formulation Considerations for Incorporation of Secure Mobile Devices in USMC Ground Combat Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    network usage and health (Office of the Department of Defense Chief Information Officer, 2012). 22 Objective c. Educate and train mobile device users...perform beyond your wildest dreams.” These two concepts are not merely part of a “feel-good” speech during a relaxing yoga session. In design...LIST OF REFERENCES Ahmed, M., & Ahamad, M. (2012). Protecting health information on mobile devices. Proceedings of the Second ACM Conference on

  6. Analysis of the grounding system for a mobile communication site placed on HV power line mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bîrsan, I.; Munteanu, C.; Horgoș, M.; Ilut, T.

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential distribution on the soil surface or potential variation on the main directions inside computing mobile site. I want to study a system made the earth a mobile communications site, antennas operator and the system of which the earth is placed on a High Voltage Power Line Mast (LEA 110 KV). I made direct measurements and I use a 3D software for analyze the results and simulating some possible solutions.

  7. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Equipment). CARB's Mobile Cargo Handling Equipment requirements are designed to use best available control... Alexander at (202) 343-9540, to learn if a hearing will be held or may check the following webpage for an... restricted by statute. EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality also maintains a webpage that...

  8. Making sense of sustainable mobility - compact cities, sedate households or clean vehicles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, Adriaan [Goverment Inst. of Economic Research, VATT, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This article addresses the interaction effects between consumers and the characteristics of their living environment, with special reference to mobility, transport performance and transport emissions. In transportation research the issue of interactions between urban characteristics, residential preferences, and mobility patterns is receiving increasing attention. The assessment of mobility effects discussed here is carried out as part of a larger study in Finland (KulMaKunta), which addresses sustainable consumption in its entirety. The notion of the 'means of consumption' is important in this respect. This notion or assertion, having its origins in sociology, wants to underline that in a modern western society commercial success has become more dependent on organisation of sales and consumption than on production as such. In other words, how quickly can one reach as many customers as possible. When trying to operationalise the notion 'means of consumption' in (transport-) economic terms it implies that exposure to consumption opportunities and accessibility become key features. This article argues that one of the consequences of these typical urban conditions is a high passenger mobility per capita of urban dwellers. In turn this complicates the realisation of the - potentially - high eco-efficiency of a city.

  9. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open

  10. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open eL

  11. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open eL

  12. Intelligent Vehicle Mobility M&S Capability Development (FY13 innovation Project) (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Planetary rovers (Pathfinder, MER, MSL, research rovers) • The DARTS lab team created ROAMS for vehicle simulations of planetary rovers (http...Feature ANVEL ROAMS On-Road Terrain (Rigid) Uses OpenDE Hard Contacts Pacejka Slip Model N/A for Planetary Missions Off-Road Terrain (Deformable...Bekker and Janosi-Hanamoto ERDC GCE Model FN: Hunt-Crossley Model FT: Mohr-Coulomb Model Benchmark Feature ANVEL ROAMS Urban Native or Import

  13. Medicare program; conditions for payment of power mobility devices, including power wheelchairs and power-operated vehicles. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-05

    This final rule conforms our regulations to section 302(a)(2)(E)(iv) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. This rule defines the term power mobility devices (PMDs) as power wheelchairs and power operated vehicles (POVs or scooters). It sets forth revised conditions for Medicare payment of PMDs and defines who may prescribe PMDs. This rule also requires a face-to-face examination of the beneficiary by the physician or treating practitioner, a written prescription, and receipt of pertinent parts of the medical record by the supplier within 45 days after the face-to-face examination that the durable medical equipment suppliers maintain in their records and make available to CMS or its agents upon request. Finally, this rule discusses CMS' policy on documentation that may be requested by CMS or its agents to support a Medicare claim for payment, as well as the elimination of the Certificate of Medical Necessity (CMN) for PMDs.

  14. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-kun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of sprung masses concentrated at the axle positions. For the short period railway bridge, the results from the case study demonstrate that directivity pulse effect tends to increase the seismic responses of the bridge compared with far-fault ground motions or nonpulse-like motions and the directivity pulse effect and high values of the vertical acceleration component can notably influence the hysteretic behaviour of piers.

  15. Comparison of real-time performance of Kalman filter-based slam methods for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeltaş, Hakan; Kavak, Deniz

    2009-05-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) using for the mobile robot navigation has two main problems. First problem is the computational complexity due to the growing state vector with the added landmark in the environment. Second problem is data association which matches the observations and landmarks in the state vector. In this study, we compare Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based SLAM which is well-developed and well-known algorithm, and Compressed Extended Kalman Filter (CEKF) based SLAM developed for decreasing of the computational complexity of the EKF based SLAM. We write two simulation program to investigate these techniques. Firts program is written for the comparison of EKF and CEKF based SLAM according to the computational complexity and covariance matrix error with the different numbers of landmarks. In the second program, EKF and CEKF based SLAM simulations are presented. For this simulation differential drive vehicle that moves in a 10m square trajectory and LMS 200 2-D laser range finder are modelled and landmarks are randomly scattered in that 10m square environment.

  16. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  17. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

    2014-05-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

  18. Computers in the Cop Car: Impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal Technology on Motor Vehicle Theft Clearance and Recovery Rates in a Texas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Samuel

    1993-01-01

    Assessed the impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal technology (computers used to communicate with remote crime databases) on motor vehicle theft clearance (arresting a perpetrator) and recovery rates in Fort Worth (Texas), using a time series analysis. Impact has been ambiguous, with little evidence of improved clearance or recovery. (SLD)

  19. First International Conference on Winter Vehicle Mobility, Santa Barbara, California, June 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    the effectiveness of the UHMWPE snow were made of annealed 17.2 -.;aitiless steel, which was scoops. Before each test, adata set was taken with all the...equations, and explicit Gr(I+ 1• •U + 1- 1 ))u2] methods have to be used. This, unfortunately, poses a ( - 2 V) ax 12 (1-2 x 22 big limitation on the...34 Field Artillery’s big guns. In addition to carrying troops Why is now this vehicle so fantastic? The secret lies and equipment, evacuating injured

  20. An Improved Spatially Aware Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in Inter-Vehicle Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lu; ZHOU Man-li; TIAN Jing; KURT Rothermel

    2004-01-01

    A new algorithm called spatially aware routing algorithm with enhanced learning (SAREL) is proposed to guarantee the rationality of route selecting in inter-vehicle communication scenario. Firstly, the traffic model is discussed and set up by using Poisson distribution. Then we analyze the process of traffic evaluation with enhanced learning, and exploit movement estimation to assist state memorization. The improvement of algorithm is provided at last compared with our previous work. Simulation results show that SAREL algorithm could achieve better performance in packet delivery ratio, especially when network connection ratio is average.

  1. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    simple movements of people, goods, and information from A to B. The ‘mobilities turn’ has made it its hallmark to explore the ‘more than’ effects of a world increasingly on the move. This new title in the Routledge Series ‘Critical Concepts in Built Environment’ creates a state-of-the-art reference work......The world is on the move. This is a widespread understanding by many inhabitants of contemporary society across the Globe. But what does it actually mean? During over one decade the ‘mobilities turn’ within the social sciences have provided a new set of insights into the repercussions of mobilities...... to social networks, personal identities, and our relationship to the built environment. The omnipresence of mobilities within everyday life, high politics, technology, and tourism (to mention but a few) all point to a key insight harnessed by the ‘mobilities turn’. Namely that mobilities is much more than...

  2. Rapid Detection Methods for Asphalt Pavement Thicknesses and Defects by a Vehicle-Mounted Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zehua; Ye, Shengbo; Gao, Yunze; Fang, Guangyou; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Xue, Zhongjun; Zhang, Tao

    2016-12-06

    The thickness estimation of the top surface layer and surface layer, as well as the detection of road defects, are of great importance to the quality conditions of asphalt pavement. Although ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods have been widely used in non-destructive detection of pavements, the thickness estimation of the thin top surface layer is still a difficult problem due to the limitations of GPR resolution and the similar permittivity of asphalt sub-layers. Besides, the detection of some road defects, including inadequate compaction and delamination at interfaces, require further practical study. In this paper, a newly-developed vehicle-mounted GPR detection system is introduced. We used a horizontal high-pass filter and a modified layer localization method to extract the underground layers. Besides, according to lab experiments and simulation analysis, we proposed theoretical methods for detecting the degree of compaction and delamination at the interface, respectively. Moreover, a field test was carried out and the estimated results showed a satisfactory accuracy of the system and methods.

  3. Rapid Detection Methods for Asphalt Pavement Thicknesses and Defects by a Vehicle-Mounted Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The thickness estimation of the top surface layer and surface layer, as well as the detection of road defects, are of great importance to the quality conditions of asphalt pavement. Although ground penetrating radar (GPR methods have been widely used in non-destructive detection of pavements, the thickness estimation of the thin top surface layer is still a difficult problem due to the limitations of GPR resolution and the similar permittivity of asphalt sub-layers. Besides, the detection of some road defects, including inadequate compaction and delamination at interfaces, require further practical study. In this paper, a newly-developed vehicle-mounted GPR detection system is introduced. We used a horizontal high-pass filter and a modified layer localization method to extract the underground layers. Besides, according to lab experiments and simulation analysis, we proposed theoretical methods for detecting the degree of compaction and delamination at the interface, respectively. Moreover, a field test was carried out and the estimated results showed a satisfactory accuracy of the system and methods.

  4. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  5. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaochi; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Tabor, Dennis; Gullett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and time-integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications such as vehicles, tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to determine emission factors. The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed "Kolibri", consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the "Flyer") that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration to modified combustion efficiency. The potential effect of rotor downwash on particle sampling was investigated in an indoor laboratory and the preliminary results suggested that its influence is minimal. Field application of the Kolibri sampling open detonation plumes indicated that the CO and CO2 sensors responded dynamically and their concentrations co-varied with emission transients. The Kolibri system can be applied to various challenging open area scenarios such as

  6. Use of 3D laser radar for navigation of unmanned aerial and ground vehicles in urban and indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Venable, Don; Smearcheck, Mark

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses the integration of Inertial measurements with measurements from a three-dimensional (3D) imaging sensor for position and attitude determination of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and autonomous ground vehicles (AGV) in urban or indoor environments. To enable operation of UAVs and AGVs at any time in any environment a Precision Navigation, Attitude, and Time (PNAT) capability is required that is robust and not solely dependent on the Global Positioning System (GPS). In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may not only be unavailable due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. Although deep integration of GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data may prove to be a viable solution an alternative method is being discussed in this paper. The alternative solution is based on 3D imaging sensor technologies such as Flash Ladar (Laser Radar). Flash Ladar technology consists of a modulated laser emitter coupled with a focal plane array detector and the required optics. Like a conventional camera this sensor creates an "image" of the environment, but producing a 2D image where each pixel has associated intensity vales the flash Ladar generates an image where each pixel has an associated range and intensity value. Integration of flash Ladar with the attitude from the IMU allows creation of a 3-D scene. Current low-cost Flash Ladar technology is capable of greater than 100 x 100 pixel resolution with 5 mm depth resolution at a 30 Hz frame rate. The proposed algorithm first converts the 3D imaging sensor measurements to a point cloud of the 3D, next, significant environmental features such as planar features (walls), line features or point features (corners) are extracted and associated from one 3D imaging sensor frame to the next. Finally, characteristics of these features such as the normal or direction vectors are used to compute the platform position and attitude

  7. Mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.J.; Marquina, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on mobile robots. Topics the conference included are the following: mobility systems for robotic vehicles; detection and control of mobile robot motion by real-time computer vision, obstacle avoidance algorithms for an autonomous land vehicle; hierarchical processor and matched filters for range image processing; asynchronous distributed control system for a mobile robot, and, planning in a hierarchical nested autonomous control system.

  8. Data Supporting Mobile Application Development for Use within the Marine Air-Ground Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    derived by the Capabilities Development Directorate. Smart phone use and adoption is discussed to support the hypothesis that mobile device usage...to digital voice services, modern smartphones provide text messaging, email, Web browsing, still and video cameras, and digital music and video...number of deployment scenarios. Comparing IERs that were developed and approved by the CDD against an original decision support matrix produced a number

  9. Mobile Laboratory Measurements of Black Carbon and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions in Mexico City: A New Method for Motor Vehicle Emission Inventory Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; Marr, L. C.; Dunlea, E.; Herndon, S.; Jayne, J.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    Aerosol black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are two products of carbonaceous fuel combustion that are of major concern for urban air quality and global climate change. As part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 (MCMA-2003), a mobile laboratory drove throughout the city and chased vehicles to measure pollutants in their exhaust emissions. The laboratory is a van designed and built by Aerodyne Research, Inc. and is equipped with a suite of gas and particle analyzers, including an aethalometer that measures BC and a photoemission aerosol sensor that measures particle-bound PAHs. The main goal of this research is to determine fuel-based emission factors, or the mass of BC and PAH emitted per volume of fuel burned, for Mexico City¡_s vehicle fleet. We can then calculate the megacity¡_s emission inventory of these compounds, which is important on both the urban and global scales. In previous analyses, the mobile laboratory has been used to target emissions from specific vehicles. While chasing events can be analyzed to obtain emission factors for specific vehicles, data from the entire time period while the lab is driving through the streets, whether chasing individual vehicles or not, can also provide valuable information about mobile source emissions. The laboratory continuously samples ambient air from an inlet at the front of the van, and it is always ¡°seeing¡± exhaust plumes from the vehicles around it. This ¡°macroscopic¡± approach that considers all vehicles on the road, similar to tunnel and remote sensing studies, complements the ¡°microscopic¡± approach that focuses on individual vehicles. We have developed a method that automatically identifies exhaust plumes and quantifies emission factors from data collected by the mobile lab. While 200 individual chasing events were identified during the field campaign, over 40,000 exhaust plume points were identified using the macroscopic approach. The

  10. FIELD GROUND TRUTHING DATA COLLECTOR – A MOBILE TOOLKIT FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  11. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  12. Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    istic and romantic emotionalism that typifies this genre. Longino, James C., et al. “A Study of World War Procurement and Industrial Mobilization...States. Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., 1941. CARL 355.22 J72b. Written in rough prose , this World War II era document explains the

  13. Mobile Communication Network Applied to Vehicle Communication%适用于车联网应用的移动通信网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺; 邓佳佳; 林毅; 魏亮

    2012-01-01

    车联网不同场景使用的通信技术有所不同.除了近距离通信技术外,属于中远距离通信技术的移动通信网络在V2I中扮演了重要的角色.但需要采取多种措施来弥补和完善以H2H通信为初始设计目标的移动通信网络的不足,以适应当前和未来车联网应用对中远距离通信的需求.基于此,本文提出了移动通信网络承载车联网应用的3个主要问题,并论述了通过多种网络的应用、终端和平台的改进、网络的简单优化以及实施特定的网络改进等方案来解决上述问题的思路.%Different communication technologies are used in different cases of vehicle communication. Mobile communication network is a kind of medium and long range communication technology. It has played an important role in V2I. But, for the requirements of current and future vehicle communication, we still need make efforts to improve the ability of mobile communication network which is designed for H2H communication originally. The article discusses three main problems of mobile network for vehicle communication. And it suggests that we may solve those problems by different ways, for example, the application of different kinds of networks, the improvement of software on terminals and platform, the simple optimization of mobile network, and the protocol adaptation of mobile network.

  14. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    , mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology applications......As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...

  15. 移动式电动汽车充换电的服务理念及其实施%Mobile Battery Charging/Swapping Service for Electric Vehicles and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑾; 杨冠群; 唐国春

    2014-01-01

    电动汽车未来大规模发展需要众多公共充电设施的支持,但是出于地面场地的限制,以及大规模充电对配电网可能带来的冲击,极大地限制了固定式充电设施的布设。为了克服这些困难,提出一种全新的设想方案,即建立移动式电动汽车充换电系统,并分析了这一系统相对于固定式充电设施的优势,以及它从技术角度的可行性。%The massive development of electric vehicles in near future demands numerous public charging infrastructure’s backup. However, the restriction of ground space and the possible impacts of large-scale charging behavior on distribution network, significantly confine the installment of fixable charging infrastructure. In order to overcome these difficulties, a novel conjecture scheme-establish-ment of a mobile battery charging/swapping system for electric vehicles is presented. Furthermore, the advantages of the novel system over fixable charging infrastructure and the feasibility of implementation from the point of view of technology is analyzed.

