WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground vegetation flying

  1. Ground crewmen maneuver the Helios Prototype flying wing on its ground support dolly during function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Ground crewmen maneuver AeroVironment's solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing on its ground support dolly during functional checkouts prior to its first flights under solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kaua'i, Hawaii.

  2. Flight-like ground demonstration of precision formation flying spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Keim, Jason A.; Benowitz, Edward G.; Lawson, Peter R.

    2007-09-01

    Initial high-fidelity, flight-like ground demonstrations of precision formation flying spacecraft are presented. In these demonstrations, maneuvers required for distributed spacecraft interferometry, such as for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer, were performed to near-flight precision. Synchronized formation rotations for "on-the-fly" observations require the highest precision. For this maneuver, ground demonstration performance requirements are 5 cm in relative position and 6 arc minutes in attitude. These requirements have been met for initial demonstrations of formation-keeping and synchronized formation rotations. The maneuvers were demonstrated in the Formation Control Testbed (FCT). The FCT currently consists of two, five degree-of-freedom, air bearing-levitated robots. The final sixth degree-of-freedom is being added in August 2007. Each robot has a suite of flight-like avionics and actuators, including a star tracker, fiber-optic gyroscopes, reaction wheels, cold-gas thrusters, inter-robot communication, and on-board computers that run the Formation and Attitude Control System (FACS) software. The FCT robots and testbed environment are described in detail. Then several initial demonstrations results are presented, including (i) a sub-millimeter formation sensor, (ii) an algorithm for synchronizing control cycles across multiple vehicles, (iii) formation keeping, (iv) reactive collision avoidance, and (iv) synchronized formation rotations.

  3. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-07-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  4. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-09-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  5. MICROSTRUCTURE, MINERALOGY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUND FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Madai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the utilization of deposited fly ash as a main component of geopolymer. After determination of particle size distribution, moisture content, real and bulk density and specific surface area of the raw fly ash, mechanical activation was performed by laboratory scale ball mill. This step is introduced for improving the reactivity of raw material. Then test specimens were produced by geopoliomerisation using a caustic spent liquor (NaOH. Compressive strength was determined on cilindrical specimens. Finally, samples of the ground fly ash based geopolymer specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results prove that geopolymer production with proper strength from the investigated F-type deposited fly ash is possible. The uniaxial compressive strength of obtained composites strongly depends on the fineness of the ground fly ash. XRD results show that comparing the crystalline components for different geopolymer samples, zeolite-A appears and its amount increases gradually from 0T sample till 30T and then decreases for 60T sample. The same trend holds for sodalite type structure phases, however its amount is much lower than for zeolite-A. SEM+EDS investigation revealed that Na-content is elevated in the interstitial fine-grained matrix, especially for the 30T sample when highest strength was observed. Si and Al are abundant mainly in anhedral and spherical grains and in rarely occurring grains resembling some crystal shape.

  6. Characterization of subarctic vegetation using ground based remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, D.; Garnello, A.; Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Herrick, C.; Anderson, S. M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Stordalen mire is located at 68°21'N and 19°02'E in the Swedish subarctic. Climate monitoring has revealed a warming trend spanning the past 150 years affecting the mires ability to hold stable palsa/hummock mounds. The micro-topography of the landscape has begun to degrade into thaw ponds changing the vegetation cover from ombrothrophic to minerotrophic. Hummocks are ecologically important due to their ability to act as a carbon sinks. Thaw ponds and sphagnum rich transitional zones have been documented as sources of atmospheric CH4. An objective of this project is to determine if a high resolution three band camera (RGB) and a RGNIR camera could detect differences in vegetation over five different site types. Species composition was collected for 50 plots with ten repetitions for each site type: palsa/hummock, tall shrub, semi-wet, tall graminoid, and wet. Sites were differentiated based on dominating species and features consisting of open water presence, sphagnum spp. cover, graminoid spp. cover, or the presence of dry raised plateaus/mounds. A pole based camera mount was used to collect images at a height of ~2.44m from the ground. The images were cropped in post-processing to fit a one-square meter quadrat. Texture analysis was performed on all images, including entropy, lacunarity, and angular second momentum. Preliminary results suggested that site type influences the number of species present. The p-values for the ability to predict site type using a t-test range from <0.0001 to 0.0461. A stepwise discriminant analysis on site type vs. texture yielded a 10% misclassification rate. Through the use of a stepwise regression of texture variables, actual vs. predicted percent of vegetation coverage provided R squared values of 0.73, 0.71, 0.67, and 0.89 for C. bigelowii, R. chamaemorus, Sphagnum spp., and open water respectively. These data have provided some support to the notion that texture analyses can be used for classification of mire site types. Future

  7. [Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie-xian; Wan, Nian-feng; Ji, Xiang-yun; Dan, Jia-gui

    2011-09-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1.48, 1.84 and 0.64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon's diversity, and Pielou's evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 83.733 +/- 4.932, 4.966 +/- 0.110, and 0.795 +/- 0.014, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker's dominance index was 0.135 +/- 0.012, being significantly lower than that (0.184 +/- 0.018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0.883 +/- 0.123. 1714 +/- 0.683, and 0.781 +/- 0.040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon's diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the diversity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp, Sn/Sp, and S/N.

  8. Optimization of activator solution and heat treatment of ground lignite type fly ash geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Z.; Szabó, R.; Rácz, Á.; Lakatos, J.; Debreczeni, Á.; Mucsi, G.

    2017-02-01

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers which can be produced by the reaction between silico aluminate oxides and alkali silicates in alkaline medium. Materialscontaining silica and alumina compounds are suitable for geopolymer production. These can beprimary materials or industrial wastes, i. e. fly ash, metallurgical slag and red mud. In this paper, the results of the systematic experimental series are presented which were carried out in order to optimize the geopolymer preparation process. Fly ash was ground for different residence time (0, 5, 10, 30, 60 min) in order to investigate the optimal specific surface area. NaOH activator solution concentration also varied (6, 8, 10, 12, 14 M). Furthermore, sodium silicate was added to NaOH as a network builder solution. In this last serie different heat curing temperatures (30, 60, 90°C) were also applied. After seven days of ageing the physical properties of the geopolymer(compressive strength and specimen density)were measured. Chemical leaching tests on the rawmaterial and the geopolymers were carried out to determine the elements which can be mobilized by different leaching solutions. It was found that the above mentioned parameters (fly ash fineness, molar concentration and composition of activator solution, heat curing) has great effect on the physical and chemical properties of geopolymer specimens. Optimal conditions were as follows: specific surface area of the fly ash above 2000 cm2/g, 10 M NaOH, 30°C heat curing temperature which resulted in 21 MPa compressive strength geopolymer.

  9. Selected Properties Of Geopolymers With Different Portions Of Ground Fly-Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želinková Miroslava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are polymeric materials resulting from the polycondensation reaction of alumino-silicate materials in a strongly alkaline environment. In consequence, stable polymeric networks of aluminosilicates are formed. The binding potential of FA (fly ash amorphous component can also be “activated” by mechanical activation, which unfolds new possibilities of FA utilization. Mechanical activation, such as the method, which can improve FA reactivity, is often applied for different applications for geopolymers based on ground fly ash. This paper presents possibilities of preparation of geopolymer mixtures based on modified (ground FA (TEKO – produced by the Heating plant Kosice, which was used in varying percentages to unground (original FA. The particle size of the original unground FA (PVT was 84.7μm and particle size of the ground FA (T60S1 was 52.8μm. Properties to be evaluated were selected from the expected application point of view – protective coating of concrete. Next properties of geopolymer mixtures after 28 days of hardening were tested and evaluated: dry density, absorptivity, capillarity, compressive and flexural strength.

  10. Vegetation dynamics of the Berdyansk firing ground (Zaporizhzhya region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kolomiychuk

    2011-07-01

    revealed 13 formations, which are grouped into 6 types of vegetation. The succession directions of steppe vegetation have been discovered. Localities of typical and rare plant communities are presented. The flora peculiarities are characterized. It is proposed to create a state botanical reserve in that area

  11. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  12. Employing UAVs to Acquire Detailed Vegetation and Bare Ground Data for Assessing Rangeland Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Herrick, J. E.; Winters, C.

    2007-12-01

    Because of its value as a historical record (extending back to the mid 1930s), aerial photography is an important tool used in many rangeland studies. However, these historical photos are not very useful for detailed analysis of rangeland health because of inadequate spatial resolution and scheduling limitations. These issues are now being resolved by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) over rangeland study areas. Spatial resolution improvements have been rapid in the last 10 years from the QuickBird satellite through improved aerial photography to the new UAV coverage and have utilized improved sensors and the more simplistic approach of low altitude flights. Our rangeland health experiments have shown that the low altitude UAV digital photography is preferred by rangeland scientists because it allows, for the first time, their identification of vegetation and land surface patterns and patches, gap sizes, bare soil percentages, and vegetation type. This hyperspatial imagery (imagery with a resolution finer than the object of interest) is obtained at about 5cm resolution by flying at an altitude of 150m above the surface of the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. Additionally, the UAV provides improved temporal flexibility, such as flights immediately following fires, floods, and other catastrophic disturbances, because the flight capability is located near the study area and the vehicles are under the direct control of the users, eliminating the additional steps associated with budgets and contracts. There are significant challenges to improve the data to make them useful for operational agencies, namely, image distortion with inexpensive, consumer grade digital cameras, difficulty in detecting sufficient ground control points in small scenes (152m by 114m), accuracy of exterior UAV information on X,Y, Z, roll, pitch, and heading, the sheer number of images collected, and developing reliable relationships with ground-based data across a broad

  13. The effect of short ground vegetation on terrestrial laser scans at a local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Powrie, William; Smethurst, Joel; Atkinson, Peter M.; Einstein, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can record a large amount of accurate topographical information with a high spatial accuracy over a relatively short period of time. These features suggest it is a useful tool for topographical survey and surface deformation detection. However, the use of TLS to survey a terrain surface is still challenging in the presence of dense ground vegetation. The bare ground surface may not be illuminated due to signal occlusion caused by vegetation. This paper investigates vegetation-induced elevation error in TLS surveys at a local scale and its spatial pattern. An open, relatively flat area vegetated with dense grass was surveyed repeatedly under several scan conditions. A total station was used to establish an accurate representation of the bare ground surface. Local-highest-point and local-lowest-point filters were applied to the point clouds acquired for deriving vegetation height and vegetation-induced elevation error, respectively. The effects of various factors (for example, vegetation height, edge effects, incidence angle, scan resolution and location) on the error caused by vegetation are discussed. The results are of use in the planning and interpretation of TLS surveys of vegetated areas.

  14. Steam treatment of forest ground vegetation to improve tree seedling establishment and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, Gisela [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology

    2000-07-01

    Mechanical soil scarification is the commonly used site preparation technique in Sweden today and there is a need for alternative site preparation methods to fulfil some environmental goals in Swedish forestry. Thermal vegetation control could be an alternative method that reduces the competing forest ground vegetation with minimal disturbance to the mineral soil and ground floor. The aim with this work has been to investigate if it is possible to control forest ground vegetation by steam treatment as an alternative site preparation method before planting or seeding. Studies were conducted on four sites, each representing main Swedish forest vegetation types, i.e. the ground vegetation was dominated by crowberry (Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull) and wavy hair grass (Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin). Steam generally controlled recolonization of vegetation on all investigated sites for a longer time than soil scarification. Especially in controlling grass vegetation steam treatment was much more effective than soil scarification. The establishment and growth of seeded Scots pine seedlings also improved after vegetation control by steam treatment compared to that in intact vegetation. For all sites, both steam treatment and soil scarification improved seedling height growth compared to seedlings planted in intact vegetation. In the bilberry and heather dominated sites seedling growth in steam treated plots was even better than for seedlings planted in mechanical soil scarified plots. Further, key biological soil processes such as microbial activity and mycorrhizal colonisation were not negatively affected by steam treatment. The conclusion made from these studies is that steam treatment has the potential to be used as an alternative site preparation method especially on sites dominated by ericaceous vegetation. However, the method requires some further technical development before it may be used

  15. Quantifying snow and vegetation interactions in the high arctic based on ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacitúa, G.; Bay, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of the relationship between accumulation of snow and vegetation is crucial for understanding the influence of vegetation dynamics. We here present an analysis of the thickness of the snow and hydrological availability in relation to the seven main vegetation types in the High...... Arctic in Northeast Greenland. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) for snow thickness measurements across the Zackenberg valley. Measurements were integrated to the physical conditions that support the vegetation distribution. Descriptive statistics and correlations of the distribution of each...

  16. Evaluation of Radar Vegetation Indices for Vegetation Water Content Estimation Using Data from a Ground-Based SMAP Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; O'Neill, Peggy; Cosh, Michael; Lang, Roger; Joseph, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important component of microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms. This paper aims to estimate VWC using L band active and passive radar/radiometer datasets obtained from a NASA ground-based Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) simulator known as ComRAD (Combined Radar/Radiometer). Several approaches to derive vegetation information from radar and radiometer data such as HH, HV, VV, Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI), HH/VV ratio, HV/(HH+VV), HV/(HH+HV+VV) and Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) are tested for VWC estimation through a generalized linear model (GLM). The overall analysis indicates that HV radar backscattering could be used for VWC content estimation with highest performance followed by HH, VV, MPDI, RVI, and other ratios.

  17. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marciente

    Full Text Available Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  18. Fractional Vegetation Cover of East African Wetlands Observed on Ground and from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Amler, E.; Guerschmann, J. P.; Scarth, P.; Behn, K.; Thonfeld, F.

    2016-08-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems providing numerous ecosystem services. They are of particular importance to communities in East Africa where agriculture is the most important economic sector and where food availability to households critical. During an intensive field campaign in the dry season of 2013 were Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) measurements, botanical vegetation cover and vegetation structure estimates acquired in three wetland test sites within the East African region. FVC cover data were collated in three strata: ground layer, midstorey and overstorey (woody vegetation greater than 2 m). Fractional cover estimates for the green and no-green vegetative fraction were calculated for Landsat MODIS imagery. These FVC data products were evaluated a) with FVC field data and b) relative to each other for their usability in the East African region. First results show some promise for further studies.

  19. Will Arctic ground squirrels impede or accelerate climate-induced vegetation changes to the Arctic tundra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J.; Flower, C. E.; Brown, J.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Whelan, C.

    2014-12-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the climate feedbacks associated with predicted vegetation shifts in the Arctic tundra in response to global environmental change. However, little is known regarding the extent to which consumers can facilitate or respond to shrub expansion. Arctic ground squirrels, the largest and most northern ground squirrel, are abundant and widespread throughout the North American tundra. Their broad diet of seeds, flowers, herbage, bird's eggs and meat speaks to the need to breed, feed, and fatten in a span of some 12-16 weeks that separate their 8-9 month bouts of hibernation with the potential consequence to impact ecosystem dynamics. Therefore Arctic ground squirrels are a good candidate to evaluate whether consumers are mere responders (bottom-up effects) or drivers (top-down) of the observed and predicted vegetation changes. As a start towards this question, we measured the foraging intensity (giving-up densities) of Arctic ground squirrels in experimental food patches within which the squirrels experience diminishing returns as they seek the raisins and peanuts that we provided at the Toolik Lake field station in northern Alaska. If the squirrels show their highest feeding intensity in the shrubs, they may impede vegetation shifts by slowing the establishment and expansion of shrubs in the tundra. Conversely, if they show their lowest feeding intensity within shrub dominated areas, they may accelerate vegetation shifts. We found neither. Feeding intensity varied most among transects and times of day, and least along a tundra-to-shrub vegetation gradient. This suggests that the impacts of squirrels will be heterogeneous - in places responders and in others drivers. We should not be surprised then to see patches of accelerated and impeded vegetation changes in the tundra ecosystem. Some of these patterns may be predictable from the foraging behavior of Arctic ground squirrels.

  20. Characterisation of magnesium potassium phosphate cements blended with fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Laura J.; Bernal, Susan A.; Walling, Samuel A.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Provis, John L.; Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPCs), blended with 50 wt.% fly ash (FA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to reduce heat evolution, water demand and cost, were assessed using compressive strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on {sup 25}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 29}Si, {sup 31}P and {sup 39}K nuclei. We present the first definitive evidence that dissolution of the glassy aluminosilicate phases of both FA and GBFS occurred under the pH conditions of MKPC. In addition to the main binder phase, struvite-K, an amorphous orthophosphate phase was detected in FA/MKPC and GBFS/MKPC systems. It was postulated that an aluminium phosphate phase was formed, however, no significant Al–O–P interactions were identified. High-field NMR analysis of the GBFS/MKPC system indicated the potential formation of a potassium-aluminosilicate phase. This study demonstrates the need for further research on these binders, as both FA and GBFS are generally regarded as inert fillers within MKPC.

  1. Go fly a kite : air truthing replaces ground truthing for environmental investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2008-05-15

    This article discussed the use of kite aerial photography (KAP) in oil and gas exploration activities. KAP exhibits a minimal environmental footprint while providing high resolution airborne data of the Earth's surface in infrared and a variety of other media. The cost-effective technology is being employed by Alberta's oil and gas operators as well as by the environmental consulting sector. The kites fly at lower elevations than other remote sensing tools, and yield better spatial resolution on the ground. KAP can map the Earth's surface at a scale of investigation on the order of 5 to 10 centimetres. The images are placed into a geo-referenced mosaic along with poorer resolution remote sensing tools. A KAP kit can be assembled for under $1000. By using infrared KAP images, operators are able to determine the health of muskeg and swamp areas and measure the rate of photosynthesis of plants. KAP is also used to evaluate troublesome wellsite by reclamation groups. The next generation of sensors will include radio-controlled drones and miniature aircraft. 6 figs.

  2. Effects of DDT ground-spraying against tsetse flies on lizards in NW Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M R

    1993-01-01

    The impact of DDT ground-spraying against tsetse flies on lizards was investigated in NW Zimbabwe. Nineteen species were recorded, 17 in mopane woodland and 11 on gritstone outcrops: Mabuya striata wahlbergii dominated trees and Mabuya quinquetaeniata margaritifer rocks. Mean frequency of M. s. wahlbergii declined significantly from 76% of lizards at untreated sites (n = 8), through 72% after three annual treatments (n = 4), to 48% after 4-6 treatments (n = 6). Sighting rates and proportion of trees occupied were also significantly lower at treated than untreated sites. Numbers on trunks (99% > 15 cm diameter) above 3 m increased significantly with years of treatment relative to those in the spray target area below 3 m. Total DDT loads rose significantly with number of annual treatments and were up to 263 microg g(-1) lipid (7 microg g(-1) wet body weight) after 3-6 years. The percentage of unaltered DDT increased with load, which was proportionately higher in thin than in fat lizards. The geometric mean total DDT level in M. s. wahlbergii was significantly higher than in outcrop species, and from treated woodland was elevated 21 times above that in lizards from treated outcrops. Frequency and sighting rates of Lygodactylus chobiensis in woodland and immature Agama kirkii on outcrops were significantly higher in treated than in untreated areas.

  3. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  4. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  5. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  6. Strength, leachability and microstructure characterisation of Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag solidified MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dajie; Liu, Wenshi; Hou, Haobo; He, Xinghua

    2007-10-01

    The chemical composition and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were measured and analysed. For the leachability of unstabilized MSWI fly ash it was found that the concentrations of Pb and Cr exceeded the leaching toxicity standard. Cementitious solidification of the MSWI fly ash by Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag (NS) was investigated. Results show that all solidified MSWI fly ash can meet the landfill standards after 28 days of curing. The heavy metals were immobilized within the hydration products such as C-S-H gel and ettringite through physical encapsulation, substitution, precipitation or adsorption mechanisms.

  7. Effect of Fly Ash Disposal on Ground Water Quality Near Parichha Thermal Power Plant, Jhansi – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kanchan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plant generates a huge amount of fly ash on combustion of coal which is becoming a major environmental issue. Thermal power plants are greatly facing a fly ash management problem. Open dumping of fly ash can deteriorate the groundwater quality by runoff. In the present investigation, the ground water samples were collected from nearby areas of Parichha Thermal Power Plant at six locations during the period of Jan 2014 to May 2014. The samples were taken to the laboratory and analyzed for physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content. The physico-chemical analysis was done for the parameters like pH, Turbidity, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Calcium Hardness and Magnesium Hardness. The concentration of Turbidity, EC and Alkalinity was exceeding the standard at all locations and shows that the groundwater of the area is not fit for drinking. The ground water samples were also analyzed for the presence of lead and cadmium and it was found that lead was exceeding the limit although cadmium was found within the limit.

  8. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions

  9. Remote sensing of Sonoran Desert vegetation structure and phenology with ground-based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Duran, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  10. Field observations of carbonyl sulfide deficit near the ground: Possible implication of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, N.; Bonsang, B.; Nguyen, B. C.; Kanakidou, M.; Belviso, S.

    In order to study carbonyl sulfide sources and sinks at ground level, two experiments were conducted in 1986 during temperature inversion events. In the first experiment, the samples were collected in a coastal area during land-breeze events. In the second experiment, COS vertical profiles were carried out in an agricultural area, within and above an inversion layer near the ground. Both stable atmospheric situations resulted in a deficit of COS near the ground which is attributed to the existence of a sink of COS at this level. Deposition onto vegetation seems to be the most likely mechanism for this COS uptake, a conclusion in agreement with the results of laboratory and soil flux chambers experiments.

  11. Mass trapping is as effective as ground bait sprays for the control of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies in mango orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Flores, Salvador; Liedo, Pablo; Malo, Edi A

    2017-10-01

    Anastrepha fruit flies are considered one of the main phytosanitary problems for the fresh fruit industry in the USA, Caribbean islands and Latin America. Since 1994, the Mexican government has implemented the National Fruit Fly Program using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of mass trapping and compare it with ground GF-120 spraying against Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens populations in mango cv. Ataulfo orchards. Multilure® traps baited with Ceratrap® or Biolure® captured significantly more fruit flies than Captor 300 in field cage tests. Mass trapping and ground GF-120 spray significantly suppressed fruit fly populations compared with untreated plots. In Multilure traps placed in untreated plots, we captured significantly more fruit flies than in treated plots with mass trapping or GF-120 sprays. Plots treated with either mass trapping or GF-120 sprays reduced the percentage of infested fruit significantly compared with untreated plots. There was no difference between mass trapping and GF-120 ground bait spraying. Our results demonstrate that mass trapping was as effective as GF-120 ground spraying for the control of fruit flies in mango cv. Ataulfo orchards. The suppression effect of mass trapping was similar to GF-120 ground bait spraying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...... improvement in GPU dynamic performances. This progress is achieved by utilising the proposed FCHB converter to an ANPC converter and using the suggested modulation method. This leads to diminish the size and cost and enhance the feasibility and reliability of the converter. Applying the proposed modulation...

  13. Robert L. Gross, Well-Grounded in High-Flying Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    Could a North Dakota farm boy with a smallish frame, bookish appearance, understated speaking voice and aw-shucks humility possibly be a good fit to lead a powerhouse, cosmopolitan private school for American students living abroad, whose governing board consists mainly of high-flying corporate executives and well-heeled attorneys? The answer…

  14. Conserved microsatellite markers of high cross-species utility for flying, ground and tree squirrels

    OpenAIRE

    Jumpa, S.; Dawson, D. A.; Horsburgh, G.J.; Walton, C

    2015-01-01

    Many squirrel species around the world are threatened by forest loss and fragmentation. To facilitate studies of squirrel biodiversity, particularly of flying squirrels in Southeast Asia, we identified Hylopetes, Menetes, Glaucomys and Sciurus squirrel microsatellite sequences with homologs in a second squirrel species (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), designed 40 consensus markers and tested three squirrel species. When tested in four individuals per species, 26 markers were variable in Hylop...

  15. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  16. Ground-based characterization of Eurybates and Orus, two fly-by targets of the Lucy Discovery mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Stefano; Marchi, Simone; Buie, Marc W.; Hellmich, Stephan; Di Martino, Mario; Proffe, Gerrit; Levison, Harold F.; Zangari, Amanda Marie

    2016-10-01

    Lucy is a proposed NASA Discovery mission designed to perform close fly-bys with six Jupiter Trojan asteroids. The mission, which is currently in the Phase A development phase, is planned to launch in 2021 and arrive at the Trojan L4 cloud in 2027.We report on ground-based light curve observations of two of Lucy's fly-by target candidates: (3548) Eurybates and (21900) Orus. The goal is to characterize their shape, spin state and photometric properties both to aid in the planning of the mission, and to complement the space-borne data.Each object has been observed over 5 apparitions in a wide range of geocentric ecliptic longitudes. Shape and spin state modeling was performed by using the convex shape inversion method (Kaasalainen, Mottola & Fulchignoni, 2002). Eurybates is a retrograde rotator with a sidereal rotation Psid=8.702724±0.000009 h. It has a moderately elongated shape with equivalent axial ratios a/b=1.08, b/c=1.16. No obvious signs of global non-convexities and/or albedo variegation are detected in its light curves. Orus is also a retrograde rotator with a period Psid=13.48617±0.00007 h. Its approximate axial ratios are a/b=1.14, b/c=1.12. The presence of a large, planar facet in the proximity of the model's North Pole suggests the presence of a large polar crater.

  17. Comparison and Intercalibration of Vegetation Indices from Different Sensors for Monitoring Above-Ground Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various sensors have been used to obtain the canopy spectral reflectance for monitoring above-ground plant nitrogen (N uptake in winter wheat. Comparison and intercalibration of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices derived from different sensors are important for multi-sensor data fusion and utilization. In this study, the spectral reflectance and its derived vegetation indices from three ground-based sensors (ASD Field Spec Pro spectrometer, CropScan MSR 16 and GreenSeeker RT 100 in six winter wheat field experiments were compared. Then, the best sensor (ASD and its normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI (807, 736 for estimating above-ground plant N uptake were determined (R2 of 0.885 and RMSE of 1.440 g·N·m−2 for model calibration. In order to better utilize the spectral reflectance from the three sensors, intercalibration models for vegetation indices based on different sensors were developed. The results indicated that the vegetation indices from different sensors could be intercalibrated, which should promote application of data fusion and make monitoring of above-ground plant N uptake more precise and accurate.

  18. Assessing Vegetation Composition and Characteristics Using Ground-Level Hyperspectral Data in Northern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneece, I.; Epstein, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    The study of ecosystem properties and processes through remote sensing allows ecological questions to be answered more efficiently for large geographical expanses than field work alone, especially in areas that are relatively inaccessible. These properties and processes are often studied at coarse spatial scales with multispectral data; however, the use of hyperspectral data to ask plant community and species-level questions is still a developing field. Many applications, such as understanding the influence of disturbances and assessing management strategies, need finer-scale information than is currently available using multispectral data. In this study, we used hyperspectral data to examine vegetation community properties in preparation for addressing these finer-scale questions. Specifically, we examined the ability to assess vegetation composition and diversity using ground-level hyperspectral data for early successional and other non-forested fields in north-central Virginia. Twelve 5m by 5m plots were established at which a vegetation survey was conducted at the ground, understory, and canopy levels at 0.5m intervals. We additionally collected twelve spectra with approximately 1m footprints at each plot. We then ran ordinations to assess clustering of plots by similarity in species compositions and assessed the spectral bands most strongly correlated with clustering. We found that plots do cluster by species composition, but the most influential wavelengths varied by year of data collection. In 2012, the most influential bands were in the near-infrared plateau region followed by some influence from the red region. The most influential bands in 2014 were in the blue-green and red regions. The correlations between species diversity and spectral diversity also differed by year; however, when an outlier was removed from each of the years, there was a weak positive correlation between species diversity and spectral diversity during both years. These results are

  19. Basic Physical – Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sičáková Alena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The binding potential of fly ash (FA as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  20. Contrast in edge vegetation structure modifies the predation risk of natural ground nests in an agricultural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Schneider

    Full Text Available Nest predation risk generally increases nearer forest-field edges in agricultural landscapes. However, few studies test whether differences in edge contrast (i.e. hard versus soft edges based on vegetation structure and height affect edge-related predation patterns and if such patterns are related to changes in nest conspicuousness between incubation and nestling feeding. Using data on 923 nesting attempts we analyse factors influencing nest predation risk at different edge types in an agricultural landscape of a ground-cavity breeding bird species, the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe. As for many other bird species, nest predation is a major determinant of reproductive success in this migratory passerine. Nest predation risk was higher closer to woodland and crop field edges, but only when these were hard edges in terms of ground vegetation structure (clear contrast between tall vs short ground vegetation. No such edge effect was observed at soft edges where adjacent habitats had tall ground vegetation (crop, ungrazed grassland. This edge effect on nest predation risk was evident during the incubation stage but not the nestling feeding stage. Since wheatear nests are depredated by ground-living animals our results demonstrate: (i that edge effects depend on edge contrast, (ii that edge-related nest predation patterns vary across the breeding period probably resulting from changes in parental activity at the nest between the incubation and nestling feeding stage. Edge effects should be put in the context of the nest predator community as illustrated by the elevated nest predation risk at hard but not soft habitat edges when an edge is defined in terms of ground vegetation. These results thus can potentially explain previously observed variations in edge-related nest predation risk.

  1. Microorganisms in small patterned ground features and adjacent vegetated soils along topographic and climatic gradients in the High Arctic, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; F.J. Rivera-Figueroa; W. Gould; S.A. Cantrell; J.R. Pérez-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determine differences in total biomass of soil microorganisms and community structure (using the most probable number of bacteria (MPN) and the number of fungal genera) in patterned ground features (PGF) and adjacent vegetated soils (AVS) in mesic sites from three High Arctic islands in order to characterize microbial dynamics as affected by...

  2. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...

  3. Pungent spices, ground red pepper, and synthetic capsaicin as onion fly ovipositional deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, R S; Keller, J E; Miller, J R

    1989-02-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, the spices dill, paprika, black pepper, chili powder, ginger, and red pepper deterredDelia antiqua oviposition by 88-100%. Dose-response choice tests demonstrated that 1 mg of ground cayenne pepper (GCP) placed within 1 cm of artificial onion foliage reduced oviposition by 78%. A synthetic analog of capsaicin, the principal flavor ingredient of red peppers, deterred oviposition by 95% when present at 320 ppm in the top centimeter of sand (the ovipositional substrate). However, in no-choice conditions 10 mg GCP was not an effective deterrent. Sevana Bird Repellent and Agrigard Insect Repellent both use red pepper as a principal ingredient; at recommended field rates, neither of these materials was an effective ovipositional deterrent either in laboratory or field. Capsaicin-based materials do not appear to be candidates for onion maggot control via behavioral modification.

  4. The Impact of Sunlight Conditions on the Consistency of Vegetation Indices in Croplands—Effective Usage of Vegetation Indices from Continuous Ground-Based Spectral Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Ishihara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A ground-based network of spectral observations is useful for ecosystem monitoring and validation of satellite data. However, these observations contain inherent uncertainties due to the change of sunlight conditions. This study investigated the impact of changing solar zenith angles and diffuse/direct light conditions on the consistency of vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and green-red vegetation index (GRVI derived from ground-based spectral measurements in three different types of cropland (paddy field, upland field, cultivated grassland in Japan. In general, the vegetation indices decreased with decreasing solar zenith angle. This response was affected significantly by the growth stage and diffuse/direct light conditions. The decreasing response of the NDVI to the decreasing solar zenith angle was high during the middle growth stage (0.4 < NDVI < 0.8. On the other hand, a similar response of the GRVI was evident except in the early growth stage (GRVI < 0. The response of vegetation indices to the solar zenith angle was evident under clear sky conditions but almost negligible under cloudy sky conditions. At large solar zenith angles, neither the NDVI nor the GRVI were affected by diffuse/direct light conditions in any growth stage. These experimental results were supported well by the results of simulations based on a physically-based canopy reflectance model (PROSAIL. Systematic selection of the data from continuous diurnal spectral measurements in consideration of the solar light conditions would be effective for accurate and consistent assessment of the canopy structure and functioning.

