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Sample records for ground validation system

  1. Evolution of the JPSS Ground Project Calibration and Validation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patrick; Chander, Gyanesh; Jain, Peyush

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) next-generation operational Earth observation Program that acquires and distributes global environmental data from multiple polar-orbiting satellites. The JPSS Program plays a critical role to NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in weather, climate, oceans, coasts, and space environments, which supports the Nation's economy and protection of lives and property. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is acquiring and implementing the JPSS, comprised of flight and ground systems, on behalf of NOAA. The JPSS satellites are planned to fly in the afternoon orbit and will provide operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. To support the JPSS Calibration and Validation (CalVal) node Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) services facilitate: Algorithm Integration and Checkout, Algorithm and Product Operational Tuning, Instrument Calibration, Product Validation, Algorithm Investigation, and Data Quality Support and Monitoring. GRAVITE is a mature, deployed system that currently supports the SNPP Mission and has been in operations since SNPP launch. This paper discusses the major re-architecture for Block 2.0 that incorporates SNPP lessons learned, architecture of the system, and demonstrates how GRAVITE has evolved as a system with increased performance. It is now a robust, stable, reliable, maintainable, scalable, and secure system that supports development, test, and production strings, replaces proprietary and custom software, uses open source software, and is compliant with NASA and NOAA standards.

  2. A Ground-Based Validation System of Teleoperation for a Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqian Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Teleoperation of space robots is very important for future on-orbit service. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experiments are required to verify the function and validity of the teleoperation system before a space robot is launched. In this paper, a ground-based validation subsystem is developed as a part of a teleoperation system. The subsystem is mainly composed of four parts: the input verification module, the onboard verification module, the dynamic and image workstation, and the communication simulator. The input verification module, consisting of hardware and software of the master, is used to verify the input ability. The onboard verification module, consisting of the same hardware and software as the onboard processor, is used to verify the processor's computing ability and execution schedule. In addition, the dynamic and image workstation calculates the dynamic response of the space robot and target, and generates emulated camera images, including the hand-eye cameras, global-vision camera and rendezvous camera. The communication simulator provides fidelity communication conditions, i.e., time delays and communication bandwidth. Lastly, we integrated a teleoperation system and conducted many experiments on the system. Experiment results show that the ground system is very useful for verified teleoperation technology.

  3. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-02-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The US Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. 12 refs., 4 figs

  4. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The U.S. Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. Computer code used: SWIFT II (flow and transport code). 4 figs., 12 refs

  5. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Blanchard, Ian E; Doig, Christopher J; Ghali, William A

    2012-10-03

    Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7-8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based on US data may not be appropriate in a

  6. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......, that the foundation has a large impact on the energy consumption of buildings heated by floor heating. Consequently, this detail should be in focus when designing houses with floor heating....

  7. A calibration system for measuring 3D ground truth for validation and error analysis of robot vision algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkin, R.; Greig, A.; Gilby, J.

    2006-10-01

    An important task in robot vision is that of determining the position, orientation and trajectory of a moving camera relative to an observed object or scene. Many such visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the computer vision, artificial intelligence and robotics literature over the past 30 years. However, it is seldom possible to explicitly measure the accuracy of these algorithms, since the ground-truth camera positions and orientations at each frame in a video sequence are not available for comparison with the outputs of the proposed vision systems. A method is presented for generating real visual test data with complete underlying ground truth. The method enables the production of long video sequences, filmed along complicated six-degree-of-freedom trajectories, featuring a variety of objects and scenes, for which complete ground-truth data are known including the camera position and orientation at every image frame, intrinsic camera calibration data, a lens distortion model and models of the viewed objects. This work encounters a fundamental measurement problem—how to evaluate the accuracy of measured ground truth data, which is itself intended for validation of other estimated data. Several approaches for reasoning about these accuracies are described.

  8. Development and Experimental Validation of a TRNSYS Dynamic Tool for Design and Energy Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ruiz-Calvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems stand for an efficient technology for renewable heating and cooling in buildings. To optimize not only the design but also the operation of the system, a complete dynamic model becomes a highly useful tool, since it allows testing any design modifications and different optimization strategies without actually implementing them at the experimental facility. Usually, this type of systems presents strong dynamic operating conditions. Therefore, the model should be able to predict not only the steady-state behavior of the system but also the short-term response. This paper presents a complete GSHP system model based on an experimental facility, located at Universitat Politècnica de València. The installation was constructed in the framework of a European collaborative project with title GeoCool. The model, developed in TRNSYS, has been validated against experimental data, and it accurately predicts both the short- and long-term behavior of the system.

  9. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  10. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  11. In-Situ Load System for Calibrating and Validating Aerodynamic Properties of Scaled Aircraft in Ground-Based Aerospace Testing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A. (Inventor); Lynn, Keith C. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor); Acheson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An In-Situ Load System for calibrating and validating aerodynamic properties of scaled aircraft in ground-based aerospace testing applications includes an assembly having upper and lower components that are pivotably interconnected. A test weight can be connected to the lower component to apply a known force to a force balance. The orientation of the force balance can be varied, and the measured forces from the force balance can be compared to applied loads at various orientations to thereby develop calibration factors.

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CAMPAIGN REPORTS IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Campaign Reports IFloodS dataset consists of various reports filed by the scientists during the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies...

  13. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  14. Ground System Survivability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Avoidance Blast Mitigation Optimization Customer ILIR RDT&E Funding 5.0 % 0.5% GSS has a proven, technically proficient workforce that meets...Evaluation of Defensive-Aid Suites (ARMED) Common Automatic Fire Extinguishing System ( CAFES ) Transparent Armor Development Ground Combat Vehicle...Survey TRADOC (WFO, CNA, etc) Voice of the Customer Sy st em s En gi ne er in g Publish overarching MIL-STD, design guidelines, technical

  15. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CITATION VIDEOS IPHEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Citation Videos IPHEx data were collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) in the Southern...

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION PRECIPITATION VIDEO IMAGER (PVI) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Precipitation Video Imager (PVI) GCPEx dataset collected precipitation particle images and drop size distribution data from November 2011...

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) RADIOSONDE GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Radiosonde GCPEx dataset provides measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds collected by Vaisala...

  20. GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx dataset was collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field...

  1. GPM Ground Validation Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) OLYMPEX dataset was collected during the OLYMPEX field campaign held at Washington's Olympic Peninsula...

  2. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset provides brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  3. Safety of High Speed Ground Transportation Systems : Analytical Methodology for Safety Validation of Computer Controlled Subsystems : Volume 2. Development of a Safety Validation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a methodology designed to assure that a sufficiently high level of safety is achieved and maintained in computer-based systems which perform safety cortical functions in high-speed rail or magnetic levitation ...

  4. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  5. SP-100 from ground demonstration to flight validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program is in the midst of developing and demonstrating the technology of a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor using thermoelectric thermal-to-electric conversion devices for space power applications in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The current ground engineering system (GES) design and development phase will demonstrate the readiness of the technology building blocks and the system to proceed to flight system validation. This phase includes the demonstration of a 2.4-MW(thermal) reactor in the nuclear assembly test (NAT) and aerospace subsystem in the integrated assembly test (IAT). The next phase in the SP-100 development, now being planned, is to be a flight demonstration of the readiness of the technology to be incorporated into future military and civilian missions. This planning will answer questions concerning the logical progression of the GES to the flight validation experiment. Important issues in planning the orderly transition include answering the need to plan for a second reactor ground test, the method to be used to test the SP-100 for acceptance for flight, the need for the IAT prior to the flight-test configuration design, the efficient use of facilities for GES and the flight experiment, and whether the NAT should be modified based on flight experiment planning

  6. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AUTONOMOUS PARSIVEL UNIT (APU) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) GCPEx dataset was collected by the Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU), which is an optical disdrometer that...

  8. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AUTONOMOUS PARSIVEL UNIT (APU) IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) IFLOODS dataset collected data from several sites in eastern Iowa during the spring of 2013. The APU dataset...

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION KCBW NEXRAD GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation KCBW NEXRAD GCPEx dataset was collected during January 9, 2012 to March 12, 2012 for the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx)....

  10. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits LPVEx dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AUTONOMOUS PARSIVEL UNIT (APU) NSSTC V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) NSSTC dataset was collected by the Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU), which is an optical disdrometer based on...

  12. GPM Ground Validation Navigation Data ER-2 OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA ER-2 Navigation Data OLYMPEX dataset supplies navigation data collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft for flights that occurred during...

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION GCPEX SNOW MICROPHYSICS CASE STUDY V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation GCPEX Snow Microphysics Case Study characterizes the 3-D microphysical evolution and distribution of snow in context of the thermodynamic...

  14. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing process is depicted, and the dynamic model of the deicing process is provided based on the analysis of the deicing mechanism. In the dynamic model, the surface temperature of the deicing fluids and the ice thickness are regarded as the state parameters, while the fluid flow rate, the initial temperature, and the injection time of the deicing fluids are treated as control parameters. Ignoring the heat exchange between the deicing fluids and the environment, the simplified model is obtained. The rationality of the simplified model is verified by the numerical simulation and the impacts of the flow rate, the initial temperature and the injection time on the deicing process are investigated. To verify the model, the semi-physical experiment system is established, consisting of the low-constant temperature test chamber, the ice simulation system, the deicing fluid heating and spraying system, the simulated wing, the test sensors, and the computer measure and control system. The actual test data verify the validity of the dynamic model and the accuracy of the simulation analysis.

  15. TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain

  16. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  17. The automated ground network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miles T.; Militch, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of the Automated Ground Network System (AGNS) project is to reduce Ground Network (GN) station life-cycle costs. To accomplish this goal, the AGNS project will employ an object-oriented approach to develop a new infrastructure that will permit continuous application of new technologies and methodologies to the Ground Network's class of problems. The AGNS project is a Total Quality (TQ) project. Through use of an open collaborative development environment, developers and users will have equal input into the end-to-end design and development process. This will permit direct user input and feedback and will enable rapid prototyping for requirements clarification. This paper describes the AGNS objectives, operations concept, and proposed design.