  16. Estimating the early household market for light-duty hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles and other "Mobile Energy" innovations in California: A constraints analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    Facing stiff competition from conventional and gasoline-hybrid vehicles, the commercialization prospects for hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles (H 2FCVs) are uncertain. Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive their adoption, early markets for H 2FCVs are explored in the context of a group of promising opportunities collectively called mobile energy (ME) innovation. An estimate of the initial market potential for ME-enabled vehicles is produced by applying various constraints that eliminate unlikely households from consideration for early adoption of H 2FCVs and other ME technologies (such as plug-in hybrids). Currently 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians live in households pre-adapted to ME-enabled vehicles, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H 2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing H 2FCVs and related ME innovations.

  17. Soil Moisture Estimation Across Scales with Mobile Sensors for Cosmic-Ray Neutrons from the Ground and Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhler, Mandy; Bannehr, Lutz; Köhli, Markus; Fersch, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Kögler, Simon; Schröter, Ingmar; Wollschläger, Ute; Oswald, Sascha; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable for environmental sciences, but its determination at various scales and depths is still an open challenge. Cosmic-ray neutron sensing has become a well accepted and unique method to monitor an effective soil water content, covering tens of hectares in area and tens of centimeters in depth. The technology is famous for its low maintanance, non-invasiveness, continous measurement, and most importantly its large footprint and penetration depth. Beeing more representative than point data, and finer resolved plus deeper penetrating than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for agriculture, regional hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of omnipresent neutrons which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen in soil, plants, snow and air. Unwanted hydrogen sources in the footprint can be excluded by local calibration to extract the pure soil water information. However, this procedure is not feasible for mobile measurements, where neutron detectors are mounted on a car to do catchment-scale surveys. As a solution to that problem, we suggest strategies to correct spatial neutron data with the help of available spatial data of soil type, landuse and vegetation. We further present results of mobile rover campaigns at various scales and conditions, covering small sites from 0.2 km2 to catchments of 100 km2 area, and complex terrain from agricultural fields, urban areas, forests, to snowy alpine sites. As the rover is limited to accessible roads, we further investigated the applicability of airborne measurements. First tests with a gyrocopter at 150 to 200m heights proofed the concept of airborne neutron detection for environmental sciences. Moreover, neutron transport simulations confirm an improved areal coverage during these campaigns. Mobile neutron measurements at the ground or air are a promising tool for the detection of water sources across many

  18. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  19. An interactive physics-based unmanned ground vehicle simulator leveraging open source gaming technology: progress in the development and application of the virtual autonomous navigation environment (VANE) desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Mitchell M.; Crawford, Justin; Toschlog, Matthew; Iagnemma, Karl D.; Kewlani, Guarav; Cummins, Christopher L.; Jones, Randolph A.; Horner, David A.

    2009-05-01

    It is widely recognized that simulation is pivotal to vehicle development, whether manned or unmanned. There are few dedicated choices, however, for those wishing to perform realistic, end-to-end simulations of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE), under development by US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), provides such capabilities but utilizes a High Performance Computing (HPC) Computational Testbed (CTB) and is not intended for on-line, real-time performance. A product of the VANE HPC research is a real-time desktop simulation application under development by the authors that provides a portal into the HPC environment as well as interaction with wider-scope semi-automated force simulations (e.g. OneSAF). This VANE desktop application, dubbed the Autonomous Navigation Virtual Environment Laboratory (ANVEL), enables analysis and testing of autonomous vehicle dynamics and terrain/obstacle interaction in real-time with the capability to interact within the HPC constructive geo-environmental CTB for high fidelity sensor evaluations. ANVEL leverages rigorous physics-based vehicle and vehicle-terrain interaction models in conjunction with high-quality, multimedia visualization techniques to form an intuitive, accurate engineering tool. The system provides an adaptable and customizable simulation platform that allows developers a controlled, repeatable testbed for advanced simulations. ANVEL leverages several key technologies not common to traditional engineering simulators, including techniques from the commercial video-game industry. These enable ANVEL to run on inexpensive commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. In this paper, the authors describe key aspects of ANVEL and its development, as well as several initial applications of the system.

  20. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett David

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the

  1. Clinical Application of New Wireless Mobile Medical Care Vehicle%新型无线移动护理车的临床应用探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计虹

    2012-01-01

    介绍了无线移动护理车的特点和功用,阐述了其拥有的无线网络支撑技术和无线移动车满足临床护理应用一体化的优势,分析了其相对于手持PDA、平板计算机及便携式计算机等设备所特有的优势,指出该新型无线移动护理车是信息系统向床旁延伸的重要途径,可有效提高医疗护理服务质量.%The features and functions of a new wireless mobile medical care vehicle are introduced, which utilizes wireless network technology and wireless mobile vehicle for integrated clinical application, and gains advantages over handheld PDA, tablet computer and portable computer. The medical care vehicle brings the information system to the bed, and thus enhances the medical care quality greatly .

  2. 基于手机蓝牙的遥控小车的设计%Design of Remote Control Vehicle Based on Bluetooth of Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符强; 任风华

    2011-01-01

    阐述一种通过手机蓝牙遥控小车行走的软、硬件设计。手机蓝牙作为客户端,小车上的蓝牙模块HC-04-D作为服务端。客户端采用Eclipse开发环境,J2ME编程,服务端采用单片机控制。双方通过串口仿真协议进行通信,单片机驱动直流电机控制小车行动。实验结果表明.小车可以接收手机遥控信号并灵活地进行前行、倒退、左转、右转和停止等功能。%Introduces a design of remote control vehicle based on bluetooth of mobile phone.The design regards the bluetooth mobile phone as a client and the bluetooth module HC-04-D as the server. Uses Eclipse-based software development environment, J2ME programming in the client, and single chip microcomputer control in the server. Creates a connection based on the RFCOMM protocol and communicates, the SCM drives DC motor to control the car action. The experiment result shows that the vehicle can move, back, turn left, turn right and stop under the control of mobile phone.

  3. 基于车队行进场景的MANET移动模型研究%Study on MANET Mobility Model in Vehicle Group Scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢山; 宋志群; 贾倩

    2016-01-01

    针对特定场景研究移动Ad Hoc网络( MANET )是当前研究的重点,而移动模型是研究 MANET 的基础,因此如何选择或建立更贴近实际应用场景的移动模型成为了研究 MANET 的关键环节。通过对现有典型移动模型的研究和分析,提出了一种模拟车队行进场景的移动模型,并利用 NS 2软件在此移动模型基础上对 MANET 性能进行仿真与分析,仿真结果表明,与传统的移动模型相比,该模型能更好地贴近车队行进场景。%The mobile Ad Hoc networks (MANET) for a specific scene is the focus of current research.The mobility model is the foundation of MANET.Therefore how to select or develop a mobility model which is closer to the real scenarios becomes the key in MANET research.A new mobility model for a vehicle group is proposed and simulated with NS2 by studying and analyzing the existing typical mobility model.The simulation results show that the new mobility model can be closer to the real application scenarios compared withthe traditional mobility model.

  4. Bird assemblage mist-netted in an Atlantic Forest area: a comparison between vertically-mobile and ground-level nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, M B; Alves, M A S

    2015-08-01

    Mist nets may be opened at different heights in the forest, but they are seldom used over 3 m above the ground. We used two different methods to compare species richness, composition, and relative abundance and trophic structure of the bird assemblage at Ilha Grande (with a 290 birds standardization): conventional ground-level nets (0-2.4 m height range) and elevated nets (0-17 m) with an adjustable-height system (modified from Humphrey et al., 1968) that we call vertically-mobile nets. There were significant differences in capture frequencies between methods for about 20% of the species (Chi-squared test, PForest.

  5. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Which Factors Can Protect Against Range Stress in Everyday Usage of Battery Electric Vehicles? Toward Enhancing Sustainability of Electric Mobility Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to advance understanding of factors that can protect against range anxiety, specifically range stress in everyday usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Range anxiety is a major barrier to the broad adoption of sustainable electric mobility systems. To develop strategies aimed at overcoming range anxiety, a clear understanding of this phenomenon and influencing factors is needed. We examined range anxiety in the form of everyday range stress (ERS) in a field study setting. Seventy-two customers leased a BEV for 3 months. The field study was specifically designed to enable examination of factors that can contribute to lower ERS. In particular, study design and sample recruitment were targeted at generating vehicle usage profiles that would lead to relatively frequent experience of situations requiring active management of range resources and thereby potentially leading to experienced range stress. Less frequent encounter with critical range situations, higher practical experience, subjective range competence, tolerance of low range, and experienced trustworthiness of the range estimation system were related to lower ERS. Moreover, range stress was found to be related to range satisfaction and BEV acceptance. The results underline the importance of the human factors perspective to overcome range anxiety and enhance sustainability of electric mobility systems. Trustworthiness should be employed as a key benchmark variable in the design of range estimation systems, and assistance systems should target increasing drivers' adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) to cope with critical range situations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Reduced Order Modeling for Rapid Simulation of Blast Events of a Military Ground Vehicle and Its Occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-12

    event, 0-100ms (blastoff), 800-1000ms (slam-down) Prescribed accelerative vertical motion / PSM Prescribed structural motion was used to model the...motion ( PSM ) file to be input to MADYMO. The deformation of the hull floor in MADYMO is shown in Figure 19. PSM captures the deformation of the...structure in the model, but it does not allow the deformed parts of the model to move with the rest of the vehicle. In other words, the PSM method when

  8. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i perception and reasoning, (ii mobility and navigation,(iii haptics and teleoperation, (iv image fusion/computervision, (v modelling of manipulators, (vi hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii vehicle-robot path and motionplanning/control, (viii human-machine interfaces for interaction between humans and robots, and (ix application of artificial neural networks (ANNs, fuzzy logic/systems (FLS,probabilistic/approximate reasoning (PAR, Bayesian networks(BN and genetic algorithms (GA to the above-mentioned problems. Also, multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF playsvery crucial role at many levels of the data fusion process:(i kinematic fusion (position/bearing tracking, (ii imagefusion (for scene recognition, (iii information fusion (forbuilding world models, and (iv decision fusion (for tracking,control actions. The MIAS as a technology is useful for automation of complex tasks, surveillance in a hazardousand hostile environment, human-assistance in very difficultmanual works, medical robotics, hospital systems, autodiagnosticsystems, and many other related civil and military systems. Also, other important research areas for MIAScomprise sensor/actuator modelling, failure management/reconfiguration, scene understanding, knowledge representation, learning and decision-making. Examples ofdynamic systems considered within the MIAS would be:autonomous systems (unmanned ground vehicles, unmannedaerial vehicles, micro/mini air vehicles, and autonomousunder water vehicles, mobile/fixed robotic systems, dexterousmanipulator robots, mining robots, surveillance systems,and networked/multi-robot systems, to name a few.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.3-4,

  9. Electric road vehicles - a technology serving environmentally benign mobility. Elektro-Strassenfahrzeuge - eine Technik fuer umweltschonende Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkner, W. (Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Kraftwerkstechnik); Hellriegel, E.; Schaefer, H.; Wagner, U. (Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE), Muenchen (Germany))

    1992-06-01

    The constantly growing environmental stress in industrialized areas that is caused by emissions is largely due to the use of private motor vehicles. The introduction of new, environmentally benign means of transport is therefore an urgent necessity in order to abate the air pollution caused by traffic and to dampen its effects on man and nature in the industrialized regions. One such technological product is the electric road vehicle, which is quiet compared with conventional vehicles and causes almost no emissions at the place where it is used. Even if the production of electricity prior to its operation is included, the specific emissions of almost all noxious gases and the climatically crucial gas CO{sub 2} are extremely favourable in the case of the electromobile. (orig.).

  10. Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

    2014-06-01

    As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

  11. Perception and mobility research at Defence R&D Canada for UGVs in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, Michael; Collier, Jack; Beckman, Blake; Digney, Bruce; Vincent, Isabelle

    2007-04-01

    The Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield envisions autonomous systems contributing to decisive operations in the urban battle space. In this vision, teams of unmanned ground, air, and marine vehicles, and unattended ground sensors will gather and coordinate information, formulate plans, and complete tasks. The mobility requirement for ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings must increase significantly if robotic technology is to augment human efforts in military relevant roles and environments. In order to achieve its objective, the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section is pursuing research that explores the use of intelligent mobility algorithms designed to improve robot mobility. Intelligent mobility uses sensing and perception, control, and learning algorithms to extract measured variables from the world, control vehicle dynamics, and learn by experience. These algorithms seek to exploit available world representations of the environment and the inherent dexterity of the robot to allow the vehicle to interact with its surroundings and produce locomotion in complex terrain. However, a disconnect exists between the current state-of-the-art in perception systems and the information required for novel platforms to interact with their environment to improve mobility in complex terrain. The primary focus of the paper is to present the research tools, topics, and plans to address this gap in perception and control research. This research will create effective intelligence to improve the mobility of ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings to assist the Canadian Forces in their future urban operations.

  12. Mobility Exercise A (MEXA) Field Test Program. Report 4. Performance of Selected MEXA and Military Vehicles in Vertical Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    In the dynamic response model are listed In table Al. Body bounce 19. The vertical bounce of the body of the vehicle with respect to Its center of...for bounce and one for roll. The general equation that describes the vertical bounce of the axles is obtained by summing the total forces acting on

  13. Monolithically Integrated Micro Flapping Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical Logic • Memory Mm-Scale Ground Mobility Actuation & Mechanisms Ultrasonic Motors Reversible Adhesion Platform Design...MEMS Mm-Scale Ground Mobility PiezoMEMS Haltere Actuation & Mechanisms Ultrasonic Motors Reversible Adhesion Platform Design Flapping

  14. Effects of image orientation and ground control points distribution on unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry projects on a road cut slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Ramírez, Fernando; Agüera-Vega, Francisco; Martínez-Carricondo, Patricio J.

    2016-07-01

    The morphology of road cut slopes, such as length and high slopes, is one of the most prevalent causes of landslides and terrain stability troubles. Digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthoimages are used for land management purposes. Two flights with different orientations with respect to the target surface were planned, and four photogrammetric projects were carried out during these flights to study the image orientation effects. Orthogonal images oriented to the cut slope with only sidelaps were compared to the classical vertical orientation, with sidelapping, endlapping, and both types of overlapping simultaneously. DEM and orthoimages obtained from the orthogonal project showed smaller errors than those obtained from the other three photogrammetric projects, with the first one being much easier to manage. One additional flight and six photogrammetric projects were used to establish an objective criterion to locate the three ground control points for georeferencing and rectification DEMs and orthoimages. All possible sources of errors were evaluated in the DEMs and orthoimages.

  15. Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Palanque, Philippe Andre Rolan; Martinie, De Almeida; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  16. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  17. Medicare program; conditions for payment of power mobility devices, including power wheelchairs and power-operated vehicles. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-26

    This interim final rule conforms our regulations to section 302(a)(2)(E)(iv) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (Pub. L. 108-173). This rule defines the term power mobility devices (PMDs) as power wheelchairs and power operated vehicles (POVs or scooters). It sets forth revised conditions for Medicare payment of PMDs and defines who may prescribe PMDs. This rule also requires a face-to-face examination of the beneficiary by the physician or treating practitioner and a PMD prescription and pertinent parts of the medical record that the durable medical equipment supplier maintains in records and makes available to CMS or its agents upon request. Finally, this rule discusses CMS' policy on documentation that may be requested by CMS or its agents to support a Medicare claim for payment, as well as the elimination for the Certificate of Medical Necessity for PMDs.