  5. The study on fishing ground of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartrami, and ocean environment based on remote sensing data in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei; WU Yumei; CUI Xuesen

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartrami, and the relative ocean environmental factors are analyzed. The environmental factors collected are sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll concentration (Chl-a) and sea surface height (SSH) from NASA, as well as the yields of neon flying squid in the North Pacific Ocean. The results show that the favorable temperature for neon flying squid living is 10℃-22℃ and the favorite temperature is between 15℃-17℃. The Chl-a concentration is 0.1-0.6 mg/m3. When Chl-a concentration changes to 0.12-0.14 mg/m3, the probability of forming fishing ground becomes very high. In most fishing grounds,the SSH is higher than the mean SSH. The generalized additive model (GAM) was applied to analyze the correlations between neon flying squid and ocean environmental factors. Every year, squids migrate northward from June to August and return southward during October-November, and the characteristics of the both migrations are very different. When squids migrate to the north, most relationships between the yields and SST are positive. The relationships are negative when squids move to southward. The relationships between the yields and Chl-a concentrations are negative from June to October, and insignificant in November. There is no obvious correlation between the catches of squid and longitude, but good with latitude.

  6. A Research on Particle Constitution of Fly Ash and Pozzolanic Activity of Fly Ash Ground Traditionally%粉煤灰的颗粒组成与磨细灰的火山灰活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮燕; 吴定燕; 高琼英

    2001-01-01

    将通过筛分得到的不同粒径范围的分选灰分别用普通球磨机磨细,探讨普通磨细方式对不同颗粒组成的粉煤灰的影响规律及其提高粉煤灰品质的机理。结果表明:普通粉磨主要是对粉煤灰的粗大颗粒有重要作用,而对粉煤灰中的细颗粒作用不明显。%The particles of fly ash are separated by sieve method.The fly ash of different size distribution is ground by traditional mill.The effect rule of traditional grinding method on different particles of fly ash and the mechanism of improvement on quality of fly ash are discussed.The results show that traditional grinding affects on crassitude particles actively but not fine particles.

  7. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

    2012-07-01

    A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

  8. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  9. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  10. Remote Sensing of Sonoran Desert Vegetation Structure and Phenology with Ground-Based LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel B. Sankey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  11. Towards a Handshake of Ground-Based Measurements and Remote-Sensing of Vegetation Traits at Global Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Díaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentice, I. C.; Leadley, P.; Reich, P. B.; Banerjee, A.; Fazayeli, F.; Schrodt, F. I.; Joswig, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Wirth, C.

    2014-12-01

    Plant traits determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services, and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Plant traits thus are a key to understand and predict the adaptation of ecosystems to environmental changes. At the same time ground based measurements of plant trait data are dispersed over a wide range of databases, many of these not publicly available. To overcome this deficiency IGBP and DIVERSITAS have initiated the development of a joint database, called TRY, aiming at constructing a standard resource of ground based plant trait observations for the ecological community and for the development of global vegetation models. So far the TRY initiative has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: about 250 trait databases have been contributed and the data repository currently contains about 5.6 million trait entries for 90,000 out of the world's 350,000 plant species. The database includes data for 1100 traits, characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. Based on advanced methods for gap-filling and spatial extrapolation currently being developed in applied statistics and machine learning and in combination with environmental information and species distribution ranges, the unprecedented availability of ground based trait measurements is expected to allow for up-scaling of trait observations from plant to ecosystem level and from point measurements to regional and global scales. These up-scaled data products are expected to provide a link from ground based trait measurements to remote sensing of vegetation function and traits with global coverage.

  12. Pattern and dynamics of the ground vegetation in south Swedish Carpinus betulus forests. Importance of soil chemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Tyler, G. [Plant Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The vegetation and environmental conditions of south Swedish horn-beam Carpinus betulus forests are described with data from 35 permanent sample plots. The main floristic gradient of the ground vegetation is closely related to acid-base properties of the top soil: Base saturation, pH and organic matter content. Other floristic differences are related to tree canopy cover and the distance of the sample plots to the Baltic coast. Species richness of herbaceous plants typical of forests increases with soil pH. The number of other herbaceous species, occurring in both forests and open habitats, and of woody species is not related to pH. Comparisons of vegetation data from 1983 and 1993 show relatively small compositional differences of the herbaceous forest flora. The number of other herbaceous species increased considerably in those plots where canopy trees had been cut after 1983. The number of new species in managed plots increases with soil pH. Species losses and gains of the herbaceous forest flora between 1983 and 1993 are generally lower as compared with other herbaceous species and woody species. However, the ground cover of herbaceous forest species, especially of Oxalis acetosella and Lamium galeobdolon, was considerably lower in 1993 as compared to 1983 in both unmanaged and managed plots. Possible explanations for this decrease are current soil acidification and drought during the growing season. (au) 32 refs.

  13. Analysis of the spectral response of flourishing-withering vegetation changes based on ground spectral measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guli·Japper; CHEN Xi; ZHAO Jin; MA ZhongGuo; CHANG Cun; ZHANG XueRen

    2007-01-01

    A structural mode was used to characterize vegetation composition at the plant leaf level and a flourishing-withering ratio was developed. The spectral responses of vegetation with different flourishing-withering ratios were analyzed, the change rates of the chlorophyll and moisture content indices of vegetation with different flourishing-withering ratios were compared, and correlations between the chlorophyll and moisture content indices were analyzed. The results reveal that leaves with an intermediate flourishing-withering ratio can increase the absorption signatures of vegetation and that band ranges of 570-700 nm and 1300-1540 nm can play a role in indicating changes in the flourishing-withering ratios of vegetation; NPQI, NPCI, R695/R420, R695/R760, R750/R700, the peak-value area of red selvedge, the red selvedge amplitude, the ratio between the red selvedge amplitude and the minimum amplitude, and the NDVl of vegetation change regularly with the change in flourishing-withering ratios,and these nine vegetation indices are highly related to the chlorophyll content. Vegetation indexes of NDWI and PRI are very sensitive to the flourishing-withering change in vegetation and are closely related to the moisture content, and the correlation coefficient is higher than 0.9. The derivative of the spectra is more effective in describing changes in the structural mode of vegetation with different flourishing-withering ratios, especially at band ranges of 552-628 nm and 630-686 nm, and it is more sensitive to the mixed flourishing-withering ratios of leaves rather than to the vegetation indices. The red selvedge position in the spectrum is highly related to the chlorophyll content and is not sensitive to changes in the structural mode of mixed flourishing-withering leaves. The red selvedge parameters are sensitive to changes in the flourishing-withering ratio at the peak-value area of the red selvedge amplitude and the ratio between the red selvedge amplitude and the

  14. Removal of lead ions in drinking water by coffee grounds as vegetable biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimoto, Toshimitsu; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Akutagawa, Jyunichi; Tanada, Seiki

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to reuse food waste for useful purposes, we investigated the possibility of using coffee grounds to remove lead ions from drinking water. We studied the lead ion adsorption characteristics of coffee beans and grounds by measuring their fat and protein content, adsorption isotherms for lead ions, and adsorption rates for lead ions. The number of lead ions adsorbed by coffee grounds did not depend on the kind of coffee beans or the temperature at which adsorption tests were performed. The rate of lead ion adsorption by coffee grounds was directly proportional to the amount of coffee grounds added to the solution. When coffee grounds were degreased or boiled, the number of lead ions decreased. When proteins contained in coffee grounds were denatured, the lead ion adsorption was considerably reduced. The lead ion adsorption capacity of coffee grounds decreased with increased concentration of perchloric acid used for treating them and disappeared with 10% perchloric acid. The experiments demonstrated that proteins contained in coffee beans depend upon the adsorption of lead ion. The present study gave an affirmative answer to the possibility of using coffee grounds, an abundant food waste, for removing lead ions from drinking water.

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Different Vegetation Types on Necrophagous Fly Communities (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae): Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Sousa, José Roberto; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Juen, Leandro; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in five different phytogeographic zones of the Brazilian state of Maranhão, three of which (the Amazon Forest, Cerrado, and Palm Groves) are more heterogeneous, whereas the other two (Marshlands and Mangroves) are more homogeneous. In each zone, nine sites were visited for the collection of necrophagous flies using bait traps in 2010, 2011, and 2012. The calliphorid and sarcophagid communities observed at each site were compared in terms of species richness, composition, and abundance. The more heterogeneous zones had higher species richness, except in the case of the sarcophagids in the forest habitats. The calliphorids Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau- Desvoidy, 1830), Mesembrinella bicolor (Fabricius, 1805), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) were more closely associated with the Cerrado, Palm Grove and Amazon Forest zones, and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 194) with the Mangrove. In the sarcophagids, Peckia (Euboettcheria) subducta (Lopes, 1935) and P. (Pattonella) palidipilosa (Curran & Walley, 1934) were associated with the Amazon Forest, and P. (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830) and Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) occidua (Fabricius, 1794) with the Palm Grove and Cerrado zones. In the calliphorids, the greatest dissimilarity was recorded between the Amazon Forest and the Mangrove and Lowland grassland zones. In the sarcophagids, by contrast, the greatest dissimilarities were recorded between the Amazon Forest and all the other four zones. In general, then, the phytogeographic zones with the highest environmental heterogeneity were characterized by the greatest species richness and abundance of necrophagous flies. PMID:27798664

  16. Greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland: A grounded look at sector competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, S.; Breukers, A.; Schweiger, J.; Mack, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory that is sufficiently adapted to sector competitiveness. The case of greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland is used to explain differences in sector competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Interviews focusin

  17. Greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland: A grounded look at sector competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, S.; Breukers, A.; Schweiger, J.; Mack, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory that is sufficiently adapted to sector competitiveness. The case of greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland is used to explain differences in sector competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Interviews focusin

  18. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods

    OpenAIRE

    David Lubertazzi; Walter Tschinkel

    2003-01-01

    Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is impor...

  19. Implementation of a ground truth process for development of a submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) mapping protocol using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert W.

    2006-09-01

    Protocol development for science based mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) requires comprehensive ground truth data describing the full range of variability observed in the target. The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, extends along 250 km of the east central Florida coast adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon crosses the transition zone between the Caribbean and Carolinian zoogeographic provinces making it highly diverse. For large scale mapping and management of SAV four common and three uncommon species of seagrass (Tracheophyta) and three broad groups of macroalgae; red algae (Rhodophyta), green algae (Chlorophyta), and brown algae (Phaeophyta) are recognized. Based on technical and cost limitations we established twenty, 7-10 km long flight transects for collection of 1.2 m2 spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery covering the length of the lagoon. Emphasis was placed on the area near the Sebastian River and adjacent Sebastian Inlet. Twenty six 40 m long ground truth transects were established in the lagoon using 1 m2 white panels to mark each transect end. Each transect target was located in the field using high precision GPS. Transects were positioned to cover a range of depths, SAV densities, mixed and monotypic species beds, water quality conditions and general sediment types. A 3 m wide by 30 m long grid was centered on each transect to avoid spectral influences of the white targets. Water depth, species of seagrasses, estimates of vegetation cover percentage, estimates of epiphytic density, and measured canopy height were made for each 1 m2 (n=90). This target based grid arrangement allows for identification and extraction of pixel based hyperspectral signatures corresponding to individual ground truth grid cells without significant concern for rectification and registration error.

  20. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lubertazzi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is important to understand how native faunal communities vary with ground cover variation. Using 4 sampling methods, we characterized the ant community and analyzed its within-habitat variation among 12 study sites. We found the highest plot species richness (55 species and within-habitat species richness (72 species ever recorded for North American ants. The ants formed three distinct communities. The low-diversity arboreal and subterranean assemblages varied little across forest stands while the diversity of the species-rich ground foraging ant community was negatively correlated with percent herbaceous cover. The imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (monogyne form, was unexpectedly found to be abundant in high herbaceous cover sites. Floral restoration of the pine flatwoods, which is increasing the proportion of herbaceous cover, is likely to cause an increase in the abundance of the imported fire ant.

  1. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubertazzi, David; Tschinkel, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is important to understand how native faunal communities vary with ground cover variation. Using 4 sampling methods, we characterized the ant community and analyzed its within-habitat variation among 12 study sites. We found the highest plot species richness (55 species) and within-habitat species richness (72 species) ever recorded for North American ants. The ants formed three distinct communities. The low-diversity arboreal and subterranean assemblages varied little across forest stands while the diversity of the species-rich ground foraging ant community was negatively correlated with percent herbaceous cover. The imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (monogyne form), was unexpectedly found to be abundant in high herbaceous cover sites. Floral restoration of the pine flatwoods, which is increasing the proportion of herbaceous cover, is likely to cause an increase in the abundance of the imported fire ant.

  2. Sealing layer of fly ashes and sewage sludge and vegetation establishment in treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Flygaska och roetslam som taetskikt vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin med vegetationsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Isaksson, Karl-Erik [Boliden Mineral AB (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    Each year the Swedish mining industry produces 25 Mtonnes of mine tailings that are disposed of in extensive natural impoundments. As this sand, containing more or less sulphide-rich minerals, is penetrated by oxygen and water, it starts weathering resulting in formation of acidic and metal-rich drainage water. To prevent oxygen penetration the mine tailings can be covered with a sealing layer covered with a protective cover that facilitates establishment of vegetation. The aim of this study has been to examine the function of fly ash and sewage sludge in sealing layers at impoundments of pyrite rich mine tailings, and the ability of different plant species, which are suitable for establishment in these areas, to penetrate the sealing layer with their roots and what impact they have on the drainage water. Experiments have been performed in field and greenhouse environment, with sealing layers consisting of fly ash and sewage sludge mixtures, covered with protective covers of sewage sludge or till. Plant establishment has been studied in a survey of naturally established plants at sewage sludge disposal sites close to mining areas, and by sowing and planting of selected plants, for instance fast growing grass species and fibre hemp at the test plots in field and in greenhouse experiments. Large scale application of ashes, sewage sludge and an ash/sludge mixture have been performed in field at three test plots with the size of 0.3-1 ha. Leakage of nutrients and metals from sealing layers has been studied in field and greenhouse tests. In addition, the ability of plant roots to penetrate sealing layers made of different ash/sludge mixtures have been examined in greenhouse experiments. This investigation is a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field experiments have been performed at the mine tailings impoundments at Gillervattnet, Boliden. Other collaborating participants are Skellefteaa Kraft and Munksund, who have produced the

  3. Effects of fertilization on the vascular ground vegetation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Lieb.) stands

    OpenAIRE

    Misson, Laurent; Gaëtan Du Bus De Warnaffe,; Jonard, Mathieu

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this study was to assess the effects of base cation (Ca, Mg, K) and phosphorous (P) fertilization on the vascular ground vegetation in mature European beech and sessile oak stands located on acid brown soils. Two types of treatment were applied next to control plots (dolomite lime, dolomite lime + natural phosphate + potassium sulphate). Specific richness, total cover (% ), equitability coefficient as well as the Ecological Group of the ground vegetati...

  4. Spatial variation in near-ground radiation and low temperature. Interactions with forest vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, K.

    1997-10-01

    Low temperature has a large impact on the survival and distribution of plants. Interactive effects with high irradiance lead to cold-induced photo inhibition, which may impact on the establishment and growth of tree seedlings. In this thesis, novel approaches are applied for relating the spatial variability in low temperature and irradiance to photosynthetic performance and growth of tree seedlings, and for modelling the micro- and local-scale spatial variations in low temperature for heterogeneous terrain. The methodologies include the development and use of a digital image analysis system for hemispherical photographs, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical methods, field data acquisition of meteorological elements, plant structure, growth and photosynthetic performance. Temperature and amounts of intercepted direct radiant energy for seedlings on clear days (IDRE) were related to chlorophyll a fluorescence, and the dry weight of seedlings. The combination of increased IDRE with reduced minimum temperatures resulted in persistent and strong photo inhibition as the season progressed, with likely implications for the establishment of tree seedlings at forest edges, and within shelter wood. For models of spatial distribution of low air temperature, the sky view factor was used to parameterize the radiative cooling, whilst drainage, ponding and stagnation of cold air, and thermal properties of the ground were all considered. The models hint at which scales and processes govern the development of spatial variations in low temperature for the construction of corresponding mechanistic models. The methodology is well suited for detecting areas that will be frost prone after clearing of forest and for comparing the magnitudes of impacts on low air temperature of forest management practices, such as shelter wood and soil preparation. The results can be used to formulate ground rules for use in practical forestry 141 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  5. Sealing layer of fly ashes and sewage sludge and vegetation establishment in treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Flygaska och roetslam som taetskikt vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin med vegetationsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Isaksson, Karl-Erik [Boliden Mineral AB (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    Each year the Swedish mining industry produces 25 Mtonnes of mine tailings that are disposed of in extensive natural impoundments. As this sand, containing more or less sulphide-rich minerals, is penetrated by oxygen and water, it starts weathering resulting in formation of acidic and metal-rich drainage water. To prevent oxygen penetration the mine tailings can be covered with a sealing layer covered with a protective cover that facilitates establishment of vegetation. The aim of this study has been to examine the function of fly ash and sewage sludge in sealing layers at impoundments of pyrite rich mine tailings, and the ability of different plant species, which are suitable for establishment in these areas, to penetrate the sealing layer with their roots and what impact they have on the drainage water. Experiments have been performed in field and greenhouse environment, with sealing layers consisting of fly ash and sewage sludge mixtures, covered with protective covers of sewage sludge or till. Plant establishment has been studied in a survey of naturally established plants at sewage sludge disposal sites close to mining areas, and by sowing and planting of selected plants, for instance fast growing grass species and fibre hemp at the test plots in field and in greenhouse experiments. Large scale application of ashes, sewage sludge and an ash/sludge mixture have been performed in field at three test plots with the size of 0.3-1 ha. Leakage of nutrients and metals from sealing layers has been studied in field and greenhouse tests. In addition, the ability of plant roots to penetrate sealing layers made of different ash/sludge mixtures have been examined in greenhouse experiments. This investigation is a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field experiments have been performed at the mine tailings impoundments at Gillervattnet, Boliden. Other collaborating participants are Skellefteaa Kraft and Munksund, who have produced the

  6. Where’s the Ground Surface? – Elevation Bias in LIDAR-derived Digital Elevation Models Due to Dense Vegetation in Oregon Tidal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a powerful resource for coastal and wetland managers and its use is increasing. Vegetation density and other land cover characteristics influence the accuracy of LIDAR-derived ground surface digital elevation models; however the degree to wh...

  7. Modelling Growth and Partitioning of Annual Above-Ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggio, Franco; Vendrame, Nadia; Maniero, Giovanni; Pitacco, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In the current climate change scenarios, both agriculture and forestry inherently may act as carbon sinks and consequently can play a key role in limiting global warming. An urgent need exists to understand which land uses and land resource types have the greatest potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global change. A common believe is that agricultural fields cannot be net carbon sinks due to many technical inputs and repeated disturbances of upper soil layers that all contribute to a substantial loss both of the old and newly-synthesized organic matter. Perennial tree crops (vineyards and orchards), however, can behave differently: they grow a permanent woody structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate a woody pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. In this context, reliable methods for quantifying and modelling emissions and carbon sequestration are required. Carbon stock changes are calculated by multiplying the difference in oven dry weight of biomass increments and losses with the appropriate carbon fraction. These data are relatively scant, and more information is needed on vineyard management practices and how they impact vineyard C sequestration and GHG emissions in order to generate an accurate vineyard GHG footprint. During the last decades, research efforts have been made for estimating the vineyard carbon budget and its allocation pattern since it is crucial to better understand how grapevines control the distribution of acquired resources in response to variation in environmental growth conditions and agronomic practices. The objective of the present study was to model and compare the dynamics of current year's above-ground biomass among four grapevine varieties. Trials were carried out over three growing seasons in field conditions. The non-linear extra-sums-of-squares method demonstrated to be a feasible way of growth models comparison to statistically assess significant differences among

  8. Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.H.; Leake, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

  9. Unmasking the soil cover's disruption by use of a dynamic model of measurement aerospace parameters of ground vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Vysotskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The "Introduction" describes topicality and importance of revealing the soil cover's disruption for a wide range of fields. It was shown that spectral brightness and colorimetric parameters of ground vegetation can be used for this task. However, a traditional scheme of data processing for remote sensing requires a long-term observations and can not always be applied, if quick decision-making is necessary or there is lack of information. Such cases require the use of special methods, one of which is a dynamic model developed with authors' participation based on the following basic relationships: (+,- (-, - (+, 0, (-, 0 (0,0. The section "Brief description of a dynamic model" describes the basic principles of dynamic systems used to solve the problem. Using above-mentioned relationships, the dynamics of a system consisting of several components is constructed and its main properties are listed. The main feature of this model is that the identification of structure and parameters of the dynamic system does not required sequential order of observations (as for models based on time series. This feature of the model enables for identifying the system's parameters of dynamics of the natural system to use information from a single picture taken from the spacecraft rather than long-term observations. The section "Materials and Methods" describes specific colorimetric parameters used to analyze the vegetation cover. The section "Obtained results" contains an example of the model's application to a satellite image for detecting the differences in two sites of a field with vegetation. One site is a recultivated area near the liquidated gas-oil well, another site is non-recultivated area at a considerable distance from the well (500-1000 m. The simulation results are described by eight signed graphs (4 graphs for each sites, whose structure allows to identify the system differences between the two cases. The section "Conclusions" summarizes the results of

  10. Ground-based characterization of Leucus and Polymele, two fly-by targets of the Lucy Discovery mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Marc W.; Zangari, Amanda Marie; Marchi, Simone; Mottola, Stefano; Levison, Harold F.

    2016-10-01

    Lucy is a proposed NASA Discovery mission designed to perform close fly-bys with six Jupiter Trojan asteroids. The mission, which is currently in the Phase A development phase, is planned to launch in 2021 and arrive at the L4 Trojan cloud in 2027. We report on the results of an observational campaign of (11351) Leucus and (15094) Polymele conducted this year. The goal is to characterize their shape, spin state and photometric properties to aid in mission planning and to complement the mission data. Leucus was previously observed by French et al (2013) where they reported a 514 hour rotation period with a lightcurve amplitude as high as 1 magnitude. Our data confirm a long-period and high-amplitude lightcurve but with a period closer to 440 hours. The lightcurve shape has a symmetric double-peaked shape with a ~0.7mag peak-to-peak amplitude. Initial results for Polymele indicate a low-amplitude lightcurve at or below 0.1 mag with a period near 4 hours. Thus, the Lucy target sample includes bodies with among the slowest and fastest rotation rates. Additional observations will be required to further refine the period and pole orientation for both bodies. This year's data are especially challenging due to observing at low galactic latitude. We will report on final results of this year's campaign along with our methods for removing field confusion using optimal image subtraction and photometric calibration based on the new APASS catalog (Henden et al, 2012).

  11. Tree canopy light interception estimates in almond and a walnut orchards using ground, low flying aircraft, and satellite based methods to improve irrigation scheduling programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, R. C.; Johnson, L.; Soderstrom, D.

    2016-12-01

    Canopy light interception is a main driver of water use and crop yield in almond and walnut production. Fractional green canopy cover (Fc) is a good indicator of light interception and can be estimated remotely from satellite using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Satellite-based Fc estimates could be used to inform crop evapotranspiration models, and hence support improvements in irrigation evaluation and management capabilities. Satellite estimates of Fc in almond and walnut orchards, however, need to be verified before incorporating them into irrigation scheduling or other crop water management programs. In this study, Landsat-based NDVI and Fc from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) were compared with four estimates of canopy cover: 1. light bar measurement, 2. in-situ and image-based dimensional tree-crown analyses, 3. high-resolution NDVI data from low flying aircraft, and 4. orchard photos obtained via Google Earth and processed by an Image J thresholding routine. Correlations between the various estimates are discussed.

  12. Tree Canopy Light Interception Estimates in Almond and a Walnut Orchards Using Ground, Low Flying Aircraft, and Satellite Based Methods to Improve Irrigation Scheduling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, Richard C.; Johnson, Lee; Soderstrom, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Canopy light interception is a main driver of water use and crop yield in almond and walnut production. Fractional green canopy cover (Fc) is a good indicator of light interception and can be estimated remotely from satellite using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Satellite-based Fc estimates could be used to inform crop evapotranspiration models, and hence support improvements in irrigation evaluation and management capabilities. Satellite estimates of Fc in almond and walnut orchards, however, need to be verified before incorporating them into irrigation scheduling or other crop water management programs. In this study, Landsat-based NDVI and Fc from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) were compared with four estimates of canopy cover: 1. light bar measurement, 2. in-situ and image-based dimensional tree-crown analyses, 3. high-resolution NDVI data from low flying aircraft, and 4. orchard photos obtained via Google Earth and processed by an Image J thresholding routine. Correlations between the various estimates are discussed.

  13. Forest floor methane flux modelled by soil water content and ground vegetation - comparison to above canopy flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Haikarainen, Iikka; Ryhti, Kira; Rannik, Üllar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important and strong greenhouse gas of which atmospheric concentration is rising. While boreal forests are considered as an important sink of CH4 due to soil CH4 oxidation, the soils have also a capacity to emit CH4. Moreover, vegetation is shown to contribute to the ecosystem-atmosphere CH4 flux, and it has been estimated to be the least well known natural sources of CH4. In addition to well-known CH4 emissions from wetland plants, even boreal trees have been discovered to emit CH4. At the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland (61° 51' N, 24°17' E; 181 m asl), we have detected small CH4 emissions from above the canopy of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated forest. To assess the origin of the observed emissions, we conducted forest floor CH4 flux measurements with 54 soil chambers at the footprint area of the above canopy flux measurements during two growing seasons. In addition, we measured the soil volumetric water content (VWC) every time next to the forest floor chamber measurements, and estimated vegetation coverages inside the chambers. In order to model the forest floor CH4 flux at the whole footprint area, we combined lidar (light detection and ranging) data with the field measurements. To predict the soil water content and thus the potential CH4 flux, we used local elevation, slope, and ground return intensity (GRI), calculated from the lidar data (National Land Survey of Finland). We categorized the soil chambers into four classes based on the VWC so that the class with the highest VWC values includes all the soil chambers with a potential to emit CH4. Based on a statistically significant correlation between the VWC and the forest floor CH4 flux (r = 0.30, p < 0.001), we modelled the potential forest floor CH4 flux of the whole area. The results of the soil chamber measurements show a few areas of the forest floor with significant CH4 emissions. The modelled map

  14. Tick paralysis in spectacled flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus in North Queensland, Australia: impact of a ground-dwelling ectoparasite finding an arboreal host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G Buettner

    Full Text Available When a parasite finds a new wildlife host, impacts can be significant. In the late 1980s populations of Spectacled Flying-foxes (SFF (Pteropus conspicillatus, a species confined, in Australia, to north Queensland became infected by paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus, resulting in mortality. This Pteropus-tick relationship was new to Australia. Curiously, the relationship was confined to several camps on the Atherton Tableland, north Queensland. It was hypothesised that an introduced plant, wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum, had facilitated this new host-tick interaction. This study quantifies the impact of tick paralysis on SFF and investigates the relationship with climate. Retrospective analysis was carried out on records from the Tolga Bat Hospital for 1998-2010. Juvenile mortality rates were correlated to climate data using vector auto-regression. Mortality rates due to tick paralysis ranged between 11.6 per 10,000 bats in 2003 and 102.5 in 2009; more female than male adult bats were affected. Juvenile mortality rates were negatively correlated with the total rainfall in January to March and July to September of the same year while a positive correlation of these quarterly total rainfalls existed with the total population. All tick affected camps of SFF were located in the 80% core range of S. mauritianum. This initial analysis justifies further exploration of how an exotic plant might alter the relationship between a formerly ground-dwelling parasite and an arboreal host.

  15. Luxury consumption of soil nutrients: a possible competitive strategy in above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology for slow-growing arctic vegetation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Gough, L.; Hobbie, S.E.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    1 A field-experiment was used to determine how plant species might retain dominance in an arctic ecosystem receiving added nutrients. We both measured and modelled the above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology of non-acidic tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska, after 4

  16. A high-performance ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility for life support system in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hui; Shao, Lingzhi; Wang, Minjuan; Berkovich, Yu A.; Erokhin, A. N.; Liu, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role in dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. Here we developed a ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility, named Horn-type Producer (HTP), which was capable of simulating the microgravity effect and the continuous cultivation of leaf-vegetables on root modules. The growth chamber of the facility had a volume of 0.12 m3, characterized by a three-stage space expansion with plant growth. The planting surface of 0.154 m2 was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved forward with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m2 was provided by a combination of red and white light emitting diodes on the internal surfaces. In tests with a 24-h photoperiod, the productivity of the HTP at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Long-term operation of the HTP did not alter vegetable nutrition composition to any great extent. Furthermore, the efficiency of the HTP, based on the Q-criterion, was 7 × 10-4 g2 m-3 J-1. These results show that the HTP exhibited high productivity, stable quality, and good efficiency in the process of planting lettuce, indicative of an interesting design for space vegetable production.

  17. Ground ULV and thermal fog applications against Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in a hot arid environment in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania continue to threaten US military operations in Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Middle East. Ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog pesticide dispersal are potentially effective against sand flies, but operational guidance is thinly based on mosquito con...

  18. Flying Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  19. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  20. A ground-validated NDVI dataset for monitoring vegetation dynamics and mapping phenology in Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, P.S.A.; Jonsson, P.; Hogda, K.A.; Karlsen, S.R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Eklundh, L.

    2007-01-01

    An NDVI dataset covering Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula was created for vegetation and climate studies, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 16-day maximum value composite data from 2000 to 2005. To create the dataset, (1) the influence of the polar night and snow on the NDVI

  1. Separation of Ground and Low Vegetation Signatures in LiDAR Measurements of Salt-Marsh Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Menenti, M.; Stoll, M.P.; Feola, A.; Belluco, E.; Marani, M.

    2009-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been shown to have a great potential in the accurate characterization of forest systems; however, its application to salt-marsh environments is challenging because the characteristic short vegetation does not give rise to detectable differences between first a

  2. Discrimination between Ground Vegetation and Small Pioneer Trees in the Boreal-Alpine Ecotone Using Intensity Metrics Derived from Airborne Laser Scanner Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Næsset

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that height measurements obtained by airborne laser scanning (ALS with high point density (>7–8 m−2 can be used to detect small trees in the alpine tree line—an ecotone sensitive to climate change. Because the height measurements do not discriminate between trees and other convex structures with positive height values, this study aimed at assessing the contribution of ALS backscatter intensity to classification of trees and non-trees. The study took place in a boreal-alpine ecotone in southeastern Norway and was based on 500 precisely georeferenced small trees and non-tree objects for which ALS height and intensity were derived from four different ALS acquisitions, representing different sensors, pulse repetition frequencies (PRF, and flying altitudes. The sensors operated at 1064 nm. Based on logistic regression modeling, it was found that classification into three different tree species ((1 spruce; (2 pine; and (3 birch and two different non-tree object types (objects with: (1 vegetated surface; and (2 rock was significantly better (p < 0.001–0.05 than a classification based on models with trees and non-trees as binary response. The cause of the improved classification is mainly diverse reflectivity properties of non-tree objects. No effect of sensor, PRF, and flying altitude was found (p > 0.05. Finally, it was revealed that in a direct comparison of the contribution of intensity backscatter to improve classification models of trees and non-trees beyond what could be obtained by using the ALS height information only, the contribution of intensity turned out to be far from significant (p > 0.05. In conclusion, ALS backscatter intensity seems to be of little help in classification of small trees and non-trees in the boreal-alpine ecotone even when a more detailed discrimination on different species and different non-tree structures is applied.

  3. Horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transitional vegetation between caatinga and tropical rain forest, state of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Lima, Artur Gomes; Guedes, Maria Lenise Silva; Sherlock, Italo A

    2003-09-01

    A study about the horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna in two distinct ecosystems, caatinga area, endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, and the tropical rain forest area, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, was performed in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Lutzomyia longipalpis was predominant in the caatinga, and following it came the species L. capixaba and L. oswaldoi. In the tropical rain forest other species were found, such as L. intermedia, L. migonei, L. whitmani, L. yuilli, L.fischeri, L. damascenoi, L. evandroi, L. monticola, and L. lenti. It was found that the geographical limits of the vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are clearly defined by the biological and phytogeographic characteristics.