  18. Local figure-ground cues are valid for natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Charless C; Martin, David R; Malik, Jitendra

    2007-06-08

    Figure-ground organization refers to the visual perception that a contour separating two regions belongs to one of the regions. Recent studies have found neural correlates of figure-ground assignment in V2 as early as 10-25 ms after response onset, providing strong support for the role of local bottom-up processing. How much information about figure-ground assignment is available from locally computed cues? Using a large collection of natural images, in which neighboring regions were assigned a figure-ground relation by human observers, we quantified the extent to which figural regions locally tend to be smaller, more convex, and lie below ground regions. Our results suggest that these Gestalt cues are ecologically valid, and we quantify their relative power. We have also developed a simple bottom-up computational model of figure-ground assignment that takes image contours as input. Using parameters fit to natural image statistics, the model is capable of matching human-level performance when scene context limited.

  19. GPM Ground Validation: Pre to Post-Launch Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2015-04-01

    NASA GPM Ground Validation (GV) activities have transitioned from the pre to post-launch era. Prior to launch direct validation networks and associated partner institutions were identified world-wide, covering a plethora of precipitation regimes. In the U.S. direct GV efforts focused on use of new operational products such as the NOAA Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor suite (MRMS) for TRMM validation and GPM radiometer algorithm database development. In the post-launch, MRMS products including precipitation rate, accumulation, types and data quality are being routinely generated to facilitate statistical GV of instantaneous (e.g., Level II orbit) and merged (e.g., IMERG) GPM products. Toward assessing precipitation column impacts on product uncertainties, range-gate to pixel-level validation of both Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM microwave imager data are performed using GPM Validation Network (VN) ground radar and satellite data processing software. VN software ingests quality-controlled volumetric radar datasets and geo-matches those data to coincident DPR and radiometer level-II data. When combined MRMS and VN datasets enable more comprehensive interpretation of both ground and satellite-based estimation uncertainties. To support physical validation efforts eight (one) field campaigns have been conducted in the pre (post) launch era. The campaigns span regimes from northern latitude cold-season snow to warm tropical rain. Most recently the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) took place in the mountains of North Carolina and involved combined airborne and ground-based measurements of orographic precipitation and hydrologic processes underneath the GPM Core satellite. One more U.S. GV field campaign (OLYMPEX) is planned for late 2015 and will address cold-season precipitation estimation, process and hydrology in the orographic and oceanic domains of western Washington State. Finally, continuous direct and physical validation

  20. The GPM Ground Validation Program: Pre to Post-Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA GPM Ground Validation (GV) activities have transitioned from the pre to post-launch era. Prior to launch direct validation networks and associated partner institutions were identified world-wide, covering a plethora of precipitation regimes. In the U.S. direct GV efforts focused on use of new operational products such as the NOAA Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor suite (MRMS) for TRMM validation and GPM radiometer algorithm database development. In the post-launch, MRMS products including precipitation rate, types and data quality are being routinely generated to facilitate statistical GV of instantaneous and merged GPM products. To assess precipitation column impacts on product uncertainties, range-gate to pixel-level validation of both Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM microwave imager data are performed using GPM Validation Network (VN) ground radar and satellite data processing software. VN software ingests quality-controlled volumetric radar datasets and geo-matches those data to coincident DPR and radiometer level-II data. When combined MRMS and VN datasets enable more comprehensive interpretation of ground-satellite estimation uncertainties. To support physical validation efforts eight (one) field campaigns have been conducted in the pre (post) launch era. The campaigns span regimes from northern latitude cold-season snow to warm tropical rain. Most recently the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) took place in the mountains of North Carolina and involved combined airborne and ground-based measurements of orographic precipitation and hydrologic processes underneath the GPM Core satellite. One more U.S. GV field campaign (OLYMPEX) is planned for late 2015 and will address cold-season precipitation estimation, process and hydrology in the orographic and oceanic domains of western Washington State. Finally, continuous direct and physical validation measurements are also being conducted at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility multi

  1. Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Ground Motion Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Darragh; W. Silva; N. Gregor

    2006-01-01

    Both point- and finite-source stochastic one-dimensional ground motion models, coupled to vertically propagating equivalent-linear shear-wave site response models are validated using an extensive set of strong motion data as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The validation and comparison exercises are presented entirely in terms of 5% damped pseudo absolute response spectra. The study consists of a quantitative analyses involving modeling nineteen well-recorded earthquakes, M 5.6 to 7.4 at over 600 sites. The sites range in distance from about 1 to about 200 km in the western US (460 km for central-eastern US). In general, this validation demonstrates that the stochastic point- and finite-source models produce accurate predictions of strong ground motions over the range of 0 to 100 km and for magnitudes M 5.0 to 7.4. The stochastic finite-source model appears to be broadband, producing near zero bias from about 0.3 Hz (low frequency limit of the analyses) to the high frequency limit of the data (100 and 25 Hz for response and Fourier amplitude spectra, respectively)

  2. GPM GROUND VALIDATION TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIDEO DISDROMETER (2DVD) IPHEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD) IPHEx dataset was collected during the GPM Ground Validation Integrated Precipitation and...

  3. GPM GROUND VALIDATION TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIDEO DISDROMETER (2DVD) IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD) IFloodS dataset was collected during the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) field...

  4. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  5. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  6. Ground states of quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume

  7. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  8. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 183.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral... generator to ground before the generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power...

  9. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 120.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each...

  10. The potential of ground gravity measurements to validate GRACE data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Crossley

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New satellite missions are returning high precision, time-varying, satellite measurements of the Earth’s gravity field. The GRACE mission is now in its calibration/- validation phase and first results of the gravity field solutions are imminent. We consider here the possibility of external validation using data from the superconducting gravimeters in the European sub-array of the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP as ‘ground truth’ for comparison with GRACE. This is a pilot study in which we use 14 months of 1-hour data from the beginning of GGP (1 July 1997 to 30 August 1998, when the Potsdam instrument was relocated to South Africa. There are 7 stations clustered in west central Europe, and one station, Metsahovi in Finland. We remove local tides, polar motion, local and global air pressure, and instrument drift and then decimate to 6-hour samples. We see large variations in the time series of 5–10µgal between even some neighboring stations, but there are also common features that correlate well over the 427-day period. The 8 stations are used to interpolate a minimum curvature (gridded surface that extends over the geographical region. This surface shows time and spatial coherency at the level of 2– 4µgal over the first half of the data and 1–2µgal over the latter half. The mean value of the surface clearly shows a rise in European gravity of about 3µgal over the first 150 days and a fairly constant value for the rest of the data. The accuracy of this mean is estimated at 1µgal, which compares favorably with GRACE predictions for wavelengths of 500 km or less. Preliminary studies of hydrology loading over Western Europe shows the difficulty of correlating the local hydrology, which can be highly variable, with large-scale gravity variations.Key words. GRACE, satellite gravity, superconducting gravimeter, GGP, ground truth

  11. GPM ground validation via commercial cellular networks: an exploratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Brasjen, Noud; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-04-01

    The suitability of commercial microwave link networks for ground validation of GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) data is evaluated here. Two state-of-the-art rainfall products are compared over the land surface of the Netherlands for a period of 7 months, i.e., rainfall maps from commercial cellular communication networks and Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG). Commercial microwave link networks are nowadays the core component in telecommunications worldwide. Rainfall rates can be retrieved from measurements of attenuation between transmitting and receiving antennas. If adequately set up, these networks enable rainfall monitoring tens of meters above the ground at high spatiotemporal resolutions (temporal sampling of seconds to tens of minutes, and spatial sampling of hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers). The GPM mission is the successor of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission). For two years now, IMERG offers rainfall estimates across the globe (180°W - 180°E and 60°N - 60°S) at spatiotemporal resolutions of 0.1° x 0.1° every 30 min. These two data sets are compared against a Dutch gauge-adjusted radar data set, considered to be the ground truth given its accuracy, spatiotemporal resolution and availability. The suitability of microwave link networks in satellite rainfall evaluation is of special interest, given the independent character of this technique, its high spatiotemporal resolutions and availability. These are valuable assets for water management and modeling of floods, landslides, and weather extremes; especially in places where rain gauge networks are scarce or poorly maintained, or where weather radar networks are too expensive to acquire and/or maintain.

  12. Rainfall Product Evaluation for the TRMM Ground Validation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, E.; Wolff, D. B.; Robinson, M.; Silberstein, D. S.; Marks, D. A.; Kulie, M. S.; Fisher, B.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observations is conducted through a comprehensive Ground Validation (GV) Program. Standardized instantaneous and monthly rainfall products are routinely generated using quality-controlled ground based radar data from four primary GV sites. As part of the TRMM GV program, effort is being made to evaluate these GV products and to determine the uncertainties of the rainfall estimates. The evaluation effort is based on comparison to rain gauge data. The variance between the gauge measurement and the true averaged rain amount within the radar pixel is a limiting factor in the evaluation process. While monthly estimates are relatively simple to evaluate, the evaluation of the instantaneous products are much more of a challenge. Scattegrams of point comparisons between radar and rain gauges are extremely noisy for several reasons (e.g. sample volume discrepancies, timing and navigation mismatches, variability of Z(sub e)-R relationships), and therefore useless for evaluating the estimates. Several alternative methods, such as the analysis of the distribution of rain volume by rain rate as derived from gauge intensities and from reflectivities above the gauge network will be presented. Alternative procedures to increase the accuracy of the estimates and to reduce their uncertainties also will be discussed.

  13. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  14. Validation of Autonomous Space Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System validation addresses the question "Will the system do the right thing?" When system capability includes autonomy, the question becomes more pointed. As NASA...