  18. How thawing ground ice can affect the mobility of landslides: the case study of Móafellshyrna Mountain in northern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Costanza; Conway, Susan J.; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Balme, Matthew R.; Kristinn Helgason, Jón; Jordan, Colm; Hillier, John; Argles, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The risks associated with permafrost degradation in Arctic and alpine environments have received growing attention, but few studies address the effects of thawing ground ice on the landscape of Iceland. Permafrost degradation can affect slope stability [1], but its role in conditioning mass movements in Iceland is poorly understood. Our study focusses on the effects of ground-ice on the behaviour and mobility of landslides, using a case study in northern Iceland to assess the morphology and mobility of the unstable mass. Characterizing this kind of landslide is crucial in order to mitigate the risks of similar landslides that might occur in the future. The landslide occurred in 2012 on the northwest-facing flank of Móafellshyrna Mountain (Tröllaskagi peninsula, Iceland), mobilising about 500,000 m3 of debris. Immediately after the failure, we observed large blocks of ice-cemented sediments both in the main body of the landslide and perched on a topographic bench - the source of the failure. The landslide originated at 870 m a.s.l., an altitude that corresponds to the modelled elevation limits of the discontinuous permafrost in northern Iceland [2]. The failure happened after an unusually warm and dry summer, followed by weeks of heavy precipitation (440 mm during the month before the event, when the mean annual precipitation here is 670 mm) and earthquake activity (three events, all above 4 M on the Richter scale). We present the results of our analysis of the Móafellshyrna landslide. Our study includes differential GPS, Ground Penetrating Radar and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) creation using Structure from Motion (SfM) to provide morphological and volumetric characterisation of the slide's features. We also used air photography and 1 m resolution airborne LiDAR data, collected in 2015. We used these data to identify and analyse the landforms and processes involved during the failure. We quantify the volumes eroded, transported and deposited along the flow

  19. Unmanned Mobile Monitoring for Nuclear Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, YoungSoo; Park, JongWon; Kim, TaeWon; Jeong, KyungMin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Severe accidents at nuclear power plant have led to significant consequences to the people, the environment or the facility. Therefore, the appropriate response is required for the mitigation of the accidents. In the past, most of responses were performed by human beings, but it was dangerous and risky. In this paper, we proposed unmanned mobile system for the monitoring of nuclear accident in order to response effectively. For the integrity of reactor cooling and containment building, reactor cooling pipe and hydrogen distribution monitoring with unmanned ground vehicle was designed. And, for the safety of workers, radiation distribution monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicle was designed. Unmanned mobile monitoring system was proposed to respond nuclear accidents effectively. Concept of reinforcing the integrity of RCS and containment building, and radiation distribution monitoring were described. RCS flow measuring, hydrogen distribution measuring and radiation monitoring deployed at unmanned vehicle were proposed. These systems could be a method for the preparedness of effective response of nuclear accidents.

  20. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-11-11

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  1. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegyu Jang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo. In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services SC (special committee-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  2. A Bibliography with Abstracts of U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Publications Related to Vehicle Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    Related Ground Support Equipment, by E. S. Rush Statement B. See Preface. 23 Mi scel lareo.- Pato rs Number Date Title _A0 Number M-73-S Jun 1973 Event...intensities of traffic. It is recommendeid that addi donal tests using other wheel loads and tire pressures be conducted to develop ctiteria for

  3. Intercomparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Ground-Based Narrow Band Spectrometers Applied to Crop Trait Monitoring in Organic Potato Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues Franceschini, Marston Héracles; Bartholomeus, Harm; van Apeldoorn, Dirk; Suomalainen, Juha; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-06-18

    Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling. Also organic production systems can benefit from continuous monitoring focusing on crop management and stress detection, but few studies have evaluated applications with this objective. In this study, ground-based and UAV spectrometers were compared in the context of organic potato cultivation. Relatively accurate estimates were obtained for leaf chlorophyll (RMSE = 6.07 µg·cm(-2)), leaf area index (RMSE = 0.67 m²·m(-2)), canopy chlorophyll (RMSE = 0.24 g·m(-2)) and ground cover (RMSE = 5.5%) using five UAV-based data acquisitions, from 43 to 99 days after planting. These retrievals are slightly better than those derived from ground-based measurements (RMSE = 7.25 µg·cm(-2), 0.85 m²·m(-2), 0.28 g·m(-2) and 6.8%, respectively), for the same period. Excluding observations corresponding to the first acquisition increased retrieval accuracy and made outputs more comparable between sensors, due to relatively low vegetation cover on this date. Intercomparison of vegetation indices indicated that indices based on the contrast between spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared, like OSAVI, MCARI2 and CIg provided, at certain extent, robust outputs that could be transferred between sensors. Information sampling at plot level by both sensing solutions resulted in comparable discriminative potential concerning advanced stages of late blight incidence. These results indicate that optical sensors

  4. Evaluation of light-duty vehicle mobile source regulations on ozone concentration trends in 2018 and 2030 in the western and eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Susan; Minoura, Hiroaki; Kidokoro, Toru; Sonoda, Yukihiro; Kinugasa, Yukio; Karamchandani, Prakash

    2014-02-01

    To improve U.S. air quality, there are many regulations on-the-way (OTW) and on-the-books (OTB), including mobile source California Low Emission Vehicle third generation (LEV III) and federal Tier 3 standards. This study explores the effects of those regulations by using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for 8-hr ozone concentrations in the western and eastern United States in the years 2018 and 2030 during a month with typical high ozone concentrations, July. Alterations in pollutant emissions can be due to technological improvements, regulatory amendments, and changes in growth. In order to project emission rates for future years, the impacts of all of these factors were estimated. This study emphasizes the potential light-duty vehicle emission changes by year to predict ozone levels. The results of this study show that most areas have decreases in 8-hr ozone concentrations in the year 2030, although there are some areas with increased concentrations. Additionally, there are areas with 8-hr ozone concentrations greater than the current US. National Ambient Air Quality Standard level, which is 75 ppb.

  5. Tandem mobile robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Shirey, David L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  6. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Tracked Vehicle Movement across Desert Pavement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing program. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. The simulated exposure of wash vegetation to water loss was quantified using estimates of exposed land area from a digital ortho quarter quad aerial photo and field observations, a 30 30 m digital elevation model, the flow accumulation feature of ESRI ArcInfo, and a two-step process in which runoff was estimated from direct precipitation to a land area and from water that flowed from upgradient to a land area. In all simulated scenarios, absolute water loss decreased with distance from the disturbance, downgradient in the washes; however, percentage water loss was greatest in land areas immediately downgradient of a disturbance. Potential effects on growth and survival of wash trees were quantified by using an empirical relationship derived from a local unpublished study of water infiltration rates. The risk characterization concluded that neither risk to wash vegetation growth or survival nor risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction was expected. The risk characterization was negative for both the incremental risk of the test program and the combination of the test and pretest disturbances.

  7. Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zajic, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

  8. 汽车经济性驾驶技术及应用概述%Overview of ecological driving technology and application for ground vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升波; 徐少兵; 王文军; 成波

    2014-01-01

    The ecological driving technology of ground vehicles is critical for energy-sustainable road transportation. This technology, centered on the optimization and the coordination of driver, vehicle, road infrastructure and trafifc lfow, aims to reduce the fuel consumption of vehicles in travel ing by reshaping drivers’ habits, assisting driving manipulation and implementing vehicular automation, etc. This paper summarizes the key aspects of vehicular eco-driving technology, including its history, the state of arts and the theoretical chal enges. Two major identiifcation methods of the eco-driving strategies are reviewed, i.e. the experiment based method and the optimization based method. The applications can be classiifed into the eco-driving education, the eco-driving assistance, and the eco-vehicular automation. The ifrst item is easy to be implemented and suitable for government promotion;the second item has most promising market prospect;and the last item wil become proper carrier for eco-driving technology with the popularity of vehicular automation.%汽车经济性驾驶是道路交通节能减排的重要方向。该技术以驾驶人与车辆/道路/交通流的优化与协调为核心,通过重塑驾驶员习惯、辅助驾驶员操作以及车辆自动化控制等手段,满足出行需求的同时降低行驶过程的油耗。该文综述了汽车经济性驾驶技术的发展历史、技术现状与理论难点;介绍了节油驾驶策略的实验型和理论型辨识方法。其应用可分为3类:易于实施、适合政府层面推动的驾驶员教育;最具产品化前景、值得业界关注的节油驾驶辅助;将是经济性驾驶技术的理想载体的自动驾驶。

  9. A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

    By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

  10. Poster Abstract: Automatic Calibration of Device Attitude in Inertial Measurement Unit Based Traffic Probe Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2016-04-28

    Probe vehicles consist in mobile traffic sensor networks that evolve with the flow of vehicles, transmitting velocity and position measurements along their path, generated using GPSs. To address the urban positioning issues of GPSs, we propose to replace them with inertial measurement units onboard vehicles, to estimate vehicle location and attitude using inertial data only. While promising, this technology requires one to carefully calibrate the orientation of the device inside the vehicle to be able to process the acceleration and rate gyro data. In this article, we propose a scheme that can perform this calibration automatically by leveraging the kinematic constraints of ground vehicles, and that can be implemented on low-end computational platforms. Preliminary testing shows that the proposed scheme enables one to accurately estimate the actual accelerations and rotation rates in the vehicle coordinates. © 2016 IEEE.

  11. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

    2014-09-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

  12. Implementation of the ABL-90 blood gas analyzer in a ground-based mobile emergency care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Wolsing-Hansen, Jonathan; Nybo, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Point-of Care analysis is increasingly being applied in the prehospital scene. Arterial blood gas analysis is one of many new initiatives adding to the diagnostic tools of the prehospital physician. In this paper we present a study on the feasibility of the Radiometer ABL-90 in a ground...

  13. Successful marriage: American Panel Corporation and LG Philips LCD custom-designed avionic, shipboard, and rugged ground vehicle display modules from a consumer-oriented fabrication facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William; Garrett, Kimberly S.

    2001-09-01

    American panel corporation (APC) believes the use of custom designed (instead of ruggedized commercial) AMLCD cells is the only way to meet the specific environmental and performance requirements of the military/commercial avionic, shipboard and rugged ground vehicle markets. The APC/LG.Philips LCD (LG) custom approach mitigates risk to the end-user in many ways. As a part of the APC/LG long- term agreement LG has committed to provide module level equivalent (form, fit and function equivalent) panels for a period of ten years. No other commercial glass manufacturer has provided such an agreement. With the use of LG's commercial production manufacturing capabilities, APC/LG can provide the opportunity to procure a lifetime buy for any program with delivery of the entire lot within six months of order placement. This ensures that the entire production program will receive identical glass for every unit. The APC/LG relationship works where others have failed due to the number of years spent cultivating the mutual trust and respect necessary for establishing such a partnership, LG's interest in capturing the market share of this niche application, and the magnitude of the initial up-front investment by APC in engineering, tooling, facilities, production equipment, and LCD cell inventory.

  14. Innovation in sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: internet and mobile phone delivery vehicles for global diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-03-01

    Efficacious behavioral interventions and practices have not been universally accepted, adopted, or diffused by policy makers, administrators, providers, advocates, or consumers. Biomedical innovations for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV prevention have been embraced but their effectiveness is hindered by behavioral factors. Behavioral interventions are required to support providers and consumers for adoption and diffusion of biomedical innovations, protocol adherence, and sustained prevention for other STDs. Information and communication technology such as the Internet and mobile phones can deliver behavioral components for STD/HIV prevention and care to more people at less cost. Recent innovations in STD/HIV prevention with information and communication technology-mediated behavioral supports include STD/HIV testing and partner interventions, behavioral interventions, self-management, and provider care. Computer-based and Internet-based behavioral STD/HIV interventions have demonstrated efficacy comparable to face-to-face interventions. Mobile phone STD/HIV interventions using text-messaging are being broadly utilized but more work is needed to demonstrate efficacy. Electronic health records and care management systems can improve care, but interventions are needed to support adoption. Information and communication technology is rapidly diffusing globally. Over the next 5-10 years smart-phones will be broadly disseminated, connecting billions of people to the Internet and enabling lower cost, highly engaging, and ubiquitous STD/HIV prevention and treatment support interventions.

  15. Integration of a manipulator system with a mobile vehicle to perform multiple tasks in a hazardous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, N.R.; Burrows, M.S.; Pattinson, A. [Magnox Electric, Dartford (United Kingdom). Remote Operations; Bamforth, C. [UK Robotics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Schilling, R. [Schilling Robotic Systems Inc., Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The closure of the Magnox Reactor Nuclear Power Station at Trawsfynydd in North Wales was announced in Summer 1993. Since these reactors are to be decommissioned the opportunity is available for destructive investigations to be carried out on the material properties of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) welds at the `South Pole` location of the vessel. A variety of track laying remotely operated vehicles (RPV) and support equipment is required to accomplish insulation removal and sample acquisition on four of these welds at Trawsfynydd. This paper describes the integration of a Schilling Gamma II manipulator system (with tool interchange), the UK Robotics Advanced Teleoperation Controller and the TELEGRIP (tGRIP/IGRIP) system with an ROV platform to undertake the weld sampling project. It also describes the particular system developments required at Schilling, UK Robotics and Magnox Electric to satisfy the overall requirements of the project. (Author).

  16. Mobile robot control on uneven and slippery ground: An adaptive approach based on a multi-model observer

    OpenAIRE

    Lenain, R.; Thuilot, B.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes an algorithm dedicated to off-road mobile robot path tracking at high speed. In order to ensure a high accuracy, a predictive and adaptive approach is developed to face the various perturbations due to this context (mainly the bad grip conditions and the terrain geometry). The control law is based on previous work, and requires the knowledge of sideslip angles, which cannot be directly measured. As a result, an observer based on two levels of modeli...

  17. Flywheels: Mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, D. W.

    1981-06-01

    The characteristics of modern flywheel energy storage systems uniquely qualify the flywheel for use in a variety of road vehicles, off road vehicles and rail vehicles. About sixty studies and vehicle demonstration programs in a dozen countries indicate that future such flywheel powered vehicles will have improved performance, reduced energy and fuel consumption and reduced life cycle cost. Flywheel capabilities and mobile applications were reviewed.

  18. Identification of dynamic parameters in low-mobility mechanical systems: application to short long arm vehicle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Francisco; Iriarte, Xabier; Mata, Vicente; Ros, Javier

    2013-08-01

    The identification of dynamic parameters in low-mobility mechanical systems is addressed and applied to short long arm (SLA) front car suspension. The main goal of the identification technique is to obtain, from experimental measurements, the values of those dynamic parameters (masses, location of the centre of masses, terms of the inertial matrix of the links, constant friction terms and elastic and viscous damping constant terms) that affect the dynamic behaviour of the system. Moreover, additional but important information that could be obtained from the procedure is related to the weight of those terms inside the dynamics of the system, so that simplified dynamic models based on relevant and well-identified parameters can be established. First, a systematic procedure will be presented for obtaining the equations of motion in a linear form with regard to the dynamic parameters to be identified. The main drawbacks related to the identification of parameters in low-mobility mechanisms will be pointed out, mainly the difficulty of determining a natural cutoff point into the singular values of the observation matrix which allows us to determine the true dimension of the set of base parameters and of obtaining an observation matrix well conditioned from the numerical point of view that allows an identification in the presence of measurement error. The procedure proposed for overcoming these problems will be based on the development of symbolic relationships among the physical parameters in order to determine the true rank of the observation matrix and on the consideration of a reduced subset of the base parameters set. These relevant parameters will be selected according to their influence on the dynamic behaviour of the mechanical system. A virtual benchmark will be used for testing purposes. The dynamic models based on relevant parameters show a better adjustment than the complete ones, mainly when the level of noise in the measurements used in the identification

  19. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  20. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  1. Hermes vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretenet, J. C.

    1985-11-01

    The presence of Europe in the future developments of spatial programs, which are foreseen, for the 1990s and further, needs the availability of vehicles, modules and all related technologies adapted to operational use of low earth orbit station. The manned HERMES vehicle shall be part of the in-orbit infrastructure realized either in the European context or in cooperation between Europe and the United States. The main mission for this vehicle will be to run a shuttle with the station that means transport and change of the crews, its safe return in abort condition and cargo transport of consumable and experimental equipment. Secondary missions could be servicing on automatic platform, making autonomous scientific experiments. Lastly, the vehicle, by means of its on-board propulsion capability, could be used to accomplish in-orbit tow and assembly missions. Studies which are undertaken now about the vehicle are devoted to the aerodynamic shape (research of a compromise between aerothermic and overall fitting), the system (functional architecture, ground and flight configuration); further works dealing with technology are presently on hand in the field of thermal protection, aerodynamics, power generation with a high massic yield.