  4. Hydrologic requirements of and consumptive ground-water use by riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River, Arizona. Chapters A-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, James M.; Stromberg, Juliet C.; Scott, Russell L.; authors include Leenhouts, James M.; Lite, Sharon J.; Dixon, Mark; Rychener, Tyler; Makings, Elizabeth; Williams, David G.; Goodrich, David C.; Cable, William L.; Levick, Lainie R.; McGuire, Roberta; Gazal, Rico M.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Ellsworth, Patrick; Huxman, Travis E.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a coordinated effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS), and Arizona State University, with assistance from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the University of Wyoming, and the University of Arizona. The specific objectives of the study were: to determine the water needs of riparian vegetation through the riparian growing season and throughout the SPRNCA to ensure its long-term ecological integrity; to quantify the total water use of riparian vegetation within the SPRNCA; and to determine the source of water used by key riparian plant species within the SPRNCA. To meet these objectives, the study was divided into three elements: (1) a characterization of the status and variability of hydrologic factors within the riparian system (USGS), (2) a riparian biohydrology study to relate spatial and temporal aspects of riparian changes and condition to the hydrologic variables (Arizona State University), and (3) a water-use evapotranspiration (ET) study to quantify annual consumptive ground-water use by riparian transpiration and direct evaporation from the stream channel (USDA ARS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the University of Wyoming, and the University of Arizona. Twenty-six sites within the SPRNCA were selected for collection of vegetation data from three primary streamflow regimes (perennial, intermittent-wet, intermittent-dry), which include the principal vegetation communities. Detailed hydrologic-condition data were collected at a subset of 16 of these sites, called the SPRNCA biohydrology sites. Water-use and water-source data were collected at a subset of 5 of the 16 biohydrology sites. Vegetation data also were collected at supplemental sites within the SPRNCA boundary in the Upper San Pedro Basin and in the Lower San Pedro Basin. In addition to information about vegetation and geomorphic conditions, hydrologic data collected at the 16

  5. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  6. Ground and flight test experience with a triple redundant digital fly by wire control system. [installed in F-8C aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C. R.; Szalai, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    A triplex digital fly by wire flight control system was developed and installed in an F-8C aircraft to provide fail operative, full authority control. Hardware and software redundancy management techniques were designed to detect and identify failures in the system. Control functions typical of those projected for future actively controlled vehicles were implemented.

  7. 海军飞行人员住院疾病谱及停飞疾病谱分析%Analysis of the hospitalizing and grounding related disease spectrums of Navy flying personnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸣皋; 马贵喜; 李靖; 蒙果; 刘玉

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析2001-2006年海军飞行人员住院和医学停飞的主要疾病构成及其变迁特点,并对突出问题提出对策建议.方法 对2001-2006年海军总医院收治的飞行人员全部病例和2001-2006年海军飞行人员医学停飞的全部资料进行统计分析,并同以往不同时期海军飞行人员主要疾病和医学停飞疾病资料进行对比研究.结果 ①飞行人员颈椎腰椎疾病明显增多,其疾病构成比达19.1%,医学停飞构成比达140.0%,均位居第1位;②头痛、自主神经功能紊乱等功能性疾病仍然是飞行人员住院和医学停飞的主要原因之一,疾病构成比分别为18.3%与11.3%,医学停飞构成比分别为11.0%与10.0%;③晕厥(包括加速度耐力性晕厥),在住院疾病构成比仅为4.2%,但其医学停飞构成比达13.0%;④消化系统疾病和传染性疾病无论是住院还是医学停飞构成比均逐渐降低,排序亦逐渐靠后,但出现个别性传播性疾病值得重视.结论 飞行人员住院和医学停飞主要疾病与飞行职业因素密切相关,针对飞行人员的职业特点采取合理锻炼和有效装备防护,积极心理学干预和心血管疾病预防等措施,对降低飞行人员患病率和医学停飞率具有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the spectrum of principal diseases that caused flying personnel hospitalized and then grounded from 2001 to 2006, as well as the changes in spectrum in order to provide countermeasure suggestions. Methods The case history data of hospitalized and grounded navy flying personnel from 2001 to 2006 were reviewed and compared to those during other periods. Results ① The incidence of cervical and lumbar spine disorder rose remarkably in navy flying personnel and its constituent ratios that resulted in flying personnel hospitalized and grounded reached 19.1% and 14.0% respectively. Both constituent ratios ranked the first in hospitalization and grounding reasons. ② Headache, neurasthenia

  8. Horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in a transitional vegetation between caatinga and tropical rain forest, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Lima Artur Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study about the horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna in two distinct ecosystems, caatinga area, endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, and the tropical rain forest area, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, was performed in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Lutzomyia longipalpis was predominant in the caatinga, and following it came the species L. capixaba and L. oswaldoi. In the tropical rain forest other species were found, such as L. intermedia, L. migonei, L. whitmani, L. yuilli, L.fischeri, L. damascenoi, L. evandroi, L. monticola, and L. lenti. It was found that the geographical limits of the vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are clearly defined by the biological and phytogeographic characteristics.

  9. Regenerating Longleaf Pine on Hydric Soils: Short- and Long-term Effects on Native Ground-Layer Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    grape vine/woody vitsp. MONOCOTS CYPERACEAE Carex striata var. brevis Walter’s sedge graminoid CASTB Cyperus croceus Baldwin’s...this area is longleaf pine savanna, consisting of longleaf pine overstories with herbaceous ground layers dominated by grasses and sedges , including...groups: large graminoids (grasses with leaves >15 cm long, forming dense bunches or looser clumps), small graminoids (smaller grasses, sedges , and

  10. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.

    2008-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS

  11. IN-SEASON ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT CROP HEALTH USING VEGETATION INDICES BASED ON GROUND MEASURED HYPER SPECTRAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Ali Al-Gaadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on a 50 ha center pivot field was conducted to determine the Vegetation Indices (VI’s that were helpful in assessing the in-season performance of wheat crop treated with graded levels of irrigation water and fertilizers. The irrigation levels were at 100, 90, 80 and 70% evapotranspiration (ETc; however, the fertilizer levels of N: P: K kg-1ha included 300:150:200 (low; 400:250:300 (medium and 500:300:300 (High. The crop was sown on January 1st and harvested on May 9th, 2012. Temporal data on biophysical parameters and reflectance of the crop in hyper spectral bands (350-2500 nm were collected at booting and ripening growth stages (February 17th and April 5th, 2012. Results of the study revealed that many of the tested spectral indices showed significant response to irrigation levels. Out of those, only two spectral indices (Plant Senescence Reflectance Index ‘PSRI’ and Photochemical Reflectance Index ‘PRI’ also exhibited significant response to fertilizer levels. The Middle Infrared-Based Vegetation Index (MIVI showed a significant response to the irrigation levels for both sampling dates. Among the tested spectral indices, Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII and Normalized Difference Nitrogen Index (NDNI exhibited the highest correlation to crop Leaf Area Index (LAI. Five indices showed the most response to wheat grain yield. These indices included Near Infrared band (NIR, Water Band Index (WBI, Normalized Water Index-1 (NWI-1, Normalized Water Index-3 (NWI-3 and Normalized Water Index-4 (NWI-4.

  12. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2010-02-01

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 °C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  14. EVALUATION OF TWO VEGETABLES EXTRACTS AND DYE PHLOXINE-B, FOR THE CAPTURE OF THE FLY OF THE CASTILLA WALNUT IN PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Torija-Torres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most effective treatment to capture Rhagoletis zoqui and use it as an alternative to chemical insecticides, this study was developed in two orchards of walnut, during June, July and August of 2010 in San Nicolas de los Ranchos, Puebla. The toxicity of the aqueous extracts from Ricinus communis and Argemone mexicana plants as well as the dye Phloxine-B were evaluated and compared the effectiveness with the commercial insecticide, Malation®, upon R. zoqui. The experiment was tested under a block design organized at random with three repetitions. Mc Phail traps and PET bottles were used in the experiment. The efficiency of the treatments was measured by the rate of capture Flies / Trap / Day (FTD and two-factor ANOVA, with a significance of 0.05 %. Statistical differences were observed between treatments. Malathion® presented the highest capture rate, comparing F.T.D. treatments of Malathion in both orchards, the second most efficient treatment was the extract of R. communis; by the other hand, the treatment less efficient of capture rate in both orchards was the dye Phloxine-B.

  15. Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation%桃园生草对桃树节肢动物群落多样性与稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋杰贤; 万年峰; 季香云; 淡家贵

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1. 48, 1. 84 and 0. 64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon' s diversity, and Pielou' s evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cov-er vegetation were 83. 733±4. 932, 4. 966±0. 110, and 0. 795±0. 014, respectively, being signifi-cantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker' s dominance index was 0. 135±0. 012, being significantly lower than that (0. 184±0. 018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0. 883±0. 123. 1714±0. 683, and 0. 781 ±0. 040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson' s cor-relation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon' s diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the di-versity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp ,Sn/Sp, and S/N.%对种植白三叶草的桃园(生草桃园)和非生草桃园的桃树节肢动物群落进行分析比较.结果表明:生草桃园桃树天敌、中性类群和植食类群数量分别是非生草桃园的1.48、1.84和0.64倍,而节肢动物群落个体总数无显著差异;与非

  16. Monitoring the intensity of locust damage to vegetation using hyper-spectra data obtained at ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shaoxiang; Wu, Tong

    2007-09-01

    Since 1980s of the last century, outbreak of Oriental Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen) has rampantly emerged again in some regions of China. It is extremely important to monitor efficiently the locust damage to vegetation in order to control this kind of insect pest. In this paper, taking Huanghua County of Hebei province, China as the study area and based on the in situ hyper-spectral data, the differences in canopy reflectance spectra and the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra were analyzed and compared for the reeds at normal growing and for those under encroaching from locusts. In addition, five models were developed to simulate the relations between the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra and Leaf Area Index (LAI) of reeds. The result showed that among those indices the locust damage spectra index (LDSI) is mostly applicable to reflect the intensity of locust damage in the study area. Finally, a scheme for the intensity distinction of locust damage to reeds was suggested based on LDSI data, i.e., no damage if LDSI is over 62.856, slightly damage if LDSI is between 41.254 and 59.496, and seriously damage if LDSI is less than 41.254.

  17. Estimating evapotranspiration using remote sensing: A hybrid approach between MODIS derived enhanced vegetation index, Bowen ratio system, and ground based micro-meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sumantra

    We investigated water loss by evapotranspiration (ET) from the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) and the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) in southern California bordering the Colorado River collaborating with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.B.R.). We developed an empirical model to estimate ET for the entire PVID using satellite derived MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and ground based measurements of solar radiation and vapor pressure. We compared our predictions with U.S.B.R. estimates through statistical cross validation and showed they agree with an error less than 8%. We tested the same model for an alfalfa field inside PVID to check its applicability at a smaller spatial scale. We showed that the same model developed for PVID is the best model for estimating ET for the alfalfa field. We collected data from three Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) towers installed in the invasive saltcedar (Tamarix spp) dominated riparian zone in the CNWR and a fourth tower in the alfalfa field in PVID. The riparian sites were selected according to different densities of vegetation. We collected data from these sites at various intervals during the period between June 2006 to November 2008. We reduced the errors associated with the Bowen ratio data using statistical procedures taking into account occasional instrument failures and problems inherent in the BREB method. Our results were consistent with vegetation density and estimates from MODIS EVI images. To estimate ET for larger patches of mixed vegetation we modified the crop coefficient equation and represented it in terms of EVI. Using this approach, we scaled the alfalfa field data to the entire PVID and compared the results with U.S.B.R. (2001-2007) estimates. We predicted ET well within the acceptable range established in the literature. We empirically developed ET models for the riparian tower sites to provide accurate point scale ET estimation and scaled for the entire riparian region in

  18. Retrieval of Vegetation Structural Parameters and 3-D Reconstruction of Forest Canopies Using Ground-Based Echidna® Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.; Schaaf, C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.

    2010-12-01

    A ground-based, scanning, near-infrared lidar, the Echidna® validation instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, retrieves structural parameters of forest stands rapidly and accurately, and by merging multiple scans into a single point cloud, the lidar also provides 3-D stand reconstructions. Echidna lidar technology scans with pulses of light at 1064 nm wavelength and digitizes the full return waveform sufficiently finely to recover and distinguish the differing shapes of return pulses as they are scattered by leaves, trunks, and branches. Deployments in New England in 2007 and the southern Sierra Nevada of California in 2008 tested the ability of the instrument to retrieve mean tree diameter, stem count density (stems/ha), basal area, and above-ground woody biomass from single scans at points beneath the forest canopy. Parameters retrieved from five scans located within six 1-ha stand sites matched manually-measured parameters with values of R2 = 0.94-0.99 in New England and 0.92-0.95 in the Sierra Nevada. Retrieved leaf area index (LAI) values were similar to those of LAI-2000 and hemispherical photography. In New England, an analysis of variance showed that EVI-retrieved values were not significantly different from other methods (power = 0.84 or higher). In the Sierra, R2 = 0.96 and 0.81 for hemispherical photos and LAI-2000, respectively. Foliage profiles, which measure leaf area with canopy height, showed distinctly different shapes for the stands, depending on species composition and age structure. New England stand heights, obtained from foliage profiles, were not significantly different (power = 0.91) from RH100 values observed by LVIS in 2003. Three-dimensional stand reconstruction identifies one or more “hits” along the pulse path coupled with the peak return of each hit expressed as apparent reflectance. Returns are classified as trunk, leaf, or ground returns based on the shape of the return pulse and its location. These data provide a point

  19. Time flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke

    , the LS fly might be able to spend energy more generously on different tasks. Therefor, the capacity of LS and C lines to locate resources in a natural environment was tested. It turns out that LS flies are less likely to find food than C flies in such a setting, yet that as they age, their ability...... to locate food decreases slower than that of C lines. Gene expression of 10 candidate genes for longevity was quantified in two types of C and LS lines at three different ages. One of these genes, CG32638, indeed appears to be involved in life span determination in both males and females, regardless...... of mating status. Generalising studies on ageing in D. melanogaster can be cumbersome, especially in light of discrepancy between correlated responses between studies. To elucidate which mechanisms might be conserved due to evolutionary constraints, life span of 13 species of Drosophila was determined...

  20. Estimates of evapotranspiration for riparian sites (Eucalyptus) in the Lower Murray -Darling Basin using ground validated sap flow and vegetation index scaling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Water accounting is becoming critical globally, and balancing consumptive water demands with environmental water requirements is especially difficult in in arid and semi-arid regions. Within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia, riparian water use has not been assessed across broad scales. This study therefore aimed to apply and validate an existing U.S. riparian ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) algorithm for the MDB river systems to assist water resource managers to quantify environmental water needs over wide ranges of niche conditions. Ground-based sap flow ET was correlated with remotely sensed predictions of ET, to provide a method to scale annual rates of water consumption by riparian vegetation over entire irrigation districts. Sap flux was measured at nine locations on the Murrumbidgee River between July 2011 and June 2012. Remotely sensed ET was calculated using a combination of local meteorological estimates of potential ET (ETo) and rainfall and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from selected 250 m resolution pixels. The sap flow data correlated well with MODIS EVI. Sap flow ranged from 0.81 mm/day to 3.60 mm/day and corresponded to a MODIS-based ET range of 1.43 mm/day to 2.42 mm/day. We found that mean ET across sites could be predicted by EVI-ETo methods with a standard error of about 20% across sites, but that ET at any given site could vary much more due to differences in aquifer and soil properties among sites. Water use was within range of that expected. We conclude that our algorithm developed for US arid land crops and riparian plants is applicable to this region of Australia. Future work includes the development of an adjusted algorithm using these sap flow validated results.

  1. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    . This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art......Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction...

  2. Monitoring Vegetation Phenological Cycles in Two Different Semi-Arid Environmental Settings Using a Ground-Based NDVI System: A Potential Approach to Improve Satellite Data Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Baghzouz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In semi-arid environmental settings with sparse canopy covers, obtaining remotely sensed information on soil and vegetative growth characteristics at finer spatial and temporal scales than most satellite platforms is crucial for validating and interpreting satellite data sets. In this study, we used a ground-based NDVI system to provide continuous time series analysis of individual shrub species and soil surface characteristics in two different semi-arid environmental settings located in the Great Basin (NV, USA. The NDVI system was a dual channel SKR-1800 radiometer that simultaneously measured incident solar radiation and upward reflectance in two broadband red and near-infrared channels comparable to Landsat-5 TM band 3 and band 4, respectively. The two study sites identified as Spring Valley 1 site (SV1 and Snake Valley 1 site (SNK1 were chosen for having different species composition, soil texture and percent canopy cover. NDVI time-series of greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus from the SV1 site allowed for clear distinction between the main phenological stages of the entire growing season during the period from January to November, 2007. NDVI time series values were significantly different between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata and rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus at SV1 as well as between the two bare soil types at the two sites. Greasewood NDVI from the SNK1 site produced significant correlations with chlorophyll index (r = 0.97, leaf area index (r = 0.98 and leaf xylem water potential (r = 0.93. Whereas greasewood NDVI from the SV1 site produced lower correlations (r = 0.89, r = 0.73, or non significant correlations (r = 0.32 with the same parameters, respectively. Total percent cover was estimated at 17.5% for SV1 and at 63% for SNK1. Results from this study indicated the potential capabilities of using this ground-based NDVI system to extract spatial and temporal details of soil and vegetation optical properties not possible

  3. DYNAMICS STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY VEGETATION INFLUENCED BY LOGGING IN A SOLID GROUND FOREST, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MOJU, PARÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Silva Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989283The structure dynamics of an understorey vegetation influenced by gaps caused by reduced impact logging was analyzed during 12 years in a solid ground rain forest in the municipality of Moju, Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon forest. Angiosperm individuals from 10 cm height up to 5 cm DBH were surveyed in a 468 m² sample area in six occasions (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007 and 2010, they were analyzed considering their life-forms (trees, shrub, lianas, herbs and palms, abundance, frequency, size classes (CT1 = 10 cm ≤ HT < 50 cm; CT2 = 50 cm ≤ HT < 130 cm; CT3 = 130 cm < HT and DAP < 2 cm; and CT4 = 2 cm ≤ DAP < 5 cm and relative natural regeneration Burseraceae, Marantaceae, Violaceae and Lecythidaceae were the most important families in the study area in every occasions, while the most representative species were Monotagma sp1., Monotagma sp2., Rinorea guianensis, Lecythis idatimon e Protium pilosum. The most frequent life forms were trees, herbs and lianas in all occasions. The dynamics of life forms depended on light intensity. The establishment of commercial and potentially commercial species was favored by gaps, suggesting that natural regeneration of those species do not need to be assisted for guaranteeing timber stocks for future harvests.

  4. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  5. Heavy metal accumulation in the above-ground vegetation and soil around an iron smelting factory in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel F. Isola; Olusanya A. Olatunji; Akinjide M. Afolabi; Ademayowa A. Omodara

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the accumulation of heavy metals in the above-ground vegetation and soil around an iron smelting factory located at the Fashina Area, Ile-Ife, Osun State, southwestern Nigeria. This was with a view to establish baseline data which can be used for assessing the impact of the steel processing industry in the area. Samples of the two most common herbaceous species (Chromolaena odorataand Aspilia africana) around the factory were randomly collected at 10 m away from the wall of the factory, and soil samples were randomly collected at 0–15 cm depths in the same area. The plant species were oven-dried, put through a mixed acid digestion procedure, and, along with soil samples, were analyzed for N, P, K, C, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data obtained were subjected to appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. The results revealed that the soils were slightly acidic, with pH values of 6.23±0.24 in the dry season and 6.10±0.16 in the rainy season. There was a significant difference (P P > N in both Aspilia africana andChromolaena odorata. In the dry season, C percentage concentration was higher inAspilia africana, while the other elements followed the trend observed in the rainy season. The concentration of Zn was higher inAspilia af-ricana in both the polluted site and the control site in the rainy season, while the concentrations of the other heavy metals were higher inChromolaena odoratain the dry season. This study revealed that the heavy metal concentration varied with the plant species and also with the prevailing seasonal conditions. Also, the accumulation and concentration of heavy metals in both plant species and in the soil indicated a potential hazard of the factory to the local environment.

  6. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  7. Flying Fortress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    当欧洲的年轻人想到关于德国的两种熊,一个是传统的布娃娃熊,另一个就是充满欧洲街头墙上的Teddy熊涂鸦,而这个涂鸦熊的创作者就是著名的涂鸦艺术家“Flying Fortress”,他称这些熊军队为“Teddy Tmops”。

  8. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  9. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Michelle O.; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; Deurwaerder, De Hannes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Verbeeck, Hans; Randow, Von Celso; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie; Quesada, Carlos A.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Kruijt, Bart; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul; Zhang, Ke; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban; Alves De Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Ieda; Andrade, Ana; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J.M.M.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jocely; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene; Camargo, Jose; Chave, Jerome; Cogollo, Alvaro; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Lola Da Costa, Antonio C.; Fiore, Di Anthony; Ferreira, Leandro; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice N.; Killeen, Tim J.; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.; Licona, Juan; Lovejoy, Thomas; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Bia; Marimon, Ben Hur; Matos, Darley C.L.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Neill, David A.; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Roopsind, Anand; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Steege, Ter Hans; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Heijden, van der Geertje M.F.; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Baker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine aboveground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody

  10. Experiment Analysis on Impact of Ground Vegetation and Soil Pores for Surface Runoff%地表植被覆盖与土壤大孔隙对地表径流影响实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒茂; 何国清

    2015-01-01

    There are two important factors to impact surface runoff. One is ground vegetation,another is soil pores. Vegetation can reduce the speed and flow of runoff,which make a strong impact to erodibility. The existence of soil pores improves the infiltration rate of the rainfall. The rain which enters into the soil bypasses most of the soil matrix and speeds up the response speed of groundwater. Groundwater was added before soil water has not yet reached to the field capacity. Thereby distribution of surface runoff was changed and velocity and flow of the surface runoff were both controlled. In this paper,we did the experiment of indoor soil box: made soil pores,artificial rainfall and planted vegetation on the surface. We analyzed the impact of ground vegetation and soil pores to surface runoff according to velocity,flow,subsurface flow and ground water formation. Then we get a further understanding that surface vegetation and soil pores play an important role in soil and water conservation.%地表植被与土壤大孔隙均为影响地表径流的重要因素,植被能够降低径流速度和流量,将对侵蚀程度有很大影响;大孔隙的存在,提高了降雨进入土壤的入渗率,而进入土壤中的水就绕过大部分土壤基质,加快了地下水的响应速度,地下水在土壤水还未达到田间持水量时就得到补充,改变了地表径流分配,对地表径流流速、流量均起到了抑制作用。文章采用室内土槽实验的方法人造大孔隙,在地表种植植被,通过人工降雨,从地表径流流量、流速及壤中流、地下水产生方式分析地表植被与土壤大孔隙对地表径流的影响程度,进一步认识地表植被及土壤大孔隙对水土保持的作用。

  11. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  12. Variation of Contents of Cd、Hg、As、Cr、Pb and Al in the Fields Applied with Flying Ash and Produced Vegetables%施灰田及所产蔬菜的镉汞砷铬铅和铝含量变化及影响评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 韩作振; 郭良琮; 孙电

    2001-01-01

    Contents of five elements namely Cd、Hg、As、Cr and Pb, in flyingash are higher than those of the contrast fields, but the contents of the elements in vegetables grown in the fields applied with the flying ash were lower than the limits of official standards. It has been known that appropriate concentration of Al can promote plants to grow, but while the content is over-dosage, it will harm plants. It is believed that application of flying ash over fields would not cause harmful effects, this may be explained that because of alkalinity of flying ash, it makes plants hardly adsorb the metal in the soil. Therefore, it may be concluded that application of flying ash causes no harmful effects.%蔬菜地田间施用粉煤灰试验结果表明,粉煤灰中镉、汞、砷、铬及铅5种元素的含量均较对照田的高,但施灰田所产蔬菜中这5种元素的含量均低于国家关于食品、蔬菜的卫生标准限值。粉煤灰中的铝含量虽比对照田的高,但由于粉煤灰偏碱性,使得土壤中的铝不易被植物吸收,故施粉煤灰不会产生铝的危害

  13. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  14. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    to broiler houses may be counted in thousands per broiler rotation during summer periods, even a low prevalence of Campylobacter positive flies constitute a risk of introduction of Campylobacter to the chickens. M. domestica – the house fly is the most important vector fly for Campylobacter transmission...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  15. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Michelle O.; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; Deurwaerder, De Hannes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Verbeeck, Hans; Randow, Von Celso; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie; Quesada, Carlos A.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Kruijt, Bart; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul; Zhang, Ke; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban; Alves De Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Ieda; Andrade, Ana; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J.M.M.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jocely; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene; Camargo, Jose; Chave, Jerome; Cogollo, Alvaro; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Lola Da Costa, Antonio C.; Fiore, Di Anthony; Ferreira, Leandro; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice N.; Killeen, Tim J.; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.; Licona, Juan; Lovejoy, Thomas; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Bia; Marimon, Ben Hur; Matos, Darley C.L.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Neill, David A.; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Roopsind, Anand; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Steege, Ter Hans; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Heijden, van der Geertje M.F.; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Baker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine aboveground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody producti

  16. Photochemical model evaluation of the ground-level ozone impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health in the Alberta oil sands region: Using present and future emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Pauls, Ron; Duffett, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with oil sands development is increased ozone formation resulting from NOX and volatile organic compound emissions from bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading. To manage this issue in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeast Alberta, a regional multi-stakeholder group, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), developed an Ozone Management Framework that includes a modelling based assessment component. In this paper, we describe how the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to assess potential ground-level ozone formation and impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health for three different ozone precursor cases in the AOSR. Statistical analysis methods were applied, and the CMAQ performance results met the U.S. EPA model performance goal at all sites. The modelled 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations in the base and two future year scenarios did not exceed the Canada-wide standard of 65 ppb or the newer Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards of 63 ppb in 2015 and 62 ppb in 2020. Modelled maximum 1-h ozone concentrations in the study were well below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objective of 82 ppb in all three cases. Several ozone vegetation exposure metrics were also evaluated to investigate the potential impact of ground-level ozone on vegetation. The chronic 3-months SUM60 exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline range (0-2000 ppb-hr) everywhere in the AOSR. The AOT40 ozone exposure metric predicted by CMAQ did not exceed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) threshold of concern of 3000 ppb-hr in any of the cases but is just below the threshold in high-end future emissions scenario. In all three emission scenarios, the CMAQ predicted W126 ozone exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline threshold of 4000 ppb-hr. This study outlines the use of photochemical modelling of the impact of an industry (oil

  17. A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mander, Luke; Dekker, Stefan C.; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangiw; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that

  18. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Feng Wan

    Full Text Available Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province during a continuous three-year (2010-2012 investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  19. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province) during a continuous three-year (2010-2012) investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  20. The 25 years long drought in Sahel and its impacts on ecosystems: Long term vegetation monitoring from the sky and on the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardel, Cecile; Kergoat, Laurent; Hiernaux, Pierre; Mougin, Eric; Grippa, Manuela; Tucker, Compton Jim

    2013-04-01

    The Sahel region is known to be very sensitive to climatic fluctuations. Precipitation interannual variability has immediate and strong consequences on water resources, vegetation production, all affecting human populations. All along its history, Sahel had to face extreme climatic events. In the recent past, a 25 years period of persistent drought jeopardized the ecosystems equilibrium. Indeed, from the 1970's to the mid 1990's, precipitations were strongly and repeatedly below average. A debate has grown for years in the scientific community about the evolving trend of ecosystem in Sahel: is there desertification, or rehabilitation indicated by a "re-greening" taking place since the 1980's, as observed on satellite data by many scientists? To answer these questions, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) time series derived from NOAA/AVHRR are analyzed and compared to field measurements of the herbaceous aboveground mass, tree inventory and crop phytomass collected in Mali and Niger, from 1984 to 2011 and 1994 to 2011 respectively. The GIMMS-3g NDVI trends analysis from 1981 to 2011 show positive and significant slope values over almost every part of the Sahel, except for western Niger and central Sudan, thus reinforcing the "re-greening" hypothesis. Field observations are in good agreement with satellite data. A positive trend is observed over the Gourma in Mali, particularly for periods beginning in the 1980's, showing the ecosystem resilience to drought. A similar recovery is observed in western Niger, but only up to the mid 1990's, then the trend turns negative without being explained by rainfall. While the Gourma is mainly a pastoral land, western Niger is an agro-pastoral region in which cropped surfaces expanded widely over the last decades. For both regions, the re-greening trends are mainly observed on sandy soils, while erosion processes have been observed on shallow soil surfaces, inducing increased run-off and decrease in vegetation cover to

  1. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  2. Development of a ground hydrology model suitable for global climate modeling using soil morphology and vegetation cover, and an evaluation of remotely sensed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobler, L.; Lewis, R.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term purpose was to contribute to scientific understanding of the role of the planet's land surfaces in modulating the flows of energy and matter which influence the climate, and to quantify and monitor human-induced changes to the land environment that may affect global climate. Highlights of the effort include the following: production of geo-coded, digitized World Soil Data file for use with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model; contribution to the development of a numerical physically-based model of ground hydrology; and assessment of the utility of remote sensing for providing data on hydrologically significant land surface variables.

  3. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  4. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  5. Distribución espacial de anomalías del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 ysu relación con las coberturas vegetales, usos de la tierra y características geomorfológicas en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina / Spatial distribution of anomalies of NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 and its relation with vegetation cover, uses of ground and geomorphology in Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Tiedermann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las anomalías negativas (AN y positivas (AP del NDVI derivado del sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5, en la provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. El periodo analizado (1998-2008 tuvo fuertes variaciones en los patrones de precipitación, por efecto del ENSO, por cuanto las anomalías del NDVI fueron evaluadas, mediante tabulación cruzada, en función de dos periodos: húmedo (PH y seco (PS. Las AN, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con vegetación halófila en áreas deprimidas salobres, con vegetación hidrófila en ambientes acuáticos y con suelo rocoso. Durante el PS, las AN se relacionaron con áreas deforestadas con fines agrícolas. Las AP, se relacionaron, durante todo el periodo, con el bosque Chaqueño denso y bosque Chaqueño Serrano denso. La mayor estabilidad y productividad de biomasa verde de los bosques, estaría relacionada, a su mayor biodiversidad, estratificación, al predominio de especies leñosas perennes de raíces profundas y a las estratégicas adaptaciones, morfológicas y fisiológicas, para el uso eficiente del agua. Las regiones geomorfológicas no se relacionan entre si entre periodos.AbstractThe negative (AN and positive (AP anomalies of the NDVI derived from sensor VEGETATION SPOT 4/5 were determined in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The analyzed period (1998-2008 presented strong variations in rainfall patterns, as a result of the ENSO, inasmuch as the anomalies of the NDVI were evaluated, by means of crossed tabulation, based on two periods: humid (PH and dry (PS. The AN, were related with halophytic species of depressed areas, with vegetation aquatic hydrophilic and rocky ground. During the dry period, the AN were related to deforested areas with agricultural aims. The AP, were related, throughout the period with the forest dense Chaco Semiarid and forest dense Chaco Serrano. The greater stability and productivity of green biomass of forest, would be related, greater

  6. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  7. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  8. Characterization of the Aerodynamic Ground Effect and Its Influence in Multirotor Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro Sanchez-Cuevas; Guillermo Heredia; Anibal Ollero

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ground effect in multirotors, that is, the change in the thrust generated by the rotors when flying close to the ground due to the interaction of the rotor airflow with the ground surface...