  15. The SCEC Broadband Platform: Open-Source Software for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Goulet, C. A.; Maechling, P. J.; Callaghan, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform (BBP) is a carefully integrated collection of open-source scientific software programs that can simulate broadband (0-100 Hz) ground motions for earthquakes at regional scales. The BBP can run earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to simulate ground motions for well-observed historical earthquakes and to quantify how well the simulated broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms. The BBP can also run simulations for hypothetical earthquakes. In this case, users input an earthquake location and magnitude description, a list of station locations, and a 1D velocity model for the region of interest, and the BBP software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. The BBP scientific software modules implement kinematic rupture generation, low- and high-frequency seismogram synthesis using wave propagation through 1D layered velocity structures, several ground motion intensity measure calculations, and various ground motion goodness-of-fit tools. These modules are integrated into a software system that provides user-defined, repeatable, calculation of ground-motion seismograms, using multiple alternative ground motion simulation methods, and software utilities to generate tables, plots, and maps. The BBP has been developed over the last five years in a collaborative project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and SCEC scientific software developers. The SCEC BBP software released in 2016 can be compiled and run on recent Linux and Mac OS X systems with GNU compilers. It includes five simulation methods, seven simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, and the ability to compare simulation results against empirical ground motion models (aka GMPEs). The latest version includes updated ground motion simulation methods, a suite of new validation metrics and a simplified command line user interface.

  16. Mesospheric Precursors to the Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming of 2009: Validation and Dynamical Attribution using a Ground-to-Edge-of-Space Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    et al., 2008). Since wind observations are sparse and standard data assimilation systems ( DASs ) do not extend through the mesosphere, we have far...et al., 2008). Figure 1f plots a time-height cross section of wave- 2 F z at 60◦N, scaled by exp(z/2H), where z is pres- sure altitude and H =7 km. As

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION COMPOSITE SATELLITE OVERPASSES MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Composite Satellite Overpasses MC3E dataset provides satellite overpasses from the AQUA satellite during the Midlatitude Continental...

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) MANUAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENTS GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Manual Precipitation Measurements GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment...

  19. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  20. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification

  1. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  2. Active debris removal GNC challenges over design and required ground validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenarejo, Pablo; Avilés, Marcos; di Sotto, Emanuele

    2015-06-01

    Because of the exponential growth of space debris, the access to space in the medium-term future is considered as being seriously compromised, particularly within LEO polar Sun-synchronous orbits and within geostationary orbits. The active debris removal (ADR) application poses new and challenging requirements on: first, the new required Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) technologies and, second, how to validate these new technologies before being applied in real missions. There is no doubt about the strong safety and collision risk aspects affecting the real operational ADR missions. But it shall be considered that even ADR demonstration missions will be affected by significant risk of collision during the demonstration, and that the ADR GNC systems/technologies to be used shall be well mature before using/demonstrating them in space. Specific and dedicated on-ground validation approaches, techniques and facilities are mandatory. The different ADR techniques can be roughly catalogued in three main groups (rigid capture, non-rigid capture and contactless). All of them have a strong impact on the GNC system of the active vehicle during the capture/proximity phase and, particularly, during the active vehicle/debris combo control phase after capture and during the de-orbiting phase. The main operational phases on an ADR scenario are: (1) ground controlled phase (ADR vehicle and debris are far), (2) fine orbit synchronization phase (ADR vehicle to reach debris ±V-bar), (3) short range phase (along track distance reduction till 10-100 s of metres), (4) terminal approach/capture phase and (5) de-orbiting. While phases 1-3 are somehow conventional and already addressed in detail during past/on-going studies related to rendezvous and/or formation flying, phases 4-5 are very specific and not mature in terms of GNC needed technologies and HW equipment. GMV is currently performing different internal activities and ESA studies/developments related to ADR mission, GNC and

  3. Magnetic Signature Analysis & Validation System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vliet, Scott

    2001-01-01

    The Magnetic Signature Analysis and Validation (MAGSAV) System is a mobile platform that is used to measure, record, and analyze the perturbations to the earth's ambient magnetic field caused by object such as armored vehicles...

  4. A proposed strategy for the validation of ground-water flow and solute transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Goodrich, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water flow and transport models can be thought of as a combination of conceptual and mathematical models and the data that characterize a given system. The judgment of the validity or invalidity of a model depends both on the adequacy of the data and the model structure (i.e., the conceptual and mathematical model). This report proposes a validation strategy for testing both components independently. The strategy is based on the philosophy that a model cannot be proven valid, only invalid or not invalid. In addition, the authors believe that a model should not be judged in absence of its intended purpose. Hence, a flow and transport model may be invalid for one purpose but not invalid for another. 9 refs

  5. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development: Reducing Costs in the Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  6. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION KICT NEXRAD MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validaiton KICT NEXRAD MC3E dataset was collected from April 22, 2011 to June 6, 2011 for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment...

  8. Sail GTS ground system analysis: Avionics system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of two different concepts for the guidance, navigation and control test set signal ground system is presented. The first is a concept utilizing a ground plate to which crew station, avionics racks, electrical power distribution system, master electrical common connection assembly and marshall mated elements system grounds are connected by 4/0 welding cable. An alternate approach has an aluminum sheet interconnecting the signal ground reference points between the crew station and avionics racks. The comparison analysis quantifies the differences between the two concepts in terms of dc resistance, ac resistance and inductive reactance. These parameters are figures of merit for ground system conductors in that the system with the lowest impedance is the most effective in minimizing noise voltage. Although the welding cable system is probably adequate, the aluminum sheet system provides a higher probability of a successful system design.

  9. Ground Validation Assessments of GPM Core Observatory Science Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Huffman, George; Kidd, Chris; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2017-04-01

    NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission science requirements define specific measurement error standards for retrieved precipitation parameters such as rain rate, raindrop size distribution, and falling snow detection on instantaneous temporal scales and spatial resolutions ranging from effective instrument fields of view [FOV], to grid scales of 50 km x 50 km. Quantitative evaluation of these requirements intrinsically relies on GPM precipitation retrieval algorithm performance in myriad precipitation regimes (and hence, assumptions related to physics) and on the quality of ground-validation (GV) data being used to assess the satellite products. We will review GPM GV products, their quality, and their application to assessing GPM science requirements, interleaving measurement and precipitation physical considerations applicable to the approaches used. Core GV data products used to assess GPM satellite products include 1) two minute and 30-minute rain gauge bias-adjusted radar rain rate products and precipitation types (rain/snow) adapted/modified from the NOAA/OU multi-radar multi-sensor (MRMS) product over the continental U.S.; 2) Polarimetric radar estimates of rain rate over the ocean collected using the K-Pol radar at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands and the Middleton Island WSR-88D radar located in the Gulf of Alaska; and 3) Multi-regime, field campaign and site-specific disdrometer-measured rain/snow size distribution (DSD), phase and fallspeed information used to derive polarimetric radar-based DSD retrievals and snow water equivalent rates (SWER) for comparison to coincident GPM-estimated DSD and precipitation rates/types, respectively. Within the limits of GV-product uncertainty we demonstrate that the GPM Core satellite meets its basic mission science requirements for a variety of precipitation regimes. For the liquid phase, we find that GPM radar-based products are particularly successful in meeting bias and random error requirements

  10. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  11. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  12. Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederix, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AIRBORNE SECOND GENERATION PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment...

  14. GPM GROUND VALIDATION MCGILL W-BAND RADAR GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation McGill W-Band Radar GCPEx dataset was collected from February 1, 2012 to February 29, 2012 at the CARE site in Ontario, Canada as a part of...

  15. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) SNOW SURVEYS GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada Snow Surveys GCPEx dataset was manually collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx), which...

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZED C-BAND DOPPLER RADAR KING CITY GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarized C-Band Doppler Radar King City GCPEx dataset has special Range Height Indicator (RHI) and sector scans of several dual...

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION JOSS-WALDVOGEL DISDROMETER (JW) NSSTC V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Joss-Waldvogel Disdrometer (JW) NSSTC dataset was collected by the Joss-Waldvogel (JW) disdrometer, which is an impact-type...

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ADVANCED MICROWAVE RADIOMETER RAIN IDENTIFICATION (ADMIRARI) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Radiometer Rain Identification (ADMIRARI) GCPEx dataset measures brightness temperature at three frequencies (10.7, 21.0...

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) VAISALA CEILOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) VAISALA Ceilometer GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) in...

  20. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NCAR CLOUD MICROPHYSICS PARTICLE PROBES MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NCAR Cloud Microphysics Particle Probes MC3E dataset was collected during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E),...

  1. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) MC3E dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...

  2. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NASA MICRO RAIN RADAR (MRR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA Micro Rain Radar (MRR) MC3E dataset was collected by a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), which is a vertically pointing Doppler radar which...

  3. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) GCPEx dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...

  4. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NASA ER-2 NAVIGATION DATA MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA ER-2 Navigation Data MC3E dataset contains information recorded by an on board navigation recorder (NavRec). In addition to typical...

  5. GPM GROUND VALIDATION OKLAHOMA CLIMATOLOGICAL SURVEY MESONET MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Oklahoma Climatological Survey Mesonet MC3E data were collected during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) in...

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NOAA UHF 449 PROFILER RAW DATA SPC FORMAT MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NOAA UHF 449 Profiler Raw Data SPC Format MC3E dataset was collected during the NASA supported Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NASA S-BAND DUAL POLARIMETRIC (NPOL) DOPPLER RADAR IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA S-Band Dual Polarimetric (NPOL) Doppler Radar IFloodS data set was collected from April 30, 2013 to June 16, 2013 near Traer, Iowa as...

  8. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits C3VP dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits MC3E dataset is available in the Orbital database , which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  10. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS TWP-ICE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits TWP-ICE dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NOAA S-BAND PROFILER MINUTE DATA MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NOAA S-Band Profiler Minute Data MC3E dataset was gathered during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) in...