  2. Ground-state phase diagram, fermionic entanglement and kinetically-induced frustration in a hybrid ladder with localized spins and mobile electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R. C. P.; Pereira, M. S. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.; Strečka, J.; Lyra, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an exactly solvable hybrid spin-ladder model containing localized nodal Ising spins and interstitial mobile electrons, which are allowed to perform a quantum-mechanical hopping between the ladder’s legs. The quantum-mechanical hopping process induces an antiferromagnetic coupling between the ladder’s legs that competes with a direct exchange coupling of the nodal spins. The model is exactly mapped onto the Ising spin ladder with temperature-dependent two- and four-spin interactions, which is subsequently solved using the transfer-matrix technique. We report the ground-state phase diagram and compute the fermionic concurrence to characterize the quantum entanglement between the pair of interstitial mobile electrons. We further provide a detailed analysis of the local spin ordering including the pair and four-spin correlation functions around an elementary plaquette, as well as, the local ordering diagrams. It is shown that a complex sequence of distinct local orderings and frustrated correlations takes place when the model parameters drive the investigated system close to a zero-temperature triple coexistence point.

  3. Ground Vehicle CFD at TARDEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    or liquid+solid • Challenges • Multiphase + Lagrangian particles • Combustion (~9 reaction steps) • Initial fireball • Suppression chemistry...Iso-surface of Temperature 800K, FM200 Parcels Example: Testbed Fireball Generation - 10 Hole Showerhead FOUO • Traditional analysis evaluates a

  4. Influence of mobile air-conditioning on vehicle emissions and fuel consumption: a model approach for modern gasoline cars used in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Vasic, Ana-Marija; Stettler, Peter; Novak, Philippe

    2005-12-15

    The influence of air-conditioning activity on the emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars is an important issue, since fleet penetration and use of these systems have reached a high level. Apart from the MOBILE6 study in the United States, little data is available on the impact of air-conditioning devices (A/Cs). Since weather conditions and A/C technologies both differ from those in the U. S., a test series was designed for the European setting. A fleet of six modern gasoline passenger cars was tested in different weather conditions. Separate test series were carried out for the initial cooldown and for the stationary situation of keeping the interior of the vehicle cool. As assumed, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption rise with the thermal load. This also causes a notable rise in CO and hydrocarbons (HCs). Moreover, A/Cs do not stop automatically at low ambient temperatures; if necessary, they produce dry air to demist the windscreen. A model is proposed that shows a constant load for lower temperatures and a linear trend for higher temperatures. The initial cooldown tests highlight significant differences among cars but show that A/C operation for the initial cooling of an overheated passenger compartment does not result in any extra emissions for the fleet as a whole.

  5. Investigating the Perceptions of Care Coordinators on Using Behavior Theory-Based Mobile Health Technology With Medicaid Populations: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Brittany Erika

    2017-03-21

    Medicaid populations are less engaged in their health care than the rest of the population, translating to worse health outcomes and increased health care costs. Since theory-based mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to increase patient engagement, mobile phones may be an optimal strategy to reach this population. With increased development of theory-based mHealth technology, these interventions must now be evaluated with these medically underserved populations in a real-world setting. The aim of our study was to investigate care coordinators' perceived value of using a health behavior theory-based mHealth platform with Medicaid clients. In particular, attention was paid to the perceived impact on patient engagement. This research was conducted using the patient-provider text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform, Sense Health (now Wellpass), which integrates the transtheoretical model (TTM), also called the stages of change model; social cognitive theory (SCT); supportive accountability; and motivational interviewing (MI). Interviews based in grounded theory methodology were conducted with 10 care managers to understand perceptions of the relationship between mHealth and patient engagement. The interviews with care managers yielded a foundation for a grounded theory model, presenting themes that suggested 4 intertwined correlative relationships revolving around patient engagement: (1) A text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform supplements the client-care manager dynamic, which is grounded in high quality, reciprocal-communication to increase patient engagement; (2) Texting enhances the relationship between literacy and access to care for Medicaid patients, increasing low-literacy patients' agency to access services; (3) Texting enhances communication, providing care managers with a new means to support their clients; and (4) Reminders augment client accountability, leading to both increased motivation and readiness to change

  6. Investigating the Perceptions of Care Coordinators on Using Behavior Theory-Based Mobile Health Technology With Medicaid Populations: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Medicaid populations are less engaged in their health care than the rest of the population, translating to worse health outcomes and increased health care costs. Since theory-based mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to increase patient engagement, mobile phones may be an optimal strategy to reach this population. With increased development of theory-based mHealth technology, these interventions must now be evaluated with these medically underserved populations in a real-world setting. Objective The aim of our study was to investigate care coordinators’ perceived value of using a health behavior theory-based mHealth platform with Medicaid clients. In particular, attention was paid to the perceived impact on patient engagement. This research was conducted using the patient-provider text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform, Sense Health (now Wellpass), which integrates the transtheoretical model (TTM), also called the stages of change model; social cognitive theory (SCT); supportive accountability; and motivational interviewing (MI). Methods Interviews based in grounded theory methodology were conducted with 10 care managers to understand perceptions of the relationship between mHealth and patient engagement. Results The interviews with care managers yielded a foundation for a grounded theory model, presenting themes that suggested 4 intertwined correlative relationships revolving around patient engagement: (1) A text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform supplements the client-care manager dynamic, which is grounded in high quality, reciprocal-communication to increase patient engagement; (2) Texting enhances the relationship between literacy and access to care for Medicaid patients, increasing low-literacy patients’ agency to access services; (3) Texting enhances communication, providing care managers with a new means to support their clients; and (4) Reminders augment client accountability, leading to both

  7. Mobilities Mobilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pompeyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-, profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

  8. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James

    2017-02-28

    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  9. Distribution and mobility of selenium and other trace elements in shallow ground water of the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverel, S.J.; Millard, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of shallow groundwater that underlies much of the irrigated area in the western San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for various major ions and trace elements, including selenium. Concentrations of the major ions generally were similar for groundwater collected in the two primary geologic zones--the alluvial fan and basin trough. Soils in the alluvial fan zone are derived from Coast Range rocks and soils in the basin-trough zone are from a mixture of Sierra Nevada and Coast Range sources. Most of the variance in concentrations of major ions, as determined by principal components analysis, was associated with groundwater salinity and the dominant ions--magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride. Most of the variance in trace elements was associated with concentrations of boron, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium, which are present as mobile oxyanions. The concentrations of oxyanions trace elements were significantly correlated (a=0.05) with groundwater salinity , but the correlations between selenium and salinity and molybdenum and salinity were significantly different (a=0.05) in the alluvial fan geologic zone compared with the basin-trough geologic zone. In addition, selenium concentrations are significantly (a=0.05) higher in the groundwater of the alluvial fan zone than in the basin-trough zone. The evidence suggests that the main factors influencing selenium concentrations in the shallow groundwater are the degree of groundwater salinity and geologic source of the alluvial soil material. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  11. 越野环境中无人驾驶车的障碍目标识别%Obstacle Identification in Cross-Country Environment for Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一兵; 郭烈; 张明恒; 李琳辉

    2011-01-01

    针对无人驾驶车环境感知技术,基于D-S证据理论融合多传感器信息,旨在解决障碍物身份识别技术难点.基于CCD和激光传感器建立信息融合系统,并提取每种障碍物的5个特征证据,包括距离对比度特征、平行四边形特征、边缘形状特征、灰度纹理特征和颜色特征.再根据目标类型和环境加权系数选择经验公式,通过模糊插值法求取身份隶属度近似获得各特征对目标的相关系数构造基本概率赋值函数.最后制定Dempster组合规则,融合多传感器特征信息识别障碍身份.试验表明本文方法能够准确有效地获取基本概率赋值函数,D-S证据理论融合方法提高了障碍物身份识别的准确性和鲁棒性.%Autonomous navigation in cross-country environments presents many new challenges including obstacle perception for unmanned ground vehicle. A new method suitable for recognizing obstacle is proposed. The first step is to build the sensor fusion system by using sensors such as CCD and ladar, then to extract five different types of features, including distance contrast, parallelogram rate, edge-shape-factor, gray texture and HSV value. The experiment formula is selected according to the types of obstacle and weight efficiency to calculate basic probability assignment (BPA). The subordinatien to each event in identification framework is obtained by using the fuzzy interpolation. It is supposed that the subordination is equal to correlation coefficient in the formula. Finally, dempster rules are used to integrate sensors information and the obstacle is recognized based on the D-S theory of evidence. The test results indicate that the resolution of BPA is correct, thus improving the validity and robustness of cross-country environment perception based on the new method.

  12. Mobility Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    Greater Vehicle Weights X Faster Pavement Road Speed X Lower Ground Pressure X Greater Vertical Climb X Greater Trench Crossing...Technology: Shweel Tire /Shock-Wheel Description: Rigid wheel with attached tread connected with shock absorbers between wheel and hub. Company

  13. 基于4G移动通信系统的车联网关键技术研究%Research on the key technologies for internet of vehicles based on 4G mobile communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有鹏; 李霞

    2015-01-01

    车联网是未来汽车的发展方向,也是信息化社会的必然需求。4G移动通信系统为车联网的实用化提供了关键的无线信道资源。为了使车联网尽快投入使用,研究了车联网的运用模式和系统结构,设计了车载终端和车联网信息中心,创新性地提出了智能导航、智能交管、信息发布、车间通信等车上应用的技术原理和实现方案,并研制了系统样机。通过样机验证,系统可提供多种车上信息服务,可有效提高车辆信息化水平,提高道路通行效率和车辆管理水平。%The internet of vehicles is the development direction of future vehicles,and also the necessary requirement of the information⁃based society. The key wireless channel resources are provided by 4G mobile communication system for the inter⁃net of vehicles. In order to make the internet of vehicles into practice quickly,the application mode and system structure of the internet of vehicles are studied,and the vehicle terminal and information center of the internet of vehicles were designed. The technology principle and implementation scheme for the vehicles applications(intelligent navigation,intelligent traffic manage⁃ment,information publishment and inter⁃vehicle communication)are proposed,and the system prototype was development. The experiment with the prototype proves that the system can provide a variety of information services,improve the information level of vehicles effectively,and enhance the passing efficiency of the roads and management level of the vehicles.

  14. An optimal solution for enhancing ambulance safety: implementing a driver performance feedback and monitoring device in ground emergency medical service vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Nadine R; Swanson, Jon

    2005-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to determine if emergency vehicle driver risk behavior could be improved with an onboard computer-monitoring device, with real time auditory feedback. Data were collected over 18 months from 36 vehicles in a metropolitan EMS group, with >250 drivers. In >1.9 million recorded miles, performance improved from a baseline low of 0.018 miles between penalty counts to a high of 15.8 miles between counts. Seatbelt violations dropped from 13,500 to 4. There was a 20% saving in vehicle maintenance costs within 6 months. This technology demonstrated sustained cost savings in regards to vehicle maintenance as well as minimal retraining of drivers.

  15. Development of Mobile Radiological Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Mobile radiological monitor is used to detect gamma rays and neutron for personal and vehicle. It can be installed on a microbus as a mobile monitoring system. One large plastic scintillation detector is

  16. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  17. Mobile sensor platforms: categorisation and research applications in precision farming

    OpenAIRE

    Zecha, C. W.; Link, J; CLAUPEIN, W.

    2013-01-01

    The usage of mobile sensor platforms arose in research a few decades ago. Since the beginning of satellite sensing, measurement principles and analysing methods have become widely implemented for aerial and ground vehicles. Mainly in Europe, the United States and Australia, sensor platforms in precision farming are used for surveying, monitoring and scouting tasks. This review gives an overview of available sensor platforms used in recent agricultural and related research pr...

  18. Comparison of the passive dynamics of walking on ground, tied-belt and split-belt treadmills, and via the Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe (GEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzić, Ismet; Reed, Kyle B

    2013-06-01

    This research compares walking over ground, on a split-belt treadmill, on a tied-belt treadmill, and on the Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe (GEMS) in both humans and simulated on a passive dynamic model. Passive Dynamic Walkers (PDW) have been researched for decades, yet only recently has the model been used significantly in gait rehabilitation. We aim to identify how well the two-dimensional PDW can be used as a kinematic approximation tool for gait analysis. In this work, the PDW was scaled according to an anthropomorphic human model. For comparison, measurements were taken of humans walking in the same four environments. For normal walking, the PDW was found to be a good approximation for symmetric and rhythmic hip position, foot position, and velocity profiles. Tied-belt and split-belt treadmill model estimations revealed that the PDW's lack of dorsiflexion, joint stiffness, and joint damping limited the comparison, however trends between the human and the model agreed. The kinematics of the GEMS showed good agreement in interlimb interactions indicating that the PDW can be used as a good kinematic predictor for the GEMS.

  19. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Striuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major trends in academic mobility are identified (the transition from student mobility to mobility programs and educational services providers, the new mobility programs (franchising, double/joint degrees, combinations, nostrification etc. are characterized. The new types of mobility providers are reviewed and attention is focused on virtual universities that are now the basis of virtual mobility of students and activities which are based on the use of new ICT in higher education, especially – the Internet and mobile learning environments.

  20. Defining proprioceptive behaviors for autonomous mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, James L.; Hudas, Greg R.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2002-07-01

    Proprioception is a sense of body position and movement that supports the control of many automatic motor functions such as posture and locomotion. This concept, normally relegated to the fields of neural physiology and kinesiology, is being utilized in the field of unmanned mobile robotics. This paper looks at developing proprioceptive behaviors for use in controlling an unmanned ground vehicle. First, we will discuss the field of behavioral control of mobile robots. Next, a discussion of proprioception and the development of proprioceptive sensors will be presented. We will then focus on the development of a unique neural-fuzzy architecture that will be used to incorporate the control behaviors coming directly from the proprioceptive sensors. Finally we will present a simulation experiment where a simple multi-sensor robot, utilizing both external and proprioceptive sensors, is presented with the task of navigating an unknown terrain to a known target position. Results of the mobile robot utilizing this unique fusion methodology will be discussed.

  1. 装甲车辆与地面背景的热交互作用及红外仿真%Thermal interactions and infrared simulation of armored vehicles and ground background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉阁; 成志铎; 任登凤; 宣益民

    2013-01-01

    为了全面揭示装甲车辆与地面背景之间热交互作用对地面背景温度以及红外辐射特性的影响,建立了装甲车辆和地面背景的温度和红外辐射特性的模型,重点考虑了装甲车辆与地面之间的传热.通过对地面和履带相关力学关系的引入,建立运动车辆和地面之间热学以及力学的模型,采用了动网格方法对车辆目标在运动后对地面所产生的沉陷现象及在地面上留下的热痕迹进行模拟仿真.基于红外辐射理论,综合考虑自身辐射、反射辐射以及大气传输特性,计算了车辆在3种不同状态下与地面背景之间的热交互作用及红外辐射特征分布,并比较了模拟温度与实验测量温度的误差,验证了模型的精度.仿真结果表明:该方法对地面目标的隐身设计和隐身技术评估具有十分重要的意义.%In order to fully reveal the influence of thermal interactions between the armored vehicles and ground background on ground background temperature and infrared radiation characteristics, the temperature and infrared signature model of armored vehicles and ground background were established, with focus on heat transfer between armored vehicles and ground.By introducing mechanical relationship between the road and the track, thermal and mechanical models between the moving vehicle and the road were established.Using method of the moving mesh, the subsidence phenomenon and thermal trace on the road after target vehicle moving were simulated.Based on the infrared radiation theory, considering the radiation, reflective radiation and atmospheric transmission characteristic, the thermal interactions and infrared radiation characteristics distribution of armored vehicles and terrain background under three different conditions were calculated.The simulated temperature and measured temperature in the experiment were compared.The model's precision was validated.The simulation results show that this method is

  2. Cleaner drive - Obstacles in the way of a market for a new generation of vehicles; Cleaner Drive. Hindernisse fuer die Markteinfuehrung von neuen Fahrzeug-Generationen. Bericht ueber die Beteiligung von e'mobile am EU-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, U. [e' mobile, der Schweizerische Verband fuer elektrische und effiziente Strassenfahrzeuge, Berne (Switzerland); Domeniconi, R. [AssoVEL2, Mendrisio (Switzerland); Kaufmann, J. [Kaufmann Consulting, Berne (Switzerland); Werfeli, A. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Association of Swiss Traffic Engineers describes work done within the framework of the fifth European Research Framework Programme involving the development of tools to speed up the introduction of a new generations of vehicles. This report lists the work done by the Swiss e'mobil organisation and discusses the limitations placed on the work by its international framework. The report presents the 'Cleaner Drive' environmental evaluation methods used for vehicles. This considers greenhouse-gas emissions and external costs. Factors not considered, noise and bio-fuels, are mentioned. A data-base based decision-support tool is introduced. The development of the 'Cleaner Drive' web site is described. A further chapter takes a look at efforts being made in the area of filling stations for gaseous fuels.