  9. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Cocquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  10. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  11. Changes in ground vegetation of forest ecosystems in the middle and southern regions of the Black Forest. Veraenderungen der Bodenvegetation in Wald- und Forstgesellschaften des mittleren und suedlichen Schwarzwaldes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, R. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Landespflege)

    1988-08-01

    This study examines the changes in ground vegetation found in the Black Forest/West Germany in connection with the forest-decline ('Waldsterben'). To this end, the species composition was examined in areas of varying degrees of decline. Special attention was paid to ecological groups and their indications. These releves were compared laterally as well as with historical data. The focus of the analysis turned from sociological groups to specific species, whereby, on the basic of current literature on phytoindicators, the development of these species was recorded as a measure of pollutions impact. The altered composition of species exhibited itself in an increase in the high-nitrogen group in all of the communities. Similarly, in most communities an increase in the level of the reaction-group was observed. Evidence of succession due to acidification could not be significantly demonstrated. The observed changes were in accordance with the increase in the high-light group, except in the submountainous Luzulo-Fagetum. A comparison to the earlier proportional composition of ecological groups was used for more detailed interpretation. The observations indicate two primary influences on succession; first, increased levels of light, due to the thinning of the trees' crowns and second, increased levels of nitrogen due to pollution. (orig./MG) With 82 figs., 103 refs., 7 tabs. in annex.

  12. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > For Parents > Flying and Your Child's Ears Print A A A What's in this article? Flying's Effects on Ears Tips for Easing Ear Pain en español Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Flying's Effects on ...

  13. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  14. Flying in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying all over the world is very challenging and demanding. Although ICAO is covering every specific detail by rules, there are some personal experiences which cannot be substituted. Some of them are point out in the article.

  15. USDA compendium of fruit fly host information (CoFFHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Tephritid fruit flies are serious agricultural pests. Knowledge of the host status of different fruits and vegetables is needed in support of the development of systems approaches to permit crop exports as well as to readily permit quarantine regulatory officials to check on the risk of...

  16. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  17. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  18. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  19. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  20. [Development of a cultivation technology and selection of leaf vegetable cultures for space greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskikh, M A; Signalova, O B; Derendiaeva, T A; Livanskaia, O G; Nefedova, E L; Sychev, V N; Podo'skiĭ, I G

    2001-01-01

    We plan to perform space experiments on development of a technology for cultivation of leaf vegetables that might be a component of future life support systems for space crews. For this purpose, we are going to fly research greenhouses with the crop area from 0.03 up to 0.1 m2 inside the universal docking module of the ISS Russian segment. To prepare for future space experiments, ground investigations were made in order to compare crop capacity of various artificial soils used to grow leaf vegetables in greenhouse Svet. Useful life of root module Svet can be extended with a new technology based on resupply of fibrous substrate with nutrients. The most effective volume of soil per a plant was determined which sustains high productivity of leaf vegetables in Svet. To select leaf vegetables for in-space cultivation, we conducted investigations of productivity, morphometric and biochemical characteristics, and palatability of 18 cultures including alternative greens highly popular in Japan and China which have been earlier tested neither in laboratory nor in space within the closed eco-system projects. We would prioritize mizuna, pak choi, tatsoi, rapina or broccoli raab, and red giant mustard as objects for in-space investigations.

  1. Suggestion for aircraft flying qualities requirements of a short-range air combat mission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lixin; Youguang GUO; Zhang, Qi; Yue, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the lack of a direct link with the operations in short-range air combat, conventional aircraft flying qualities criteria are inappropriate to guide the design of a task-tailored flight control law. By applying the mission-oriented flying qualities evaluation approach, various aircraft with different control law parameters are evaluated on a ground-based simulator. This paper compares the evaluation results with several conventional flying qualities criteria, and discusses the appropr...

  2. ANALYSIS OF FLYING BIKE

    OpenAIRE

    Momin Irfan Ali Nasir Husain *1, Shah mohd. Rafique rahmatullah *2, Naumanulhaq Barkatullah Shaikh *3, Khatib Mohd. Azimuddin Najimuddin *4, Ansari Mohammad Naasir Shamsudduha *5, Ansari Mohammad Parvez Abdul Qayyum*6, Momin Mohammad Rayyan Mohammad Shakeel*7, Ansari Peer Mohammed Munna *8, Prof. Mohd. Musharraf Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Flying Bike vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) type machine which also follows Newton’s third law. It is thought of as a conventional type of aircraft with special features added to enable it to rise vertically during take-off and to land from a vertical descent.  It flies with two propellers located at front and back side. These propellers are having hovering abilities. The vehicle is controlled by tilting the propellers by using lever mechanism. Rotation is carried out by diffe...

  3. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 1999 [ds160

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  4. Sand Lake WMD vegetation mapping project update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on the vegetation mapping project at Sand Lake Wetland Management District. This project is being completed by the use of SPRING software and ground...

  5. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 2003 [ds162

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  6. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  7. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  8. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), causes direct damage to fruits and vegetables through oviposition and larval feeding. Rigorous quarantine procedures are currently enforced to prevent domestic and transnational spread of Medfly. Accessible and reliable informatio...

  9. Kite-Flying Fun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s kite capital welcomes flying enthusiasts from across the world to its annual carnival Tens of thousands of kite enthusiast from all over the world gathered under the growing swarm of brightly colored kites. Some of the floating and billowing forms had been fashioned into

  10. Hydration of fly ash cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etsuo Sakai; Shigeyoshi Miyahara; Shigenari Ohsawa; Seung-Heun Lee; Masaki Daimon [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2005-06-01

    It is necessary to establish the material design system for the utilization of large amounts of fly ash as blended cement instead of disposing of it as a waste. Cement blended with fly ash is also required as a countermeasure to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} generation. In this study, the influences of the glass content and the basicity of glass phase on the hydration of fly ash cement were clarified and hydration over a long curing time was characterized. Two kinds of fly ash with different glass content, one with 38.2% and another with 76.6%, were used. The hydration ratio of fly ash was increased by increasing the glass content in fly ash in the specimens cured for 270 days. When the glass content of fly ash is low, the basicity of glass phase tends to decrease. Reactivity of fly ash is controlled by the basicity of the glass phase in fly ash during a period from 28 to 270 days. However, at an age of 360 days, the reaction ratios of fly ash show almost identical values with different glass contents. Fly ash also affected the hydration of cement clinker minerals in fly ash cement. While the hydration of alite was accelerated, that of belite was retarded at a late stage.

  11. General Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains vector digital data for vegetation groupings in New Mexico at a 1:1,000,000 scale. The source software was ARC/INFO 5.0.1 and the conversion...

  12. Assessment of hardened characteristics of raw fly ash blended self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahalingam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is widely used as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete. Due to the implementation of new thermal power plants as a consequence of electricity demand, generation of fly ash is noticeably increased. In addition to pozzolana blended cement production, it is very imperative to use raw fly ash in concrete. Earlier research studies investigated the performance of processed fly ash in blended cement production as well as in concrete. In general, ground fly ash is used in blended cement production. A comprehensive study on the performance evaluation of raw fly ash in self-compacting concrete is not available in the existing literature. Moreover, utilization of raw fly ash in special concrete such as self-compacting concrete is essential to comprehend the performance of raw fly ash blended concrete compared to ordinary Portland concrete. Additionally, it will help to achieve maximum utilization of raw fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material rather than disposal as a waste, which eventually leads to several environmental issues. In the study, raw fly ash was collected and is directly used in development of self-compacting concrete. Two mixes were cast and hardened characteristics of blended concrete were investigated. Results from the study showed comparable performance with control concrete. Furthermore, significant reduction in chloride permeability was observed for raw fly ash blended concrete.

  13. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  14. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  15. Integration of vegetation inventory data and ALOS image for vegetation classification in Yancheng coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunmei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yu; Xia, Rui; Wang, Yanfei; Jin, Xing

    2009-10-01

    Systematic mapping and monitoring of wetland landscape are of fundamental importance for wetland development and management. To accurately classify wetland in Yancheng coastal wetland, ground investigation was conducted in 2006. Integrated with ground investigation, the wetland was classified into 8 categories such as Spartina alterniflora Loisel, Farm land, Phragmites Australis, Artemisia halodendron Turcz, Bare beach, Salt field, Fish & shrimp pond, and Sea water. A total of three decision trees were successfully produced. The first represented broad divisions of vegetation (in fact, at this stage, it just can be called vegetated cover like) and non-vegetation, and the second two represented more detailed vegetation classes and non-vegetation classes. To construct the decision trees, NDVI and principal component analysis were used as the evaluation factors. The thresholds were built combining with ground investigation and spectral property. Firstly, almost all kinds of vegetable were divided out of non-vegetation by NDVI. Secondly, the different species of vegetation were distinguished and some vegetated cover like was eliminated out of vegetation. Phragmites Australis belt, Artemisia halodendron Turcz belt, Spartina alterniflora Loisel belt and bare beach belt were distributed regularly from land to sea.

  16. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  17. Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...

  18. Accurate Segmentation for Infrared Flying Bird Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hong; HUANG Ying; LING Haibin; ZOU Qi; YANG Hao

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes present a huge risk for air ve-hicles, especially since traditional airport bird surveillance is mainly dependent on inefficient human observation. For improving the effectiveness and efficiency of bird monitor-ing, computer vision techniques have been proposed to detect birds, determine bird flying trajectories, and pre-dict aircraft takeoff delays. Flying bird with a huge de-formation causes a great challenge to current tracking al-gorithms. We propose a segmentation based approach to enable tracking can adapt to the varying shape of bird. The approach works by segmenting object at a region of inter-est, where is determined by the object localization method and heuristic edge information. The segmentation is per-formed by Markov random field, which is trained by fore-ground and background mixture Gaussian models. Exper-iments demonstrate that the proposed approach provides the ability to handle large deformations and outperforms the m ost state-of-the-art tracker in the infrared flying bird tracking problem.

  19. Radar vegetation indices for estimating the vegetation water content of rice and soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important biophysical parameter and has a significant role in the retrieval of soil moisture using microwave remote sensing. In this study, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) was evaluated for estimating VWC. Analysis utilized a data set obtained using a ground-bas...

  20. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  1. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  2. Flying over decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  3. Vision in flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  4. Identification of Forest Vegetation Using Vegetation Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Spectral feature of forest vegetation with remote sensing techniques is the research topic all over the world, because forest plays an important role in human beings' living environment. Research on vegetation classification with vegetation index is still very little recently. This paper proposes a method of identifying forest types based on vegetation indices,because the contrast of absorbing red waveband with reflecting near-infrared waveband strongly for different vegetation types is recognized as the theoretic basis of vegetation analysis with remote sensing. Vegetation index is highly related to leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation cover. Vegetation index reflects photosynthesis intensity of plants and manifests different forest types. According to reflectance data of forest canopy and soil line equation NIR=1.506R+0.0076 in Jingyuetan, Changchun of China, many vegetation indices are calculated and analyzed. The result shows that the relationships between vegetation indices and forest types are that perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) identifies broadleaf forest and coniferous forest the most easily;the next is transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index(TSVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index(MSVI), but their calculation is complex. Ratio vegetation index (RVT) values of different coniferous forest vary obviously, so RVI can classify conifers.Therefore, the combination of PVI and RVI is evaluated to classify different vegetation types.

  5. Vegetation Map and Vegetation Monographs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ke

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vegetation Map of China As the most significant component of an ecosystem,vegetation plays the most important role in maintaining biodiversity and providing the necessary resources for human beings.A vegetation map shows the major vegetation types of a region and their geographic distribution patterns.

  6. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  7. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.quote>

  8. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  9. Flying qualities - A costly lapse in flight-control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    Generic problems in advanced aircraft with advanced control systems which suffer from control sensitivity, sluggish response, and pilot-induced oscillation tendencies are examined, with a view to improving techniques for eliminating the problems in the design phase. Results of two NASA and NASA/AIAA workshops reached a consensus that flying qualities criteria do not match control system development, control system designers are not relying on past experience in their field, ground-based simulation is relied on too heavily, and communications between flying qualities and control systems engineers need improvement. A summation is offered in that hardware and software have outstripped the pilot's capacity to use the capabilities which new aircraft offer. The flying qualities data base is stressed to be dynamic, and continually redefining the man/machine relationships.

  10. Refractive Index of Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index reported previously for the rhabdomeres of flies (1.349) has been corrected for waveguide effects. The presented correction method has yielded n1 = 1.365 ± 0.006. It is argued that an acceptable estimate for the refractive index of the inhomogeneous surroundings of fly

  11. Measurements of radar ground returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, G.P. de

    1974-01-01

    The ground based measurement techniques for the determination of the radar back-scatter of vegetation and soils as used in The Netherlands will be described. Two techniques are employed: one covering a large sample area (> 1000 m2) but working at low grazing angels only and one (short range) coverin

  12. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  13. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  14. Audubon vegetation monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the summary and the analysis of vegetative data for the Audubon Refuge from NPWRC. The data included measurements of vegetation density, vegetation...

  15. Unsteady propulsion in ground effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    Many animals in nature experience hydrodynamic benefits by swimming or flying near the ground, and this phenomenon is commonly called 'ground effect'. A flexible fin flapping near the ground was modelled, inspired by animals swimming. A transverse heaving motion was prescribed at the leading edge, and the posterior parts of the fin were passively fluttering by the fin-fluid interaction. The fin moved freely horizontally in a quiescent flow, by which the swimming speed was dynamically determined. The fin-fluid interaction was considered by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The kinematics of the flexible fin was altered by flapping near the ground, and the vortex structures generated in the wake were deflected upward, which was qualitatively analyzed by using the vortex dipole model. The swimming speed and the thrust force of the fin increased by the ground effects. The hydrodynamic changes from flapping near the ground affected the required power input in two opposite ways; the increased and decreased hydrodynamic pressures beneath the fin hindered the flapping motion, increasing the power input, while the transversely reduced flapping motion induced the decreased power input. The Froude propulsive efficiency was increased by swimming in the ground effects Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  16. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  17. Comparative efficacy of three suction traps for collecting phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in open habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Roy; Cuño, Ruben; Warburg, Alon

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of three suction traps for trapping phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was compared. Traps were baited with Co(2) and used without any light source. CO(2)-baited CDC traps were evaluated either in their standard downdraft orientation or inverted (iCDC traps). Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) counterflow geometry traps were tested in the updraft orientation only. Both updraft traps (iCDC and MMX) were deployed with their opening ∼10 cm from the ground while the opening of the downdraft (CDC) trap was ∼40 cm above ground. Comparisons were conducted in two arid locations where different sand fly species prevail. In the Jordan Valley, 3,367 sand flies were caught, 2,370 of which were females. The predominant species was Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi, Scopoli 1786 (>99%). The updraft-type traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 118 and 67.1 sand flies per trap night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 32.9 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. In the Judean desert, traps were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. A total of 565 sand flies were caught, 345 of which were females. The predominant species was P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot 1917 (87%). The updraft traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 25.6 and 17.9 sand flies per trap per night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 7.8 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. The female to male ratio was 1.7 on average for all trap types. In conclusion, updraft traps deployed with their opening close to the ground are clearly more effective for trapping sand flies than downdraft CDC traps in open habitats.

  18. STUDY ON CORROSION RESISTANCE OF REBAR IN HYBRID GRINDING FLY ASH-LIME SILICATE CONCRETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of rebar in fly ash-lime sili cate concrete as well as its marco properties and pore distribution is investiga ted.The results show that the fly ash is activated, the compressive strength of the silicate concrete is strengthened and its pore structure is modified after f ly ash and lime being hybrid ground.Also the corrosion resistance of rebar in the silicate concrete is improved.

  19. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  20. Genotoxicity of vegetables irrigated by industrial wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nupur Mathur; Pradeep Bhatnagar; Hemraj Verma

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater effluents from textile dyeing and printing industries of Sanganer are discharged directly, without any treatment,into Amani Shah Nallah drainage. The drainage water takes the dissolved toxicants to flora and fauna, including crops and seasonal vegetables, being grown in the land adjoining the Nallah drainage. Thus mutagenic potential of vegetables irrigated by the water of Amani Shah Nallah drainage was investigated in the present study. The vegetables irrigated by ground water from Sanganer have also been analyzed to determine possible adverse effects of these wastewater effluents on aqua duct.

  1. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon–water–energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in the new Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the water use efficiency and leaf area index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, a negative feedback mechanism in the vegetation–soil water system is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large leaf area index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

  2. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  3. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to investigat

  4. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  5. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  6. Flying in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

  7. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  8. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  9. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  10. A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Dekker, Stefan C; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangi W; Lenton, Timothy M

    2017-02-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems. In this paper, we have developed quantitative methods to characterize the morphology of spatial patterns in dryland vegetation. Our approach is based on algorithmic techniques that have been used to classify pollen grains on the basis of textural patterning, and involves constructing feature vectors to quantify the shapes formed by vegetation patterns. We have analysed images of patterned vegetation produced by a computational model and a small set of satellite images from South Kordofan (South Sudan), which illustrates that our methods are applicable to both simulated and real-world data. Our approach provides a means of quantifying patterns that are frequently described using qualitative terminology, and could be used to classify vegetation patterns in large-scale satellite surveys of dryland ecosystems.

  11. Simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals and artificial recharge on discharge to streams, springs, and riparian vegetation in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.; Leenhouts, James M.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of ground-water resources, “capture” or “streamflow depletion” refers to withdrawal-induced changes in inflow to or outflow from an aquifer. These concepts are helpful in understanding the effects of long-term development of ground-water resources. For the Upper San Pedro Basin in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, a recently developed ground-water flow model is available to help quantify capture of water from the river and riparian system. A common method of analysis is to compute curves of capture and aquifer-storage change for a range of time at select points of interest. This study, however, presents results of a method to show spatial distributions of total change in inflow and outflow from withdrawal or injection for select times of interest. The mapped areal distributions show the effect of a single well in terms of the ratio of the change in boundary flow rate to rate of withdrawal or injection by the well. To the extent that the system responds linearly to ground-water withdrawal or injection, fractional responses in the mapped distributions can be used to quantify response for any withdrawal or injection rate. Capture distributions calculated using the Upper San Pedro model include response to (1) withdrawal in the lower basin-fill aquifer for times of 10 and 50 years following the initiation of pumping from predevelopment conditions and (2) artificial recharge to the water table in the area underlain by the lower basin-fill aquifer after 10 and 50 years. The mapped distributions show that response to withdrawals and injections is greatest near the river/riparian system. Presence of clay layers in the vertical interval between withdrawal locations and the river/riparian system, however, can delay the response.

  12. On the demands on imaging spectrometry for the monitoring of global vegetation fluorescence from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Del Bello, U.; Drusch, M.; Gabriele, A.; Harnisch, B.; Moreno, J.

    2013-09-01

    Vegetation fluorescence when measured from space contributes only a tiny fraction of the signal coming on top of the reflected radiance by the Earth surface and the atmosphere. As a consequence, imaging spectrometers have to provide sufficient throughput and radiometric accuracy to enable accurate global monitoring of the daily to seasonal variations of the Earth's vegetation breath, which is particularly challenging if ground resolutions of a few hundred meters are targeted. Since fluorescence retrieval algorithms have to make corrections for atmospheric effects, it is necessary to provide sufficient spectral resolution, so that signal alterations due to the main parameters such as surface pressure, atmospheric temperature profile, vertical distribution of aerosols concentration, and water vapour content can be accurately modelled. ESA's Earth Explorer 8 candidate mission FLEX carries a Fluorescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS), which has been designed and optimised to enable such measurement. The spectrometer will measure in a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm and provide high spectral resolution of 0.3 nm in particular at the Oxygen-A and -B bands. It will also cover the photochemical reflection features between 500 and 600 nm, the Chlorophyll absorption region between 600 and 677 nm, and the red-edge in the region of 697 to 755 nm. FLEX will fly in formation with Sentinel-3 in order to further enhance the spectral coverage from measurements made by the Sentinel-3 instruments OLCI and SLSTR, particularly for cloud screening and proper characterization of the atmospheric status.

  13. The flying carpet and other tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, Noah Thomas

    In this thesis we demonstrate propulsion of a thin plastic piezoelectric sheet using controlled traveling wave deformations. This is achieved in air, without touching the ground, thus confirming the physical basis for a "flying" carpet near a horizontal surface. The device developed in this work demonstrates a novel form of propulsion, which operates without separate moving parts, since all actuation elements are formed from the same thin sheet of material. Potential advantages of this include low manufacturing costs and long lifetime. This work also demonstrates the advantages, in general, of using integrated sensors to control the vibrations of thin plastic sheets. Although we focus here on traveling waves, the same techniques could be used to produce a wide variety of time-varying deformations. The device could be used to model biological organisms, for example, for fluid dynamics studies. In addition, sensor arrays, for example chemical or biological, could be integrated onto the sheet. We discuss the fundamental and experimental conditions for realizing such a device, and describe the experimental approach to produce the traveling waves and demonstrate propulsion. The propulsive forces qualitatively agree with previous theoretical predictions. Theory predicts that such a sheet needs to reach speeds of ~20 cm/s to produce its own lift (the so-called "flying carpet" effect). Currently, the sheet is not free, so the observed velocity is ~1-2 cm/s. We present preliminary work to free the sheet from its tethers by providing on-board power using a boost-converter circuit, and, alternatively, using a cart that carries the tethering wires and follows the sheet. In addition, to enable the sheet to begin moving without external lift, methods to reduce friction and static electricity are presented. Experiments with passive test samples show indications of lift beginning at ~20-30 cm/s. Two aspects related to the integration of improved functionality on the sheet are also

  14. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in a new carbon-water-energy coupled model to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximizes biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Area Index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, an important negative feedback mechanism is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large Leaf Area Index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

  15. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh, Change 1999 to 2000 [ds163

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  16. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh, Change 1999 to 2003 [ds164

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  17. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  18. Quarantine treatment against mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) in mangoes haden variety (Mangifera indica) with gamma irradiation (Co 60)

    OpenAIRE

    Peña C., María E.; Laboratorio de Bromatología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Guillen E., Rafael; Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria - SENASA.; Arias A., Gladys C.; Laboratorio de Bromatología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Tephritidae fruit flies are among the most damaging pests of fruit crops worldwide Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, for instance, can infest more than 250 fruit and vegetable crop species, and constitutes the main phytosanitary restrict for export purposes. The investigation was carried out in a SENASA’s Production Center of Sterile Fruit Flies and PIMU’s laboratory; it was supervised by an OIEA’s irradiation expert. This research comprised two stages: 1) Determine the minimum irradiation dose t...

  19. Distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a primary forest-crop interface, Salta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, M G; Salomón, O D; De Grosso, M S Lizarralde

    2010-11-01

    Disordered urbanization and deforestation are the main activities proposed as causal factors of re-emergence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. The purpose of this work was to investigate, in the hyperendemic area of Argentina, the distribution of Phlebotomine sand flies at the modified primary vegetation-crop interface, as one of the potential sites where the effects of changing landscape on sand fly populations may be manifested. Twenty samplings were made between June 2004 and August 2005. The traps to catch sand flies were set on two consecutive nights every month (except in 5 mo, where it became every 15 d). The relationship between sand fly abundance and meteorological and landscape variables was analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and Kendall's correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia migonei (França), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (Brèthes), Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar), and Lutzomyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). Traps located close to modified areas collected the greatest numbers of sand flies, whereas traps located in the least modified area (adjacent to the primary vegetation) collected the fewest. There was a strong negative correlation between the abundance of sand flies and precipitation. This study shows that even small modifications in the landscape led to an increase in sand fly abundance, mainly Lu. neivai, a Leishmania braziliensis vector. This underscores the need for recommendations about the risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis before any environmental intervention is done in an endemic area, as well as for the monitoring of sand fly population dynamics at the site of intervention, before, during, and after the process.

  20. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corridor. (k) Planting of trees, shrubs, wildflowers, native grasses, and ground covers within the SMZ is... located to minimize removal of trees or other vegetation on the TVA land. (d) Grass may be planted and... steps are allowed. Pruning of side limbs that extend into the access corridor from trees located...

  1. Fiber optics that fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Michael J.; Thelen, Donald C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The need for autonomous systems to work under unanticipated conditions requires the use of smart sensors. High resolution systems develop tremendous computational loads. Inspiration from animal vision systems can guide us in developing preprocessing approaches implementable in real time with high resolution and deduced computational load. Given a high quality optical path and a 2D array of photodetectors, the resolution of a digital image is determined by the density of photodetectors sampling the image. In order to reconstruct an image, resolution is limited by the distance between adjacent detectors. However, animal eyes resolve images 10-100 times better than either the acceptance angle of a single photodetector or the center-to-center distance between neighboring photodetectors. A new model of the fly's visual system emulates this improved performance, offering a different approach to subpixel resolution. That an animal without a cortex is capable of this performance suggests that high level computation is not involved. The model takes advantage of a photoreceptor cell's internal structure for capturing light. This organelle is a waveguide. Neurocircuitry exploits the waveguide's optical nonlinearities, namely in the shoulder region of its gaussian sensitivity-profile, to extract high resolution information from the visual scene. The receptive fields of optically disparate inputs overlap in space. Photoreceptor input is continuous rather than discretely sampled. The output of the integrating module is a signal proportional to the position of the target within the detector array. For tracking a point source, resolution is 10 times better than the detector spacing. For locating absolute position and orientation of an edge, the model performs similarly. Analog processing is used throughout. Each element is an independent processor of local luminance. Information processing is in real time with continuous update. This processing principle will be reproduced in an

  2. Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Storey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes drawing upon examples from North America and Australia.

  3. Myiasis with Lund's fly (Cordylobia rodhaini) in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Jeremy; Haik, J; Schwartz, Eli

    2003-01-01

    Myiasis is an infestation of human tissue by the larvae of certain flies. There are many forms of myiasis, including localized furuncular myiasis, creeping dermal myiasis and wound and body cavity myiasis.1 Cordylobia anthropophaga (the Tumbu fly) and Dermatobia hominis (the human botfly) are the most common causes of myiasis in Africa and tropical America respectively. The genus Cordylobia also contains two less common species, C. ruandae and C. rodhaini. The usual hosts of C. rodhaini are various mammals (particularly rodents), and and humans are accidentally infested. Figure 1 shows the life cycle of C. rodhaini, which occurs over 55 to -67 days.3 The female fly deposits her eggs on dry sand polluted with the excrement of animals or on human clothing. In about 3 days, the larva is activated by the warm body of the host, hatches and invades the skin. As the larva matures, it induces a furuncular swelling. In 12 to -15 days, the larva reaches a length of about 23 mm, exits the skin and falls to the ground to pupate. The adult fly emerges in 23 to -26 days, and the life cycle resumes. In humans, the skin lesion starts as a red papule that gradually enlarges and develops into a furuncle. In the center of the lesion an opening forms, through which the larva breaths and discharges its serosanguinous feces. The lesion is associated with increasing pain until the larva exits the skin. The disease is usually uncomplicated and self-limiting.

  4. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY ar...

  5. Acoustic cloaking and mirages with flying carpets

    CERN Document Server

    Diatta, Andre; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Carpets under consideration here, in the context of pressure acoustic waves propagating in a compressible fluid, do not touch the ground: they levitate in mid-air (or float in mid-water), which leads to approximate cloaking for an object hidden underneath, or touching either sides of a square cylinder on, or over, the ground. The tentlike carpets attached to the sides of a square cylinder illustrate how the notion of a carpet on a wall naturally generalizes to sides of other small compact objects. We then extend the concept of flying carpets to circular cylinders. However, instead of reducing its scattering cross-section like in acoustic cloaks, we rather mimic that of another obstacle, say a square rigid cylinder. For instance, show that one can hide any type of defects under such circular carpets, and yet they still scatter waves just like a smaller cylinder on its own. Interestingly, all these carpets are described by non-singular acoustic parameters. To exemplify this important aspect, we propose a multi-...

  6. Dermatobia, the neotropical warble fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E

    1988-09-01

    The neotropical warble fly, Dermatobia hominis (Fig. 1), has plagued neotropical America since preColombian times, and has become an economically important pest causing substantial losses to the meat, milk and leather industries from northern Mexico down to northern Argentina. Its life cycle (Box 1) is astonishingly complex, requiring another insect as a phoretic carrier of its eggs to the skin of its mammal hosts. Here Eugenio Sancho discusses factors that contribute to the current economic and public health importance of this myiasis-causing fly.

  7. Remote sensing of vegetation dynamics in drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring long-term biomass dynamics in drylands is of great importance for many environmental applications including land degradation and global carbon cycle modeling. Biomass has extensively been estimated based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of the vegetation...... greenness. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) derived from satellite passive microwave observations is mainly sensitive to the water content in total aboveground vegetation layer. VOD therefore provides a complementary data source to NDVI for monitoring biomass dynamics in drylands, yet further evaluations...... based on ground measurements are needed for an improved understanding of the potential advantages. In this study, we assess the capability of a long-term VOD dataset (1992-2011) to capture the temporal and spatial variability of in situ measured green biomass (herbaceous mass and woody plant foliage...

  8. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  9. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) host status determination: critical conceptual, methodological, and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Mangan, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Although fruit fly host status determination/designation lies at the heart of strategic decisions on national and international trade of fruit and vegetables, all attempts thus far to define host plant status have been contentious and as a result long-standing disputes between commercial partners throughout the world have lingered over decades. Part of the problem is that too little effort has been devoted to understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in host plant use by fruit flies and that instead economic and political interests usually prevail. Here we review the most important evolutionary, biological, ecological, physiological, and behavioral aspects that drive host use by fruit flies, and then construct a flow diagram rooted in these fundamentals that outlines a series of steps and definitions to determine if a particular fruit or vegetable (and cultivars thereof) is a natural host, or a conditional (potential, artificial) host, or a nonhost. Along the way, we incorporate risk analysis considerations and propose that the underlying complexity determining host plant utilization by fruit flies requires a flexible systems approach capable of realistically dealing with fly/host/environment/geographic variability on a case-by-case basis.

  10. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  11. Can landscape memory affect vegetation recovery in drylands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baartman, Jantiene; Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Temme, Arnaud; Rietkerk, Max

    2016-04-01

    Dryland ecosystems are water-limited and therefore vegetation typically forms banded or patchy patterns with high vegetation cover, interspersed with bare soil areas. In these systems, a runoff-runon system is often observed with bare areas acting as sources and vegetation patches acting as sinks of water, sediment and other transported substances. These fragile ecosystems are easily disturbed by overgrazing, removing above-ground vegetation. To avoid desertification, vegetation recovery after a disturbance is crucial. This poster discusses the potential of 'landscape memory' to affect the vegetation recovery potential. Landscape memory, originating in geomorphology, is the concept that a landscape is the result of its past history, which it 'remembers' through imprints left in the landscape. For example, a past heavy rainstorm may leave an erosion gully. These imprints affect the landscape's contemporary functioning, for example through faster removal of water from the landscape. In dryland ecosystems vegetation is known to affect the soil properties of the soil they grow in, e.g. increasing porosity, infiltration, organic matter content and soil structure. After a disturbance of the banded ecosystem, e.g. by overgrazing, this pattern of soil properties - favourable for regrowth, stays in the landscape. However, removal of the above-ground vegetation also leads to longer runoff pathways and increased rill and gully erosion, which may hamper vegetation regrowth. I hypothesize that vegetation recovery after a disturbance, depends on the balance between these two contrasting types of landscape memory (i.e. favourable soil properties and erosion rills/gullies).

  12. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  13. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  14. Total Vegetation 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are polygons that contain vegetated pixels in the May, 2002 imagery from aerial overflight of the Grand Canyon. Vegetation was mapped between stage elevations...

  15. Rotor-Flying Manipulator: Modeling, Analysis, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equipping multijoint manipulators on a mobile robot is a typical redesign scheme to make the latter be able to actively influence the surroundings and has been extensively used for many ground robots, underwater robots, and space robotic systems. However, the rotor-flying robot (RFR is difficult to be made such redesign. This is mainly because the motion of the manipulator will bring heavy coupling between itself and the RFR system, which makes the system model highly complicated and the controller design difficult. Thus, in this paper, the modeling, analysis, and control of the combined system, called rotor-flying multijoint manipulator (RF-MJM, are conducted. Firstly, the detailed dynamics model is constructed and analyzed. Subsequently, a full-state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller is designed through obtaining linearized model near steady state. Finally, simulations are conducted and the results are analyzed to show the basic control performance.