  12. Ground penetrating radar system and method for detecting an object on or below a ground surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jongth, R.; Yarovoy, A.; Schukin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar system for detecting objects (17) on or below a ground surface (18), comprising at least one transmit antenna (13) having a first foot print (14) at the ground surface, at least one receive antenna (15) having a second foot print (16) at the ground surface, and processing

  13. TESS Ground System Operations and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Ana; Guerrero, Natalia; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the ground system operations for processing data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), highlighting the role of the Science Operations Center (SOC). TESS is a spaced-based (nearly) all-sky mission, designed to find small planets around nearby bright stars using the transit method. We detail the flow of data from pixel measurements on the instrument to final products available at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The ground system relies on a host of players to process the data, including the Payload Operations Center at MIT, the Science Processing Operation Center at NASA Ames, and the TESS Science Office, led by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and MIT. Together, these groups will deliver TESS Input Catalog, instrument calibration models, calibrated target pixels and full frame images, threshold crossing event reports, two-minute light curves, and the TESS Objects of Interest List.

  14. Intelligent systems for KSC ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1992-01-01

    The ground processing and launch of Shuttle vehicles and their payloads is the primary task of Kennedy Space Center. It is a process which is largely manual and contains little inherent automation. Business is conducted today much as it was during previous NASA programs such as Apollo. In light of new programs and decreasing budgets, NASA must find more cost effective ways in which to do business while retaining the quality and safety of activities. Advanced technologies including artificial intelligence could cut manpower and processing time. This paper is an overview of the research and development in Al technology at KSC with descriptions of the systems which have been implemented, as well as a few under development which are promising additions to ground processing software. Projects discussed cover many facets of ground processing activities, including computer sustaining engineering, subsystem monitor and diagnosis tools and launch team assistants. The deployed Al applications have proven an effectiveness which has helped to demonstrate the benefits of utilizing intelligent software in the ground processing task.

  15. Validation of OMI erythemal doses with multi-sensor ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Taylor, Michael; Kazadzis, Stelios; Arola, Antti; Koukouli, Maria Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Chariklia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) erythemal dose rates using ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece. In the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, a Yankee Environmental System UVB-1 radiometer measures the erythemal dose rates every minute, and a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU) multi-filter radiometer provides multi-filter based irradiances that were used to derive erythemal dose rates for the period 2005-2014. Both these datasets were independently validated against collocated UV irradiance spectra from a Brewer MkIII spectrophotometer. Cloud detection was performed based on measurements of the global horizontal radiation from a Kipp & Zonen pyranometer and from NILU measurements in the visible range. The satellite versus ground observation validation was performed taking into account the effect of temporal averaging, limitations related to OMI quality control criteria, cloud conditions, the solar zenith angle and atmospheric aerosol loading. Aerosol optical depth was also retrieved using a collocated CIMEL sunphotometer in order to assess its impact on the comparisons. The effect of total ozone columns satellite versus ground-based differences on the erythemal dose comparisons was also investigated. Since most of the public awareness alerts are based on UV Index (UVI) classifications, an analysis and assessment of OMI capability for retrieving UVIs was also performed. An overestimation of the OMI erythemal product by 3-6% and 4-8% with respect to ground measurements is observed when examining overpass and noontime estimates respectively. The comparisons revealed a relatively small solar zenith angle dependence, with the OMI data showing a slight dependence on aerosol load, especially at high aerosol optical depth values. A mean underestimation of 2% in OMI total ozone columns under cloud-free conditions was found to lead to an overestimation in OMI erythemal

  16. 77 FR 27135 - HACCP Systems Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... validation, the journal article should identify E.coli O157:H7 and other pathogens as the hazard that the..., or otherwise processes ground beef may determine that E. coli O157:H7 is not a hazard reasonably... specifications that require that the establishment's suppliers apply validated interventions to address E. coli...

  17. The validation of an infrared simulation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available theoretical validation framework. This paper briefly describes the procedure used to validate software models in an infrared system simulation, and provides application examples of this process. The discussion includes practical validation techniques...

  18. Expert system validation in prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  19. Application of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to ground subsidence hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inhye; Choi, Jaewon; Jin Lee, Moung; Lee, Saro

    2012-11-01

    We constructed hazard maps of ground subsidence around abandoned underground coal mines (AUCMs) in Samcheok City, Korea, using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a geographical information system (GIS). To evaluate the factors related to ground subsidence, a spatial database was constructed from topographic, geologic, mine tunnel, land use, and ground subsidence maps. An attribute database was also constructed from field investigations and reports on existing ground subsidence areas at the study site. Five major factors causing ground subsidence were extracted: (1) depth of drift; (2) distance from drift; (3) slope gradient; (4) geology; and (5) land use. The adaptive ANFIS model with different types of membership functions (MFs) was then applied for ground subsidence hazard mapping in the study area. Two ground subsidence hazard maps were prepared using the different MFs. Finally, the resulting ground subsidence hazard maps were validated using the ground subsidence test data which were not used for training the ANFIS. The validation results showed 95.12% accuracy using the generalized bell-shaped MF model and 94.94% accuracy using the Sigmoidal2 MF model. These accuracy results show that an ANFIS can be an effective tool in ground subsidence hazard mapping. Analysis of ground subsidence with the ANFIS model suggests that quantitative analysis of ground subsidence near AUCMs is possible.

  20. Design for validation: An approach to systems validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William C.; Dunham, Janet R.; Laprie, Jean-Claude; Williams, Thomas; Howden, William; Smith, Brian; Lewis, Carl M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Every complex system built is validated in some manner. Computer validation begins with review of the system design. As systems became too complicated for one person to review, validation began to rely on the application of adhoc methods by many individuals. As the cost of the changes mounted and the expense of failure increased, more organized procedures became essential. Attempts at devising and carrying out those procedures showed that validation is indeed a difficult technical problem. The successful transformation of the validation process into a systematic series of formally sound, integrated steps is necessary if the liability inherent in the future digita-system-based avionic and space systems is to be minimized. A suggested framework and timetable for the transformtion are presented. Basic working definitions of two pivotal ideas (validation and system life-cyle) are provided and show how the two concepts interact. Many examples are given of past and present validation activities by NASA and others. A conceptual framework is presented for the validation process. Finally, important areas are listed for ongoing development of the validation process at NASA Langley Research Center.

  1. Air operations language for military space ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P.

    The trends in military space ground system architecture is toward large amounts of software and more widely distributed processors. At the same time, life cycle cost considerations dictate that fewer personnel with minimized skill levels and knowledge operate and support these systems. This squeeze necessitates more human engineering and operational planning into the design of these systems. Several techniques have been developed to satisfy these requirements. An operations language is one of these techniques. It involves a specially defined syntax for control of the system. Individual directives are able to be grouped into operations language procedures. These procedures can be prepared offline ahead of time by more skilled personnel and then used to ensure repeatability of operational sequences and reduce operator errors. The use of an operations language also provides benefits for the handling of contingency operations as well as in the system testing and validation programs.

  2. Enhanced technologies for unattended ground sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartup, David C.

    2010-04-01

    Progress in several technical areas is being leveraged to advantage in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems. This paper discusses advanced technologies that are appropriate for use in UGS systems. While some technologies provide evolutionary improvements, other technologies result in revolutionary performance advancements for UGS systems. Some specific technologies discussed include wireless cameras and viewers, commercial PDA-based system programmers and monitors, new materials and techniques for packaging improvements, low power cueing sensor radios, advanced long-haul terrestrial and SATCOM radios, and networked communications. Other technologies covered include advanced target detection algorithms, high pixel count cameras for license plate and facial recognition, small cameras that provide large stand-off distances, video transmissions of target activity instead of still images, sensor fusion algorithms, and control center hardware. The impact of each technology on the overall UGS system architecture is discussed, along with the advantages provided to UGS system users. Areas of analysis include required camera parameters as a function of stand-off distance for license plate and facial recognition applications, power consumption for wireless cameras and viewers, sensor fusion communication requirements, and requirements to practically implement video transmission through UGS systems. Examples of devices that have already been fielded using technology from several of these areas are given.

  3. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  4. Neutron flux control systems validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hascik, R.

    2003-01-01

    In nuclear installations main requirement is to obtain corresponding nuclear safety in all operation conditions. From the nuclear safety point of view is commissioning and start-up after reactor refuelling appropriate period for safety systems verification. In this paper, methodology, performance and results of neutron flux measurements systems validation is presented. Standard neutron flux measuring chains incorporated into the reactor protection and control system are used. Standard neutron flux measuring chain contains detector, preamplifier, wiring to data acquisition unit, data acquisition unit, wiring to display at control room and display at control room. During reactor outage only data acquisition unit and wiring and displaying at reactor control room is verified. It is impossible to verify detector, preamplifier and wiring to data acquisition recording unit during reactor refuelling according to low power. Adjustment and accurate functionality of these chains is confirmed by start-up rate (SUR) measurement during start-up tests after refuelling of the reactors. This measurement has direct impact to nuclear safety and increase operational nuclear safety level. Briefly description of each measuring system is given. Results are illustrated on measurements performed at Bohunice NPP during reactor start-up tests. Main failures and their elimination are described (Authors)

  5. Simulation Validation for Societal Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yahja, Alex

    2006-01-01

    .... There are however, substantial obstacles to validation. The nature of modeling means that there are implicit model assumptions, a complex model space and interactions, emergent behaviors, and uncodified and inoperable simulation and validation knowledge...