  3. Intelligent mobility research for robotic locomotion in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, Michael; Beckman, Blake; Digney, Bruce; Vincent, Isabelle; Ricard, Benoit

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section of Defence R&D Canada - Suffield is best described by its mission statement, which is "to augment soldiers and combat systems by developing and demonstrating practical, cost effective, autonomous intelligent systems capable of completing military missions in complex operating environments." The mobility requirement for ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings must increase significantly if robotic technology is to augment human efforts in these roles and environments. The intelligence required for autonomous systems to operate in complex environments demands advances in many fields of robotics. This has resulted in large bodies of research in areas of perception, world representation, and navigation, but the problem of locomotion in complex terrain has largely been ignored. In order to achieve its objective, the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section is pursuing research that explores the use of intelligent mobility algorithms designed to improve robot mobility. Intelligent mobility uses sensing, control, and learning algorithms to extract measured variables from the world, control vehicle dynamics, and learn by experience. These algorithms seek to exploit available world representations of the environment and the inherent dexterity of the robot to allow the vehicle to interact with its surroundings and produce locomotion in complex terrain. The primary focus of the paper is to present the intelligent mobility research within the framework of the research methodology, plan and direction defined at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield. It discusses the progress and future direction of intelligent mobility research and presents the research tools, topics, and plans to address this critical research gap. This research will create effective intelligence to improve the mobility of ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings to assist the Canadian Forces in their future urban operations.

  4. Mobile Robotics Activities in DOE Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Lujan; Jerry Harbour; John T. Feddema; Sharon Bailey; Jacob Barhen; David Reister

    2005-03-01

    This paper will briefly outline major activities in Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories focused on mobile platforms, both Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV’s) as well as Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s). The activities will be discussed in the context of the science and technology construct used by the DOE Technology Roadmap for Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM)1 published in 1998; namely, Perception, Reasoning, Action, and Integration. The activities to be discussed span from research and development to deployment in field operations. The activities support customers in other agencies. The discussion of "perception" will include hyperspectral sensors, complex patterns discrimination, multisensor fusion and advances in LADAR technologies, including real-world perception. "Reasoning" activities to be covered include cooperative controls, distributed systems, ad-hoc networks, platform-centric intelligence, and adaptable communications. The paper will discuss "action" activities such as advanced mobility and various air and ground platforms. In the RIM construct, "integration" includes the Human-Machine Integration. Accordingly the paper will discuss adjustable autonomy and the collaboration of operator(s) with distributed UGV’s and UAV’s. Integration also refers to the applications of these technologies into systems to perform operations such as perimeter surveillance, large-area monitoring and reconnaissance. Unique facilities and test beds for advanced mobile systems will be described. Given that this paper is an overview, rather than delve into specific detail in these activities, other more exhaustive references and sources will be cited extensively.

  5. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Joseph [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lantz, Kathy [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is preparing for the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) satellite in 2015. This satellite will feature higher time (5-minute versus 30-minute sampling) and spatial resolution (0.5 km vs 1 km in the visible channel) than current GOES instruments provide. NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service has funded the Global Monitoring Division at the Earth System Research Laboratory to provide ground-based validation data for many of the new and old products the new GOES instruments will retrieve specifically related to radiation at the surface and aerosol and its extensive and intensive properties in the column. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) had an emphasis on aerosol; therefore, we asked to be involved in this campaign to de-bug our new instrumentation and to provide a new capability that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facilities (AMF) did not possess, namely surface albedo measurement out to 1625 nm. This gave us a chance to test remote operation of our new multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer/multi-filter radiometer (MFRSR/MFR) combination. We did not deploy standard broadband shortwave and longwave radiation instrumentation because ARM does this as part of every AMF deployment. As it turned out, the ARM standard MFRSR had issues, and we were able to provide the aerosol column data for the first 2 months of the campaign covering the summer flight phase of the deployment. Using these data, we were able to work with personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to retrieve not only aerosol optical depth (AOD), but single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, as well.

  6. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  7. Managing heterogeneous networks of mobile and stationary sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürkle, Axel; Solbrig, Peter; Segor, Florian; Bulatov, Dimitri; Wernerus, Peter; Müller, Sven

    2011-11-01

    Protecting critical infrastructure against intrusion, sabotage or vandalism is a task that requires a comprehensive situation picture. Modern security systems should provide a total solution including sensors, software, hardware, and a "control unit" to ensure complete security. Incorporating unmanned mobile sensors can significantly help to close information gaps and gain an ad hoc picture of areas where no pre-installed supervision infrastructure is available or damaged after an incident. Fraunhofer IOSB has developed the generic ground control station AMFIS which is capable of managing sensor data acquisition with all kinds of unattended stationary sensors, mobile ad hoc sensor networks, and mobile sensor platforms. The system is highly mobile and able to control various mobile platforms such as small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). In order to establish a real-time situation picture, also an image exploitation process is used. In this process, video frames from different sources (mainly from small UAVs) are georeferenced by means of a system of image registration methods. Relevant information can be obtained by a motion detection module. Thus, the image exploitation process can accelerate the situation assessment significantly.

  8. Systems Engineering of Unmanned DoD Systems: Following the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System/Defense Acquisition System Process to Develop an Unmanned Ground Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Manual D-A-1). APAs are “Performance attributes of a system not important enough to be considered KPPs or KSAs, but still appropriate to include in...the CDD or CPD are designated as APAs ” (JCIDS Manual D-A-1). The requirements are expressed using Thresholds (T) and Objectives (O). “Performance...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACV Autonomous Clearance Vehicle AOA analysis of alternatives APA additional

  9. News Girls in Physics: Getting girls engaged with physics Schools Lecture: How to explore the universe: the IOP schools lecture series 2009 Elastomobile Competition: Rubber-band vehicles go for gold Congress: Congress celebrates centenary Outreach Programme: Tales of the Stars inspires young children from around the world Physics Olympiad: BPhO selects top students for International Physics Olympiad Mobile Science: Mobile teaching lab visits rural Turkey China: Inspiration and competition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Girls in Physics: Getting girls engaged with physics Schools Lecture: How to explore the universe: the IOP schools lecture series 2009 Elastomobile Competition: Rubber-band vehicles go for gold Congress: Congress celebrates centenary Outreach Programme: Tales of the Stars inspires young children from around the world Physics Olympiad: BPhO selects top students for International Physics Olympiad Mobile Science: Mobile teaching lab visits rural Turkey China: Inspiration and competition in China

  10. Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is one of many that provided data contributing to the design of the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  11. Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is one of many that provided data contributing to the design of the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  12. Speed support through the intelligent vehicle : perspective, estimated effects and implementation aspects.[Deliverable of the Intelligent Vehicles project, part of the Traffic Management project within TRANSUMO (TRANsition to SUstainable MObility).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Goldenbeld, C. Dragutinovic, N. Marchau, V. Walta, L. & Brookhuis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Speed management is a central theme in traffic management, aiming to optimize traffic in terms of safety, efficiency and the environment, by reducing speeding and speed differences in traffic. Intelligent vehicles can perform tasks that conventional measures cannot do at all, or do less efficiently.

  13. Research on Application Performance of Vehicle-mounted Station of Satellite Mobile Communication%卫星移动通信车载站应用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋

    2012-01-01

    在对各类卫星移动通信系统性能分析比较的基础上,从系统造价和可实现程度的角度考虑,同步静止轨道(GEO)系统更适合于区域覆盖卫星移动通信系统,卫星移动通信车载站(简称动中通)是实现地面卫星移动通信系统的关键设备。给出了动中通系统设计中卫星转发器带宽占用率和功率占用率的计算,对动中通站型能力和天线口径的选取进行了分析和讨论,并结合相关计算给出了动中通站型和天线选取的建议。%Based on the system performance comparison among some kinds of satellite mobile communication systems and the consideration of the cost and the extent of realization,the GEO system is more propitious to regional satellite mobile communication system. Vehicle-mounted station of satellite mobile communication is the key device to realize land mobile satellite communication system. The calculation methods of occupancy rates of bandwidth and power of satellite transponder in mobile communication system design are described in this paper. How to choose the size of antenna and the type of the station is analyzed and discussed. Some suggestions are given for choosing antenna and type of the station.

  14. Battery Electric Vehicles can reduce greenhouse has emissions and make renewable energy cheaper in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Witt, Maggie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheppard, Colin [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States); Harris, Andrew [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    India's National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) sets a countrywide goal of deploying 6 to 7 million hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) by 2020. There are widespread concerns, both within and outside the government, that the Indian grid is not equipped to accommodate additional power demand from battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Such concerns are justified on the grounds of India's notorious power sector problems pertaining to grid instability and chronic blackouts. Studies have claimed that deploying BEVs in India will only

  15. 电动汽车车身平顺性及车轮接地性分析与优化%Analysis and Optimization of Ride Comfort and Wheel Ground Adhesion of Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张擎宇; 陈辛波

    2014-01-01

    以某分布式四轮驱动电动汽车为研究对象,在Adams/car中建立了整车模型,通过对前、后悬架参数进行灵敏度分析,探讨其对车身平顺性与车轮接地性的影响。基于α法建立评价车身平顺性与车轮接地性指标的多目标函数,对灵敏度较高的悬架参数进行优化设计。结果表明,优化后前、后悬架的刚度减小,前悬架的阻尼增大。与优化前相比,车身垂向加速度均方根值减小16%,左、右前轮动载荷的均方根值均减小11%。%With a distributed 4WD electric vehicle as research object, a vehicle model is constructed in Adams/car environment. Sensitivity analysis is made to the front and rear suspension parameters, its effect on ride comfort and wheel ground adhesion is investigated. Multi-objective function to evaluate body ride comfort and wheel ground adhesion is established based on α method and suspension parameters with high sensitivity are optimized. The results indicate that stiffness of the optimized front and rear suspension descends, whereas damping of the front suspension ascends. Compared with the suspension before optimization, the root-mean-square value of body vertical acceleration is reduced by 16%, and that of the front wheels on both sides is reduced by 11%.

  16. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  17. 基于超声波的室内移动机器人贴地障碍物检测%Ultrasonic Detection to the Obstacles Clung to Ground for Indoor Mobile Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海鹰; 王昉

    2012-01-01

    The indoor mobile robots systems always ignore the low obstacles which clung to ground while don't really hinder the robot. In order to enhance the stability of driving for the robots, a special ultrasonic ranging system is put forward to detect the obstacles cling to ground. Design requirements of such systems are analyzed, and realization methods are summarized.%通常的室内移动机器人系统,往往忽视环境中存在的贴近地面、但并不阻碍机器人行驶的低矮障碍物。为增强机器人行驶的稳定性,提出了专门用于检测贴地障碍物的超声波测距系统,并分析总结了此类系统的设计要求与实现方法。

  18. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  19. Tethered Contactless Mobile Nuclear Environment Monitoring Robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lee, E. S.; Lee, Kun J.; Kim, Su H.; Rim, C. T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In fact, the nuclear environment monitoring is significantly crucial for early detection of NPP accident, radiological emergency, the estimation of radiation exposure to nearby residents as well as the long term radioactivity. In the UAE, the nuclear environment monitoring is, however, quite challenging because sampling locations are far from NPPs and the outdoor temperature and humidity are very high for NPP workers to collect soil, air, and water samples. Therefore, nuclear environment monitoring robots (Nubos) are strongly needed for the NPPs in the UAE. The Nubos can be remotely controlled to collect samples in extreme environment instead of NPP workers. Moreover, the Nubos can be unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned marine vehicles (UMVs) to collect soil, air, and water samples, respectively. In this paper, the prototype development of UGV type Nubos using power cable for a long distance power delivery, called Tethered contactless mobile Nubo is introduced and validated by experiments. In this paper, the prototype development of Tethered Contactless Mobile (TeCoM) Nubo, which can be powered continuously within several km distance and avoid tangled cable, and the indoor test are finished. As further works, outdoor demonstration and a grand scale R and D proposal of practical Nubo will be proceeded.

  20. Usability Study and Heuristic Evaluation of the Applied Robotics for Installations and Base Operations (ARIBO) Driverless Vehicle Reservation Application ARIBO Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    publically available kiosk ....................................................................4 Fig. 4 Main Android tablet screen with the current ARIBO...make this system available to the maximum number of potential riders, the application was designed to run on Android -powered smartphone platforms and...Act–compliant to accommodate wheelchair users. An Android application was developed to provide mobile phone access, and a web application is currently

  1. Development of the methodology of exhaust emissions measurement under RDE (Real Driving Emissions) conditions for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.; Siedlecki, M.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper analyzes the exhaust emissions from farm vehicles based on research performed under field conditions (RDE) according to the NTE procedure. This analysis has shown that it is hard to meet the NTE requirements under field conditions (engine operation in the NTE zone for at least 30 seconds). Due to a very high variability of the engine conditions, the share of a valid number of NTE windows in the field test is small throughout the entire test. For this reason, a modification of the measurement and exhaust emissions calculation methodology has been proposed for farm vehicles of the NRMM group. A test has been developed composed of the following phases: trip to the operation site (paved roads) and field operations (including u-turns and maneuvering). The range of the operation time share in individual test phases has been determined. A change in the method of calculating the real exhaust emissions has also been implemented in relation to the NTE procedure.