  16. A novel autonomous self-assembly distributed swarm flying robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hongxing; Li Ning; Liu Miao; Tan Jindong

    2013-01-01

    Swarm intelligence embodied by many species such as ants and bees has inspired scholars in swarm robotic researches.This paper presents a novel autonomous self-assembly distributed swarm flying robot-DSFR,which can drive on the ground,autonomously accomplish self-assembly and then fly in the air coordinately.Mechanical and electrical designs ofa DSFR module,as well as the kinematics and dynamics analysis,are specifically investigated.Meanwhile,this paper brings forward a generalized adjacency matrix to describe configurations of DSFR structures.Also,the distributed flight control model is established for vertical taking-off and horizontal hovering,which can be applied to control of DSFR systems with arbitrary configurations.Finally,some experiments are carried out to testify and validate the DSFR design,the autonomous self-assembly strategy and the distributed flight control laws.

  17. Behavior and Mechanism of Pozzolanic Reaction Heat of Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag at Early Age%粉煤灰与矿渣的早期火山灰反应放热行为及其机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冲; 杨长辉; 钱觉时; 钟明全; 赵爽

    2012-01-01

    针对大体积混凝土绝热温升计算中粉煤灰与矿渣的火山灰反应放热问题,利用微量热仪法测试了不同掺量粉煤灰和矿渣对水泥水化热及放热速率的影响规律,分析了粉煤灰和矿渣水化3d以前的火山灰反应放热行为,采用X射线衍射与差示扫描量热–热重法研究了粉煤灰与矿渣对水泥早期水化及其火山灰放热行为的影响机理。结果表明:粉煤灰与矿渣水化3d时火山灰反应热分别约为3~5J/g和15~16J/g。粉煤灰对水泥水化的阻碍作用在水化24h前最为明显,其火山灰效应主要发生于水化24h之后;矿渣对水泥水化有促进作用,自加水开始即表现出一定的火山灰效应。粉煤灰与矿渣掺入后有助于水泥水化产物中钙矾石的稳定,钙矾石抑制了水泥水化,Ca(OH)2生成量减少,因而粉煤灰与矿渣的火山灰反应也受到影响。%In order to evaluate the pozzolanic reaction heat of fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blastfumace slag (GGBS) in temperature simulation of mass concrete, the influence of replacement of FA and GGBS on the hydration process and heat rate of cement was investigated via microcalorimetry, and the behaviors of pozzolanic reaction heat of FA and GGBS before 3 d were analyzed. Reaction heat of FA and GGBS at early age was discussed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry (DSC-TG), respectively. The mechanism of pozzolanic. The results show that the pozzolanic reaction heat of FA and GGBS is 3-5 J/g and 15-16 J/g. The FA has a negative effect on the cement hydration before 24 h, but its pozzolanic effect plays a positive effect on the cement hydration after 24 h. The pozzolanic effect of the GGBS accelerates the cement hydration at early age. Ettringite is more steady in the cement hydration production when FA or GGBS is added, which delays the hydration of cement and produce of Ca(OH)2 Therefore, the pozzolanic

  18. Vegetation modulated landscape evolution: Effects of vegetation on landscape processes, drainage density and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, R. L.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2004-12-01

    Topography acts as a template for numerous landscape processes that includes hydrologic, ecologic and biologic phenomena. These processes not only interact with each other but also contribute to shaping the landscape as they influence geomorphic processes. We have investigated the effects of vegetation on known geomorphic relations, thresholds for channel initiation and landform evolution, using both analytical and numerical approaches. Vegetation is assumed to form a uniform ground cover. Runoff erosion is modeled based on power function of excess shear stress, in which shear stress efficiency is inversely proportional to vegetation cover. Plant effect on slope stability is represented by additional cohesion provided by plant roots. Vegetation cover is assumed to reduce sediment transport rates due to physical creep processes (rainsplash, dry ravel, and expansion and contraction of sediments) according to a negative exponential relationship. Vegetation grows as a function of both available cover and unoccupied space by plants, and is killed by geomorphic disturbances (runoff erosion and landsliding), and wildfires. Analytical results suggest that, in an equilibrium basin with a fixed vegetation cover, plants may cause a transition in the dominant erosion process at the channel head. A runoff erosion dominated landscape, under none or loose vegetation cover, may become landslide dominated under a denser vegetation cover. The sign of the predicted relationship between drainage density and vegetation cover depends on the relative influence of vegetation on different erosion phenomena. With model parameter values representative of the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), numerical experiments conducted using the CHILD model. Numerical experiments reveal the importance of vegetation disturbances on the landscape structure. Simulated landscapes resemble real-world catchments in the OCR when vegetation disturbances are considered.

  19. Vegetation-modulated landscape evolution: Effects of vegetation on landscape processes, drainage density, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.

    2005-06-01

    Topography acts as a template for numerous landscape processes that include hydrologic, ecologic, and biologic phenomena. These processes not only interact with each other but also contribute to shaping the landscape as they influence geomorphic processes. We have investigated the effects of vegetation on thresholds for channel initiation and landform evolution using both analytical and numerical approaches. Vegetation is assumed to form a uniform ground cover. Runoff erosion is modeled based on a power function of excess shear stress, in which shear stress efficiency is inversely proportional to vegetation cover. This approach is validated using data. Plant effect on slope stability is represented by additional cohesion provided by plant roots. Vegetation cover is assumed to reduce sediment transport rates due to physical creep processes (rainsplash, dry ravel, and expansion and contraction of sediments) according to a negative exponential relationship. Vegetation grows as a function of both available cover and unoccupied space by plants and is killed by geomorphic disturbances (runoff erosion and landsliding) and wildfires. Analytical results suggest that in an equilibrium basin with a fixed vegetation cover, plants may cause a transition in the dominant erosion process at the channel head. A runoff erosion-dominated landscape, under none or poor vegetation cover, may become landslide dominated under a denser vegetation cover. The sign of the predicted relationship between drainage density and vegetation cover depends on the relative influence of vegetation on different erosion phenomena. With model parameter values representative of the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), numerical experiments conducted using the Channel Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model confirm the findings based on the analytical theory. A highly dissected fluvial landscape emerges when surface is assumed bare. When vegetation cover is modeled, landscape relief increases

  20. Suggestion for aircraft flying qualities requirements of a short-range air combat mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the lack of a direct link with the operations in short-range air combat, conventional aircraft flying qualities criteria are inappropriate to guide the design of a task-tailored flight control law. By applying the mission-oriented flying qualities evaluation approach, various aircraft with different control law parameters are evaluated on a ground-based simulator. This paper compares the evaluation results with several conventional flying qualities criteria, and discusses the appropriate parameter combination to reflect the flying qualities requirements of short-range air combat. The comparison and analysis show that a short-range air combat mission requires a higher minimum short period mode natural frequency and a smaller maximum roll mode time constant, and allows a lower minimum pitch attitude bandwidth and a higher maximum short period mode damp ratio than those of conventional flying qualities criteria. Furthermore, a combination of the pitch attitude bandwidth, the pitch attitude magnitude at the bandwidth frequency, and the pitch attitude transfer function gain can define the flying qualities requirements of short-range air combat. The new metric can successfully predict the flying quality levels of aircraft in a short-range air combat mission.

  1. Fly ash as a soil ameliorant for improving crop production - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jala, S.; Goyal, D. [Deemed University, Patiala (India)

    2006-06-15

    Fly ash, a resultant of combustion of coal at high temperature, has been regarded as a problematic solid waste all over the world. Many possible beneficial applications of fly ash are being evaluated to minimize waste, decrease cost of disposal and provide value-added products. The conventional disposal methods for fly ash lead to degradation of arable land and contamination of the ground water. However fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of problem soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients. In conjunction with organic manure and microbial inoculants, fly ash can enhance plant biomass production from degraded soils. Detailed studies on the nature and composition of fly ash, conducted during the latter half of the 20th century have helped in repeatedly confirming the various useful applications of this hitherto neglected industrial waste. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information on various attributes of fly ash and explore the possibility of exploiting them for agronomic advantage.

  2. Characterization of Fly Ash Generated from Matla Power Station in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fly ash was obtained from Matla power station and the physicochemical properties investigated. The fly ash was characterized by x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Surface area, particle size, ash and carbon contents, pH, and point of zero charge were also measured. The results showed that the fly ash is alkaline and consists mainly of mullite (Al6Si2O13 and quartz (SiO2. Highly toxic metals As, Sb, Cd, Cr, and Pb as well as metals that are essential to health in trace amounts were also present. The storage and disposal of coal fly ash can thus lead to the release of leached metals into soils, surface and ground waters, find way into the ecological systems and then cause harmful effect to man and its environments.

  3. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  4. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  5. Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekens, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD) hosts information on all plant communities in the Netherlands. This substantial archive consists of over 600.000 recent and historic vegetation descriptions. The data provide information on more than 85 years of vegetation recording in various habitats covering te

  6. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  7. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  8. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  9. Control of Sand Flies with Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) and Potential Impact on Non-Target Organisms in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-08

    Quails eta/. Parasites & Vectors (2015) 8:87 DOI10.1186/s13071 015 0671 2 RESEARCH Open Access Control of sand flies with attractive toxic sugar...bearing countless ripe fruits) environments and three with "sugar poor" (green vegetation only suitable for plant tissue feeding) environments were...environments and three with ???sugar poor??? (green vegetation only suitable for plant tissue feeding) environments were selected to evaluate ATSB

  10. Assessment of bioaccumulation of heavy metals by different plant species grown on fly ash dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambhulkar, Hemlata P; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2009-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a 10-hectare area on fly ash dump at Khaperkheda Thermal Power Plant, Nagpur, India, where different ecologically and economically important plant species were planted using bioremediation technology. The technology involves the use of organic amendment and selection of suitable plant species along with site-specific nitrogen-fixing strains of biofertilizers. The study was conducted to find out the metal accumulation potential of different plant species. The total heavy metal contents in fly ash were determined and their relative abundance was found in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. Fly ash samples had acidic pH, low electrical conductivity, low level of organic carbon and trace amounts of N and P. Plantation of divergent species was done on fly ash dump using the bioremediation technique. After 3 years of plantation, luxuriant growth of these species was found covering almost the entire fly ash dump. The results of the metal analysis of these species indicated that iron accumulated to the greatest extent in vegetation followed by Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb. Cassia siamea was found to accumulate all metals at higher concentrations compared to other species. The experimental study revealed that C. siamea could be used as a hyper-accumulator plant for bioremediation of fly ash dump.

  11. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  12. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  13. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  14. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the fertility and fecundity of two species of fruit flies and horizontal transmission of mycotic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookar, P; Bhagwant, S; Allymamod, M N

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are the major pest of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Fruit growers make use of broad-spectrum insecticides to protect their crops from fruit fly attack. This method of fruit fly control is hazardous to the environment and is a threat to beneficial insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which was isolated from the soils of Mauritius, was used to investigate whether fungus-treated adult fruit flies could transfer conidia to non-treated flies during mating, and whether fungal infection could have an effect on mating behavior, fecundity, and fertility of the two female fruit fly species. When treated male flies were maintained together with non-treated female flies, they were able to transmit infection to untreated females, resulting in high mortalities. Similarly, fungus-infected female flies mixed with untreated males also transmitted infections to males, also resulting in high mortalities. Infection by M. anisopliae also resulted in the reduction of the number of eggs produced by females of B. cucurbitae. The results suggest that M. anisopliae may have potential for use in integrated control programs of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae using the sterile insect technique in Mauritius.

  15. Binocular interactions underlying the classic optomotor responses of flying flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Duistermars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to imposed course deviations, the fast optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, the monocular front-to-back (progressive and back-to-front (regressive visual motion components generated by horizontal rotation are selectively encoded, respectively, by homo and heterolateral motion sensitive circuits in the third optic ganglion, the lobula plate. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory-motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular and monocular visual rotation. With stimulus parameters generating large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular progressive motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation but contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular regressive motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the dynamic interplay of contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions and serve to maintain a stable optomotor equilibrium across a range of visual contrasts.

  16. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  17. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  18. "Fly me to the moon"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's first lunar probe Chang'e-I, named after a mythical Chinese goddess who, according to legend, made her home on the moon, blasted off on 24 October from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern province of Sichuan. In addition to making the dream cherished by Chinese people to fly to the moon come true, it is the first step into China's ambitious threestage moon mission, marking a new milestone in the country's space exploration history.

  19. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  20. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham

    2009-01-01

    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  1. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  2. Use of fly ash in backfill at Kidd Creek Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T.R.; Counter, D.B. (Kidd Creek Mines Ltd., Timmins, ON (Canada))

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to increase productivity, the use of fly ash from thermal power plants as a binder for consolidated backfill was studied. From laboratory and underground tests for its cementitious properties and environmental effects, it was found that a portion of Portland cement could be replaced by the same amount of type C fly ash (produced from subbituminous coal or lignite) to produce an acceptable consolidated rockfill product for use at an Ontario mine. The environmental concerns in terms of dust control and emanation of radon gas were unfounded from measurements. The dust count was comparable to the use of Portland cement only, or with ground blast furnance slag, and the radiation readings were low, averaging one-seventh the regulation level. Since May 1984, a total of over 100,000 tonnes of fly ash has been consumed as a binder blended with Portland cement, producing over four million tonnes of consolidated rockfill. To date, the fill in the stopes has performed very satisfactorily, while yielding considerable cost savings. 9 refs.

  3. Technology Drives Vegetable Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Arobot for vegetable planting is able to examine growing conditions, detect disease of the vegetables and pick up the ripe ones through identifying the color; a tomato tree is able to produce up to 3,000kgs of tomatoes; sweet potatoes are growing in the air; fish and vegeta-bles are living together harmoniously...Viewing these, you may doubt that you were in a fancy world.Actually, you are here at the 12th China (Shouguang) International Vegetable Sci-tech Fair.

  4. Spot-4 vegetation instrument: Vegetation monitoring on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durpaire, J.-P.; Gentet, T.; Phulpin, T.; Arnaud, M.

    1995-04-01

    Vegetation plays a major role in global climatic change. It is a major contributor to the hydrological cycle and carbon exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. A new space-based system dedicated to vegetation would be a boom to climatic and environmental studies. The additional possibilities of evaluating agricultural, pasture and forest production would be major contributions to improved natural resources management and a special benefit to agriculture and the general economy in developing countries. A space mission for monitoring terrestrial vegetation at global and local levels is proposed for inclusion in the Spot-4 payload, scheduled for launch around 1997. The "vegetation" concept is more than just an on-board package; it is a complete system with its own space and ground segments. The vegetation instrument (VI) on-board package is designed as an add-on payload that is quite independent of the host satellite. In addition to the basic imaging instrument, the add-on payload includes a solid-state recorder, an image telemetry subsystem and a computer to manage the work plan. To accommodate future long-term missions and achieve a lifetime in excess of 5 years, no moving parts are included in either the imaging instrument proper or the recorder subsystem. The innovative, large field-of-view (101∘) imaging instrument features telecentric lenses and focal-plane illumination compensation. Despite the large FOV, pixel size varies extremely little across the swath. Overall, the instrument offers an excellent revisit capability at the highest resolution. The inclusion of the VI package alongside Spot-4's prime payload of two HRVIR (high resolution visible and i.r.) imaging instruments will open the way to studies requiring both high accuracy satellite imagery and short revisit intervals. The combination of HRVIR and VI imagery will pave the way to powerful new multi-scale interpretation models, particularly as the instruments will share the same

  5. MANUAL. Fly ash in civil engineering, Gravel roads; HANDBOK. Flygaska i mark- och vaegbyggnad, Grusvaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munde, Hanna; Svedberg, Bo; Macsik, Josef; Maijala, Aino; Lahtinen, Pentti; Ekdahl, Peter; Neren, Jens [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Vaerme Norden

    2006-01-15

    Fly ash based on biofuels or coal has been used as construction material for a long time in roads and other civil engineering applications. Some example, where it has been used in roadbase and subbase of gravel roads, are in the counties of Uppsala, Soedermanland, Vaestmanland and in Finland. The use of fly ash has contributed to good function for example as bearing capacity, thaw and frost capacity and good durability. This has also reduced costs for maintenance. The objective of this project was to develop a manual to provide a base for contemporary use of fly ash in road constructions. In the manual experience from studies, field tests and regulations has been compiled. The manual handles fly ash as base for products to be used in base and subbase in gravel roads. Future user of the guidelines are mainly consultant engineers and contractors. However the aim of the manual is to also support road administrators, environmental authorities and industry. The project has been carried out parallel to another ongoing national project titled 'Guidelines, Use of alternative materials in civil engineering'. The objective of that project is to establish a base for handling of alternative materials in Sweden. Fly ash in gravel roads are mainly used in two typical applications, one without any additive in a single layer and one with fly ash mixed with gravel. The use of flyash provides functional properties such as increased stiffness, stability and enhanced frost and thaw capacity for the road construction in total. Furthermore the products based on fly ash will have low permeability and good frost and thaw durability. These properties are for example related to fly ash quality, design and construction and are in general expected to be better than for traditional constructions using, for example, sand or gravel. The properties can be enhanced further by using binders such as cement and Merit. Fly ash should always be used above the ground water table with

  6. The necrophagous fly anthrax transmission pathway: empirical and genetic evidence from wildlife epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Van Ert, Matthew; Mullins, Jocelyn C; Hadfield, Ted L; Hugh-Jones, Martin E

    2014-08-01

    Early studies confirmed Bacillus anthracis in emesis and feces of flies under laboratory conditions, but there is little empirical field evidence supporting the roles of flies in anthrax transmission. We collected samples during outbreaks of anthrax affecting livestock and native and exotic wildlife on two ranches in West Texas (2009-2010). Sampling included animal carcasses, maggots, adult flies feeding on or within several meters of carcasses, and leaves from surrounding vegetation. Microbiology and PCR were used to detect B. anthracis in the samples. Viable B. anthracis and/or PCR-positive results were obtained from all represented sample types. Genetic analysis of B. anthracis samples using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) confirmed that each ranch represented a distinct genetic lineage. Within each ranch, we detected the same genotype of B. anthracis from carcasses, maggots, and adult flies. The results of this study provide evidence supporting a transmission cycle in which blowflies contaminate vegetation near carcasses that may then infect additional browsing animals during anthrax outbreaks in the shrubland environment of West Texas.

  7. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying in Any Earth Orbit Through Spaceborne GPS and Enhanced Autonomy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.; Bristow, J. O.; Carpenter, J. R.; Garrison, J. L.; Hartman, K. R.; Lee, T.; Long, A. C.; Kelbel, D.; Lu, V.; How, J. P.; Busse, F.

    2000-01-01

    Formation flying is quickly revolutionizing the way the space community conducts autonomous science missions around the Earth and in space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for this community to gather scientific information, share this information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, this technology will result in swarms of space vehicles flying as a virtual platform and gathering significantly more and better science data than is possible today. Formation flying will be enabled through the development and deployment of spaceborne differential Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and through innovative spacecraft autonomy techniques, This paper provides an overview of the current status of NASA/DoD/Industry/University partnership to bring formation flying technology to the forefront as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve the formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe some of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate these innovative GPS sensing and formation control technologies.

  8. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The passage through the Earth-Moon system allowed ground controllers to test Rosetta's 'asteroid fly-by mode' (AFM) using the Moon as a 'fake' asteroid, rehearsing the fly-bys of asteroids Steins and Lutetia due in 2008 and 2010 respectively. The AFM test started at 23:01 GMT and ran for nine minutes during which the two onboard navigation cameras successfully tracked the Moon, allowing Rosetta's attitude to be automatically adjusted. Before and after closest approach, the navigation cameras also acquired a series of images of the Moon and Earth; these data will be downloaded early today for ground processing and are expected to be available by 8 March. In addition, other onboard instruments were switched on, including ALICE (ultraviolet imaging spectrometer), VIRTIS (visible and infrared mapping spectrometer) and MIRO (microwave instrument for the Rosetta orbiter), for calibration and general testing using the Earth and Moon as targets. The fly-by manoeuvre swung the three-tonne spacecraft around our planet and out towards Mars, where it will make a fly-by on 26 February 2007. Rosetta will return to Earth again in a series of four planet fly-bys (three times with Earth, once with Mars) before reaching Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, when it will enter orbit and deliver a lander, Philae, onto the surface. The fly-bys are necessary to accelerate the spacecraft so as to eventually match the velocity of the target comet. They are a fuel-saving way to boost speed using planetary gravity. Yesterday's fly-by came one year and two days after launch and highlights the valuable opportunities for instrument calibration and data gathering available during the mission's multi-year voyage. In just three months, on 4 July, Rosetta will be in a good position to observe and gather data during NASA's spectacular Deep Impact event, when the Deep Impact probe will hurl a 380 kg projectile into Comet Tempel 1, revealing data on the comet's internal structure. Certain of

  9. Fly Ash as a Time Marker for Anthropocene Alluvial Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. A., III; Grimley, D. A.; Anders, A. M.; Bates, B.; Hannan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Human land use has transformed the landscapes, ecosystems and hydrology of the North American Midcontinent. One widespread impact of this transformation is increased runoff and accelerated soil erosion, which, along with direct human channel modifications and artificial drainage, have dramatically altered hydrologic and ecological conditions in streams and rivers with far-reaching results. A legacy of this change in streams and rivers is preserved on floodplains throughout the region in sediment known as post-settlement alluvium (PSA). Documenting the spatial and temporal pattern of historic floodplain sedimentation in the drainage network is part of a larger effort to understand decadal and century-scale sediment routing through the drainage system and the role of floodplain sedimentation in carbon sequestration. Fly ash, a product of high-temperature coal combustion, began to accumulate on the landscape in the early historic period (c.a.1840-1850 in Iowa and Illinois) as coal-burning technology such as steam engines came into use after 1850; prior to which no source of fly ash was present. Release of fly ash from coal burning in power plants and steam locomotives likely peaked in the early-mid 20th century. Fly ash particles (~ 1 to 10 % magnetic) are identified by their spheroidal shape and range in size from coarse clay to silt (~1-63µ). By identifying the percentage of fly ash spheroids in the magnetic separate (10 - 60µ size range) of a soil or sediment profile, the pre-fly ash Historic surface could be discerned. Application of this technique in selected localities in eastern Iowa (Clear Creek drainage) and central Illinois (Sangamon River drainage) resulted in successful demarcation of the PSA contact in areas where the boundary was physically evident. Bolstered by this success we were able to confidently demark the PSA contact in other settings where the boundary was not as physically evident. This relatively easy to implement, inexpensive tool will

  10. Environmental impact of manganese due to its leaching from coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Mondal, Kajal K R

    2009-01-01

    In India, so far not much efforts have been made to use coal ash as backfill material in underground/ open cast mines and to predict its subsequent effect on ground water quality. One of the main problems in disposing of big quantities of coal ash is the possible leaching of different pollutants, including manganese. A thorough investigation regarding leaching of manganese from different fly ashes is required to know the impact of manganese due to its leaching from fly ash to ground water as well as surface water. In the present study, short term and long term leaching studies have been carried out on fly ash, bottom ash, pond ash and weathered ash of Chandrapura thermal power plant, Bokaro, Jharkhand and Ramagundam thermal power plant, Ramagundam, Andhra Pradesh. The amount of manganese released in different experiments has been evaluated. The leachate of Chandrapura fly ash has more manganese concentration (0.2001 mg/L) than the leachate of bottom ash, pond ash and weathered ash. A field investigation at Damoda abandoned open cast mine, filled with pond ash of Chandrapura thermal power plant revealed that concentration of manganese in ground water beneath the ash filled mine has been found very high (maximum up to 6.0 mg/L). But its migration to a long distance has not been seen. Remedial measures for coal ash disposal have also been formulated.

  11. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  12. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  13. Docking System Design and Self-Assembly Control of Distributed Swarm Flying Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel docking system design and the distributed self‐assembly control strategy for a Distributed Swarm Flying Robot (DSFR. The DSFR is a swarm robot comprising many identical robot modules that are able to move on the ground, dock with each other and fly coordinately once self‐assembled into a robotic structure. A generalized adjacency matrix method is proposed to describe the configurations of robotic structures. Based on the docking system and the adjacency matrix, experiments are performed to demonstrate and verify the self‐assembly control strategy.

  14. THREE DIMENSIONAL MOVEMENT MEASUREMENT FOR THE WING OF A FLYING AIRPLANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于起峰; 邱志强; 孙祥一; 陆宏伟

    2003-01-01

    The movement parameters of a wing of a flying airplane are important for its design,analysis and life-estimation, while the three dimensional (3D) measurement of these parameters is a difficult task. A measurement setup is proposed as well as its corresponding calibration methods for the camera system on both ground condition and air condition, image processing algorithms and a new method of locating 3D straight lines through plane-plane intersection are developed. The test results show that the 3D measurement accuracy in the condition of flying in the air can be better than 1 mm.

  15. Docking System Design and Self-Assembly Control of Distributed Swarm Flying Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel docking system design and the distributed self-assembly control strategy for a Distributed Swarm Flying Robot (DSFR. The DSFR is a swarm robot comprising many identical robot modules that are able to move on the ground, dock with each other and fly coordinately once self-assembled into a robotic structure. A generalized adjacency matrix method is proposed to describe the configurations of robotic structures. Based on the docking system and the adjacency matrix, experiments are performed to demonstrate and verify the self-assembly control strategy.

  16. Effects of co-combustion of secondary fuels on fly ash quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, F.J.M.; Vissers, J.L.J.; Van den Berg, J.W. [Dutch Fly Ash Corp., (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In 1995, the Netherlands considered using secondary fuels in combination with hard coal for power generation. This decision was based on both economic and environmental advantages of co-combustion of secondary fuels. The combustion of non-fossil fuels results in lower carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Initially, the Dutch government only allowed 10 per cent co-combustion of secondary fuels, but in 2000, higher percentages were allowed in favour of decreasing fossil carbon dioxide production. This paper presented the results of a complete characterization of fly ashes. In particular, to show whether the quality of fly ash was affected by co-combustion, the technical and environmental quality of concrete with fly ash was evaluated in comparison to the quality of concrete with reference fly ashes. Fly ashes from co-combustion showed no significant changes in chemical composition from their reference ashes, except for the calcium oxide contents of PA10 and the phosphate content of RWZI. Fly ashes from co-combustion were found to be enriched in trace elements. The secondary fuels that were considered besides fly ash were wood, poultry, litter, sewage sludge, coffee grounds, and cocoa shells. These all contribute to lowering the emissions of fossil carbon dioxide because they all contain short cycle carbon dioxide. Co-combustion is viewed as a way for coal fired plants in the Netherlands to reach the targets of the Kyoto Agreement on climate change. European legislation is in preparation to make utilization of fly ashes from co-combustion possible. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  18. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  19. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  20. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  1. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  2. Tight formation flying for an along-track SAR interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Eberhard; Runge, Hartmut

    2004-08-01

    While space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has evolved into a mature technology over the past two decades, there is a growing interest in interferometric SAR applications. Especially along-track interferometry with its capability to resolve the velocity of on-ground objects and ocean currents is of high interest for scientific applications. The accuracy of the resolved velocity on ground scales directly with the along-track separation between adjacent SAR antennas. Since space vehicles are quite limited in size, a formation flying approach with two SAR instruments distributed onto two spacecraft thus appears to be an innovative approach to along-track SAR interferometry. In the framework of an ESA study, this paper discusses the potential benefits, drawbacks and problems associated with a close formation flight for an along-track interferometry SAR mission. To this end, the absolute and relative orbit reconstruction requirements for the SAR processing chain are derived from basic interferometric principles as well as appropriate baselines of the satellite formation in L-Band and X-Band. A discussion of potential space-borne navigation sensors is presented along with the accuracy of state-of-the-art relative orbit reconstruction. Finally, appropriate thrusters for formation acquisition and control are discussed together with approaches to formation flying guidance and control as well as fuel consumption.

  3. What the fly's nose tells the fly's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Charles F

    2015-07-28

    The fly olfactory system has a three-layer architecture: The fly's olfactory receptor neurons send odor information to the first layer (the encoder) where this information is formatted as combinatorial odor code, one which is maximally informative, with the most informative neurons firing fastest. This first layer then sends the encoded odor information to the second layer (decoder), which consists of about 2,000 neurons that receive the odor information and "break" the code. For each odor, the amplitude of the synaptic odor input to the 2,000 second-layer neurons is approximately normally distributed across the population, which means that only a very small fraction of neurons receive a large input. Each odor, however, activates its own population of large-input neurons and so a small subset of the 2,000 neurons serves as a unique tag for the odor. Strong inhibition prevents most of the second-stage neurons from firing spikes, and therefore spikes from only the small population of large-input neurons is relayed to the third stage. This selected population provides the third stage (the user) with an odor label that can be used to direct behavior based on what odor is present.

  4. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  5. Aspects Regarding the Installation of Some Invasive Weeds Species on Old Fly Ash Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Romanian power plants were built in a period when environmental impact of their operation was undervalued, and constraints related to environmental protection were relatively few. Location of power plants and fly ash dumps was chosen most often by arbitrary criteria, and never after the impact that it may have on the environment. Building fly ash dumps have an effect of destruction of soils not only on the surface equivalent to those of dumps but also of the contiguous lands. Old fly ash dumps are a major risk because of the dispersion of pollutants in water and soil by percolation and soil leaching, and because of the unwanted invasion of weeds that are adaptable to arid conditions of the dumps and then invade surrounding areas jeopardizing the surrounding crops. In attempting to install vegetation an old fly ash dumps, the area were invaded by two species of weeds that quickly overgrown the experimental parcel and the surroundings. The present study followed the invasion degree of fly ash dumps with weeds and aspects regarding their development and breeding in the new formed ecosystem.

  6. Adaptive-Repetitive Visual-Servo Control of Low-Flying Aerial Robots via Uncalibrated High-Flying Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dejun; Bourne, Joseph R.; Wang, Hesheng; Yim, Woosoon; Leang, Kam K.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system for a moving high-flying vehicle (HFV) with an uncalibrated camera to monitor, track, and precisely control the movements of a low-flying vehicle (LFV) or mobile ground robot. Applications of this control strategy include the use of high-flying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with computer vision for monitoring, controlling, and coordinating the movements of lower altitude agents in areas, for example, where GPS signals may be unreliable or nonexistent. When deployed, a remote operator of the HFV defines the desired trajectory for the LFV in the HFV's camera frame. Due to the circular motion of the HFV, the resulting motion trajectory of the LFV in the image frame can be periodic in time, thus an adaptive-repetitive control system is exploited for regulation and/or trajectory tracking. The adaptive control law is able to handle uncertainties in the camera's intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. The design and stability analysis of the closed-loop control system is presented, where Lyapunov stability is shown. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for controlling the movement of a low-flying quadcopter, demonstrating the capabilities of the visual-servo control system for localization (i.e.,, motion capturing) and trajectory tracking control. In fact, results show that the LFV can be commanded to hover in place as well as track a user-defined flower-shaped closed trajectory, while the HFV and camera system circulates above with constant angular velocity. On average, the proposed adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system reduces the average RMS tracking error by over 77% in the image plane and over 71% in the world frame compared to using just the adaptive visual-servo control law.

  7. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  8. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  9. Evapotranspiration estimation in heterogeneous urban vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Nouri, H.; Beecham, S.; Anderson, S.; Sutton, P.; Chavoshi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Finding a valid approach to measure the water requirements of mixed urban vegetation is a challenge. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the main component of a plant's water requirement. A better understanding of the ET of urban vegetation is essential for sustainable urbanisation. Increased implementation of green infrastructure will be informed by this work. Despite promising technologies and sophisticated facilities, ET estimation of urban vegetation remains insufficiently characterized. We reviewed the common field, laboratory and modelling techniques for ET estimation, mostly agriculture and forestry applications. We opted for 3 approaches of ET estimation: 1) an observational-based method using adjustment factors applied to reference ET, 2) a field-based method of Soil Water Balance (SWB) and 3) a Remote Sensing (RS)-based method. These approaches were applied to an experimental site to evaluate the most suitable ET estimation approach for an urban parkland. To determine in-situ ET, 2 lysimeters and 4 Neutron Moisture Meter probes were installed. Based on SWB principles, all input water (irrigation, precipitation and upward groundwater movements) and output water (ET, drainage, soil moisture and runoff) were measured monthly for 14 months. The observation based approach and the ground-based approach (SWB) were compared. Our predictions were compared to the actual irrigation rates (data provided by the City Council). Results suggest the observational-based method is the most appropriate urban ET estimation. We examined the capability of RS to estimate ET for urban vegetation. Image processing of 5 WorldView2 satellite images enabled modelling of the relationship between urban vegetation and vegetation indices derived from high resolution images. Our results indicate that an ETobservational-based -NDVI modelling approach is a reliable method of ET estimation for mixed urban vegetation. It also has the advantage of not depending on extensive field data collection.