  6. Validation of the CrIS fast physical NH3 retrieval with ground-based FTIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammers, E.; Shephard, M.W.; Palm, M.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Capps, S.; Lutsch, E.; Strong, K.; Hannigan, J.W.; Ortega, I.; Toon, G.C.; Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.; Jones, N.; Smale, D.; Siemons, J.; Hrpcek, K.; Tremblay, D.; Schaap, M.; Notholt, J.; Willem Erisman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Presented here is the validation of the CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder) fast physical NH3 retrieval (CFPR) column and profile measurements using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations. We use the total columns and profiles from seven FTIR sites in the Network for the

  7. A Ground-based validation of GOSAT-observed atmospheric CO2 in Inner-Mongolian grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, X; Lei, L; Zeng, Z; Kawasaki, M; Oohasi, M

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is a long-lived greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to global warming. Long-term and continuous measurements of atmospheric CO 2 to investigate its global distribution and concentration variations are important for accurately understanding its potential climatic effects. Satellite measurements from space can offer atmospheric CO 2 data for climate change research. For that, ground-based measurements are required for validation and improving the precision of satellite-measured CO 2 . We implemented observation experiment of CO 2 column densities in the Xilinguole grasslands in Inner Mongolia, China, using a ground-based measurement system, which mainly consists of an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA), a sun tracker and a notebook controller. Measurements from our ground-based system were analyzed and compared with those from the Greenhouse gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT). The ground-based measurements had an average value of 389.46 ppm, which was 2.4 ppm larger than from GOSAT, with a standard deviation of 3.4 ppm. This result is slightly larger than the difference between GOSAT and the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). This study highlights the usefulness of the ground-based OSA measurement system for analyzing atmospheric CO 2 column densities, which is expected to supplement the current TCCON network

  8. Renaissance architecture for Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) has embarked on a new approach for developing and operating Ground Data Systems (GDS) for flight mission support. This approach is driven by the goals of minimizing cost and maximizing customer satisfaction. Achievement of these goals is realized through the use of a standard set of capabilities which can be modified to meet specific user needs. This approach, which is called the Renaissance architecture, stresses the engineering of integrated systems, based upon workstation/local area network (LAN)/fileserver technology and reusable hardware and software components called 'building blocks.' These building blocks are integrated with mission specific capabilities to build the GDS for each individual mission. The building block approach is key to the reduction of development costs and schedules. Also, the Renaissance approach allows the integration of GDS functions that were previously provided via separate multi-mission facilities. With the Renaissance architecture, the GDS can be developed by the MO&DSD or all, or part, of the GDS can be operated by the user at their facility. Flexibility in operation configuration allows both selection of a cost-effective operations approach and the capability for customizing operations to user needs. Thus the focus of the MO&DSD is shifted from operating systems that we have built to building systems and, optionally, operations as separate services. Renaissance is actually a continuous process. Both the building blocks and the system architecture will evolve as user needs and technology change. Providing GDS on a per user basis enables this continuous refinement of the development process and product and allows the MO&DSD to remain a customer-focused organization. This paper will present the activities and results of the MO&DSD initial efforts toward the establishment of the Renaissance approach for the development of GDS, with a particular focus on both the technical

  9. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  10. A Ground Systems Template for Remote Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.

    2002-10-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS.

  11. A ground systems template for remote sensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.

    2002-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS

  12. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGaast, Brian W.; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) identified a requirement for inert simulants to act as improvised, or homemade, explosives (IEs) when training on, or evaluating, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems commonly used in the detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In response, Defence R and D Canada (DRDC) initiated a project to develop IE simulant formulations using commonly available inert materials. These simulants are intended to approximate the expected GPR response of common ammonium nitrate-based IEs, in particular ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) and ammonium nitrate/aluminum (ANAl). The complex permittivity over the range of electromagnetic frequencies relevant to standard GPR systems was measured for bulk quantities of these three IEs that had been fabricated at DRDC Suffield Research Centre. Following these measurements, published literature was examined to find benign materials with both a similar complex permittivity, as well as other physical properties deemed desirable - such as low-toxicity, thermal stability, and commercial availability - in order to select candidates for subsequent simulant formulation. Suitable simulant formulations were identified for ANFO, with resulting complex permittivities measured to be within acceptable limits of target values. These IE formulations will now undergo end-user trials with CAF operators in order to confirm their utility. Investigations into ANAl simulants continues. This progress report outlines the development program, simulant design, and current validation results.

  13. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  14. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  15. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  16. Validity and validation of expert (Q)SAR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulzebos, E; Sijm, D; Traas, T; Posthumus, R; Maslankiewicz, L

    2005-08-01

    At a recent workshop in Setubal (Portugal) principles were drafted to assess the suitability of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) for assessing the hazards and risks of chemicals. In the present study we applied some of the Setubal principles to test the validity of three (Q)SAR expert systems and validate the results. These principles include a mechanistic basis, the availability of a training set and validation. ECOSAR, BIOWIN and DEREK for Windows have a mechanistic or empirical basis. ECOSAR has a training set for each QSAR. For half of the structural fragments the number of chemicals in the training set is >4. Based on structural fragments and log Kow, ECOSAR uses linear regression to predict ecotoxicity. Validating ECOSAR for three 'valid' classes results in predictivity of > or = 64%. BIOWIN uses (non-)linear regressions to predict the probability of biodegradability based on fragments and molecular weight. It has a large training set and predicts non-ready biodegradability well. DEREK for Windows predictions are supported by a mechanistic rationale and literature references. The structural alerts in this program have been developed with a training set of positive and negative toxicity data. However, to support the prediction only a limited number of chemicals in the training set is presented to the user. DEREK for Windows predicts effects by 'if-then' reasoning. The program predicts best for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Each structural fragment in ECOSAR and DEREK for Windows needs to be evaluated and validated separately.

  17. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluitenberg Bas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground testing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity of an instrumented force measuring treadmill for measuring vertical ground-reaction force parameters during running. Methods Vertical ground-reaction forces of experienced runners (12 male, 12 female were obtained during overground and treadmill running at slow, preferred and fast self-selected running speeds. For each runner, 7 mean vertical ground-reaction force parameters of the right leg were calculated based on five successful overground steps and 30 seconds of treadmill running data. Intraclass correlations (ICC(3,1 and ratio limits of agreement (RLOA were used for further analysis. Results Qualitatively, the overground and treadmill ground-reaction force curves for heelstrike runners and non-heelstrike runners were very similar. Quantitatively, the time-related parameters and active peak showed excellent agreement (ICCs between 0.76 and 0.95, RLOA between 5.7% and 15.5%. Impact peak showed modest agreement (ICCs between 0.71 and 0.76, RLOA between 19.9% and 28.8%. The maximal and average loading-rate showed modest to excellent ICCs (between 0.70 and 0.89, but RLOA were higher (between 34.3% and 45.4%. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that the treadmill is a moderate to highly valid tool for the assessment of vertical ground-reaction forces during running for runners who showed a consistent landing strategy during overground and treadmill running. The high stride-to-stride variance during both overground and treadmill running demonstrates the importance of measuring sufficient steps for representative ground-reaction force values. Therefore, an

  18. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; van Geffen, Jos H. G. M.; Taylor, Michael; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald J.; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Charikleia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4) UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh), in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN) was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990) and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units) proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5° (lat × long) grid cells. TEMIS

  19. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-M. Zempila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4 UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh, in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990 and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5

  20. 30 CFR 75.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.803 Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. [Statutory Provisions] On and after September 30, 1970, high-voltage, resistance grounded systems... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage...

  1. Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satellite- Level 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E. A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET, the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO overpasses the station location within a maximum distance of 100 km. The duration of the ground–based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60% which is attributed to the increase of aerosol horizontal inhomogeneity within the Planetary Boundary Layer, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses by the two instruments. In cases of aerosol layers underlying Cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worse. This is attributed to the significant multiple scattering effects in Cirrus clouds experienced by CALIPSO which result in an attenuation which is less than that measured by the ground-based lidar.

  2. Verification and Validation in Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Debbabi, Mourad; Jarraya, Yosr; Soeanu, Andrei; Alawneh, Luay

    2010-01-01

    "Verification and validation" represents an important process used for the quality assessment of engineered systems and their compliance with the requirements established at the beginning of or during the development cycle. Debbabi and his coauthors investigate methodologies and techniques that can be employed for the automatic verification and validation of systems engineering design models expressed in standardized modeling languages. Their presentation includes a bird's eye view of the most prominent modeling languages for software and systems engineering, namely the Unified Model

  3. The ground-fault detection system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoville, J.T.; Petersen, P.I.

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the ground-fault detection systems on the DIII-D tokamak. The subsystems that must be monitored for an inadvertent ground include the toroidal and poloidal coil systems, the vacuum vessel, and the coil support structures. In general, one point of each coil is tied to coil/power supply ground through a current limiting resistor. For ground protection the current through this resistor is monitored using a dynamically feedback balanced Hall probe transducer from LEM Industries. When large inductive currents flow in closed loops near the tokamak, the result is undesirable magnetic error fields in the plasma region and noise generation on signal cables. Therefore, attention must be paid to avoid closed loops in the design of the coil and vessel support structure. For DIII-D a concept of dual insulating breaks and a single-point ground for all structure elements was used to satisfy this requirement. The integrity of the support structure is monitored by a system which continuously attempts to couple a variable frequency waveform onto these single-point grounds. The presence of an additional ground completes the circuit resulting in current flow. A Rogowski coil is then used to track the unwanted ground path in order to eliminate it. Details of the ground fault detection circuitry, and a description of its operation will be presented. 2 refs., 7 figs

  4. Study of grounding system of large tokamak device JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kiyotsugu; Shimada, Ryuichi; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Yabuno, Kohei; Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1982-01-01

    In the critical plasma testing facility JT-60 constructed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, high voltage, large current is required in an instant. Accordingly, for the protection of human bodies and the equipment, and for realizing the stable operation of the complex, precise control and measurement system, a large scale facility of grounding system is required. In case of the JT-60 experimental facility, the equipments with different functions in separate buildings are connected, therefore, it is an important point to avoid high potential difference between buildings. In the grounding system for the JT-60, a reticulate grounding electrode is laid for each building, and these electrodes are connected with a low impedance metallic duct called grounding trunk line. The power supply cables for various magnetic field coils, control lines and measurement lines are laid in the duct. It is a large problem to grasp quantitatively the effect of a grounding trunk line by analysis. The authors analyzed the phenomenon that large current flows into a grounding system by lightning strike or grounding. The fundamental construction of the grounding system for the JT-60, the condition for the analysis and the result of simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Simulation Validation for Societal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    system. Rather than assuming the existence of an expert experienced in diagnosing a problem, model-based approaches assume the existence of a system...system behavior is required, the method is capable of diagnosing faults that have never occurred before. 44 3.1.5 Causal Reasoning When...BioWar has hundreds of parameters. The resulting parameter space is gigantic . Suppose that the Response Surface Methodology or RSM (Myers and Montgomery

  6. Validation Of Critical Knowledge-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses approach to verification and validation of knowledge-based systems. Also known as "expert systems". Concerned mainly with development of methodologies for verification of knowledge-based systems critical to flight-research systems; e.g., fault-tolerant control systems for advanced aircraft. Subject matter also has relevance to knowledge-based systems controlling medical life-support equipment or commuter railroad systems.