  2. Development of High Fidelity Mobility Simulation of an Autonomous Vehicle in an Off-Road Scenario Using Integrated Sensor, Controller, and Multi-Body Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    intervene in the control of the vehicle. The software can be used to develop IV systems based on sensor technologies such as radar, laser, camera, GPS , and...traffic scenarios using a database of road sections, infrastructure components (trees, buildings, traffic signs) and road users (cars, trucks, cyclists ...a GPS navigation device. Weather conditions (rain, snow, fog) and light circumstances can also be specified. Modeling sensors is done by filling

  3. Light Reconnaissance Vehicle (LRV): Enhancing Command, Control, Communications, and Computers and Information Systems (C4I) to Tactically Employed Forces via a Mobile Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    collection to any point designated by the commander for analysis and pushing the information to key decision makers in the AOR remains an obstacle . E...RESEARCH GOALS OF THE LIGHT RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE The LRV Project was designed to solve some of the major obstacles presented by the advanced...known distances and elevation changes. Figure 23 depicts a representation of the trigonometry used in deriving the elevation angles for the antennae

  4. 不平顺路面的车辆动载诱发饱和地基的动应力响应%Influences of vehicle dynamic load on dynamic stress in saturated poro-elastic ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仁义; 钱建固; 黄茂松

    2016-01-01

    对由于不平顺路面引起的车辆附加动荷载在饱和多孔地基中的动应力开展了解析理论研究。通过承受移动矩形垂直荷载的三维饱和多孔地基的基本解,采用矩阵递推法得到多层饱和半空间解,数值积分得到数值结果。将该方法运用于具有不平顺路面的饱和多孔半空间的情况,得到了附加动荷载在饱和多孔地基中所产生的动应力。计算结果分析了分层地基半空间计算模型的优点,还发现土体的软硬程度对地基动应力极为重要。附加动荷载的速度频率同步效应在地基中作用明显,尤其对于所产生的剪应力,在具有较硬较厚路面的情况下,附加动荷载所产生的剪应力的最大值已经超过自重恒载所产生的剪应力。不平顺波长对动应力也有很大影响,尤其是短波不平顺。在高速移动的四轮车辆荷载的情况下,不平顺的路面会造成地基的剧烈振动,不平顺波长越短(即路面越不平整),振动的越剧烈。%Here,the influences of dynamic component of vehicle load (caused by pavement roughness)on the dynamic stress responses in poroelastic ground were studied.By introducing an analytical solution to the three-dimensional dynamic stress in a saturated poroelastic half space subjected to a harmonic rectangular moving load,the solutions to a multi-layered saturated poroelastic half space under moving loading were derived using the transfer matrix method. Numerical results were obtained by performing inverse Fourier transformation.In the case of rough road in a saturated poroelastic half space,the numerical results were obtained and used to analyze the influences of the dynamic component of vehicle load (caused by pavement roughness)on the dynamic stress responses in the half space.The results showed that the advantages of the multi-layered poroelastic half space computing model and the stiffness of soil are important to the dynamic

  5. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  6. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  7. Simulation and Experiments Analysis of Mobility Performance in Deployable Manned Lunar Vehicle%可折展载人月球车移动性能仿真与试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海波; 范雪兵; 邓宗全; 丁亮; 刘振

    2016-01-01

    为更加有效地研究载人月球车移动系统低重力环境下的移动性能,建立了载人月球车仿真模型,并对地月两种不同重力环境下的移动性能进行了仿真对比分析,在地面重力条件下极限越障高度明显降低.轮地相关参数不变,仅改变重力加速度,仿真得到载人月球车移动系统地面重力下最大可爬坡角度小于月面重力下可爬越最大坡角.同一越障高度,土壤相关参数一致,重力加速度不同的情况下,地面重力条件下移动系统质心加速度明显大于月面重力条件下的质心加速度值.在移动性能仿真分析基础上,对可折展载人月球车移动系统地面原理样机进行了搭建,在保证地月不同重力环境下车轮及悬架承受的有效载荷一致的前提下,在地面重力条件下,利用实验室松散沙土模拟月壤进行了越障和爬坡等通过性能试验,验证了所设计的移动系统满足设计约束要求,为后续载人移动系统的深入设计奠定了基础.%For effective research on mobility performance of deployable manned lunar vehicle at low gravity, the deployable locomotion system and the simulation models on mock lunar soil were built . The mobility performance was simulated and the mobility performance on lunar surface or on earth were compared.The maximum obstacle height in earth gravity decreased significantly .When other relevant parameters unchanged , the maximum gradability on earth was less than that on the lunar surface.With the same obstacle height and soil parameters and different gravities , the Center of Mass( COM) acceleration of the manned lunar vehicle on earth was significantly greater than that on the moon.On the basis of the simulation analysis , the prototype of the lunar vehicle on earth was built .Then related trafficability experiments such as gradeability and obstacle crossing etc were car-ried out on mock lunar soil on earth for the manned lunar vehicle ensuring that the

  8. Kinodynamic Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a computationally effective motion planning algorithm for autonomous ground vehicles operating in a semi-structured environment with a mission specified by waypoints, corridor widths and obstacles. The algorithm switches between two kinds of planners, (i static planners and (ii moving obstacle avoidance manoeuvre planners, depending on the mobility of any detected obstacles. While the first is broken down into a path planner and a controller, the second generates a sequence of controls without global path planning. Each subsystem is implemented as follows. The path planner produces an optimal piecewise linear path by applying a variant of cell decomposition and dynamic programming. The piecewise linear path is smoothed by Bézier curves such that the maximum curvatures of the curves are minimized. The controller calculates the highest allowable velocity profile along the path, consistent with the limits on both tangential and radial acceleration and the steering command for the vehicle to track the trajectory using a pure pursuit method. The moving obstacle avoidance manoeuvre produces a sequence of time-optimal local velocities, by minimizing the cost as determined by the safety of the current velocity against obstacles in the velocity obstacle paradigm and the deviation of the current velocity relative to the desired velocity, to satisfy the waypoint constraint. The algorithms are shown to be robust and computationally efficient, and to demonstrate a viable methodology for autonomous vehicle control in the presence of unknown obstacles.

  9. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  10. Articulated navigation testbed (ANT): an example of adaptable intrinsic mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosinsky, Chris A.; Hanna, Doug M.; Penzes, Steven G.

    2000-07-01

    An important but oft overlooked aspect of any robotic system is the synergistic benefit of designing the chassis to have high intrinsic mobility which complements rather than limits, its system capabilities. This novel concept continues to be investigated by the Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) with the Articulated Navigation Testbed (ANT) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV). The ANT demonstrates high mobility through the combination of articulated steering and a hybrid locomotion scheme which utilizes individually powered wheels on the edge of rigid legs; legs which are capable of approximately 450 degrees of rotation. The configuration can be minimally configured as a 4x4 and modularly expanded to 6x6, 8x8, and so on. This enhanced mobility configuration permits pose control and novel maneuvers such as stepping, bridging, crawling, etc. Resultant mobility improvements, particularly in unstructured and off-road environments, will reduce the resolution with which the UGV sensor systems must perceive its surroundings and decreases the computational requirements of the UGV's perception systems1 for successful semi-autonomous or autonomous terrain negotiation. This paper reviews critical vehicle developments leading up to the ANT concept, describes the basis for its configuration and speculates on the impact of the intrinsic mobility concept for UGV effectiveness.

  11. Cooperative ground moving target track method using two unmanned aerial vehicles%一种双无人机协同跟踪地面移动目标方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符小卫; 侯建永; 高晓光; 刘重

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the cooperative tracking of a ground moving target using two unmanned aerial vehicles under communication delay,and constructed an algorithm model.Considering the communication delay,it proposed a data fusion method combined with the recursive least squares filtering and the weighted least squres.Then it built the recursive least squares filtering for the prediction of target states,designed a trajectory planning algorithm based on receding horizon and the distributed genetic algorithm to implement the task of cooperative target tracking using two unmanned aerial vehicles.The fitness function consisted of several components including the distance of vehicles and target,the communication distance of vehicles,the communication angle of vehicles.Simulation studies show the cooperative track algorithm can implement the track task well;compared to one vehicle track the target,the position error decreases obviously,the position error during to the communication delay can decrease.%针对通信延时情况下双无人机协同跟踪地面移动目标问题进行研究,构建了基于分布式遗传算法和滚动时域优化结合的目标跟踪航迹规划算法模型.考虑到通信延时会增加目标状态信息数据融合时的误差,导致无人机跟踪任务效果变差,结合递推最小二乘滤波和加权最小二乘估计设计了融合方法,来融合处理目标状态信息;考虑到无人机对目标的观测效果与未来时刻的目标状态信息密切相关,采用递推最小二乘滤波预测目标的状态信息,结合分布式遗传算法和滚动时域优化设计了双无人机目标跟踪航迹规划算法.适应度函数考虑了无人机和目标之间的距离、无人机之间的通信距离、无人机之间的通信角度.仿真结果表明:该协同跟踪方法能够较好地完成跟踪任务;与一架无人机跟踪相比误差明显减小,并且可以减小通信延时带来的跟踪误差.

  12. Design of Vehicle Intelligent Remote Anti-theft and Monitoring System Based on Mobile Communication%基于移动通信的车辆智能远程防盗监控系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽秾; 李成; 杨浩

    2013-01-01

    A vehicle intelligent remote anti-theft and monitoring system based on mobile communi-cation is designed in this paper.Microcontroller is the core of the system.The system can send a-larm messages to the car owner if the car is in an abnormal condition,and then the car owner can control the subsystem of door lock and ignition remotely.It can also extract the information of latitude and longitude.Its software and hardware are debugged successfully.It could provide va-rious functions,including vehicle location,tracking,monitoring,and anti-theft alarm.%以单片机为核心设计了一款基于移动网络的车辆智能远程防盗监控系统。该系统实现了当车辆出现异常情况时向车主远程报警、车主可远程控制车辆的点火系统和门锁系统、提取车辆实时经纬度。该系统已成功通过了软硬联调测试,能提供车辆的定位、跟踪、监控、防盗报警等功能。

  13. A Model to Estimate the Operating and Maintenance (O&M) Costs of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    September 28, 2010 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/mrap-var.htm Heizer , J., & Render, B. (2008). Operations Management ...Visibility & Management of Operation & Support Cost xv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The role of High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) in the United... Operating and Support Management Information System (OSMIS) and the Marine Corps’ Visibility and Management of Operating and Support Costs (VAMOSC

  14. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... as people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  15. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  16. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles – Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Renard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10–20 μm in diameter in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria and Paris (France, (ii pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment – ChArMEx campaigns, (iii meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign. More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  17. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  18. 40 CFR 85.1703 - Definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of motor vehicle. 85.1703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1703 Definition of motor vehicle. (a) For the purpose of determining...

  19. Study on Ground Automatic Identification Technology for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Vision Sensor%基于视觉传感器的自主车辆地面自动辨识技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔根群; 余建明; 赵娴; 赵丛琳

    2011-01-01

    The ground automatic identification technology for intelligent vehicle is iaking Leobor-Edu autonomous vehicle as a test vector and using DH-HV2003UC-T vision sensor to collect image infarmaiion of five common lane roads( cobbled road, concrete road, dirt road, grass road, tile road) , then using MATLAB image processing module to perform coding compression, recovery reconstruction, smoothing, sharpening, enhancement, feature extraction and other related processing,then using MATLAB BP neural network module to carry on pattern recognition.Through analyzing the pattern recognition result, lt shows that the objective error is 20%, the road recognition rate has reached the intended requirement in the system,and it can be universally applied in the smart vehicle or robots and other related fields.%谊自主车辆地面自动辨识技术是以Leobot-Edu自主车辆作为试验载体,并应用DH-HV2003UC-T视觉传感器对常见的5种行车路面(石子路面、水泥路面、土壤路面、草地路面、砖地路面)进行图像信息的采集,应用Matlab图像处理模块对其依次进行压缩编码、复原重建、平滑、锐化、增强、特征提取等相关处理后,再应用Matlab BP神经网络模块进行模式识别.通过对模式识别结果分析可知,网络训练目标的函数误差为20%,该系统路面识别率达到预定要求,可以在智能车辆或移动机器人等相关领域普及使用.

  20. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Department of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology, Japan. Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile, electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot. These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles, i.e., batteries and electric motors, does not deteriorate the environment. To drive motors for vehicle traveling, robotic technologies were applied.

  1. Determination of Terrain Serviceability of Military Vehicles by GIS Relief Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pahernik

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses capabilities of terrain serviceability ofvehicles in regards to the ground features. Two key relief attributesrelated to the slope inclination are defined, as well as reliefforms quantitatively defined as deviations of height above sea-level. As the secondary attribute, the topographic wetness indexis estimated, which, in correlation with the drainage coefficientyields the wetness value index as an essential factor of passablenessin the conditions of harder and more intensive precipitations,that is to say, sudden snow melting. By application ofGIS analysis, based on the digital model of space heights alongthe Kupa River from Pisarovina to SiSinec, the values of primaryand secondary relief attributes have been calculated, andthe analysis of Landsat satellite images has been used to definethe values of vegetation cover. Based on these values and dataon the soil type, the layer of ground wetness has been estimated.Cross Country Mobility Program of ESRI company, withinGIS program package Arc View 3.3. has been used to set themarginal values of the defined relief parameters and to estimatethe levels of mobility for single vehicles in different terrain conditions.The comparison of the obtained results clearly indicatesa possible application of the defined data in the analysisof terrain serviceability of military vehicles, with regard to therelief features of the terrain. For full applicability of the model itis also necessary to define other attributes of mobility related tohydrographical, vegetation, pedological, anthropogenic andother ground features.

  2. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  3. Autonomy-Enabled Fuel Savings for Military Vehicles: Report on 2016 Aberdeen Test Center Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-26

    Fuel savings have never been the primary focus for autonomy-enabled military vehicles. However, studies have estimated that autonomy in passenger and commercial vehicles could improve fuel economy by as much as 22%-33% over various drive cycles. If even a fraction of this saving could be realized in military vehicles, significant cost savings could be realized each year through reduced fuel transport missions, reduced fuel purchases, less maintenance, fewer required personnel, and increased vehicle range. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory installed advanced data logging equipment and instrumentation on two autonomy-enabled convoy vehicles configured with Lockheed Martin's Autonomous Mobility Applique System to determine system performance and improve on the overall vehicle control strategies of the vehicles. Initial test results from testing conducted at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds are included in this report. Lessons learned from in-use testing and performance results have been provided to the project partners for continued system refinement.

  4. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  5. Grumman Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    This Mobility Test Article (MTA) was a concept of a possible dual mode Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built by the Grumman Industries for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  6. Grumman Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    This Mobility Test Article (MTA) was a concept of a possible dual mode Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built by the Grumman Industries for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  7. Soft Soil Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    also presented and defined . 15. SUBJECT TERMS trafficability, floatation, traction, vehicle cone index, mobility 16. SECURITY...Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Reference Mobility Model (NRMM) are also presented and defined . 1.2 Background. a. Throughout history terrain...The use of brand names does not constitute endorsement by the Army or any other agency of the Federal Government, nor does it imply that it is

  8. Mobile marketing for mobile games

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Giang

    2016-01-01

    Highly developed mobile technology and devices enable the rise of mobile game industry and mobile marketing. Hence mobile marketing for mobile game is an essential key for a mobile game success. Even though there are many articles on marketing for mobile games, there is a need of highly understanding mobile marketing strategies, how to launch a mobile campaign for a mobile game. Besides that, it is essential to understand the relationship between mobile advertising and users behaviours. There...

  9. 地面无人作战系统机械臂运动学建模与仿真%Establishment and Simulation Study on Kinematics Model of Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle Robot Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席雷平; 陈自力; 田庆民

    2012-01-01

    The correlative problem of robotic manipulators kinematics model is discussed for Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle in this paper. Considering the structure of robotic manipulators, the kinematics model is established with D-H method. Based on it,the forward and inverse kinematics equations are solved. Then,simulation and verification is performed by Robotics Toolbox of Matlab software for the structure and kinematics analysis. The results show that this method is correct and feasible.%以某地面无人作战系统中的机械臂为研究对象,探讨其运动学模型建立中的相关问题.结合该机械臂的结构特点,利用D-H方法建立其相应的运动学模型,并在该基础上求解机械臂的正、逆运动学方程.最后在Matlab环境下,借助Robotics Toolbox工具箱对该机械臂的结构和运动学问题进行验证和仿真.仿真结果表明:该设计方法是正确可行的.

  10. Cooperative tracking of ground moving target using unmanned aerial vehicles in cluttered environment%复杂环境下多无人机协作式地面移动目标跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 彭辉; 朱华勇; 沈林成

    2011-01-01

    针对多无人机(UAV)协同地面移动目标跟踪问题展开研究.提出一种基于主动感知的问题求解框架,建立多UAV协同目标跟踪问题模型;在此基础上,采用分布式无色信息滤波实现目标状态融合估计与预测;然后,基于预测目标状态,结合滚动时域控制与遗传算法设计一种多UAV在线协同航迹规划算法.仿真结果表明:结合预测目标状态在线优化UAV航迹能够获得更好的目标跟踪性能.%We investigate the cooperative tracking of a ground moving target in a cluttered environment by using unmanned aerial vehicles(UAV). Firstly, a model the cooperative target tracking by UAV is developed based on active sensing;secondly, a distributed unscented information filter is built for the estimation fusion and the prediction of target states. Finally, an online trajectory planning algorithm based on the receding horizon control and the genetic algorithm is designed and implemented, with the predicted target states as the inputs to this planning algorithm. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed method effectively improves the performance of target tracking.

  11. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develop...... efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...... and server-side updates. This is achieved by designing, prototyping, and testing novel tracking techniques that exploit knowledge of the road network and past movement. These resulting tracking techniques are to support mobile services that rely on the existence of a central server that continuously tracks...

  12. Wireless Authentication Protocol Implementation: Descriptions of a Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) Protocol Implementation for Testing on Ground and Airborne Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    consumption 5 VDC @ 2.6 A Table 2: Ground station computer specifications. Specification/Model PM-LX2-800-R10 Form Factor PC-104 Module Processor AMD ...Geode™ LX800 CPU Integrated Graphics AMD ® LX800 On-board Static Memory 1 GByte DDR2 SDRAM System Controller Hub Chipset SMSC 3114 BIOS AMI BIOS... Disabling the Ethernet connection via an operating system call solved the protocol failure problem. It is not entirely clear why having both communication

  13. Computational intelligence for traffic and mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wuhong

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the new development of computation intelligence for traffic, transportation and mobility, the main contents include traffic safety, mobility analysis, intelligent transportation system, smart vehicle, transportation behavior, driver modeling and assistance, transportation risk analysis and reliability system analysis, vehicle operation and active safety, urban traffic management and planning.