  10. Habitat analysis of North American sand flies near veterans returning from leishmania-endemic war zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keep Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 1300 cases of leishmaniasis have been identified in American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The symptoms of this disease can range from a mild, self-limiting cutaneous infection to a deadly visceral infection and are not prevented by chemoprophylaxis or immunization. Effective treatments, however, are available. The disease-causing parasite is spread through the bite of the female sand fly. Although the disease occurs in both the Old World and the New World, the parasite species differ between the hemispheres. The large number of cases in military veterans has caused some concern that Old World, temperate-adapted parasite species could be introduced into the native sand fly populations of American military facilities where veterans of the current conflicts return following their deployments. This paper reports part of a larger study to analyze the risk of such an accidental importation. Four potential habitats on two large Army facilities in the Southeast United States were surveyed to determine relative sand fly density. The National Land Cover Map was used to provide sand fly density prediction maps by habitat. Results Sand fly density was significantly higher in deciduous forest and even higher at the interface between forest and open grassland. The evergreen forest and agricultural fields supported very low densities. On Fort Campbell, KY, the percentage of land covered by suitable habitat was very high. A sand fly density prediction map identified large tracts of land where infected individuals would be at higher risk of exposure to sand fly bites, resulting in an increased risk of introducing the parasite to a native insect population. On Fort Bragg, NC, however, commercial farming of long leaf pine reduced the percentage of the land covered in vegetation suitable for the support of sand flies. The risk of introducing an exotic Leishmania spp. on Fort Bragg, therefore, is considered to be

  11. Soil acidification and its impact on ground vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkengren-Grerup, U.

    1989-01-01

    Forest soils in southern Sweden have become more acid during the last decades, partly due to deposition of acidifying substances. The top soil pH has decreased by up to 1.5 units over a period of 35 years (average decrease 0.8). The decrease ocurred not only in the root zone but throughout the whole soil profile, and were particularly marked in the originally less acid soils. The pH decrease has been accompanied by considerable losses of exchangeable Na, K, Mg and Ca, as well as of Zn and Mn ions. The species diversity of the vascular plants in the field layer increased over a 15-35-year period in spite of the acidification of the forest soils. Among species that increased were the nitrophiles, e.g. Rubus idaeus, Aegopodium podagraria and Chamaenerion angustifolium, probably an effect of the increased N-deposition. A few species decreased on a majority of sites, Polygonatum multiflorum, Pulmonaria officinalis, Dentaria bulbifera, while Mercurialis perennis, Lamium galeobdolon, Galium odoratum and Oxalis acetocella decreased at the lower pH levels. The greater abundance of several species is probably caused by the increased nitrogen deposition. The most common species appeared to respond very clearly to the acid properties of the humus layer. Acidification gradients, caused by large stemflow volumes from beech trees, showed that the species cover was closely related to the variation in soil pH. The cover curves of species growing in the narrow stemflow gradients were congruent with those of beech stands with different acidity, spread over a geographical area. (author) (With 36 refs.).

  12. Adevelopment test on porous concrete material with coal gangue and fly ash used for farmland drainage in coal mining subsidence area with high ground-water level%利用煤矸石粉煤灰制成农田排水混凝土材料的研制实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦倩; 王金满; 胡斯佳

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve drainage problems of coal mining subsidence area with high groundwater level ,while improving the utilization rate of mine solid wastes including coal gangue and fly ash .This paper carried out a test on the new porous concrete drainage ditch with coal gangue and fly ash . Two experiments was designed ,one was the test of permeability coefficient and compressive strength of the concrete with coal gangue and fly ash .Five treatments were set up ,respectively using coal gangue instead of 25% and 15% aggregate ,fly ash instead 10% and 15% cement ,also included a blank control group ;Another was the test for the permeable rate of indoor simulated drainage ditch by choosing the concrete mix proportion of treatment 5 which had the maximum permeability coefficient and met the compressive strength standard in experiment one .It was proved that the concrete with coal gangue and fly ash had better water permeability ,and the largest one was treatments 5(coal gangue instead of 30% gravel and fly ash instead of 15% cement) .Besides ,the compressive strength of it was 12 .03MPa ,meeting the standard ;the permeable rate of indoor simulation of farmland drainage ditch was 0 .072cm/h and the modulus of subsurface drainage can reach 0 .01m3/(s .km2 ) when assuming it was applied in the field .The results indicated that this kind of concrete can be applied in the area in which the modulus of subsurface drainage is not larger than the value . The porous concrete drainage ditch with coal gangue and fly ash will have a broad application prospect ;this study can provide supporting for its application .%为了解决高潜水位采煤塌陷区的排水问题,同时提高矿山固体废弃物煤矸石粉煤灰的利用率,本文开展了新型透水性煤矸石粉煤灰混凝土排水沟试验研究。本研究设计了两个试验,一是煤矸石粉煤灰混凝土透水系数和抗压强度测定试验:共设置了五个试验处

  13. Vegetative Regeneration Capacities of Five Ornamental Plant Invaders After Shredding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monty, Arnaud; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard's bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk.

  14. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash. ... In the present investigation, an effort has been made to study the self hardening property of Botswana fly ash by ... This will encourage the use of fly ash economically as a construction material.

  15. Flying Boresight for Advanced Testing and Calibration of Tracking Antennas and Flight Path Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, D.

    2015-09-01

    The application of ground-based boresight sources for calibration and testing of tracking antennas usually entails various difficulties, mostly due to unwanted ground effects. To avoid this problem, DLR MORABA developed a small, lightweight, frequency-adjustable S-band boresight source, mounted on a small remote-controlled multirotor aircraft. Highly accurate GPS-supported, position and altitude control functions allow both, very steady positioning of the aircraft in mid-air, and precise waypoint-based, semi-autonomous flights. In contrast to fixed near-ground boresight sources this flying setup enables to avoid obstructions in the Fresnel zone between source and antenna. Further, it minimizes ground reflections and other multipath effects which can affect antenna calibration. In addition, the large operating range of a flying boresight simplifies measurements in the far field of the antenna and permits undisturbed antenna pattern tests. A unique application is the realistic simulation of sophisticated flight paths, including overhead tracking and demanding trajectories of fast objects such as sounding rockets. Likewise, dynamic tracking tests are feasible which provide crucial information about the antenna pedestal performance — particularly at high elevations — and reveal weaknesses in the autotrack control loop of tracking antenna systems. During acceptance tests of MORABA's new tracking antennas, a manned aircraft was never used, since the Flying Boresight surpassed all expectations regarding usability, efficiency, and precision. Hence, it became an integral part of MORABA's standard antenna setup and calibration procedures.

  16. Auto Landing Process for Autonomous Flying Robot by Using Image Processing Based on Edge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Lavi Sefidgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s technological life, everyone is quite familiar with the importance of security measures in our lives. So in this regard, many attempts have been made by researchers and one of them is flying robots technology. One well-known usage of flying robot, perhaps, is its capability in security and care measurements which made this device extremely practical, not only for its unmanned movement, but also for the unique manoeuvre during flight over the arbitrary areas. In this research, the automatic landing of a flying robot is discussed. The system is based on the frequent interruptions that is sent from main microcontroller to camera module in order to take images; these images have been distinguished by image processing system based on edge detection, after analysing the image the system can tell whether or not to land on the ground. This method shows better performance in terms of precision as well as experimentally.

  17. Concrete sustainability with very high amount of fly ash and slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Isaia

    Full Text Available This article approaches concrete mix designs where cement is replaced by high amounts of slag and fly ash, with the purpose of turning it into a more sustainable construction material, that is, an authentic green concrete. Mix proportions with fly ash, ground-blasted furnace slag, and Portland cement were studied in binary and ternary mixtures for compressive strength levels of 40 MPa and 55 MPa. The replacement of cement with mineral additions ranged from 50% to 90% in mass. Mean decreases of 55% in the energy consumption, 78% in the CO² emissions, and 5% in the cost of the concrete m³, plus an increase of 40% in the mean index of durability were obtained, all ofwhich compared to the 40-MPa reference concrete. This study attests the technical, economical and environmental potentialities for theuse of concrete mixtures with until 90% of fly ash.

  18. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  19. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  20. MODAL CONTROL OF PILOTLESS FLYING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Antanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  1. Flying Probe Tester: Architecture, Principle and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu,Xu; Fang,Kangling; Chen,Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the flying probe tester, which is a testing device for PCB. The architecture and principle of flying probe tester are firstly introduced. Then the implementation of hardware and software is illuminated briefly. Finally, the optimizing method for the probe's moving path is researched based on the traveling salesman problem.

  2. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  3. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  4. Catch Composition of Tsetse Flies (Glossina: Glossinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study to determine the composition of tsetse flies species was conducted between January and December, 2007 in Kamuku National Park, Nigeria, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Tsetse flies were trapped along gallery forest in five streams for two trapping days and were collected daily. Approach: All tsetse flies caught were identified to species level, sexed, separated into teneral and non-teneral, hunger staged and Mean Hunger Stage computed. Fly density were calculated, the age structure examined using wing fray techniques for males and ovarian technique for females; the reproductive status of female flies were assessed. Two species of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and Glossina tachinoides Westwood were caught in total of five hundred and two (502 flies. Out of these, 309(61.6% Glossina tachinoides and 193(38.4% G. palpalis were caught. Male catches (309, 61.6% were significantly (P Results: The estimated mean age for males was 11 days and females were 8 days. The insemination rate of 93.8% generally was high, G. tachinoides recorded 95.5% more than G. palpalis of 91.6%. Whereas parity rate (25.8% was low; G. palpalis was 37.4% while G. tachinoides parity rate is 17.2%. Conclusion: The study shows that two species of tsetse flies abound in the park although at low densities their presence may bear semblance to Trypanosomiasis and its impact to ecotourism.

  5. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  6. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  7. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  8. Thirty-year monitoring of subalpine meadow vegetation following a 1967 trampling experiment at Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest Hartley

    2000-01-01

    This long-term study, monitoring visitor impact on subalpine vegetation beginning in 1967, revealed that after 30 years all treatment plots had returned to pre-treatment ratios of vegetation (all species combined), organic litter and bare ground. Higher trampling intensities produced longer term impacts. Vegetation cover recovered in 19 to 25 years when trampled 15...

  9. Banded vegetation-dune development during the Medieval Warm Period and 20th century, Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of systematic high-resolution satellite photography, striking geometric shapes of banded vegetation several km2 in size, but not apparent from the ground, have been documented for many areas of the arid and semiarid world. Banded vegetation, in which dense perennial vegetation altern...

  10. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  11. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  12. TrackFly: virtual reality for a behavioral system analysis in free-flying fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Rohrseitz, Nicola; Straw, Andrew D; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-06-15

    Modern neuroscience and the interest in biomimetic control design demand increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can be applied in freely moving animals under realistic behavioral conditions. To explore sensorimotor flight control mechanisms in free-flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), we equipped a wind tunnel with a Virtual Reality (VR) display system based on standard digital hardware and a 3D path tracking system. We demonstrate the experimental power of this approach by example of a 'one-parameter open loop' testing paradigm. It provided (1) a straightforward measure of transient responses in presence of open loop visual stimulation; (2) high data throughput and standardized measurement conditions from process automation; and (3) simplified data analysis due to well-defined testing conditions. Being based on standard hardware and software techniques, our methods provide an affordable, easy to replicate and general solution for a broad range of behavioral applications in freely moving animals. Particular relevance for advanced behavioral research tools originates from the need to perform detailed behavioral analyses in genetically modified organisms and animal models for disease research.

  13. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiansheng; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yuncong

    2008-02-01

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 microg per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  14. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Apopka, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  15. Vegetation shifts observed in arctic tundra 17 years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Rocha, Adrian V.; van de Weg, Martine Janet; Shaver, Gaius

    2012-01-01

    With anticipated climate change, tundra fires are expected to occur more frequently in the future, but data on the long-term effects of fire on tundra vegetation composition are scarce. This study addresses changes in vegetation structure that have persisted for 17 years after a tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. Fire-related shifts in vegetation composition were assessed from remote-sensing imagery and ground observations of the burn scar and an adjacent control site. Early-season remotely sensed imagery from the burn scar exhibits a low vegetation index compared with the control site, whereas the late-season signal is slightly higher. The range and maximum vegetation index are greater in the burn scar, although the mean annual values do not differ among the sites. Ground observations revealed a greater abundance of moss in the unburned site, which may account for the high early growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomaly relative to the burn. The abundance of graminoid species and an absence of Betula nana in the post-fire tundra sites may also be responsible for the spectral differences observed in the remotely sensed imagery. The partial replacement of tundra by graminoid-dominated ecosystems has been predicted by the ALFRESCO model of disturbance, climate and vegetation succession.

  16. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song Chang; Z. Jane Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat...

  17. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  19. Trace element toxicity in VA mycorrhizal cucumber grown on weathered coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosskey, M.G.; Adriano, D.C. (University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Mycorrhizal colonization is widely recognized as enhancing plant growth on severely disturbed sites. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to determine if inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi will enhance vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basinss, Spores of Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus etunicatum (Becker and Gerdemann) were added to weathered precipitator ash (EC-0.91 dSm[sup -1], pH 5.0) and to a pasteurized soils of the same pH (Grossarenic Paleudult, 92% sand, 1% organic matter). Some soil and ash were left unamended as non-mycorrhizal controls. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsette 76) seeds were sown, watered regularly, and fertilized periodically with macronutrient solution. By 8 weeks all ash-grown plants exhibited smaller leaves with leaf margin curl and necrosis, and plant biomass was significantly less (0.75x) than soil-grown plants. Based on analysis of 18 elements in plant tissues, toxicity to B, Mn, or Zn could have caused growth suppression, confirming trace element problems for plant growth on fly ash. For plants grown on fly ash, G. etunicatum was the only fungus that colonized roots (20% of root length reduced from 67% on soil) and it suppressed plant growth to 0.80 x that of uninoculated ash-grown plants. Correspondingly, shoot Zn concentration in G. etunicatum-inoculated plants was 3.5 x higher than in uninoculated plants and at generally toxic levels (273 mg kg[sup -1]). Glomus etunicatum had no other significant effects on elemental concentrations. These results indicate that VAM colonization in acid, weathered fly ash suppressed plant growth by facilitating uptake of Zn to toxic levels, and implies a limitation to successful use of VAM for vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basins.

  20. Seasonal occurrence of phlebotominae sand flies (Phlebotominae: Diptera) and it's correlation with Kala-Azar in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N S; Singh, Doris Phillips

    2009-05-01

    In this investigation, the species composition of sand flies, and their seasonality, nocturnal activity, sex ratio, and resting site, for implementation of future control measures, were surveyed in eastern (Gonda and Basti) Uttar Pradesh, India. Adult sand flies (2,893) were collected from internal and external sites by sticky and light traps. The sand flies were captured using light traps hung at different heights in trees and in peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary areas of a forest during both dry and rainy months. The traps were kept out between sunset and sunrise of the following day. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. In this investigation, a total of 5 species were obtained: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, Sergentomyia sintoni, S. punjabensis and S. dentata. The number of sand flies peaked in September and declined by December. The maximum and minimum numbers were found at 8:00 PM and 5:00 to 6:00 AM, respectively. The female to male ratio of the phlebotominae sand flies varied from a high in October to a low in June. The number of sand flies in the external regions was significantly more (p sand flies. Using the results of this investigation, health workers in this area may be better able to control and prevent leishmaniasis.

  1. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  2. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  3. Total Vegetation 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1992 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University for use in the...

  4. Total Vegetation 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1973 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  5. Total Vegetation 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1965 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  6. Total Vegetation 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1984 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  7. Authentication of vegetable oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity of vegetable oils continues to be a challenge and the target of many studies. Consumers expectancy on healthier products that conform to the labelled information, and the vast amount of legislation a bout the correct characterisation and classification of vegetable oils have boosted a number of scientific works on this subject. Analytical t echniques to face this challenge are, at least, as manifold as ar e the ways of adulteration, ranging fro...

  8. Avrocar: a real flying saucer

    CERN Document Server

    Fedrigo, Desire Francine G; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unusual military aircraft programs V / STOL was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a real flying saucer, the Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete secrecy. Despite significant changes in the design, during flight tests, the Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after an expenditure of 10 million US dollars between 1954 and 1961. But the concept of a lift fan, driven by a turbojet engine is not dead, and lives today as a key component of Lockheed X-35 Joint Strike Fighter contender. Was held in a data research and information related to Avrocar project carried out during the Second World War, which was directly linked to advances in aircraft that were built after it, and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.

  9. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  10. Vegetable Grafting: The Implications of a Growing Agronomic Imperative for Vegetable Fruit Quality and Nutritive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios C. Kyriacou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has become an imperative for intensive vegetable production since chlorofluorocarbon-based soil fumigants were banned from use on grounds of environmental protection. Compelled by this development, research into rootstock–scion interaction has broadened the potential applications of grafting in the vegetable industry beyond aspects of soil phytopathology. Grafting has been increasingly tapped for cultivation under adverse environs posing abiotic and biotic stresses to vegetable crops, thus enabling expansion of commercial production onto otherwise under-exploited land. Vigorous rootstocks have been employed not only in the open field but also under protected cultivation where increase in productivity improves distribution of infrastructural and energy costs. Applications of grafting have expanded mainly in two families: the Cucurbitaceae and the Solanaceae, both of which comprise major vegetable crops. As the main drives behind the expansion of vegetable grafting have been the resistance to soilborne pathogens, tolerance to abiotic stresses and increase in yields, rootstock selection and breeding have accordingly conformed to the prevailing demand for improving productivity, arguably at the expense of fruit quality. It is, however, compelling to assess the qualitative implications of this growing agronomic practice for human nutrition. Problems of impaired vegetable fruit quality have not infrequently been associated with the practice of grafting. Accordingly, the aim of the current review is to reassess how the practice of grafting and the prevalence of particular types of commercial rootstocks influence vegetable fruit quality and, partly, storability. Physical, sensorial and bioactive aspects of quality are examined with respect to grafting for watermelon, melon, cucumber, tomato, eggplant, and pepper. The physiological mechanisms at play which mediate rootstock effects on scion performance are discussed in interpreting the

  11. Influence of weather conditions on fly abundance and its implications for transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in the North Island of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Schnitzler, F-R; Pfeiffer, D U; Davies, P

    2005-09-01

    Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are potential vectors of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in New Zealand. The associations between habitat and weather factors on the abundance of these flies were investigated. Between October 1999 and June 2001, flies were trapped on open pasture and in dense vegetation patches on farmland in the Himatangi area of the North Island. Five calliphorid species were trapped commonly at scrub edges and the most abundant sarcophagid, Oxysarcodexia varia Walker, was trapped mainly on open pasture. An abundance peak of O. varia was probably associated with the occurrence of a rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) outbreak in the study area. Overall abundance of flies varied according to habitat and species, and species numbers differed between seasons and years. The all-day minimum temperature 3 weeks before trapping was a significant variable in all models of fly abundance, whereas average rainfall did not affect fly abundance. The all-day temperature range was significant only for O. varia. The influence of other climatic factors varied between fly species. Climate dependent variations in fly abundance may contribute to the risk of transmission of RHD, which occurred intermittently on the site during the study period.

  12. Determination of the elastic modulus of fly ash-based stabilizer applied in the trackbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojda, Vít; Lidmila, Martin; Pýcha, Marek

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a unique application of a fly ash-based stabilizer in the trackbed of a railway main line. The key goals of the stabilizer application are to protect the subgrade against the ingress of rain water, to increase the frost resistance and to remediate the natural ground constituted of weathered rock. The stabilizer was designed as a mixture of fly ash, generated as a waste material from coal plants, gypsum, calcium oxide and water. The mixture recipe was developed in a laboratory over several years. In 2005, a trial section of a railway line with subgrade consisting of clay limestone (weathered marlite) was built in the municipality of Smiřice. Since then, periodical measurements including collection of samples for laboratory evaluation of the fly ash-based stabilizer have taken place. Over the time span of the measurements, changes in mineral composition and development of fly ash transforming structures leading to the formation of C-A-S-H gel were detected. This paper describes the experimental laboratory investigation of the influence of dynamic loading on the elastic modulus of fly ash stabilizer samples and the development of permanent deformation of the samples with increasing number of loading cycles.

  13. Influence of sulfate on cement mixtures containing fly ash or blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanumathidas, N.; Kalidas, N. [Inst. for Solid Waste Research and Ecological Balance, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2001-07-01

    The development of FaL-G, a cementitious mixture of fly ash, lime and gypsum was initiated by the desire to improve the early strength of blended portland cement. Fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag both contain reactive alumina. The strength of some fly ash-lime mixtures, in the presence of gypsum, can be enhanced 3 to 6 times at all ages. This study showed that high-volume fly ash blended portland cements also increase in strength with the addition of gypsum or anhydrite. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag behaves in a similar manner to blended portland cement. The enhanced strength is due to the formation of calcium sulphoaluminate hydrates. This study shows that it is possible to use large volumes of fly ash and slag to conserve on cost-intensive and energy-intensive clinker. Bricks and blocks made according to FaL-G technology are replacing fired clay bricks used in masonry construction. This research is of particular interest for the conservation of agricultural soils, minerals and energy. The study also shows that it is possible to convert major industrial waste into useful construction products. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  15. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  16. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  17. Estimation and seasonal monitoring of urban vegetation abundance based on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Yun H.; Li, Jing; Weng, Qi H.; Tang, Yan

    2007-06-01

    Vegetation is a fundamental component of urban environment and its abundance is determinant of urban climate and urban ground energy fluxes. Based on the radiometric normalization of multitemporal ASTER imageries, the objectives of this study are: firstly, to estimate the vegetation abundance based on linear spectral mixture model (LSMM), and to compare it with NDVI and SDVI; secondly, to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of urban vegetation abundance in different seasons combined with some landscape metrics. The result indicates that both the vegetation abundance estimation based on LSMM and SDVI can reach high accuracy; however, NDVI is not a robust parameter for vegetation abundance estimation because there is significant non-linear effect between NDVI and vegetation abundance. This study reveals that the landscape characteristics of vegetation abundance is most complicated in summer, with spring and autumn less complicated and simplest in winter. This provides valuable information for urban vegetation abundance estimation and its seasonal change monitoring using remote sensing data.

  18. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  19. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  20. But who's flying the plane?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    . The persistence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represents the next step in modern airpower's long-range reconnaissance/precision strike complex and has transformed ground operations. Nonetheless, operational requirements in Afghanistan caught Canada and Denmark flat-footed. Ultimately, Canada effectively used...

  1. Modeling the Impact of Vegetation Structure on Canopy Radiative Transfer for a Global Vegetation Dynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni-Meister, W.; Kiang, N.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    The transmission of light through plant canopies results in vertical profiles of light intensity that affect the photosynthetic activity and gas exchange of plants, their competition for light, and the canopy energy balance. The accurate representation of the canopy light profile is then important for predicting ecological dynamics. The study presents a simple canopy radiative transfer scheme to characterize the impact of the horizontal and vertical vegetation structure heterogeneity on light profiles. Actual vertical foliage profile and a clumping factor which are functions of tree geometry, size and density and foliage density are used to characterize the vertical and horizontal vegetation structure heterogeneity. The simple scheme is evaluated using the ground and airborne lidar data collected in deciduous and coniferous forests and was also compared with the more complex Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model and the two-stream scheme currently being used to describe light interactions with vegetation canopy in most GCMs. The simple modeled PAR profiles match well with the ground data, lidar and full GORT model prediction, it performs much better than the simple Beer's&plaw used in two stream scheme. This scheme will have the same computation cost as the current scheme being used in GCMs, but provides better photosynthesis, radiative fluxes and surface albedo estimates, thus is suitable for a global vegetation dynamic model embedded in GCMs.

  2. Ground point filtering of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Niels; Seijmonsbergen, Arie; Masselink, Rens; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have proved invaluable for generating high-resolution and multi-temporal imagery. Based on photographic surveys, 3D surface reconstructions can be derived photogrammetrically so producing point clouds, orthophotos and surface models. For geomorphological or ecological applications it may be necessary to separate ground points from vegetation points. Existing filtering methods are designed for point clouds derived using other methods, e.g. laser scanning. The purpose of this paper is to test three filtering algorithms for the extraction of ground points from point clouds derived from low-altitude aerial photography. Three subareas were selected from a single flight which represent different scenarios: 1) low relief, sparsely vegetated area, 2) low relief, moderately vegetated area, 3) medium relief and moderately vegetated area. The three filtering methods are used to classify ground points in different ways, based on 1) RGB color values from training samples, 2) TIN densification as implemented in LAStools, and 3) an iterative surface lowering algorithm. Ground points are then interpolated into a digital terrain model using inverse distance weighting. The results suggest that different landscapes require different filtering methods for optimal ground point extraction. While iterative surface lowering and TIN densification are fully automated, color-based classification require fine-tuning in order to optimize the filtering results. Finally, we conclude that filtering photogrammetric point clouds could provide a cheap alternative to laser scan surveys for creating digital terrain models in sparsely vegetated areas.

  3. Development of freeze dried vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The development of freeze dried vegetables to be used in the Apollo food system is discussed. After the initial selection and screening of vegetables, several types of freeze dried vegetables were prepared in small batches. From these small batches, two vegetables were judged satisfactory for further testing and evaluation. These vegetables, mashed potatoes and asparagus, were subjected to storage at 100 deg plus or minus 5 F. for two weeks and then taste tested. The vegetables were also tested to determine if they complied with the microbiological requirements for Apollo food. The space food prototype production guide for the vegetables is submitted.

  4. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  5. Multisensor On-the-Fly Localization: Precision and Reliability for Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arras, K.O.; Tomatis, N.; Jensen, B.; Siegwart, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an approach for localization using geometric features from a 360 degree laser range finder and a monocular vision system is presented. Its practicability under conditions of continuous localization during motion in real-time (referred to as on-the-fly localization) is investigated in large-scale experiments. The features are infinite horizontal lines for the laser and vertical lines for the camera. They are extracted using physically well-grounded models for all sensors and pass...

  6. Patches of bare ground as a staple commodity for declining ground-foraging insectivorous farmland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Martinez, Nicolas; Tagmann-Ioset, Aline; Weisshaupt, Nadja; Maurer, Melanie L; Reichlin, Thomas S; Abadi, Fitsum; Zbinden, Niklaus; Jenni, Lukas; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2010-10-06

    Conceived to combat widescale biodiversity erosion in farmland, agri-environment schemes have largely failed to deliver their promises despite massive financial support. While several common species have shown to react positively to existing measures, rare species have continued to decline in most European countries. Of particular concern is the status of insectivorous farmland birds that forage on the ground. We modelled the foraging habitat preferences of four declining insectivorous bird species (hoopoe, wryneck, woodlark, common redstart) inhabiting fruit tree plantations, orchards and vineyards. All species preferred foraging in habitat mosaics consisting of patches of grass and bare ground, with an optimal, species-specific bare ground coverage of 30-70% at the foraging patch scale. In the study areas, birds thrived in intensively cultivated farmland where such ground vegetation mosaics existed. Not promoted by conventional agri-environment schemes until now, patches of bare ground should be implemented throughout grassland in order to prevent further decline of insectivorous farmland birds.

  7. Flying Through Dust From Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    How can we tell what an asteroid is made of? Until now, weve relied on remote spectral observations, though NASAs recently launched OSIRIS-REx mission may soon change this by landing on an asteroid and returning with a sample.But what if we could learn more about the asteroids near Earth without needing to land on each one? It turns out that we can by flying through their dust.The aerogel dust collector of the Stardust mission. [NASA/JPL/Caltech]Ejected CluesWhen an airless body is impacted by the meteoroids prevalent throughout our solar system, ejecta from the body are flung into the space around it. In the case of small objects like asteroids, their gravitational pull is so weak that most of the ejected material escapes, forming a surrounding cloud of dust.By flying a spacecraft through this cloud, we could perform chemical analysis of the dust, thereby determining the asteroids composition. We could even capture some of the dust during a flyby (for example, by using an aerogel collector like in the Stardust mission) and bring it back home to analyze.So whats the best place to fly a dust-analyzing or -collecting spacecraft? To answer this, we need to know what the typical distribution of dust is around a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) a problem that scientists Jamey Szalay (Southwest Research Institute) and Mihly Hornyi (University of Colorado Boulder) address in a recent study.The colors show the density distribution for dust grains larger than 0.3 m around a body with a 10-km radius. The distribution is asymmetric, with higher densities on the apex side, shown here in the +y direction. [Szalay Hornyi 2016]Moon as a LaboratoryTo determine typical dust distributions around NEAs, Szalay and Hornyi first look at the distribution of dust around our own Moon, caused by the same barrage of meteorites wed expect to impact NEAs. The Moons dust cloud was measured in situ in 2013 and 2014 by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment

  8. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmitting visceral leishmaniasis and their geographical distribution in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li-Ren; Zhou, Zheng-Bin; Jin, Chang-Fa; Fu, Qing; Chai, Jun-Jie

    2016-02-23

    After the existence of phlebotomine sand flies was first reported in China in 1910, the distribution of different species and their role in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been extensively studied. Up until 2008, four species have been verified as vectors of VL, namely, Phlebotomus chinensis (Ph. sichuanensis), Ph. longiductus (Ph. chinensis longiductus), Ph. wui (Ph. major wui), and Ph. alexandri. The sand fly species vary greatly depending on the natural environments in the different geographic areas where they are endemic. Ph. chinensis is euryecious and adaptable to different ecologies, and is thus distributed widely in the plain, mountainous, and Loess Plateau regions north of the Yangtze River. Ph. longiductus is mainly distributed in ancient oasis areas south of Mt. Tianshan in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. Ph. wui is the predominant species in deserts with Populus diversifolia and Tamarix vegetation in Xinjiang and the western part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Finally, Ph. alexandri is steroecious and found only in stony desert areas, such as at the foot of the mountains in Xinjiang and the western Hexi Corridor, in Gansu province. This review summarized the relationship between the geographic distribution pattern of the four sand fly species and their geographical landscape in order to foster research on disease distribution and sand fly control planning. Furthermore, some problems that remained to be solved about vectors of VL in China were discussed.

  9. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  10. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms - obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV. Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse’s physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse’s microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly.

  11. Free-Flying Magnetometer Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, B.; Javadi, H.; Spencer, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) is an autonomous "sensorcraft" developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Enstrophy sounding rocket mission. This mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University and JPL. The science goal of the mission was the study of current filamentation phenomena in the northern auroral region through multipoint measurements of magnetic field. The technical objective of the mission was the proof of concept of the JPL FFM design and the demonstration of an in-situ multipoint measurement technique employing many free-flying spacecraft. Four FFMs were successfully deployed from a sounding rocket launched from Poker Flats, Alaska on February 11, 1999. These hockey-puck-sized (80 mm diameter, 38 mm. height, 250 gram mass) free flyers each carry a miniature 3-axis flux-gate magnetometer that output +/- 2 V signals corresponding to a +/- 60,000 nT measurement range for each axis. The FFM uses a synchronized four-channel Sigma(Delta) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) having a dynamic range of +/- 2.5V and converting at a rate of 279 samples/second/channel. Three channels are used to digitize the magnetometer signals to 17-bit (1.144 nT/bit) resolution. The fourth ADC channel is multiplexed for system monitoring of four temperature sensors and two battery voltages. The FFM also contains two sun sensors, a laser diode which emits a fan-shaped beam, a miniature S-band transmitter for direct communication to the ground station antennas, an ultra-stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, an integrated data subsystem implemented in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a 4 Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) for data storage and Lithium Thionyl Chloride batteries for power. Communicating commands to the FFM prior to deployment is achieved with an infrared (IR) link. The FFM IR receiver responds to 9-bit pulse coded signals that are generated by an IR Light Emitting

  12. Evaluation of vegetation indices for rangeland biomass estimation in the Kimberley area of Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundava, C.; Helmholtz, P.; Schut, A.G.T.; Corner, R.; McAtee, B.; Lamb, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to test the relationships between Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and remotely sensed vegetation indices for AGB assessments in the Kimberley area in Western Australia. For 19 different sites, vegetation indices were derived from eight Landsat ETM+ scenes over a period of t

  13. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-82)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howington, John [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-08-13

    Vegetation Management for twenty-four Substations in the Burley District. BPA proposes total vegetation management (bare ground) in the electrical substations, and, noxious weed management and maintenance of landscaping within the property boundaries of the listed facilities. These facilities are all located within the Burley District of the Idaho Falls Region.