  7. Validation of Metrics for Collaborative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describe the new concepts of collaborative systems metrics validation. The paper define the quality characteristics of collaborative systems. There are proposed a metric to estimate the quality level of collaborative systems. There are performed measurements of collaborative systems quality using a specially designed software.

  8. Validation of Metrics for Collaborative Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ion IVAN; Cristian CIUREA

    2008-01-01

    This paper describe the new concepts of collaborative systems metrics validation. The paper define the quality characteristics of collaborative systems. There are proposed a metric to estimate the quality level of collaborative systems. There are performed measurements of collaborative systems quality using a specially designed software.

  9. On the validity of collective variable description of Bose systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru

    1975-01-01

    The validity of Sunakawa, Yamasaki and Kebukawa's Hamiltonian and that of Bogoliubov and Zubarev's Hamiltonian are examined. Perturbational expansion of the ground state energy by these Hamiltonians disagrees with the exact solution of Lieb and Liniger for one-dimensional Bose system with repulsive delta-function interaction. This fact suggests that these Hamiltonians are not microscopic descriptions of the many-Boson system. Mathematical inconsistency in Bogoliubov and Zubarev's theory is also pointed out. Moreover analytic expression of high density expansion for the ground state energy density e 0 is found out to be e 0 n -3 =γ-(4/3π)γsup(3/2)+(1/6-1/π 2 )γ 2 +O(γsup(5/2)), γ=c/n, for one-dimensional Bose system with delta function interaction (density n, strength 2c, h=2m=1) by the use of the correlated basis function method. (auth.)

  10. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  11. Method for analysis the complex grounding cables system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackovski, R.; Acevski, N.

    2002-01-01

    A new iterative method for the analysis of the performances of the complex grounding systems (GS) in underground cable power networks with coated and/or uncoated metal sheathed cables is proposed in this paper. The analyzed grounding system consists of the grounding grid of a high voltage (HV) supplying transformer station (TS), middle voltage/low voltage (MV/LV) consumer TSs and arbitrary number of power cables, connecting them. The derived method takes into consideration the drops of voltage in the cable sheets and the mutual influence among all earthing electrodes, due to the resistive coupling through the soil. By means of the presented method it is possible to calculate the main grounding system performances, such as earth electrode potentials under short circuit fault to ground conditions, earth fault current distribution in the whole complex grounding system, step and touch voltages in the nearness of the earthing electrodes dissipating the fault current in the earth, impedances (resistances) to ground of all possible fault locations, apparent shield impedances to ground of all power cables, e.t.c. The proposed method is based on the admittance summation method [1] and is appropriately extended, so that it takes into account resistive coupling between the elements that the GS. (Author)

  12. Wideband feedback system prototype validation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K; Bjorsvik, E; Fox, J; Hofle, W; Kotzian, G; Rivetta, C; Salvant, B; Turgut, O

    2017-01-01

    A wideband feedback demonstrator system has been de-veloped in collaboration with US-LARP under the joint lead-ership of CERN and SLAC. The system includes widebandkicker structures and amplifiers along with a fast digital re-configurable system up to 4 GS/s for single bunch and multibunch control. Most of the components have been installedin recent years and have been put into operation to test bothintra-bunch damping and individual bunch control in a multibunch train. In this note we report on the MD program,procedure and key findings that were made with this systemin the past year.

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL-FREQUENCY DUAL-POLARIZED DOPPLER RADAR (D3R) IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) IFloodS data set contain radar reflectivity and doppler velocity measurements. The D3R...

  14. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  15. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  16. Estimating and validating ground-based timber harvesting production through computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2003-01-01

    Estimating ground-based timber harvesting systems production with an object oriented methodology was investigated. The estimation model developed generates stands of trees, simulates chain saw, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip harvester felling, and grapple skidder and forwarder extraction activities, and analyzes costs and productivity. It also...

  17. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  18. Analytical and finite element modeling of grounding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Mauricio Valencia Ferreira da [University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mauricio@grucad.ufsc.br; Dular, Patrick [University of Liege (Belgium). Institut Montefiore], E-mail: Patrick.Dular@ulg.ac.be

    2007-07-01

    Grounding is the art of making an electrical connection to the earth. This paper deals with the analytical and finite element modeling of grounding systems. An electrokinetic formulation using a scalar potential can benefit from floating potentials to define global quantities such as electric voltages and currents. The application concerns a single vertical grounding with one, two and three-layer soil, where the superior extremity stays in the surface of the soil. This problem has been modeled using a 2D axi-symmetric electrokinetic formulation. The grounding resistance obtained by finite element method is compared with the analytical one for one-layer soil. With the results of this paper it is possible to show that finite element method is a powerful tool in the analysis of the grounding systems in low frequencies. (author)

  19. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horton, William

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model GVSI is a top-level analysis tool designed to support engineering tradeoff studies and vehicle design optimization efforts...

  20. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  1. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software utilizes techniques from the fields of model-based reasoning, machine learning, and data mining to build system...

  2. Validation of OMI UV measurements against ground-based measurements at a station in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Stamnes, Jakob; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-04-01

    We present solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance data measured with a NILU-UV instrument at a ground site in Kampala (0.31°N, 32.58°E), Uganda for the period 2005-2014. The data were analyzed and compared with UV irradiances inferred from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the same period. Kampala is located on the shores of lake Victoria, Africa's largest fresh water lake, which may influence the climate and weather conditions of the region. Also, there is an excessive use of worn cars, which may contribute to a high anthropogenic loading of absorbing aerosols. The OMI surface UV algorithm does not account for absorbing aerosols, which may lead to systematic overestimation of surface UV irradiances inferred from OMI satellite data. We retrieved UV index values from OMI UV irradiances and validated them against the ground-based UV index values obtained from NILU-UV measurements. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern similar to that of the clouds and the rainfall. OMI inferred UV index values were overestimated with a mean bias of about 28% under all-sky conditions, but the mean bias was reduced to about 8% under clear-sky conditions when only days with radiation modification factor (RMF) greater than 65% were considered. However, when days with RMF greater than 70, 75, and 80% were considered, OMI inferred UV index values were found to agree with the ground-based UV index values to within 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. In the validation we identified clouds/aerosols, which were present in 88% of the measurements, as the main cause of OMI inferred overestimation of the UV index.

  3. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  4. Classical many-particle systems with unique disordered ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2017-10-01

    Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016), 10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation . For all of the system sizes, parameters, and space dimensions that we have numerically investigated, the disordered ground states are unique such that they can always be superposed onto each other or their mirror image. At low energies, the density of states obtained from simulations matches those calculated from the harmonic approximation near a single ground state, further confirming ground-state uniqueness. Our discovery provides singular examples in which entropy and disorder are at odds with one another. The zero-entropy ground states provide a unique perspective on the celebrated Kauzmann-entropy crisis in which the extrapolated entropy of a supercooled liquid drops below that of the crystal. We expect that our disordered unique patterns to be of value in fields beyond glass physics, including applications in cryptography as pseudorandom functions with tunable computational complexity.

  5. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  6. Launching AI in NASA ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dorothy C.; Truszkowski, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will discuss recent operational successes in implementing expert systems to support the complex functions of NASA mission control systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center, including fault detection and diagnosis for real time and engineering analysis functions in the Cosmic Background Explorer and Gamma Ray Observatory missions and automation of resource planning and scheduling functions for various missions. It will also discuss ongoing developments and prototypes that will lead to increasingly sophisticated applications of artificial intelligence. These include the use of neural networks to perform telemetry monitoring functions, the implementation of generic expert system shells that can be customized to telemetry handling functions specific to NASA control centers, the applications of AI in training and user support, the long-term potential of implementing systems based around distributed, cooperative problem solving, and the use of AI to control and assist system development activities.

  7. 30 CFR 77.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. On and after September 30, 1971, all high-voltage... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. 77.803 Section 77.803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  8. The Electromagnetic Field for a PEC Wedge Over a Grounded Dielectric Slab: 1. Formulation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Vito G.; Lombardi, Guido; Zich, Rodolfo S.

    2017-12-01

    Complex scattering problems are often made by composite structures where wedges and penetrable substrates may interact at near field. In this paper (Part 1) together with its companion paper (Part 2) we study the canonical problem constituted of a Perfectly Electrically Conducting (PEC) wedge lying on a grounded dielectric slab with a comprehensive mathematical model based on the application of the Generalized Wiener-Hopf Technique (GWHT) with the help of equivalent circuital representations for linear homogenous regions (angular and layered regions). The proposed procedure is valid for the general case, and the papers focus on E-polarization. The solution is obtained using analytical and semianalytical approaches that reduce the Wiener-Hopf factorization to integral equations. Several numerical test cases validate the proposed method. The scope of Part 1 is to present the method and its validation applied to the problem. The companion paper Part 2 focuses on the properties of the solution, and it presents physical and engineering insights as Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD)/Uniform Theory of Diffraction(UTD) coefficients, total far fields, modal fields, and excitation of surface and leaky waves for different kinds of source. The structure is of interest in antenna technologies and electromagnetic compatibility (tip on a substrate with guiding and antenna properties).