  14. Locomotion of an all-terrain mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagolnitzer, M.; Richard, F.; Samson, J. F.; Tournassoud, P.

    The authors introduce a framework and prospective solutions for intelligent locomotion, defined as the ability for a mobile robot to cross over obstacles along a path roughly determined either through teleoperation or by a navigation path-finder. Then, they present a simple but efficient control scheme derived from these concepts, taking into account ground clearance, vehicle safety, and possible occlusions in the vision field. This control scheme is applied to Rami, a four tiltable track robot equipped with force sensors, an inertial reference system, a laser-stripe range finder, and extensive real-time computing facilities based on a decentralized architecture.

  15. 车载Ad Hoc网络中基于移动网关的数据传输%MGF: Mobile Gateway Based Forwarding for Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Data Delivery in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽; 李治军; 姜守旭; 冯诚

    2012-01-01

    由于车载Ad hoc网络拓扑的动态变化及车载节点的快速移动,应用现有传输方法在其上进行Internet接入点向移动车辆(Infrastructure-to-Vehicle,I2V)数据传输时成功率较低,而且传输延迟高、延迟抖动大.为了解决这一问题,文中利用公交车路线固定、运行特征可预测、节点及线路分布稠密等特性,将公交车作为移动网关( Mobile Gateway,MG),提出了一种新的基于MG转发的I2V数据传输方法(Mobile Gateway based Forwarding,MGF).文中首先将公路网模型化为状态-空间图,再运用马尔可夫决策方法建立了一种基于MG转发的I2V数据传输优化模型,然后通过对模型求解得出I2V数据传输的最优转发决策,最优转发决策指的就是每个状态下对应的最优动作序列,最后在目的车辆行驶轨迹上选取满足传输成功率阈值,并使I2V传输延迟最小的路口节点作为数据包与目的车辆的最优汇聚节点,即目标节点.应用MGF方法,MG节点将以最优概率转发序列向目标节点转发数据包.文中利用模拟平台对MGF方法的传输性能进行了评估,结果表明该方法在满足传输成功率阈值前提下,能够获得最小传输延迟期望.理论分析同样也证明了该方法的有效性.%The highly dynamic topology and the rapid movement of destination node pose special challenges to Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V) data delivery in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET). Current data delivery methods are with the strong delay, the large jitter of delay and low delivery ratio for I2V data delivery. The paper investigates how to effectively utilize the prominent characteristic of buses, and proposes Mobile Gateway (MG) based Forwarding (MGF) that buses are installed as MG to forward data packet. To solve the problem that the paper models road network as a probabilistic state-space graph, in which applies the value iteration algorithm for the markov decision processing model to derive the

  16. Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰

    2014-01-01

    Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.

  17. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  18. Method of Soldier Localization in Battlefield Based on Mobile Beacon in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle%一种基于无人机移动信标的战场士兵定位方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丹丹; 吴宝明; 王圣超; 苏清章

    2012-01-01

    目的:以战场士兵搜索为背景,研究一种新的基于无人机移动信标的战场士兵定位方法.方法:无人机沿“∞”模型飞行,机载信标获取相对地理位置信息,并且周期性地发送唤醒信号;士兵节点被唤醒后,发送RSSI数据包,再次进入休眠状态;移动信标接收士兵节点RSSI数据包,在接收位置形成该节点对应的虚拟信标;计算士兵节点到所对应的虚拟信标的距离矩阵,从而进一步计算士兵节点的相对地理坐标.结果:仿真测试随机布设20个结构相同的士兵节点,当平均每个士兵节点对应的虚拟信标数为8.3个时,平均定位误差为7.78%.结论:基于无人机移动信标的定位方法具有较高的定位精度,有望用于战场士兵定位.%Objective To develop a new method of localization based on mobile beacon for searching and rescuing of the wounded in battlefield. Methods When the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was flying along the model "∞", the beacon in the vehicle got the relative location information, and sent the periodic wake-up signals. When receiving the wake-up signals, the unknown position soldiers sent RSSI, and fell asleep again. Beacon collected the RSSI and formed a corresponding virtual beacon. Beacon calculated the distance between the unknown node and the corresponding virtual beacons, and calculated node relative location, which would be sent to the rear headquarters. Results In simulation, 20 soldier nodes with same style were laid randomly. When the average virtual beacon per 1 soldier was 8.3, the average localization error was 7.78%. Conclusion The proposed localization method based on mobile beacon in UAV possesses a better location accuracy, which is expected for battlefield soldier location.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33 (4)r4-6

  19. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  20. 地面武器机动工程创新实践教学体系建设%The Construction of Ground Mobile Weapons Engineering Innovation and Practice Teaching System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏才; 闫清东

    2011-01-01

    Practice teaching plays an important role in improving the overall quality of students' innovative spirit and practical ability. To enhance the innovation and hands-on capability of undergraduates majored in ground mobile weapons engineering, an innovative practices teaching system featured with a combination of practical skill-training and innovation capacity-building in ground mobile weapons engineering was Set up, which combined the new development of the expertise and was based on modem technology and teaching philosophy. Provides a broad platform for independent design and development, the platform could help undergraduates their hands-on operation, expand training, simulation and design, which is extremely important to improve student learning and quality, practical and creative ability.%实践教学对于提高学生的综合素质、培养学生的创新精神和实践能力具有重要作用。为提升大学本科地面武器机动工程专业学生动手实践能力、创新能力,结合专业技术的新发展,依据现代技术和教育教学理念,建设实践技能锻炼和创新能力培养有机结合的地面武器机动工程专业创新实践教学体系。为大学生提供了动手操作、拓展训练、设计仿真和自主设计开发的广阔平台,对提高学生学习的兴趣和质量、实践能力和创新能力具有极其重要意义。

  1. Prevalencia del uso de teléfonos móviles durante la conducción de vehículos Prevalence of mobile phone use while driving vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Astrain

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción de vehículos en la ciudad de Lleida. Métodos: Se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 1.536 automóviles en 6 cruces regulados por semáforos de la ciudad de Lleida (3 con tráfico urbano y 3 con tráfico interurbano. Se excluyeron ciclistas, motoristas y automóviles de autoescuelas. Las variables estudiadas fueron uso de teléfono móvil, sexo, edad (18-40; 41-60; > 61 años, ir acompañado en el vehículo, tipo de cruce (tráfico urbano/tráfico interurbano, día de la semana (laborable/festivo y hora del día (punta/no punta. Se calculó la prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil en porcentajes con un intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. La relación de la variable dependiente (uso de teléfono móvil con el resto de variables independientes se estudió con la odds ratio (OR y con IC del 95%. Resultados: Se realizaron 1.536 observaciones directas y se detectó uso de teléfono móvil en 50 conductores. La prevalencia fue del 3,3% (IC del 95%, 2,4-4,3. Esta prevalencia fue superior en los varones (OR = 2,2; IC del 95%, 1,0-5,7 en los mayores de 60 años (OR = 2,2; IC del 95%, 0,5-8,4 y en el grupo de 18-40 años (OR = 1,5; IC del 95%, 0,8-3,0, en conductores sin acompañante (OR = 3,0; IC del 95%, 1,5-6,3, en cruces urbanos (OR = 2,7; IC del 95%, 1,2-5,9, en días laborables (OR = 2,0; IC del 95%, 0,9-4,4 y en horas punta (OR = 1,4; IC del 95%, 0,8-2,4. Conclusiones: La prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción se considera elevada por el incremento del riesgo de accidentes. El perfil de los usuarios se corresponde con varones de 18 a 40 años o mayores de 61, en circuitos urbanos, sin acompañante, en días laborables y horas punta. Se recomienda tomar medidas para reducir el uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of mobile telephone use while driving vehicles in

  2. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...... in a merger situation? What is actually happening when two enterprises originate an SPV? And what distinguishes an SPV from a joint venture, or is it the same thing?...

  3. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Building Area (SWMU 056) Hot Spot 3 Bioremediation Interim Measures Work Plan, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Morrison; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This Interim Measures Work Plan (IMWP) presents an approach and design for the remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) groundwater impacts using bioremediation (biostimulation and bioaugmentation) in Hot Spot 3, which is defined by the area where CVOC (trichloroethene [TCE], cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cDCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]) concentrations are greater than 10 times their respective Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Natural Attenuation Default Concentration (NADC) [10xNADC] near the western Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) structure. The IM treatment area is the Hot Spot 3 area, which is approximately 0.07 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 22 and 41 to 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS). Within Hot Spot 3, a source zone (SZ; area with TCE concentrations greater than 1% solubility [11,000 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L)]) was delineated and is approximately 0.02 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 16 and 41 to 50 ft BLS.

  4. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics: Vehicle Dynamic Characterization and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    reason why most consumer automobiles come from the factory in an understeer configuration, so that if something goes wrong in a maneuver, the car will...This has a bit to do with suspension design, which isn’t something I want to dive into, so I’ll keep the explanations brief and google can fill... car loses traction and skids out. This test is essential in characterizing the UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED steady state cornering capabilities of

  5. Yield estimation of winter wheat in early growth periods by vehicle-borne ground-based remote sensing system%基于车载近地遥感系统的冬小麦生育早期产量估测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树强; 李民赞

    2014-01-01

    冬小麦生育早期的产量估测对于制定冬小麦整个生长期的精准管理策略具有重要的参考意义。该文利用车载近地遥感估产系统对冬小麦生育早期冠层叶片光谱信息进行动态获取,提出了一种基于冠层光谱信息的动态光化学植被指数MPRI(mobile photochemical reflectance index),构建了基于MPRI的冬小麦产量车载近地遥感估产模型,分析了估测效果,结合GIS手段对估产数据进行了空间分析。研究结果表明:冬小麦生育早期冠层指数MPRI对冬小麦的产量单点估测具有一定的效果,决定系数R2约为0.78。车载近地遥感估产系统动态测量时,MPRI表现出良好的数据识别能力。通过设置阈值能够剔除动态测量中的土壤背景干扰信息,说明MPRI对于冬小麦生育早期产量具有较好的估测效果。对动态估产结果进行空间分析,能够掌握小区域内小麦生育早期产量的空间分布情况,为冬小麦生育早期产量估测提供了新的思路和方法。%The index of crop growth monitoring has a close relationship with crop yield. It could forecast a large-scale food state that indicates a possibility of either a missing or surplus yield as early as possible, and it is therefore important for the macro control of food. Using near-ground remote sensing is significant to understanding the growth of crops and providing accurate and scientific data for precision agriculture. For the small area growers, the vehicle-borne system shows the good prospects and has gradually become the first choice method. This paper discusses a method that is one of the most important tools for yield prediction for winter wheat in the jointing stage. It is an efficient, flexible, and economical operation for a small region. Usually the vehicle-borne growth monitoring system cannot maintain steady operations due to the row spacing of winter wheat in the jointing stage. The background

  6. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  7. Distributed Mobility Management Scheme for Mobile IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakikawa, Ryuji; Valadon, Guillaume; Shigechika, Noriyuki; Murai, Jun

    Mobile IPv6 and Network Mobility (NEMO) have been standardized as IP extensions. While these technologies are planned to be adopted by several communities, such as the vehicle, aviation, and cellular industries, Mobile IPv6 has serious deployment issues such as scalability, protocol resilience, and redundancy. In these technologies, a special router called a home agent is introduced to support the movement of mobile nodes. This home agent introduces overlapping, inefficient routes, and becomes a single point of failure and a performance bottleneck. In this paper, a new concept for scalable and dependable mobility management scheme is proposed. Multiple home agents serve the same set of mobile nodes. The Home Agent Reliability protocol and Home Agent migration are introduced to achieve this concept. We also propose an overlay network named a Global Mobile eXchange (GMX) that efficiently handles data traffic from and to mobile nodes, and operates home agents as would an Internet eXchange Point (IXP).

  8. Optimization of UAV Heading for the Ground-to-Air Uplink

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a collection of single-antenna ground nodes communicating with a multi-antenna unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a multiple-access ground-to-air wireless communications link. The UAV uses beamforming to mitigate the inter-user interference and achieve spatial division multiple access (SDMA). First, we consider a simple scenario with two static ground nodes and analytically investigate the effect of the UAV heading on the system sum rate. We then study a more general setting with multiple mobile ground-based terminals, and develop an algorithm for dynamically adjusting the UAV heading in order to maximize a lower bound on the ergodic sum rate of the uplink channel, using a Kalman filter to track the positions of the mobile ground nodes. Fairness among the users can be guaranteed through weighting the bound for each user's ergodic rate with a factor inversely proportional to their average data rate. For the common scenario where a high $K$-factor channel exists between the ground node...

  9. Self-organizing strategy design and validation for integrated air-ground detection swarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyan An; Zhaokui Wang; Yulin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A self-organized integrated air-ground detection swarm is tentatively applied to achieve reentry vehicle landing detection, such as searching and rescuing a manned spaceship. The detec-tion swarm consists of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The UAVs can access a detected object quickly for high mobility, while the UGVs can comprehensively investigate the object due to the variety of car-ried equipment. In addition, the integrated air-ground detection swarm is capable of detecting from the ground and the air si-multaneously. To accomplish the coordination of the UGVs and UAVs, they are al regarded as individuals of the artificial swarm. Those individuals make control decisions independently of others based on the self-organizing strategy. The overal requirements for the detection swarm are analyzed, and the theoretical model of the self-organizing strategy based on a combined individual and environmental virtual function is established. The numerical in-vestigation proves that the self-organizing strategy is suitable and scalable to control the detection swarm. To further inspect the en-gineering reliability, an experiment set is established in laboratory, and the experimental demonstration shows that the self-organizing strategy drives the detection swarm forming a close range and mul-tiangular surveil ance configuration of a landing spot.

  10. Forward-looking three dimensional imaging technique for InSAR mounted on ground vehicles%车载 InSAR 前视三维成像技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 李杨寰; 张汉华; 陆必应; 宋千; 周智敏

    2014-01-01

    It is a difficult task for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV)to sense obstacles in out fields or unstructured environments.Because the height information is a vital feature to boost the performance of obstacle discrimination,the three-dimensional imaging technique for sensing obstacles ahead UGV of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)was presented.The basic signal process flow of InSAR was reviewed. Special factors of the UGV platform that impact the digital elevation model (DEM)measurement precision were analyzed,such as the baseline length,platform motion errors.The DEMof a partial sight-blocked obstacle scene was obtained by processing the three-dimensional InSAR image, which proved the feasibility of applying InSAR to obstacle sensing of UGV.%野外和非结构化环境下的障碍探测是无人驾驶车(UGV)环境感知的难题之一。基于高度识别障碍是一种有效的解决途径,提出了干涉合成孔径雷达(InSAR)的三维障碍物成像策略,研究了 InSAR 信息处理流程,分析了干涉基线和运动误差对车载 InSAR 高程测量精度的影响,仿真了无人车前场景存在遮挡时的 InSAR 高程测量,证明了 InSAR 用于 UGV 前方环境感知的可行性。

  11. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  12. Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Interoperability Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UGV Interoperability Lab provides the capability to verify vendor conformance against government-defined interoperability profiles (IOPs). This capability allows...