  14. Dynamic Optimization Algorithm for Flying Trajectory of a Free-flying Space Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method of dynamic optimization for the flying trajectory of a free-flying space robot based on its flying motion characteristics is presented. The continuous flying trajectory is broken into a number of segment and the control efforts and the duration of the segment are chosen as the optimization parameters. The objective function is made by using the weighted sum of the fuel used and the time spent, and the constraint equations are selected. Finally, the internal point punishment function method is adopted in the optimization program, and the results of computer simulation are given.

  15. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  16. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family ...

  17. The whole genome sequence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann), reveals insights into the biology and adaptive evolution of a highly invasive pest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the most destructive agricultural pests throughout the world due to its broad host plant range that includes more than 260 different fruits, flowers, vegetables, and nuts. Host preferences vary in different regions of the world, which can be associated with its ...

  18. Localization from Visual Landmarks on a Free-Flying Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltin, Brian; Fusco, Jesse; Moratto, Zack; Alexandrov, Oleg; Nakamura, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the localization approach for Astrobee,a new free-flying robot designed to navigate autonomously on board the International Space Station (ISS). Astrobee will conduct experiments in microgravity, as well as assisst astronauts and ground controllers. Astrobee replaces the SPHERES robots which currently operate on the ISS, which were limited to operating in a small cube since their localization system relied on triangulation from ultrasonic transmitters. Astrobee localizes with only monocular vision and an IMU, enabling it to traverse the entire US segment of the station. Features detected on a previously-built map, optical flow information,and IMU readings are all integrated into an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate the robot pose. We introduce several modifications to the filter to make it more robust to noise.Finally, we extensively evaluate the behavior of the filter on atwo-dimensional testing surface.

  19. BATMAN flies: a compact spectro-imager for space observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Ilbert, Olivier; Zoubian, Julien; Delsanti, Audrey; Boissier, Samuel; Lancon, Ariane

    2014-08-01

    BATMAN flies is a compact spectro-imager based on MOEMS for generating reconfigurable slit masks, and feeding two arms in parallel. The FOV is 25 x 12 arcmin2 for a 1m telescope, in infrared (0.85-1.7μm) and 500-1000 spectral resolution. Unique science cases for Space Observation are reachable with this deep spectroscopic multi-survey instrument: deep survey of high-z galaxies down to H=25 on 5 deg2 with continuum detection and all z>7 candidates at H=26.2 over 5 deg2; deep survey of young stellar clusters in nearby galaxies; deep survey of the Kuiper Belt of ALL known objects down to H=22. Pathfinder towards BATMAN in space is already running with ground-based demonstrators.

  20. Multi-terrain locomotor interactions in flying snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaton, Isaac; Baumgardner, Grant; Ross, Shane; Socha, John

    Arboreal snakes of the genus Chrysopelea are the only known snakes to glide. To execute aerial locomotion, a snake uses one of several stereotyped jumps from a tree into the air, while simultaneously flattening its body into an aerodynamically favorable shape. Large amplitude traveling waves are propagated posteriorly during the stable glide, while landing involves body wrapping, passive body compression, and energy absorption through compliance in the landing substrate to dissipate the accumulated kinetic energy from the glide. In all of these locomotor events, from interacting with cylindrical branches, falling through the air, grasping compliant tree branches and leaves, to landing on solid ground, snakes appropriate the same body morphology and perhaps the same basic neural mechanisms. Here we discuss our use of computational models and animal experiments to understand how flying snakes interact with and locomote on and through multiple media, potentially providing principles for legless locomotor designs. Supported by NSF 1351322.

  1. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.

    2008-06-01

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic "flying mirror", which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of ≈4-6×1019 cm-3. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are ˜55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3×107 photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  2. Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash, the compressive strength (one day to one year) and the flexure strength (at 56th day curing) of cofired and blended biomass fly ash concrete is statistically equal to that of two coal fly ash concrete in this investigation (at 95% confidence interval). This implies that biomass fly ash with co-firing concentration within the concentration interest to commercial coal-biomass co-firing operations at power plants and blended biomass fly ash within a certain blending ratio should be considered in concrete. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. My Friendship with the Flying Tigers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yingshan

    2015-01-01

    "I believe I owe a debt to the Chinese people...It’s so huge there’s no way I can pay it back."This is what Flying Tigers pilot Glen Beneda said to his family time and again.I have been working in the CPAFFC for over 10 years now,and my feelings for the Flying Tigers have deepened over time.I had heard of its

  4. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. As and Se interactions with fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Somoano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and selenium are toxic elements present incoal in trace concentrations that may be emitted tothe environment during coal conversion processes.However, it is possible to retain volatile arsenic andselenium compounds in the fly ashes originated bythe process, the proportions retained depending onthe characteristics of the ashes and processconditions. This work is focused on the capture ofthese elements in fly ashes in simulated coalcombustion and gasification atmospheres inlaboratory scale reactors.

  6. Monitoring vegetation dynamics with SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI time-series data in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongxiu; Sun, Zhandong; Xu, Yongming

    2009-09-01

    Desertification in the arid and semiarid regions directly influences the density and growth status of vegetation, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) has been widely used to monitor vegetation changes. This study analyzed the spatial patters of vegetation activity and its temporal variability in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China since 1998 to 2007 with NDVI data derived from SPOT4 Vegetation. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the NDVI was used as a parameter to characterize the change of vegetation and to compare the amount of variation in different sets of sample data. The method of quantifying changes in CoV values for each pixel was based on linear regression. The slope of linear regression was acted as the criterion for the change direction: pixels with a negative slope are considered to represent ground area with decreasing amounts of vegetation, vice versa. In this paper, We calculated (1) the inter-annual CoV based on the yearly ONDVI, the sum of the monthly NDVI in the growing season (from April to October), for each pixel between 1998-2007 to reveal the spatial patterns of vegetation activity, (2) the intra-annual CoV based on monthly NDVI by MVC to reflect vegetation seasonal dynamics, (3) the slope (") of the intra-annual CoV regression line for each pixel to identify the overall long-term trend of vegetation dynamics. This experiment demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CoV and its regression analysis based on long term SPOT-VGT NDVI time-series data for vegetation dynamics monitoring.

  7. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought.

  8. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  9. Intrinsic Membrane Targeting of the Flagellar Export ATPase FliI: Interaction with Acidic Phospholipids and FliH

    OpenAIRE

    Auvray, Frédéric; Ozin, Amanda J.; Claret, Laurent; Hughes, Colin

    2002-01-01

    The specialised ATPase FliI is central to export of flagellar axial protein subunits during flagellum assembly. We establish the normal cellular location of FliI and its regulatory accessory protein FliH in motile Salmonella typhimurium, and ascertain the regions involved in FliH2/FliI heterotrimerisation. Both FliI and FliH localised to the cytoplasmic membrane in the presence and in the absence of proteins making up the flagellar export machinery and basal body. Membrane association was tig...

  10. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  11. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  12. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  13. Coma / Vegetative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a coma? A coma is a profound or deep state of unconsciousness (consciousness being the awareness of the ... opening or making sounds) than a person in deep coma. Characteristics of the vegetative state include: Return of a sleep-wake cycle with ...

  14. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  15. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced the Vegetation Spatial Database Coverage (vegetation map) for the...

  17. Influence of Blended Cements with Calcareous Fly Ash on Chloride Ion Migration and Carbonation Resistance of Concrete for Durable Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał A. Glinicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the possible use of new blended cements containing calcareous fly ash in structural concrete, potentially adequate for structural elements of nuclear power plants. The investigation included five new cements made with different contents of non-clinker constituents: calcareous fly ash, siliceous fly ash, ground granulated blastfurnace slag, and a reference cement—ordinary Portland cement. The influence of innovative cements on the resistance of concrete to chloride and carbonation exposure was studied. Additionally, an evaluation of the microstructure was performed using optical microscopy on concrete thin sections. Test results revealed a substantial improvement of the resistance to chloride ion penetration into concrete containing blended cements. The resistance was higher for increased clinker replacement levels and increased with curing time. However, concrete made with blended cements exhibited higher depth of carbonation than the Portland cement concrete, except the Portland-fly ash cement with 14.3% of calcareous fly ash. The thin sections analysis confirmed the values of the carbonation depth obtained from the phenolphthalein test. Test results indicate the possible range of application for new cements containing calcareous fly ash.

  18. Verification of vegetation maps made from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Daniel B.; Estes, John E.; Star, Jeffrey L.; Woods, Kerry

    1985-01-01

    Verification of vegetation maps is discussed, including a map of the vegetation of the Mt. Washington area of New Hampshire. This area was chosen to determine the accuracy of mapping by remote sensing at the boundary between two major forest biomass. Verification was carried out by ground observation and through the use of low altitude 70 mm infrared photographs. Two verification sampling schemes were used: a point method and a transect method. Resulting confidence limits gave an area weighted sampling accuracy of 89 pct. Spatial patterns in terrestrial vegetation must be understood in order to choose appropriate spatial resolutions required for remote sensing instruments, and to relate vegetation dynamics to climate dynamics and biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Direct regulation of BCL-2 by FLI-1 is involved in the survival of FLI-1-transformed erythroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lesault, Isabelle; Tran Quang, Christine; Frampton, Jon; Ghysdael, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Rearrangement of the FLI-1 locus with ensuing overexpression of FLI-1 is an early event in Friend murine leukemia virus-induced disease. When overexpressed in primary erythroblasts, FLI-1 blocks erythropoeitin (Epo)-induced terminal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis normally induced in response to Epo withdrawal. We show here that the survival-inducing property of FLI-1 is associated with increased transcription of BCL-2. We further show that FLI-1 binds BCL-2 promoter sequences in trans...

  20. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we re

  1. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  2. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  3. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in Dried Foods, Fresh Vegetables and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigeko

    2017-01-01

     The present study surveyed the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in dried foods including milk powder, spices and herbs and others, and fresh vegetables commercially available in markets, and ground soil materials for the agriculture. Cronobacter spp. were isolated from 15% of 33 spice and herb samples and 3% of 36 taste foods, and these were C. turicensis, C. malonaticus, C. sakazakii and C. dubliensis. Cronobacter spp. from fresh vegetables were detected in 12% of field vegetables and 13% of hydroponic vegetables. C. turicensis was prevalent in field vegetables, and C. malonaticus was in hydroponic ones. And, Cronobacter spp. in shredded vegetables were detected from 44% of 9 samples, and these were C. dubliensis, C. turicensis and C. sakazakii. Also, Cronobacter spp. in soil from rice field, vegetable field and sandpits were predominantly C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus.

  4. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  5. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  6. The Seasonal Cycle of Satellite Chlorophyll Fluorescence Observations and its Relationship to Vegetation Phenology and Ecosystem Atmosphere Carbon Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Schaefer, K.; Jung, M.; Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y; Garrity, S.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Gu, L.; Marchesini, L. Belelli

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of terrestrial chlorophyll uorescence from space has shown potentialfor providing global measurements related to gross primary productivity(GPP). In particular, space-based fluorescence may provide information onthe length of the carbon uptake period that can be of use for global carboncycle modeling. Here, we examine the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis asestimated from satellite fluorescence retrievals at wavelengths surroundingthe 740nm emission feature. These retrievals are from the Global OzoneMonitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) flying on the MetOp A satellite. Wecompare the fluorescence seasonal cycle with that of GPP as estimated froma diverse set of North American tower gas exchange measurements. Because the GOME-2 has a large ground footprint (40 x 80km2) as compared with that of the flux towers and requires averaging to reduce random errors, we additionally compare with seasonal cycles of upscaled GPP in the satellite averaging area surrounding the tower locations estimated from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) machine learning algorithm. We also examine the seasonality of absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation(APAR) derived with reflectances from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Finally, we examine seasonal cycles of GPP as produced from an ensemble of vegetation models. Several of the data-driven models rely on satellite reflectance-based vegetation parameters to derive estimates of APAR that are used to compute GPP. For forested sites(particularly deciduous broadleaf and mixed forests), the GOME-2 fluorescence captures the spring onset and autumn shutoff of photosynthesis as delineated by the tower-based GPP estimates. In contrast, the reflectance-based indicators and many of the models tend to overestimate the length of the photosynthetically-active period for these and other biomes as has been noted previously in the literature. Satellite fluorescence measurements therefore show potential for

  7. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  8. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Greenwood, J.R.; Achim, A.; Gardiner, B.A.; Nicoll, B.C.; Cammeraat, E.; Mickovski, S.B.; Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  9. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Norris; J.R. Greenwood; A. Achim; B.A. Gardiner; B.C. Nicoll; E. Cammeraat; S.B. Mickovski

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  10. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  11. Characteristics of MSWI fly ash during vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; WANG Qi; WANG Qun-hui; MA Hong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The vitrification characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated. Effects of temperature on the binding efficiency of heavy metals, the change of chemical compositions and the weight loss of fly ash in the range of 800 - 1350 ℃ were studied. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the United States was used to analyze the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash and molten slag. Results indicate that chemical compositions, the weight loss of fly ash and the binding efficiency of heavy metals in fly ash have a tremendous change in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. The percentage of CaO, SiO2and AI203 increases with the increasing temperature, whereas it is contrary for SO3 , K2O, Na20 and CI; especially when the temperature is 1260 ℃, the percentage of these four elements decreases sharply from 43.72%to 0. 71%. The weight loss occurs obviously in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. Heavy metals of Pb and Cd are almost vaporized above 1000 ℃. Cr is not volatile and its binding efficiency can reach 100% below 1000 ℃. Resuits of TCLP indicate that the heavy metal content of molten slag is beyond stipulated limit values.

  12. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  13. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  14. The impact of flood variables on riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzubakova, Katarina; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The riparian vegetation of Alpine rivers often grows in temporally dynamic riverine environments which are characterized by pronounced meteorological and hydrological fluctuations and high resource competition. Within these relatively rough conditions, riparian vegetation fulfils essential ecosystem functions such as water retention, biomass production and habitat to endangered species. The identification of relevant flood attributes impacting riparian vegetation is crucial for a better understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the riverine ecosystem. Hence, in this contribution we aim to quantify the ecological effects of flood attributes on riparian vegetation and to analyze the spatial coherence of flood-vegetation interaction patterns. We analyzed a 500 m long and 300-400 m wide study reach located on the Maggia River in southern Switzerland. Altogether five floods between 2008 and 2011 with return periods ranging from 1.4 to 20.1 years were studied. To assess the significance of the flood attributes, we compared post-flood to pre-flood vegetation vigour to flood intensity. Pre- and post-flood vegetation vigour was represented by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which was computed from images recorded by high resolution ground-based cameras. Flood intensity was expressed in space in the study reach by six flood attributes (inundation duration, maximum depth, maximum and total velocity, maximum and total shear stress) which were simulated by the 2D hydrodynamic model BASEMENT (VAW, ETH Zurich). We considered three floodplain units separately (main bar, secondary bar, transitional zone). Based on our results, pre-flood vegetation vigour largely determined vegetation reaction to the less intense floods (R = 0.59-0.96). However for larger floods with a strong erosive effect, its contribution was significantly lower (R = 0.59-0.68). Using multivariate regression analysis we show that pre-flood vegetation vigour and maximum velocity proved to be

  15. Multi-temporal UAV-borne LiDAR point clouds for vegetation analysis - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Hollaus, Markus; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Riegl, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past the introduction of compact and lightweight LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) sensors together with progress in UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology allowed the integration of laser scanners on remotely piloted multicopter, helicopter-type and even fixed-wing platforms. The multi-target capabilities of state-of-the-art time-of-flight full-waveform laser sensors operated from low flying UAV-platforms has enabled capturing of the entire 3D structure of semi-transparent objects like deciduous forests under leaf-off conditions in unprecedented density and completeness. For such environments it has already been demonstrated that UAV-borne laser scanning combines the advantages of terrestrial laser scanning (high point density, short range) and airborne laser scanning (bird's eye perspective, homogeneous point distribution). Especially the oblique looking capabilities of scanners with a large field of view (>180°) enable capturing of vegetation from different sides resulting in a constantly high point density also in the sub canopy domain. Whereas the findings stated above were drawn based on a case study carried out in February 2015 with the Riegl VUX-1UAV laser scanner system mounted on a Riegl RiCopter octocopter UAV-platform over an alluvial forest at the Pielach River (Lower Austria), the site was captured a second time with the same sensor system and mission parameters at the end of the vegetation period on October 28th, 2015. The main goal of this experiment was to assess the impact of the late autumn foliage on the achievable 3D point density. Especially the entire understory vegetation and certain tree species (e.g. willow) were still in full leaf whereas the bigger trees (poplar) where already partly defoliated. The comparison revealed that, although both campaigns featured virtually the same laser shot count, the ground point density dropped from 517 points/m2 in February (leaf-off) to 267 points/m2 end of October (leaf-on). The

  16. Test of multi-spectral vegetation index for floating and canopy-forming submerged vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Jung; Kirui, Philemon; Natarajan, Harene

    2008-12-01

    Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR). These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the NIR absorption by water and light scattering from suspended particles reduces the practical application of such indices in aquatic vegetation studies, especially for the Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) that grows below water surface. We experimentally tested if NDVI can be used to depict canopies of aquatic plants in shallow waters. A 100-gallonoutdoor tank was lined with black pond liners, a black panel or SAV shoots were mounted on the bottom, and filled with water up to 0.5 m. We used a GER 1500 spectroradiometer to collect spectral data over floating waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and also over the tanks that contain SAV and black panel at varying water depths. The measured upwelling radiance was converted to % reflectance; and we integrated the hyperspectral reflectance to match the Red and NIR bands of three satellite sensors: Landsat 7 ETM, SPOT 5 HRG, and ASTER. NDVI values ranged 0.6-0.65 when the SAV canopy was at the water level, then they decreased linearly (slope of 0.013 NDVI/meter) with water depth increases in clear water. When corrected for water attenuation using the data obtained from the black panel, the NDVI values significantly increased at all depths that we tested (0.1 - 0.5 m). Our results suggest the conventional NDVI: (1) can be used to depict SAV canopies at water surface; (2) is not a good indicator for SAV that is adapted to live underwater or other aquatic plants that are submerged during flooding even at shallow waters (0.3 m); and (3) the index values can significantly improve if information on spectral reflectance attenuation caused by water volume increases is collected simultaneously

  17. Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these

  18. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) provides a literature review of wave dissipation by vegetation. INTRODUCTION: Flooding...coastal mangrove forests of Vietnam (Quartel et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Mazda et al. 1997), salt marshes of the United States (Bradley and...et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Cooper 2005, Möller and Spencer 2002, Möller et al. 1999). A year-long study by Cooper (2005) found that wave

  19. Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chalee, Wichian; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2009-02-01

    This research was conducted to compare geopolymers made from fly ash and ground bottom ash. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) solutions were used as activators. A mass ratio of 1.5 Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH and three concentrations of NaOH (5, 10, and 15M) were used; the geopolymers were cured at 65 degrees C for 48 h. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used on the geopolymer pastes. Geopolymer mortars were also prepared in order to investigate compressive strength. The results show that both fly ash and bottom ash can be utilized as source materials for the production of geopolymers. The properties of the geopolymers are dependent on source materials and the NaOH concentration. Fly ash is more reactive and produces a higher degree of geopolymerization in comparison with bottom ash. The moderate NaOH concentration of 10 M is found to be suitable and gives fly ash and bottom ash geopolymer mortars with compressive strengths of 35 and 18 MPa.

  20. Land surface phenology from SPOT VEGETATION time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land surface phenology from time series of satellite data are expected to contribute to improve the representation of vegetation phenology in earth system models. We characterized the baseline phenology of the vegetation at the global scale from GEOCLIM-LAI, a global climatology of leaf area index (LAI derived from 1-km SPOT VEGETATION time series for 1999-2010. The calibration with ground measurements showed that the start and end of season were best identified using respectively 30% and 40% threshold of LAI amplitude values. The satellite-derived phenology was spatially consistent with the global distributions of climatic drivers and biome land cover. The accuracy of the derived phenological metrics, evaluated using available ground observations for birch forests in Europe, cherry in Asia and lilac shrubs in North America showed an overall root mean square error lower than 19 days for the start, end and length of season, and good agreement between the latitudinal gradients of VEGETATION LAI phenology and ground data.

  1. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    , soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over this control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft which contained onboard a payload constituted...

  2. Design and performance of a multiwavelength airborne polarimetric lidar for vegetation remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Songxin; Narayanan, Ram M

    2004-04-10

    The University of Nebraska has developed a multiwavelength airborne polarimetric lidar (MAPL) system to support its Airborne Remote Sensing Program for vegetation remote sensing. The MAPL design and instrumentation are described in detail. Characteristics of the MAPL system include lidar waveform capture and polarimetric measurement capabilities, which provide enhanced opportunities for vegetation remote sensing compared with current sensors. Field tests were conducted to calibrate the range measurement. Polarimetric calibration of the system is also discussed. Backscattered polarimetric returns, as well as the cross-polarization ratios, were obtained from a small forested area to validate the system's ability for vegetation canopy detection. The system has been packaged to fly abroad a Piper Saratoga aircraft for airborne vegetation remote sensing applications.

  3. Effect of ecological factors on the zonation of wetland vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some ecological factors to aquatic and marsh vegetation was studied during 1998-2000. Three basic vegetation units (Caricetum buekii, Typhetum latifoliae and Ceratophylletum submersi and three transitional communities were defined in the belt transect, which was established along the moisture gradient. The content of available soil nutrients in individual vegetation types differed only in case of the Ceratophyllum submersum community, where a higher magnesium and nitrogen content accumulated due to specific environmental conditions. Water and marsh vegetation is usually characterised by a pronounced spatial and temporal dynamics. In the studied area, its zonation was dependent from the terrain morphology, and both depth and duration of floods. The fluctuation of ground and surface water table during a three-year period caused changes in the occurrence and cover of several species (e.g. Carex buekii, Typha latifolia, aquatic macrophytes. Pronounced changes in the cover of some species occurred even within a single vegetation season due to the long-term sink of water table below the ground surface.

  4. FlyBase: improvements to the bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J; Leyland, Paul C; Seal, Ruth L; Goodman, Joshua L; Thurmond, Jim; Strelets, Victor B; Wilson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    An accurate, comprehensive, non-redundant and up-to-date bibliography is a crucial component of any Model Organism Database (MOD). Principally, the bibliography provides a set of references that are specific to the field served by the MOD. Moreover, it serves as a backbone to which all curated biological data can be attributed. Here, we describe the organization and main features of the bibliography in FlyBase (flybase.org), the MOD for Drosophila melanogaster. We present an overview of the current content of the bibliography, the pipeline for identifying and adding new references, the presentation of data within Reference Reports and effective methods for searching and retrieving bibliographic data. We highlight recent improvements in these areas and describe the advantages of using the FlyBase bibliography over alternative literature resources. Although this article is focused on bibliographic data, many of the features and tools described are applicable to browsing and querying other datasets in FlyBase.

  5. Attracting the attention of a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-04-26

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can direct the attention of the fly to one or the other of the two visual half-fields. The cue can precede the test stimulus by several seconds and may also be spatially separated from the test by at least 20° and yet attract attention. This kind of external guidance of attention is found only in the lower visual field.

  6. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  7. Research on Partner-fly Infrared Decoys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Yang; LI Yan-jun; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of new generation of infrared-guided missiles, it is very difficult for the traditional point-source infrared decoys to confront them. Therefore it is important to research the jamming mechanism and tactical application of infrared decoys. Through the research on rocket-propelled infrared decoys, a movement model and a radiation pattern of partner-fly infrared decoy are established based on the jamming mechanism of infrared centroid effect, the aerodynamics principle as well as the aeronautical dynamics principle. A dynamic simulation seeking superiority is conducted for its firing range and direction, a tactical application method of partner-fly infrared decoy against infrared-guided missile is explored, and the technical conditions of partner-fly infrared decoys are determined.

  8. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  9. Orientation in high-flying migrant insects in relation to flows: mechanisms and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Andy M; Reynolds, Don R; Sane, Sanjay P; Hu, Gao; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-09-26

    High-flying insect migrants have been shown to display sophisticated flight orientations that can, for example, maximize distance travelled by exploiting tailwinds, and reduce drift from seasonally optimal directions. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical evidence for the mechanisms underlying the selection and maintenance of the observed flight headings, and the detection of wind direction and speed, for insects flying hundreds of metres above the ground. Different mechanisms may be used-visual perception of the apparent ground movement or mechanosensory cues maintained by intrinsic features of the wind-depending on circumstances (e.g. day or night migrations). In addition to putative turbulence-induced velocity, acceleration and temperature cues, we present a new mathematical analysis which shows that 'jerks' (the time-derivative of accelerations) can provide indicators of wind direction at altitude. The adaptive benefits of the different orientation strategies are briefly discussed, and we place these new findings for insects within a wider context by comparisons with the latest research on other flying and swimming organisms.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  10. Orientation in high-flying migrant insects in relation to flows: mechanisms and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Andy M.; Reynolds, Don R.; Sane, Sanjay P.; Hu, Gao; Chapman, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    High-flying insect migrants have been shown to display sophisticated flight orientations that can, for example, maximize distance travelled by exploiting tailwinds, and reduce drift from seasonally optimal directions. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical evidence for the mechanisms underlying the selection and maintenance of the observed flight headings, and the detection of wind direction and speed, for insects flying hundreds of metres above the ground. Different mechanisms may be used—visual perception of the apparent ground movement or mechanosensory cues maintained by intrinsic features of the wind—depending on circumstances (e.g. day or night migrations). In addition to putative turbulence-induced velocity, acceleration and temperature cues, we present a new mathematical analysis which shows that ‘jerks’ (the time-derivative of accelerations) can provide indicators of wind direction at altitude. The adaptive benefits of the different orientation strategies are briefly discussed, and we place these new findings for insects within a wider context by comparisons with the latest research on other flying and swimming organisms. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528782

  11. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  12. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  13. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  14. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  15. Physical cleaning of high carbon fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Killmeyer, Richard P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, Cochran Mills Roads, 15236 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Andresen, John M. [The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Building, 16802-2308 University Park, PA (United States); Ciocco, Michael V.; Zandhuis, Paul H. [Parson Project Services Inc, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 618, 15129 Library, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-04-20

    An industrial fly ash sample was cleaned by three different processes, which were triboelectrostatic separation, ultrasonic column agglomeration, and column flotation. The unburned carbon concentrates were collected at purities ranging up to 62% at recoveries of 62%. In addition, optical microscopy studies were conducted on the final carbon concentrates to determine the carbon forms (inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke) collected from these various physical-cleaning processes. The effects of the various cleaning processes on the production of different carbon forms from high carbon fly ashes will be discussed.

  16. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  17. Fire and vegetation history of the Jemez Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.

    2001-01-01

    Historic patterns of fire occurrence and vegetation change in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico have been described in detail by using multiple lines of evidence. Data sources include old aerial and ground-based photographs, historic records, charcoal deposits from bogs, fire-scarred trees (Figure 1), tree-ring reconstructions of precipitation, and field sampling of vegetation and soils. The forests and woodlands that cloak the Southwestern uplands provide the most extensive and detailed regional-scale network of fire history data available in the world (Swetnam and Baisan 1996, Swetnam et al. 1999, Allen 2002).

  18. The Helios Prototype flying wing stretches almost the full length of the 300-foot-long hangar at NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Helios Prototype flying wing stretches almost the full length of the 300-foot-long hangar at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The 247-foot span solar-powered aircraft, resting on its ground maneuvering dolly, was on display for a visit of NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and other NASA officials on January 31, 2002. The unique solar-electric flying wing reached an altitude of 96,863 feet during an almost 17-hour flight near Hawaii on August 13, 2001, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a non-rocket powered aircraft. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV) which can serve as 'atmospheric satellites,' performing Earth science missions or functioning as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere.

  19. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  20. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  1. Astrobee: A New Platform for Free-Flying Robotics on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trey; Barlow, Jonathan; Bualat, Maria; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Sanchez, Hugo; Smith, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The Astrobees are next-generation free-flying robots that will operate in the interior of the International Space Station (ISS). Their primary purpose is to provide a flexible platform for research on zero-g freeflying robotics, with the ability to carry a wide variety of future research payloads and guest science software. They will also serve utility functions: as free-flying cameras to record video of astronaut activities, and as mobile sensor platforms to conduct surveys of the ISS. The Astrobee system includes two robots, a docking station, and a ground data system (GDS). It is developed by the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 (HET-2) Project, which began in Oct. 2014, and will deliver the Astrobees for launch to ISS in 2017. This paper covers selected aspects of the Astrobee design, focusing on capabilities relevant to potential users of the platform.

  2. Description of the High Resolution Fly's Eye Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRES Collaboration

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment measures properties of the highest energy cosmic rays. The air fluorescence technique used in HiRes was previously demonstrated by the original Fly's Eye detector. The HiRes Observatory is the realization of the next stage of air fluorescence observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays. The observatory has been operating in various sub-configurations since spring of 1997. HiRes has been operating in its full design configuration utilizing two detector sites to provide stereoscopic observations since the fall of 1999. A brief description of the detectors as well as the techniques used to observe and measure ultra high energy cosmic ray showers are the subject of this paper. 1 The Technique Above 1017 eV, the flux of cosmic ray particles is so low that direct detection of the primary particles becomes in-feasible. The traditional method to extend measurements into this region has been to observe Extensive Air Showers (EAS), produced in the Earth's atmosphere, by the primary cosmic ray particles. An Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) collides with a nucleus (nitrogen or oxygen) in the atmosphere resulting in the formation of an EAS containing billions of secondary particles. The EAS is a cascade of charged particles that develops over 10's of km eventually becoming a pancake a few hundred meters wide and a few meters thick moving at nearly the speed of light. As the EAS traverses the atmosphere, it excites air molecules. The molecules fall back into their ground state emitting light. The light is emitted almost exclusively from nitrogen molecules in the wavelength region from 300-400 nm. The amount of light emitted corresponds to roughly 4 5 photons per meter per ionizing particle. (Kakimoto 1996) There are such an enormous number of ionizing particles (billions at shower

  3. Lixiviation of fly ash. Uitloging van vliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The lixiviation of a number of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, As, Sb and Hg) from different fly ash products (fired and cement bounded products) is investigated. A theoretical description of diffusion from a fly ash product is given as well as a standard test to determine the lixiviation rate. Lixiviation can be interpreted as a diffusion process. Diffusion of an element X from a fly ash product can be described with the following parameters: the effective diffusion coefficient, the fraction that is available for lixiviation and the tortuosity of the product. The physical meaning of the determined tortuosity is not clear. The behavior of tracers in the product is compared with the behavior of the corresponding element. Often this behavior deviates, sometimes even considerably. From a comparison of fly ash products it appears that cement bounded products are better able to combine with arsenicum and antimony than fired products. None of the investigated products caused concentrations of micro-elements way above the stated norm. Improvement as for lixiviation behavior of the products seems to be possible, in particular for bricks. 8 refs., 17 tabs., 26 figs.