  9. Status Update on the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The overarching objective of integrated hydrologic ground validation activities supporting the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is to provide better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the satellite products, in the context of hydrologic applications. To this end, the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program is conducting the first of several hydrology-oriented field efforts: the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment. IFloodS will be conducted in the central to northeastern part of Iowa in Midwestern United States during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives and related goals for the IFloodS experiment can be summarized as follows: 1. Quantify the physical characteristics and space/time variability of rain (rates, DSD, process/"regime") and map to satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainty. 2. Assess satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainties at instantaneous to daily time scales and evaluate propagation/impact of uncertainty in flood-prediction. 3. Assess hydrologic predictive skill as a function of space/time scales, basin morphology, and land use/cover. 4. Discern the relative roles of rainfall quantities such as rate and accumulation as compared to other factors (e.g. transport of water in the drainage network) in flood genesis. 5. Refine approaches to "integrated hydrologic GV" concept based on IFloodS experiences and apply to future GPM Integrated GV field efforts. These objectives will be achieved via the deployment of the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms with attendant soil moisture and temperature probes, a large network of both 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers, and USDA-ARS gauge and soil-moisture measurements (in collaboration with the NASA SMAP mission). The aforementioned measurements will be used to complement existing operational WSR-88D S-band polarimetric radar measurements

  10. Mixed-μ magnetic levitation for advanced ground transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1977-12-01

    The possibility of applying the mixed-μ principle for magnetic levitation to ground transport systems is examined. The system is developed specifically for suspension and useful lift to passive weight ratios exceeding 8:1 have been calculated. Application to a hybrid system where conventional wheel drive is used in conjunction with magnetic levitation is explained for urban transport. (author)

  11. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  12. The COROT ground-based archive and access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.; González-Riestra, R.; Catala, C.; Baglin, A.

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of the COROT ground-based archive and access system is presented here. The system has been developed at LAEFF and it is based on the experience gained at Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental (LAEFF) with the INES (IUE Newly Extracted System) Archive.

  13. Ground test accelerator control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burczyk, L.; Dalesio, R.; Dingler, R.; Hill, J.; Howell, J.A.; Kerstiens, D.; King, R.; Kozubal, A.; Little, C.; Martz, V.; Rothrock, R.; Sutton, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the GTA control system that provides an environment in which the automation of a state-of-the-art accelerator can be developed. It makes use of commercially available computers, workstations, computer networks, industrial 110 equipment, and software. This system has built-in supervisory control (like most accelerator control systems), tools to support continuous control (like the process control industry), and sequential control for automatic start-up and fault recovery (like few other accelerator control systems). Several software tools support these levels of control: a real-time operating system (VxWorks) with a real-time kernel (VRTX), a configuration database, a sequencer, and a graphics editor. VxWorks supports multitasking, fast context-switching, and preemptive scheduling. VxWorks/VRTX is a network-based development environment specifically designed to work in partnership with the UNIX operating system. A data base provides the interface to the accelerator components. It consists of a run time library and a database configuration and editing tool. A sequencer initiates and controls the operation of all sequence programs (expressed as state programs). A graphics editor gives the user the ability to create color graphic displays showing the state of the machine in either text or graphics form

  14. Ground-source heat pump systems in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2007-01-01

    The Norwegian ground source heat pump (GSHP) market is reviewed. Boreholes in bedrock are of growing interest for residential systems and of growing interest for larger systems with thermal recharging or thermal energy storage. Ground water is limited to areas where the water has acceptable purity. Challenges and important boundary conditions include 1) high quality GSHP system requires engineering expertise, 2) new building codes and EU directive 'energy performance of buildings.'(2006), and 3) hydronic floor heating systems in 50 percent of new residences (author) (ml)

  15. Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalakis, Spyridon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamza, Eman [NON LANL; Nachtergaele, Bruno [NON LANL; Sims, Robert [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.

  16. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Man; Hongxing, Yang [Renewable Energy Research Group, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Zhaohong, Fang [School of Thermal Energy Engineering, Shandong Architecture University, Jinan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Although ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems are becoming attractive air-conditioning systems in some regions, the significant drawback for their wider application is the high initial cost. Besides, more energy is rejected into ground by the GCHP system installed in cooling-dominated buildings than the energy extracted from ground on an annual basis and this imbalance can result in the degradation of system performance. One of the available options that can resolve these problems is to apply the hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) systems, with supplemental heat rejecters for rejecting extra thermal energy when they are installed in cooling-dominated buildings. This paper presents a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system by modeling the heat transfer of its main components. The computer program developed on this hourly simulation model can be used to calculate the operating data of the HGCHP system according to the building load. The design methods and running control strategies of the HGCHP system for a sample building are investigated. The simulation results show that proper HGCHP system can effectively reduce both the initial cost and the operating cost of an air-conditioning system compared with the traditional GCHP system used in cooling-dominated buildings. (author)

  17. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  18. Validation of MOPITT carbon monoxide using ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer data from NDACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Rebecca R.; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.; Gille, John; Edwards, David P.; Hannigan, James W.; Jones, Nicholas B.; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David W. T.; Smale, Dan; Robinson, John; Strong, Kimberly; Conway, Stephanie; Sussmann, Ralf; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Langerock, Bavo

    2017-06-01

    The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument provides the longest continuous dataset of carbon monoxide (CO) from space. We perform the first validation of MOPITT version 6 retrievals using total column CO measurements from ground-based remote-sensing Fourier transform infrared spectrometers (FTSs). Validation uses data recorded at 14 stations, that span a wide range of latitudes (80° N to 78° S), in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). MOPITT measurements are spatially co-located with each station, and different vertical sensitivities between instruments are accounted for by using MOPITT averaging kernels (AKs). All three MOPITT retrieval types are analyzed: thermal infrared (TIR-only), joint thermal and near infrared (TIR-NIR), and near infrared (NIR-only). Generally, MOPITT measurements overestimate CO relative to FTS measurements, but the bias is typically less than 10 %. Mean bias is 2.4 % for TIR-only, 5.1 % for TIR-NIR, and 6.5 % for NIR-only. The TIR-NIR and NIR-only products consistently produce a larger bias and lower correlation than the TIR-only. Validation performance of MOPITT for TIR-only and TIR-NIR retrievals over land or water scenes is equivalent. The four MOPITT detector element pixels are validated separately to account for their different uncertainty characteristics. Pixel 1 produces the highest standard deviation and lowest correlation for all three MOPITT products. However, for TIR-only and TIR-NIR, the error-weighted average that includes all four pixels often provides the best correlation, indicating compensating pixel biases and well-captured error characteristics. We find that MOPITT bias does not depend on latitude but rather is influenced by the proximity to rapidly changing atmospheric CO. MOPITT bias drift has been bound geographically to within ±0.5 % yr-1 or lower at almost all locations.

  19. Proposed design criteria for a fusion facility electrical ground system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armellino, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground grid design considerations for a nuclear fusion reactor facility are no different than any other facility in that the basis for design must be safety first and foremost. Unlike a conventional industrial facility the available fault energy comes not only from the utility source and in-house rotating machinery, but also from energy storage capacitor banks, collapsing magnetic fields and D.C. transmission lines. It is not inconceivable for a fault condition occurrence where all available energy can be discharged. The ground grid must adequately shunt this sudden energy discharge in a way that personnel will not be exposed by step and/or touch to hazardous energy levels that are in excess of maximum tolerable levels for humans. Fault energy discharge rate is a function of the ground grid surge impedance characteristic. Closed loop paths must be avoided in the ground grid design so that during energy discharge no stray magnetic fields or large voltage potentials between remote points can be created by circulating currents. Single point connection of equipment to the ground grid will afford protection to personnel and sensitive equipment by reducing the probability of circulating currents. The overall ground grid system design is best illustrated as a wagon wheel concept with the fusion machine at the center. Radial branches or spokes reach out to the perimeter limits designated by step-and-touch high risk areas based on soil resistivity criteria considerations. Conventional methods for the design of a ground grid with all of its radial branches are still pertinent. The center of the grid could include a deep well single ground rod element the length of which is at least equivalent to the radius of an imaginary sphere that enshrouds the immediate machine area. Special facilities such as screen rooms or other shielded areas are part of the ground grid system by way of connection to radial branches

  20. Validation of Satellite AOD Data with the Ground PM10 Data over Islamabad Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran

    2016-07-01

    health. In this study, concentrations of PM10 will be monitored at different sites in H-12 sector and Kashmir Highway Islamabad using High volume air sampler and its chemical characterization will be done using Energy Dispersive XRF. The first application of satellite remote sensing for aerosol monitoring began in the mid-1970s to detect the desert particles above the ocean using data from Landsat, GOES, and AVHRR remote sensing satellites. Maps of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over the ocean were produced using the 0.63 µm channel of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) . Aerosols properties were retrieved using AVHRR. The useable range of wavelengths of spectrum (shorter wavelengths and the longer wavelengths) for the remote sensing of the aerosols particles is mostly restricted due to ozone and gaseous absorptions. The purpose of the study is to validate the satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for the regional and local scale for Pakistan Objectives • To quantify the concentration of PM10 • To investigate their elemental composition • To find out their possible sources • Validation with MODIS satellite AOD Methodology: PM10 concentration will be measured at different sites of NUST Islamabad, Pakistan using High volume air sampler an Air sampling equipment capable of sampling high volumes of air (typically 57,000 ft3 or 1,600 m3) at high flow rates (typically 1.13 m3/min or 40 ft3/min) over an extended sampling duration (typically 24 hrs). The sampling period will be of 24 hours. Particles in the PM10 size range are then collected on the filter(s) during the specified 24-h sampling period. Each sample filter will be weighed before and after sampling to determine the net weight (mass) gain of the collected PM10 sample (40 CFR Part 50, Appendix M, US EPA). Next step will be the chemical characterization. Element concentrations will be determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. The ED-XRF system uses an X-ray tube to