  13. Advanced Composites for Air and Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Progress in polymer science, 2003. 28(11): p. 1539–1641. 6. Kojima, Y., et al., “Mechanical properties of nylon 6-clay hybrid,” Journal of...Mechanical properties of nylon 6-clay hybrid,” Journal of Materials Research(USA), 1993. 8(5): p. 1185–1189. 41. Mesbah, A., et al., “Experimental...the sensors directly through cables and wires has a high installation and material cost. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offer a promising solution

  14. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Communications Relays: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    between the “ hello ” messages that are automatically sent to monitor the network status. Software modifications were made to enable sub-second “ hello ...intervals. Experimenting with different values of “ hello ” intervals showed that 10 “ hellos ” a second gave near real-time network convergence and

  15. Remote Vision Systems for Teleoperated Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Information Operations end Reports. 1215J1elterson Davis Highway. Suite 1204. Arlington. VA 22202-4302. and to the Offce of Management and Budget...Paperworkr Reductlo Proyect (0704-0188). Washingtont. DC 20503._____________________ I AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave bAW4V 2 REPORT DATE 3 REPORT TYPE AND DATES...and scannable panel displays require further development. 6.0 ACKNOWLEDEMENTS. The authors acknowledge NOSC UGV Program Manager , Thomas W. Hughes, for

  16. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    using three-axis magnetic field measurements for navigation. While Storms innovative work exposed the ability to navigate using three-axis magnetometer...level of difficulty, Ascher et al. combine a magnetometer with a pair of inertial measurement units, a barometer , and a laser for precise indoor

  17. International Assessment of Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    toward civil applica- tions, advances in enabling technologies [e.g., sensors; propulsion and traction; autonomous navigation, command and control (C2...art. Laser radar and laser profiling also have numerous civil appli- cations. A strong market exists for precise, high spatial resolution (1.0 m to 0.3...Establishment for Applied Science)], Belgium (Royal Military Acad- emy), Italy (Oto Melara of Finmeccanica), and Spain (Sener Ingenieria y Sistemas SA

  18. Remote Imagery for Unmanned Ground Vehicles (RIUGV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-25

    intelligence, pipeline monitoring, urban mapping, natural hazard detection, coastal /marine mapping, exploration & mining, and disaster management. All...and loaded into the executive software of the UGV employed in the test environment. Landcover analysis Figure 4: Off-Road Course Images

  19. Wall Climbing Micro Ground Vehicle (MGV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    into the preliminary design of the control platform. This concept is used on the City Climber robot from the City College of New York to redirect... Chennai , India, 2011. 6. Lee, Y.; Ahuja, V.; Hosangadi, A.; Slipper, M. E.; Mulvihill, L. P.; Birkbeck, R.; Coleman, R. M. Impeller Design of a...Teheran, Iran, 2011. 12. Xiao, J.; Sadegh, A. City -Climber: A New Generation Wall-Climbing Robots; The City College, City University of New York USA

  20. Vehicle classification in WAMI imagery using deep network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Meng; Yang, Fan; Blasch, Erik; Sheaff, Carolyn; Liu, Kui; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin

    2016-05-01

    Humans have always had a keen interest in understanding activities and the surrounding environment for mobility, communication, and survival. Thanks to recent progress in photography and breakthroughs in aviation, we are now able to capture tens of megapixels of ground imagery, namely Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI), at multiple frames per second from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). WAMI serves as a great source for many applications, including security, urban planning and route planning. These applications require fast and accurate image understanding which is time consuming for humans, due to the large data volume and city-scale area coverage. Therefore, automatic processing and understanding of WAMI imagery has been gaining attention in both industry and the research community. This paper focuses on an essential step in WAMI imagery analysis, namely vehicle classification. That is, deciding whether a certain image patch contains a vehicle or not. We collect a set of positive and negative sample image patches, for training and testing the detector. Positive samples are 64 × 64 image patches centered on annotated vehicles. We generate two sets of negative images. The first set is generated from positive images with some location shift. The second set of negative patches is generated from randomly sampled patches. We also discard those patches if a vehicle accidentally locates at the center. Both positive and negative samples are randomly divided into 9000 training images and 3000 testing images. We propose to train a deep convolution network for classifying these patches. The classifier is based on a pre-trained AlexNet Model in the Caffe library, with an adapted loss function for vehicle classification. The performance of our classifier is compared to several traditional image classifier methods using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features. While the SVM+HOG method achieves an accuracy of 91.2%, the accuracy of our deep

  1. Charging and Discharging Behavior Prediction of Electric Vehicles Based on Mobile Social Network Platform%基于移动社交网络平台的电动汽车充放电行为预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 董耀众; 文福拴; 宋雨

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled charging and discharging process for a large number of electric vehicles (EVs) could have significant negative impacts on the secure and economic operation of a power system concerned.On the other hand,the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology can support the EVs to participate in ancillary service provision,but the effects on the behavior of the interactive power systems for a different scheduling policy are different.Users can make decisions assisted by mobile social networking to select the scheduling strategy with beneficial effects.Based on the mobile social network analysis,a charging and discharging behavior prediction method of EVs with time-of-use(TOU)constraints is studied,which views per EV as a single individual in a social network.Subj ected to the overall influence,its spatial and temporal characteristics are similar to the cross in the elementary particle group.Combined with the influence factor of mobile social networks,a predictive model of EVs charging and discharging behavior with constrains of safe operation for power system and the best interests for EVs users is established.Simulation results show that the method is valid.%大量电动汽车的自由充放电会给电力系统的安全与经济运行带来较大影响。另一方面,电动汽车向电力系统反向送电(V2 G)技术的发展可支持电动汽车参与电力系统的调频等辅助服务,但采用不同充放电调度策略时,对V2 G和电力系统的交互行为的效果会有不同的影响。移动社交网络(MSN)作为车联网的一个有益补充,在电动汽车用户进行充放电决策上具有一定的互动性,进而会影响电动汽车充放电的调度策略。考虑到 MSN 的影响力,研究了在分时电价约束下的电动汽车充放电行为预测方法,将每辆参与调度的电动汽车看成是MSN 平台中的单一个体,受整体影响力的制约,其时空特征类似于交叉粒子群中的基本粒子,在保持电

  2. 车载移动变电站在吉图珲客运专线项目施工供电中的应用%Application of Vehicle-mounted Mobile Substation in Construction of Jilin-Tumen-Hunchun Passenger-dedicated Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏

    2014-01-01

    采用固定变电站审批程序复杂、构筑物多、建设工期长,不能满足工程项目施工电力快速供应的需要,车载移动变电站克服了这些缺点。以吉图珲客运专线项目施工供电为背景,对车载移动变电站在吉图珲客运专线项目施工供电中的应用进行监测和分析。主要研究内容和结论如下:1)通过研究车载移动变电站技术在吉图珲客运专线施工供电中的使用情况,证明车载移动变电站完全满足吉图珲客运专线施工需要;2)与传统供电技术进行对比和分析,可以据此判定车载移动变电站技术在施工、使用过程中远优于传统供电技术;3)车载移动变电站技术在吉图珲客运专线的成功使用,是符合当前快速施工建设需要的新技术,对未来施工供电具有指导作用。%Conventional fixed substation has such disadvantages as complex approval procedure,numerous structures and long construction period,therefore it cannot meet the requirement of rapid power supply.As a result,vehicle-mounted mobile substation is used.The application of the vehicle-mounted mobile substation in the construction of Jilin-Tumen-Hunchun passenger-dedicated railway is monitored and analyzed.The main study contents and conclusions drawn are as follows:1 )The application of the vehicle-mounted mobile substation in the construction of Jinlin-Tumen-Hunchun passenger-dedicated railway is studied,which shows that the vehicle-mounted mobile substation adopted can meet the requirement of the power supply;2 )Comparison and contrast is made between the vehicle-mounted mobile substation and the conventional fixed substation,which shows that the vehicle-mounted mobile substation is superior to the conventional fixed substation;3 )The successful application of the vehicle-mounted mobile substation in the construction of Jilin-Tumen-Hunchun passenger-dedicated railway shows that the vehicle-mounted mobile substation

  3. Motion Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Kocaturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents strategy for navigation of a wheeled mobile robot in unstructured environments with obstacles. The vehicle has two wheels independently to control the angular velocity. This work deals with mobile robots modelling then control strategies and simulation results. Simulation results recommends fuzzy logic controller for the wheeled mobile robot motion in unstructured environments.

  4. Defense Acquisitions. Rapid Acquisition of MRAP Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-08

    safety, which required some modifying of designs and postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles were used. Also, long term sustainment costs...the form of reliability, mobility, and safety, which have required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles...issues required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, or adapting how vehicles were to be used. Testing of proposed Page 8 GAO-10-155T

  5. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  6. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  7. Automatic registration method for mobile LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruisheng; Ferrie, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    We present an automatic mutual information (MI) registration method for mobile LiDAR and panoramas collected from a driving vehicle. The suitability of MI for registration of aerial LiDAR and aerial oblique images has been demonstrated under an assumption that minimization of joint entropy (JE) is a sufficient approximation of maximization of MI. We show that this assumption is invalid for the ground-level data. The entropy of a LiDAR image cannot be regarded as approximately constant for small perturbations. Instead of minimizing the JE, we directly maximize MI to estimate corrections of camera poses. Our method automatically registers mobile LiDAR with spherical panoramas over an approximate 4-km drive, and is the first example we are aware of that tests MI registration in a large-scale context.

  8. Fuzzy control of mobile robot in slippery environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Hassan Hadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of independent motion control of mobile robot (МR in conditions when unforeseen changes of conditions of interaction of wheels with a surface are considered. An example of such changes can be sudden entrance МR a slippery surface. The deployment of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle for field applications provides the means by which the risk to personnel can be minimized and operational capabilities improved. In rough terrain, it is critical for mobile robots to maintain good wheel traction. Wheel slip could cause the rover to lose control and become trapped. This paper describes the application of fuzzy control to a feedback system within slippery environment. The study is conducted on an example of МR with two driving wheels.

  9. Highway Mobility and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks in NS-3

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The study of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) requires efficient and accurate simulation tools. As the mobility of vehicles and driver behavior can be affected by network messages, these tools must include a vehicle mobility model integrated with a quality network simulator. We present the first implementation of a well-known vehicle mobility model to ns-3, the next generation of the popular ns-2 networking simulator. Vehicle mobility and network communication are integrated through events. User-created event handlers can send network messages or alter vehicle mobility each time a network message is received and each time vehicle mobility is updated by the model. To aid in creating simulations, we have implemented a straight highway model that manages vehicle mobility, while allowing for various user customizations. We show that the results of our implementation of the mobility model matches that of the model's author and provide an example of using our implementation in ns-3.

  10. 车载移动测图系统外方位元素标定方法%Extrinsic Calibration for Vehicle-based Mobile Mapping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽梅; 赵红蕊; 李明海; 付罡; 李聪

    2015-01-01

    全景相机因其360°大视场、旋转不变性等优点,逐渐被用于构建车载移动测图系统。标定是保证系统获取精确地理信息数据的重要前提。本文针对全景相机和定位定姿系统(POS )集成的车载移动测图系统,提出一种外方位元素标定的方法。首先,在实际场景中布设高精度已知控制点。其次,构建全景球面模型,将全景影像通过球面投影反变换投影到该球面上,从球面上选择控制点而不是直接从存在扭曲的全景影像上选择控制点并得到其球面坐标。在建立点的相关性之后,结合地理参考绝对定位方程和坐标变换,求得全景相机相对POS的平移与旋转参数。最后,采用本文提出的标定方法,分别选择北京航天城和天津滨海新区进行试验。试验表明,GPS信号良好时,点的绝对定位中误差可达平面103. cm、高程165. cm;GPS信号不好时,点的绝对定位中误差为平面354. cm、高程548. cm;在较短距离范围内(<3 km),距离量测相对误差最大为5 cm左右,GPS信号对相对量测没有明显影响。%Having the advantage of 360° imaging and rotation invariance , panoramic camera has gradually been used in mobile mapping systems(MMS) .Calibration is an essential requirement to make sure that MMS can get high quality geo‐information .This paper presents a way to address the extrinsic calibration for vehicle‐based MMS composed of panoramic camera and Position and Orientation System (POS) .Firstly ,control points in the natural scene are set up ,whose spati al coordinates are measured with high precision .Secondly ,a panoramic spherical model is constructed and panoramic image can be projec‐ted to this model by means of spherical reverse transformation projection .Then ,localize and select the control points in 3D spherical panoramic view but not in panoramic distorted image directly ,the spherical coordinates of

  11. Traffic modelling framework for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlote, Arieh; Crisostomi, Emanuele; Kirkland, Stephen; Shorten, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews and improves a recently proposed model of road network dynamics. The model is also adapted and generalised to represent the patterns of battery consumption of electric vehicles travelling in the road network. Simulations from the mobility simulator SUMO are given to support and to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. Applications relevant in the field of electric vehicles, such as optimal routing and traffic load control, are provided to illustrate how the proposed model can be used to address typical problems arising in contemporary road network planning and electric vehicle mobility.

  12. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  13. Real-time adaptive off-road vehicle navigation and terrain classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Urs A.; Jackel, Lawrence D.; LeCun, Yann; Flepp, Beat

    2013-05-01

    We are developing a complete, self-contained autonomous navigation system for mobile robots that learns quickly, uses commodity components, and has the added benefit of emitting no radiation signature. It builds on the au­tonomous navigation technology developed by Net-Scale and New York University during the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) program and takes advantage of recent scientific advancements achieved during the DARPA Deep Learning program. In this paper we will present our approach and algorithms, show results from our vision system, discuss lessons learned from the past, and present our plans for further advancing vehicle autonomy.

  14. Global mobile satellite communications theory for maritime, land and aeronautical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ilčev, Stojče Dimov

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses current theory regarding global mobile satellite communications (GMSC) for maritime, land (road and rail), and aeronautical applications. It covers how these can enable connections between moving objects such as ships, road and rail vehicles and aircrafts on one hand, and on the other ground telecommunications subscribers through the medium of communications satellites, ground earth stations, Terrestrial Telecommunication Networks (TTN), Internet Service Providers (ISP) and other wireless and landline telecommunications providers. This new edition covers new developments and initiatives that have resulted in land and aeronautical applications and the introduction of new satellite constellations in non-geostationary orbits and projects of new hybrid satellite constellations. The book presents current GMSC trends, mobile system concepts and network architecture using a simple mode of style with understandable technical information, characteristics, graphics, illustrations and mathematics equ...

  15. A Method of Localization for Mobile Robot Based on Obstacle-Ground-Corner%基于障碍物地平角点的移动机器人定位*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丙华; 李中华

    2013-01-01

    Using the assumption of the horizontal plane,a method of fast localization for mobile robot is presented.This method addresses an Obstacle-Ground-Corner extraction algorithm combined with the Harris-Laplace operator,fast mean shift and stereo vision,and then uses the obstacle ground corners as landmarks.The adaptive particle filtering method is used to fusion the landmarks depth and position to a-chieve an efficient and more accurate fast localization,the computational complexity of localization algo-rithm is greatly reduces due to the use of a small number of landmarks.The results of experiment illustra-ted the effectiveness of this method.%提出了一种移动机器人快速定位方法。该方法在水平面假设的前提下,采用Harris Laplace算子并结合快速均值漂移和立体视觉方法,构建了一个障碍物地平角点提取算法取得特征角点,再以提取的障碍物地平角点为路标点,利用自适应粒子滤波方法融合路标点的深度和位置信息,实现了移动机器人高效快速和较为精确的定位。由于路标点(障碍物地平角点)数量大幅度减少,大大降低了定位算法计算的复杂度。实验的结果证明了上述方法是行之有效的。

  16. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  17. 同步定位及地图创建算法在车载移动测绘系统中的应用%Application of SLAM in Vehicle-Borne Mobile Mapping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少兴; 陈春朋; 张爱武

    2012-01-01

    为了解决车载移动测图中全球卫星定位系统(GPS)失锁及无GPS导致的导航定位问题,提出了一种利用水平布设二维激光扫描仪和里程计结合的快速同步定位及地图创建(SLAM)方法.在详细分析车载移动测图系统定位误差来源的基础上,科学合理地设置系统的预测参数及重预测参数,并给出了宽间隔预测及状态重预测改进后的卡尔曼滤波算法.在不损失计算精度的前提下,提高了计算速度.利用上述算法在实验室环形走廊中进行了实验,实验结果证明了本算法的有效性.%To solve the GPS-denies or no GPS positioning problem of the vehicle-borne mobile mapping system (VBMMS), a fast simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method using the horizontal 2D laser scanner and the odometer is proposed. Through position error analysis of VBMMS, the scientific prediction and re-prediction parameters are set. An improved extended Kalman filter (EKF) based on wide-interval prediction and re-predition are presented to speed up. The experiments done in the closed corridor show the method mentioned above are reliable.

  18. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  19. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity

  20. The concept of "Mobile sky"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Остроумов

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  The navigation and control for light aviation based on mobile communication service in the bottom airspace have been proposed. The main principles of “Mobile sky” conception have been formulated and grounded. In the paper have been represented the main advantages for use this conception in Ukraine.