  4. Have tsetse flies disappeared from Brazzaville town?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bitsindou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 1980 to 1985, the zoological park of Brazzaville was the only tsetse resting site located in downtown which supplied others temporary sites. The last trapping survey carried out in this area in 1987 showed that there were no more tsetse flies. Knowing that areas free of tsetse used to be reinvaded many years later, we have carried out an entomological survey in the area with the aim to verify what has happened more than twenty years later; given that suitable environmental conditions for Glossina are still available. Methods: Sixteen pyramidal traps were set out at the edge of the forest, along paths and around animal’s cages and were examined twice a day, at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. during four days. Results: No tsetse fly was captured. Using the formula previously described; the probability of capturing a tsetse fly is 0.002. Conclusion: The zoological park seems close to be free of tsetse flies. Long-lasting surveys within the town and around are required before stating a complete disappearance of tsetse in the town.

  5. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  6. Refractive index of the fly rhabdomere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoenders, B.J.; Huiser, A.M.J.; Toorn, P. van

    1982-01-01

    The refractive index and the diameter of the fly rhabdomere were determined by comparing the experimental results derived from interference microscopy with the results of a theoretical study on the scattering of plane waves by a homogeneous, isotropic cylindrical dielectric rod. It was found that

  7. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  8. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  9. Decision-making capacity of flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) can make appropriate choices among alternative flight options based on the relative salience of competing visual cues, according to a recent study by a team under the leadership of GUO Aike from the CAS Institute of Neuroscience.

  10. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  11. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    volunteers took on many of the following duties to help enable CAP functions: clerical work , aircraft maintenance , refueling operations, first aid...Highway Patrol, Monterey County Aero Squadron, Lane County Sheriff’s Office, Civil Air Patrol, volunteer flying organizations, law enforcement...5 3. Civil Air Patrol’s Use in Law Enforcement .................................7 D. POTENTIAL EXPLANATIONS AND HYPOTHESES

  12. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Also, fly ash has been found to be an efficient adsorbent for water treatment in the removal of ... properties for the removal of metal ions and organics; the residual sludge produced is used in ... investigate the reuse of the adsorbent for better economy of the process. ..... Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria to complete this article.

  13. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  14. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  15. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  16. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  17. "Lord of the Flies". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on William Golding's novel "Lord of the Flies," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that, on a literal level, the novel deals with what happens to a group of boys stranded on an island; and that on a symbolic level, it investigates what happens to civilized people when the structures of civilization…

  18. On Optical Crosstalk between Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    In a fly retinula light may be transferred among the rhabdomeres. It is estimated that the light from a point source imaged on the axis of a rhabdomere may eventually be transferred completely to a neighbouring rhabdomere. However, the effect on the sensitivity of this latter rhabdomere will remain

  19. Measurement on Camber Deformation of Wings of Free-flying Dragonflies and Beating-flying Dragonflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqiang Song; Lijiang Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of wing orientation and deformation during flapping flight is necessary for a complete aerodynamic analysis, but to date those kinematic features have not been simultaneously quantified for free-flying insects. A projected comb-fringe (PCF) method has been developed for measuring spanwise camber changes on free-flying dragonflies and on beating-flying dragonflies through the course of a wingbeat, which bases on projecting a fringe pattern over the whole measurement area and then measuring the wing deformation from the distorted fringe pattern. Experimental results demonstrate substantial camber changes both along the wingspan and through the course of a wingbeat. The ratio of camber deformation to chord length for hind wing is up to 0.11 at 75% spanwise with a flapping angle of -0.66 degree for a free-flying dragonfly.

  20. Advanced control technology and airworthiness flying qualities requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Flying quality requirements are specified in terms of the complete pilot-airframe-systems loop, the task, and the environment. Results from a study of flying qualities are reported. A review of the treatment of failure cases in various flying quality requirements is presented along with a description of the methods used and relevant lessons learned from recent Autoland certification programs.

  1. Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting blue bottle flies, Chrysomyia megacephala (Diptera: Calliph...

  2. Results of analysis of flight and ground observation materials for first year of first stage of ""Program of experimental research to develop methods for remote sounding of soils and vegetation on analogous sections of the United States and USSR for 1975-1980''

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A joint U.S.S.R. and United States program to develop methods for remote sounding of soils and vegetation is reported. The program is being conducted on similar sections of land in the USSR and the United States. Details of the data obtained and the type of sensing equipments employed are provided in the appendices.

  3. Characterization of the Aerodynamic Ground Effect and Its Influence in Multirotor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sanchez-Cuevas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the ground effect in multirotors, that is, the change in the thrust generated by the rotors when flying close to the ground due to the interaction of the rotor airflow with the ground surface. This effect is well known in single-rotor helicopters but has been assumed erroneously to be similar for multirotors in many cases in the literature. In this paper, the ground effect for multirotors is characterized with experimental tests in several cases and the partial ground effect, a situation in which one or some of the rotors of the multirotor (but not all are under the ground effect, is also characterized. The influence of the different cases of ground effect in multirotor control is then studied with several control approaches in simulation and validated with experiments in a test bench and with outdoor flights.

  4. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  5. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, P.A. E-mail: pfollett@pbarc.ars.usda.gov

    2004-10-01

    Phytosanitary or quarantine treatments are often required to disinfest host commodities of economically important arthropod pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pest does not occur. Irradiation is an accepted treatment to control quarantine pests in 10 fruits and five vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic quarantine treatments because it is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies. Contrary to the 150 Gy dose, approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly in Hawaii are 210-250 Gy. Irradiation studies were conducted to determine if the approved doses were unnecessarily high and could be reduced. Irradiation is also a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest Hawaii sweetpotatoes, and studies are in progress to identify an effective dose for two key sweetpotato insect pests. Results indicate that irradiation doses <150 Gy will control Hawaii's fruit flies, which supports the proposed generic dose. The idea of generic doses is appealing because it would greatly accelerate the process of approving irradiation quarantine treatments for specific crops, and thereby rapidly expand exports. Preliminary results show that 250-300 Gy will control Hawaii's sweetpotato pests.

  6. Flies remember the time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Nitin S; Wolf, Reinhard; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Heisenberg, Martin

    2015-06-15

    The circadian clock enables organisms to anticipate daily environmental cycles and drives corresponding changes in behavior [1, 2]. Such endogenous oscillators also enable animals to display time-specific memory [1, 3-5]. For instance, mice and honeybees associate the location of a stimulus (like food or mate) with a certain time of day (time-place learning) [6, 7]. However, the mechanism underlying time-related learning and memory is not known. In the present study, we investigate time-specific odor learning. We use a genetically tractable animal, the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Starved flies are trained in the morning and afternoon to associate distinct odors with sucrose reward. The training is repeated the next day, and their time-dependent odor preference is tested on the third day. Our results indicate that Drosophila can express appetitive memory at the relevant time of day if the two conditioning events are separated by more than 4 hr. Flies can form time-odor associations in constant darkness (DD) as well as in a daily light-dark (LD) cycle, but not when kept under constant light (LL) conditions. Circadian clock mutants, period(01) (per(01)) and clock(AR) (clk(AR)), learned to associate sucrose reward with a certain odor but were unable to form time-odor associations. Our findings show that flies can utilize temporal information as an additional cue in appetitive learning. Time-odor learning in flies depends on a per- and clk-dependent endogenous mechanism that is independent of environmental light cues.

  7. H-Bridge Transformerless Inverter with Common Ground for Single-Phase Solar-Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase H-Bridge transformerless inverter with common ground for grid-connected photovoltaic systems (hereafter it is called ‘Siwakoti-H’ inverter). The inverter works on the principle of flying capacitor and consists of only four power switches (two reverse blockin...

  8. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) and 10M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 degrees C for 48h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  9. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  10. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  11. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  12. Extending cancer prevention to improve fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Peña-Purcell, Ninfa; Friedman, Daniela B; Ory, Marcia; Flocke, Susan; Barni, Marie T; Hébert, James R

    2014-12-01

    Consuming a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables is critical for preventing cancer and cancer-related disparities. Food systems approaches that increase spatial-temporal, economic, and social access to fruits and vegetables may ultimately result in improved consumption patterns among Americans. Engaging the triad of Cooperative Extension Services, public health systems, and community health centers may yield maximal public health benefits from food systems interventions. These entities have a mutual interest in promoting health equity and community and economic vitality that provides common ground to (a) implement solutions through the dissemination of evidence-based programs and (b) share resources to foster grassroots support for sustained change. Working together, these systems have an unprecedented opportunity to build on their common ground to implement, evaluate, and disseminate evidence-based food systems interventions in communities and with populations experiencing disparate risk for cancer and cancer-related diseases.

  13. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  14. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  15. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  16. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  17. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  18. Roadside and hydro line vegetation clearing: know your legal obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper is intended to remind people of the negative impacts that vegetation-clearing activities have on nesting birds. Roadside and hydro line vegetation clearing affect the habitats and breeding grounds of migratory birds. It is urgent that responsibility be assumed for clearing activities and that greater care be taken protect these birds from negative consequences. Risk could be reduced by stopping vegetation clearance during nesting season. Moreover, project proponents have legal obligations under federal legislation that protects migratory birds. It is an offence to capture, injure, hurt or kill a migratory bird or remove, damage or destroy a migratory bird nest or eggs without a permit and for legitimate purposes. Offences against the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, are punishable by fine.

  19. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  20. Study on natural breeding sites of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) in areas of Leishmania transmission in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael José; Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bejarano, Eduar E; Peña, Horacio Cadena; Estrada, Luis Gregorio; Florez, Fernando; Ortega, Edgar; Aparicio, Yamileth; Muskus, Carlos E

    2015-02-22

    The location of the microhabitats where immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia develop is one of the least-known aspects of this group of medically important insects. For this reason strategies of source reduction approach for their control have not been possible in contrast to other insect vectors (such as mosquitoes), because their juvenile stages in terrestrial microhabitats is difficult to detect. Direct examination of soil samples, incubation of substrates and the use of emergence traps were the methods used to identify juvenile stages in 160 soil samples from urban and forest habitats within the foci of Leishmania transmission in Colombia. Immatures collected were identified subsequent from the rearing and emergence of adults using taxonomic keys or the analysis of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I. Plant species associated with the natural breeding sites were identified and physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. A total of 38 (23.7%) sampling sites were identified as breeding sites, 142 phlebotomine sand flies were identified, belonging to 13 species of the genus Lutzomyia and two of Brumptomyia. The greatest numbers of immature were found within the tabular roots (51 immature sand flies from eight positive sites) and bases of trees (35 immature sand flies from 11 sites). The characterization and presence of the tree species (mainly Ceiba pentadra, Anacardium excelsum, Pseudosamanea guachapale) and the physicochemical properties (relative humidity and carbon/nitrogen ratio) of the soils associated with these breeding sites are significant factors in explaining the diversity and abundance of phlebotomine sand flies. Immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia in Colombia can be found in a wide variety of breeding sites rich in organic matter, high relative humidity and are associated with a typical vegetation of each locality. These results provide new perspectives for the study of the ecology of the

  1. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pourrut, Bertrand; Waterlot, Christophe [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Bidar, Geraldine; Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Douay, Francis, E-mail: f.douay@isa-lille.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France)

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable management of large surface areas contaminated with trace elements is a real challenge, since currently applied remediation techniques are too expensive for these areas. Aided phytostabilisation appears to be a cost efficient technique to reduce metal mobility in contaminated soils and contaminated particle spread. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated with trace elements. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments to reduce metal mobility was investigated. Before being planted with a tree mix, the study site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, the second amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and the third with sulfo-calcic fly ash. After eight years, some soil physico-chemical parameters, including cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) extractability were modified. In particular, pH decreased on the whole site while organic carbon content increased. The alteration of these parameters influencing trace element mobility is explained by afforestation. Over time, concentrations of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals increased and were correlated with the soil pH decrease. In the amended soils, extractable Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower than in the reference soil. The results indicated that the two fly ashes buffered natural soil acidification due to vegetation development and limited trace element mobility and thus could limit their bioavailability. For long-term phytostabilisation, special attention should be focused on the soil pH, metal mobility and phytoavailability analysis. - Research Highlights: {yields} Afforestation leads to soil pH decrease and organic carbon content increase. {yields} Fly ashes buffered natural soil acidification. {yields} Fly ashes limited metal mobility.

  2. Moscas frugívoras (Diptera, Tephritoidea coletadas em Aquidauana, MS Frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea collected in Aquidauana, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil as moscas frugívoras são pragas importantes de frutas e hortaliças. O conhecimento da flutuação populacional dessas espécies em cada bioma é um importante requisito para a adoção de estratégia de controle de pragas nos agroecossistemas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de espécies de moscas-das-frutas infestantes de frutas silvestres e cultivadas em Aquidauana, MS. Vinte e uma espécies de frutas foram amostradas de fevereiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2004. As espécies de Tephritidae encontradas foram: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Os frugívoros Lonchaeidae e Muscidae encontrados foram: Neosilba sp. e Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868, respectivamente. Um total de 2.568 moscas foram coletadas, das quais 2.394 representadas pela mosca-do-Mediterrâneo C. capitata. A associação entre moscas frugívoras e espécies de frutas é discutida.In Brazil, frugivorous flies represent important pests of fruits and vegetables. Information on populational fluctuation of these species in each biome is an important requirement for the adoption of a strategy of pest control in the agroecosystems. The objective of this paper is to assess the diversity of fruit fly species occurring in wild and cultived fruits in Aquidauana, MS. Twenty-nine fruit species were sampled from February 2003 to January 2004. The Tephritidae species recovered were: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. The frugivorous Lonchaeidae and Muscidae recovered were: Neosilba sp. and Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868, respectively. A total of 2.568 flies were obtained, from which 2.394 flies were the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata. The association between frugivorous flies and the fruit species is discussed.

  3. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  4. Effects of vegetation patterns and grazers on tidal marshes

    OpenAIRE

    Elschot, K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARYsoil. These effects of large-bodied grazers on soil properties in tidal marshes has beenlargely neglected so far, but need to be considered when we want to introduce livestockto ungrazed marshes.Next to above-ground grazing, we also find small grazers that grub for below-groundstorage organs in tidal marshes. This type of grazing removes the entire plant and it istherefore much more difficult for the vegetation to regenerate. This grubbing behaviorgenerally causes bare patches to form ...

  5. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  6. Effect of Fly Ash and Silica Fume on the Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste at Different Stages of Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    material is a fine white powder byproduct from silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloy production is very reactive in cement. Silicon dioxide makes up a...of cement concrete . The ferrite goes through two progressive reactions with the gypsum. The first reaction is when the ettringite reacts with the...resulting from the combustion of ground or powdered coal, which is transported from the firebox through the boiler by flue gases. Fly ash consists of

  7. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  8. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http:

  9. Experimental study on fly ash capture mercury in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes; DíAZ-SOMOANO; Patricia; ABAD-VALLE; M.Rosa; MARTíNEZ-TARAZONA

    2010-01-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted on a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the interaction between fly ash and mercury,the results implied that fly ash can capture mercury effectively.Among different fly ashes,the unburned carbon in the FA2 and FA3 fly ashes has the highest mercury capture capacity,up to 10.3 and 9.36 μg/g,respectively,which is close to that of commercial activated carbon.There is no obvious relationship between mercury content and carbon content or BET surface area of fly ash.Petrography classification standard was applied to distinguish fly ash carbon particles.Carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture on fly ash,there are likely significant differences in the mercury capture capacities of the various carbon forms.Mercury capture capacity mainly depends on the content of anisotropy carbon particles with porous network structure.

  10. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring of riparian vegetation response to flood disturbances using terrestrial photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Džubáková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of riparian vegetation on river floodplains is strongly impacted by floods. In this study we use a new setup with high resolution ground-based cameras in an Alpine gravel bed braided river to quantify the immediate response of riparian vegetation to flood disturbance with the use of vegetation indices. Five largest floods with return periods between 1.4 and 20.1 years in the period 2008–2011 in the Maggia River were used to evaluate patterns of vegetation response in three distinct floodplain units (main bar, secondary bar, transitional zone and to compare seven vegetation indices. The results show both negative (damage and positive (enhancement response of vegetation in a short period following floods, with a selective impact based on the hydrogeomorphological setting and the intensity of the flood forcing. The spatial distribution of vegetation damage provides a coherent picture of floodplain response in the three floodplain units with different flood stress. We show that the tested vegetation indices generally agree on the direction of predicted change and its spatial distribution. The average disagreement between indices was in the range 14.4–24.9% despite the complex environment, i.e. highly variable surface wetness, high gravel reflectance, extensive water–soil–vegetation contact zones. We conclude that immediate vegetation response to flood disturbance may be effectively monitored by terrestrial photography with potential for long-term assessment in river management and restoration projects.

  12. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  13. Mapping gains and losses in woody vegetation across global tropical drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin; Liu, Yi Y; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-04-01

    Woody vegetation in global tropical drylands is of significant importance for both the interannual variability of the carbon cycle and local livelihoods. Satellite observations over the past decades provide a unique way to assess the vegetation long-term dynamics across biomes worldwide. Yet, the actual changes in the woody vegetation are always hidden by interannual fluctuations of the leaf density, because the most widely used remote sensing data are primarily related to the photosynthetically active vegetation components. Here, we quantify the temporal trends of the nonphotosynthetic woody components (i.e., stems and branches) in global tropical drylands during 2000-2012 using the vegetation optical depth (VOD), retrieved from passive microwave observations. This is achieved by a novel method focusing on the dry season period to minimize the influence of herbaceous vegetation and using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to remove the interannual fluctuations of the woody leaf component. We revealed significant trends (P vegetation not captured by traditional assessments. The method is validated using a unique record of ground measurements from the semiarid Sahel and shows a strong agreement between changes in VODwood and changes in ground observed woody cover (r(2)  = 0.78). Reliability of the obtained woody component trends is also supported by a review of relevant literatures for eight hot spot regions of change. The proposed approach is expected to contribute to an improved assessment of, for example, changes in dryland carbon pools.

  14. Vegetation impact on the thermal regimes of the active layer and near-surface permafrost in the Greater Hinggan Mountains, Northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLi Chang; ShaoPeng Yu; HuiJun Jin; YanLin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The ground temperature and active layer are greatly influenced by vegetation in the Greater Hinggan Mountains in Northeastern China. However, vegetation, as a complex system, is difficult to separate the influence of its different components on the ground thermal regime. In this paper, four vegetation types, including a Larix dahurica-Ledum palustre var. dilatatum-Bryum forest (P1), a L. dahurica-Betula fruticosa forest (P2), a L. dahurica-Carex tato forest (P3) in the China Forest Ecological Research Network Station in Genhe, and a Carex tato swamp (P4) at the permafrost observation site in Yitulihe, have been selected to study and compare their seasonal and annual influence on the ground thermal regime. Results show that the vegetation insulates the ground resulting in a relatively high ground temperature variability in the Carex tato swamp where there are no tree stands and shrubs when compared with three forested vegetation types present in the area. Vegetation thickness, structure, and coverage are the most important factors that determine the insulating prop-erties of the vegetation. In particular, the growth of ground cover, its water-holding capacity and ability to intercept snow exert a significant effect on the degree of insulation of the soil under the same vegetation.

  15. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  16. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  17. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  18. Focus characteristics of long distance flying optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兆谷; 蒋金波; 李现勤; 许国良; 夏金安; W.M.Steen; G.Dearden

    2000-01-01

    The ABCD law for the complex parameter q of the TEM00 Gaussian beam is generally not valid for high-order modes. It can be used for the high-order modes or their superposition when the spot size w in the virtual part of the parameter q is substituted by the Rayleigh range ZR of a certain resonator. The focus characteristics of long distance flying optics are studied in this paper theoretically and experimentally for the TEMmn Gaussian beams between the two types of resonators without and with distortion. It is very important for the applications of the flying optical processing, the laser space craft and the spatial filter in the large laser project.

  19. Sintesis ZSM-5 dari Fly Ash Sawit Sebagai Sumber Silika dengan Variasi Nisbah Molar Si/Al dan Temperatur Sintesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Zahrina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm fly ash is biomass/waste in the  palm oil industry. Palm fly ash has high content of amorphous silica. ZSM-5 is one of synthetic zeolite which is widely used as catalyst in industries. ZSM-5 has high activity and selectivity to several hydrocarbon conversion reaction. Hence, ZSM-5 is being investigated for the conversion of vegetable oil to hydrocarbon.  It can be synthesized from silica and alumina. Sources of silica that can be added to the ZSM-5 synthesis,  are sodium silicate, hydrated silica, water glass sol silica, gelled silica, clay, precipitated silicaand calcined silica. ZSM-5 was synthesized free-template by using palm fly ash as silica source. In this research synthesis of ZSM-5 was carried out in autoclave at 18 hours and Na2O/Al2O3 molar ratio by various molar ratio from 30 to 40 and temperature in the range of 150 to 190 oC. The product was then analized using FTIR method. The best ZSM-5 product was obtained at Si/Al molar ratio of 40 and process temperature of 150 oC. Keywords: FTIR, Palm fly ash, ZSM-5

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  1. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  2. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  3. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  4. Evil in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    Lord of the Flies deals with the problem of the nature of human personality and the reflection of personality on society.Devils hidesomewhere dee in side of all people.Without morals,law and order it will eventually surface and come out.Evil it;the natural product of their con-sciousness.Simon understands,and this is the wisdom Golding treats with awe.that evil is"only us".

  5. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer

    2007-01-01

    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-64)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Ken [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-04-26

    Vegetation Management for Substations and Non-Electric Facilities in the Walla Walla Region. BPA proposes to manage vegetation inside and around electrical substations and associated facilities. Vegetation management within the substation shall include the bare ground management of all graveled areas. These areas shall primarily be maintained with the use of herbicides. The management of vegetation outside the substation and associated facilities shall include: 1) bare ground management of perimeter roads and parking areas; 2) mechanical and/or spot herbicidal control of some broadleaves and noxious weeds; 3) mowing, fertilizing, and broadleaf control of landscaped lawn areas; 4) weed control in ornamental shrub areas; and 4) areas requiring only mechanical control to manage unwanted/danger trees, grasses, and shrubs.

  7. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  8. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  9. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  10. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  11. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  12. Spacecraft formation flying: Dynamics, control and navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, Kyle Terry; Vadali, Srinivas Rao; Gurfil, Pini; How, Jonathan; Breger, Louis S.

    2009-12-01

    Space agencies are now realizing that much of what has previously been achieved using hugely complex and costly single platform projects - large unmanned and manned satellites (including the present International Space Station) - can be replaced by a number of smaller satellites networked together. The key challenge of this approach, namely ensuring the proper formation flying of multiple craft, is the topic of this second volume in Elsevier's Astrodynamics Series, Spacecraft Formation Flying: Dynamics, control and navigation. In this unique text, authors Alfriend et al. provide a coherent discussion of spacecraft relative motion, both in the unperturbed and perturbed settings, explain the main control approaches for regulating relative satellite dynamics, using both impulsive and continuous maneuvers, and present the main constituents required for relative navigation. The early chapters provide a foundation upon which later discussions are built, making this a complete, standalone offering. Intended for graduate students, professors and academic researchers in the fields of aerospace and mechanical engineering, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics, Spacecraft Formation Flying is a technical yet accessible, forward-thinking guide to this critical area of astrodynamics.

  13. Examining the nature of fear of flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins-Gilligan, Janice; Dygdon, Judith A; Conger, Anthony J

    2011-10-01

    The nature of fear of flying (FOF) is not well understood. It is commonly assumed to be a fear learned from flight-specific experiences. However, existing literature suggests that FOF is a manifestation of fears of other stimuli (e.g., heights) embedded in the flying situation, but not specific to it. This study compared the level of prediction of FOF attained from flight-specific conditioning experiences (specifically, classical conditioning experiences in direct, observational, and verbal modes) with the level of prediction attained from flight-embedded fears. There were 109 university students who completed the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire (FAS) and the Fear Survey Schedule, Version III (FSS) as well as demographic and flying experience questionnaires built for this study. All FOF measures were highly predicted by at least one flight-embedded fear. Conversely, conditioning experiences predicted only four of five FOF measures and this prediction was not strong. In general, conditioning experiences did not behave as in previous studies of conditioning and fear. The results suggest that FOF is based more on several flight-embedded innate fears than on learned fears. The implications of these results for FOF emergence and prevention are discussed.

  14. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. FlyCap: Markerless Motion Capture Using Multiple Autonomous Flying Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Liu, Yebin; Cheng, Wei; Guo, Kaiwen; Zhou, Guyue; Dai, Qionghai; Fang, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Aiming at automatic, convenient and non-instrusive motion capture, this paper presents a new generation markerless motion capture technique, the FlyCap system, to capture surface motions of moving characters using multiple autonomous flying cameras (autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) each integrated with an RGBD video camera). During data capture, three cooperative flying cameras automatically track and follow the moving target who performs large-scale motions in a wide space. We propose a novel non-rigid surface registration method to track and fuse the depth of the three flying cameras for surface motion tracking of the moving target, and simultaneously calculate the pose of each flying camera. We leverage the using of visual-odometry information provided by the UAV platform, and formulate the surface tracking problem in a non-linear objective function that can be linearized and effectively minimized through a Gaussian-Newton method. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results demonstrate the plausible surface and motion reconstruction results.

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) is a product of the Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project, USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping...

  17. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. [(sea grasses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R. J.; Gordon, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental water penetration film and black and white near infrared film were used to study the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Detailed description of the grass beds was obtained by flying at an altitude of 5,000 feet, at low tide when wind conditions were minimal. Results show that there was a 36% reduction in the amount of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay from 1971 to 1974, the greatest losses occurring in the York, Piankatank and Rappahannock rivers (tabulated data is given). Recovery of some grass beds occurs primarily through seedling recruitment and subsequent vegetative growth. Cownose rays are suspected as a main factor for the decimation of some of the grass beds. Maps and photographs of the areas studied are given.

  18. Vegetation Phenology Metrics Derived from Temporally Smoothed and Gap-filled MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Morisette, Jeff; Wolfe, Robert; Esaias, Wayne; Gao, Feng; Ederer, Greg; Nightingale, Joanne; Nickeson, Jamie E.; Ma, Pete; Pedely, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Smoothed and gap-filled VI provides a good base for estimating vegetation phenology metrics. The TIMESAT software was improved by incorporating the ancillary information from MODIS products. A simple assessment of the association between retrieved greenup dates and ground observations indicates satisfactory result from improved TIMESAT software. One application example shows that mapping Nectar Flow Phenology is tractable on a continental scale using hive weight and satellite vegetation data. The phenology data product is supporting more researches in ecology, climate change fields.

  19. Mapping gains and losses in woody vegetation across global tropical drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y

    2017-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to remove the interannual fluctuations of the woody leaf component. We revealed significant trends (P ... trend in the leaf component (VODleaf modeled from NDVI), indicating pronounced gradual growth/decline in woody vegetation not captured by traditional assessments. The method is validated using a unique record of ground measurements from the semiarid Sahel and shows a strong agreement between changes...

  20. Satellite remote sensing of rangelands in Botswana. II - NOAA AVHRR and herbaceous vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, S. D.; Tucker, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    The relation between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the herbaceous vegetation in Tamasane, Shakwe, and Masama in eastern Botswana is studied using 1983-1984 AVHRR data. The procedures for Landsat MSS interpolation of ground measurements and the data processing of the AVHRR data are described. The temporal sequence AVHRR global-area coverage (GAC) composite NDVI is examined. The AVHRR GAC composite NDVI and biomass and Landsat MSS interpolations of field measurements are analyzed and compared.

  1. A new robust fuzzy method for unmanned flying vehicle control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtaba Mirzaei; Mohammad Eghtesad; Mohammad Mahdi Alishahi

    2015-01-01

    A new general robust fuzzy approach was presented to control the position and the attitude of unmanned flying vehicles (UFVs). Control of these vehicles was challenging due to their nonlinear underactuated behaviors. The proposed control system combined great advantages of generalized indirect adaptive sliding mode control (IASMC) and fuzzy control for the UFVs. An on-line adaptive tuning algorithm based on Lyapunov function and Barbalat lemma was designed, thus the stability of the system can be guaranteed. The chattering phenomenon in the sliding mode control was reduced and the steady error was also alleviated. The numerical results, for an underactuated quadcopter and a high speed underwater vehicle as case studies, indicate that the presented adaptive design of fuzzy sliding mode controller performs robustly in the presence of sensor noise and external disturbances. In addition, online unknown parameter estimation of the UFVs, such as ground effect and planing force especially in the cases with the Gaussian sensor noise with zero mean and standard deviation of 0.5 m and 0.1 rad and external disturbances with amplitude of 0.1 m/s2 and frequency of 0.2 Hz, is one of the advantages of this method. These estimated parameters are then used in the controller to improve the trajectory tracking performance.

  2. A review on the utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2010-06-15

    Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Because of the environmental problems presented by the fly ash, considerable research has been undertaken on the subject worldwide. In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. A considerable amount of research has been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NOx, SOx, organic compounds, and mercury in air, dyes and other organic compounds in waters. It is found that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. It was also found that fly ash has good potential for use in the construction industry. The conversion of fly ash into zeolites has many applications such as ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorbents. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity. Future research in these areas is also discussed. 428 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. A review on the utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar-788010, Assam (India)

    2010-06-15

    Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Because of the environmental problems presented by the fly ash, considerable research has been undertaken on the subject worldwide. In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. A considerable amount of research has been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, organic compounds, and mercury in air, dyes and other organic compounds in waters. It is found that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. It was also found that fly ash has good potential for use in the construction industry. The conversion of fly ash into zeolites has many applications such as ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorbents. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity. Future research in these areas is also discussed. (author)

  4. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  5. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  6. Stabilization/solidification of a municipal solid waste incineration residue using fly ash-based geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Galiano, Y; Fernández Pereira, C; Vale, J

    2011-01-15

    The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn or Ba by means of geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolin, metakaolin and ground blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of MSWI waste with these kinds of geopolymeric materials and class F coal fly ash used as silica and alumina source have been processed to study the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. To this end, the effects of curing conditions and composition have been tested. S/S solids are submitted to compressive strength and leaching tests to assess the results obtained and to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. Compressive strength values in the range 1-9 MPa were easily obtained at 7 and 28 days. Concentrations of the metals leached from S/S products were strongly pH dependent, showing that the leachate pH was the most important variable for the immobilization of metals. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classical Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished.

  7. Resistance to Corrosion of Reinforcement of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. O.; Bae, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. M. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, S. H. [Korea Confirmity Laboratories, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Due to the increasing of interest about the eco-friendly concrete, it is increased to use concretes containing by-products of industry such as fly ash(FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS), silica fume(SF), and etc. Especially, these are well known for improving the resistances to reinforcement corrosion in concrete and decreasing chloride ion penetration. The purpose of this experimental research is to evaluate the resistance against corrosion of reinforcement of high volume fly ash(HVFA) concrete which is replaced with high volume fly ash for cement volume. For this purpose, the concrete test specimens were made for various strength level and replacement ratio of FA, and then the compressive strength and diffusion coefficient for chloride ion of them were measured for 28, 91, and 182 days, respectively. Also, corrosion monitoring by half cell potential method was carried out for the made lollypop concrete test specimens to detect the time of corrosion initiation for reinforcement in concrete. As a result, it was observed from the test results that the compressive strength of HVFA concrete was decreased with increasing replacement ratio of FA but long-term resistances against reinforcement corrosion and chloride ion penetration of that were increased.

  8. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrut, Bertrand [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); and others

    2011-10-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  9. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  10. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Dinosaur National Monument. The polygons were delineated following guidelines set by the...

  12. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through a series of image processing steps including unsupervised classification, ecological modeling and...

  13. Spatial Vegetation Data for Badlands National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for all coverages associated with the vegetation land cover and land use geospatial database for Badlands National Park and surrounding areas. The...

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Wupatki National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of the...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Zion National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Zion National Park and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of the USGS/NPS...

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Navajo National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation at NAVA was mapped and classified by a combination of field plot data collected in 2005 and photo interpretation from 1:12,000 scale color aerial...

  18. Spatial Vegetation Data for Glacier National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The geographic information system (GIS) format spatial data set of vegetation for Glacier National Park (GNP) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey...

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Hovenweep National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Hovenweep National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the USGS-NPS...

  20. Spatial Vegetation Data for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage is of Voyageurs National Park and extended environs, covering 156,886 hectares (387,674 acres). Voyageurs National Park...