  1. Validation of neural spike sorting algorithms without ground-truth information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alex H; Magland, Jeremy F; Greengard, Leslie F

    2016-05-01

    The throughput of electrophysiological recording is growing rapidly, allowing thousands of simultaneous channels, and there is a growing variety of spike sorting algorithms designed to extract neural firing events from such data. This creates an urgent need for standardized, automatic evaluation of the quality of neural units output by such algorithms. We introduce a suite of validation metrics that assess the credibility of a given automatic spike sorting algorithm applied to a given dataset. By rerunning the spike sorter two or more times, the metrics measure stability under various perturbations consistent with variations in the data itself, making no assumptions about the internal workings of the algorithm, and minimal assumptions about the noise. We illustrate the new metrics on standard sorting algorithms applied to both in vivo and ex vivo recordings, including a time series with overlapping spikes. We compare the metrics to existing quality measures, and to ground-truth accuracy in simulated time series. We provide a software implementation. Metrics have until now relied on ground-truth, simulated data, internal algorithm variables (e.g. cluster separation), or refractory violations. By contrast, by standardizing the interface, our metrics assess the reliability of any automatic algorithm without reference to internal variables (e.g. feature space) or physiological criteria. Stability is a prerequisite for reproducibility of results. Such metrics could reduce the significant human labor currently spent on validation, and should form an essential part of large-scale automated spike sorting and systematic benchmarking of algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring Ground Subsidence in Hong Kong via Spaceborne Radar: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiao Qin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI technique is gradually becoming known for its capability of providing up to millimeter accuracy of measurement on ground displacement. Nevertheless, there is still quite a good amount of doubt regarding its correctness or accuracy. In this paper, we carried out an experiment corroborating the capability of the PSI technique with the help of a traditional survey method in the urban area of Hong Kong, China. Seventy three TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX images spanning over four years are used for the data process. There are three aims of this study. The first is to generate a displacement map of urban Hong Kong and to check for spots with possible ground movements. This information will be provided to the local surveyors so that they can check these specific locations. The second is to validate if the accuracy of the PSI technique can indeed reach the millimeter level in this real application scenario. For validating the accuracy of PSI, four corner reflectors (CR were installed at a construction site on reclaimed land in Hong Kong. They were manually moved up or down by a few to tens of millimeters, and the value derived from the PSI analysis was compared to the true value. The experiment, carried out in unideal conditions, nevertheless proved undoubtedly that millimeter accuracy can be achieved by the PSI technique. The last is to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PSI technique. Overall, the PSI technique can be extremely useful if used in collaboration with other techniques, so that the advantages can be highlighted and the drawbacks avoided.

  3. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  4. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  5. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  6. Cross Validation of Rain Drop Size Distribution between GPM and Ground Based Polarmetric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, C. V.; Biswas, S.; Le, M.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite has reflectivity measurements at two independent frequencies, Ku- and Ka- band. Dual-frequency retrieval algorithms have been developed traditionally through forward, backward, and recursive approaches. However, these algorithms suffer from "dual-value" problem when they retrieve medium volume diameter from dual-frequency ratio (DFR) in rain region. To this end, a hybrid method has been proposed to perform raindrop size distribution (DSD) retrieval for GPM using a linear constraint of DSD along rain profile to avoid "dual-value" problem (Le and Chandrasekar, 2015). In the current GPM level 2 algorithm (Iguchi et al. 2017- Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document) the Solver module retrieves a vertical profile of drop size distributionn from dual-frequency observations and path integrated attenuations. The algorithm details can be found in Seto et al. (2013) . On the other hand, ground based polarimetric radars have been used for a long time to estimate drop size distributions (e.g., Gorgucci et al. 2002 ). In addition, coincident GPM and ground based observations have been cross validated using careful overpass analysis. In this paper, we perform cross validation on raindrop size distribution retrieval from three sources, namely the hybrid method, the standard products from the solver module and DSD retrievals from ground polarimetric radars. The results are presented from two NEXRAD radars located in Dallas -Fort Worth, Texas (i.e., KFWS radar) and Melbourne, Florida (i.e., KMLB radar). The results demonstrate the ability of DPR observations to produce DSD estimates, which can be used subsequently to generate global DSD maps. References: Seto, S., T. Iguchi, T. Oki, 2013: The basic performance of a precipitation retrieval algorithm for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission's single/dual-frequency radar measurements. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and

  7. Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2001-01-01

    Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems with an object-oriented methodology was investigated. Object-oriented modeling and design promote a better understanding of requirements, cleaner designs, and better maintainability of the harvesting simulation system. The model developed simulates chainsaw felling, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip...

  8. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  9. SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground Fault Location in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground fault location methods in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System, including ungrounded system, resonant grounded system and high-resistance grounded system which are widely used in Northern Europe and China. This type of fault is hard to detect and location because fault current is the sum of capacitance current of the system which is always small(about tens of amperes. The characteristics of SLG fault in NUGS and the fault location methods are introduced in the paper.

  10. Investigations and model validation of a ground-coupled heat pump for the combination with solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pärisch, Peter; Mercker, Oliver; Warmuth, Jonas; Tepe, Rainer; Bertram, Erik; Rockendorf, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    The operation of ground-coupled heat pumps in combination with solar collectors requires comprising knowledge of the heat pump behavior under non-standard conditions. Especially higher temperatures and varying flow rates in comparison to non-solar systems have to be taken into account. Furthermore the dynamic behavior becomes more important. At ISFH, steady-state and dynamic tests of a typical brine/water heat pump have been carried out in order to analyze its behavior under varying operation conditions. It has been shown, that rising source temperatures do only significantly increase the coefficient of performance (COP), if the source temperature is below 10–20 °C, depending on the temperature lift between source and sink. The flow rate, which has been varied both on the source and the sink side, only showed a minor influence on the exergetic efficiency. Additionally a heat pump model for TRNSYS has been validated under non-standard conditions. The results are assessed by means of TRNSYS simulations. -- Highlights: • A brine/water heat pump was tested under steady-state and transient conditions. • Decline of exergetic efficiency at low temperature lifts, no influence of flow rate. • Expected improvement by reciprocating compressor and electronic expansion valve for solar assisted heat source. • A TRNSYS black box model (YUM) was validated and a flow rate correction was proven • The start-up behavior is a very important parameter for system simulations

  11. Securing Ground Data System Applications for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajevski, Michael J.; Tso, Kam S.; Johnson, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence and sophistication of cyber attacks has prompted the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) Program Office at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to initiate the Common Access Manager (CAM) effort to protect software applications used in Ground Data Systems (GDSs) at JPL and other NASA Centers. The CAM software provides centralized services and software components used by GDS subsystems to meet access control requirements and ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. In this paper we describe the CAM software; examples of its integration with spacecraft commanding software applications and an information management service; and measurements of its performance and reliability.

  12. Model validation: a systemic and systematic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Elzas, M.S.; Cronhjort, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    The term 'validation' is used ubiquitously in association with the modelling activities of numerous disciplines including social, political natural, physical sciences, and engineering. There is however, a wide range of definitions which give rise to very different interpretations of what activities the process involves. Analyses of results from the present large international effort in modelling radioactive waste disposal systems illustrate the urgent need to develop a common approach to model validation. Some possible explanations are offered to account for the present state of affairs. The methodology developed treats model validation and code verification in a systematic fashion. In fact, this approach may be regarded as a comprehensive framework to assess the adequacy of any simulation study. (author)

  13. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  14. Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-05-21

    The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Wilhelm, A. N., Surgenor, B. W., and Pharoah, J. G., “Design and evaluation of a micro-fuel-cell-based power system for a mobile robot,” Mechatronics ... Embedded Control Systems ], Control Engineering, 91–116, Birkhuser Boston (2005). [12] Alur, R., Courcoubetis, C., Halbwachs, N., Henzinger, T., Ho, P.-H...Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System John Brodericka∗, Jack Hartnerb, Dawn Tilburya, and Ella Atkinsa aThe University

  16. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  17. Report on the Audit of Unattended Ground Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-26

    This final report on the Audit of Unattended Ground Sensor Systems is for your information and use. Comments on the draft were considered in...preparing the final report and changes have been made where appropriate. We performed the audit from February through August 1990. The objective was to

  18. Culturally grounded indicators of resilience in social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor Sterling; Tamara Ticktin; Tē Kipa Kepa Morgan; Georgina Cullman; Diana Alvira; Pelika Andrade; Nadia Bergamini; Erin Betley; Kate Burrows; Sophie Caillon; Joachim Claudet; Rachel Dacks; Pablo Eyzaguirre; Chris Filardi; Nadav Gazit; Christian Giardina; Stacy Jupiter; Kealohanuiopuna Kinney; Joe McCarter; Manuel Mejia; Kanoe Morishige; Jennifer Newell; Lihla Noori; John Parks; Pua‘ala Pascua; Ashwin Ravikumar; Jamie Tanguay; Amanda Sigouin; Tina Stege; Mark Stege; Alaka Wali

    2017-01-01

    Measuring progress toward sustainability goals is a multifaceted task. International, regional, and national organizations and agencies seek to promote resilience and capacity for adaptation at local levels. However, their measurement systems may be poorly aligned with local contexts, cultures, and needs. Understanding how to build effective, culturally grounded...

  19. Validation of low-volume enrichment protocols for detection of Escherichia coli O157 in raw ground beef components, using commercial kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imtiaz; Hughes, Denise; Jenson, Ian; Karalis, Tass

    2009-03-01

    Testing of beef destined for use in ground beef products for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has become an important cornerstone of control and verification activities within many meat supply chains. Validation of the ability of methods to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 is critical to confidence in test systems. Many rapid methods have been validated against standard cultural methods for 25-g samples. In this study, a number of previously validated enrichment broths and commercially available test kits were validated for the detection of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in 375-g samples of raw ground beef component matrices using 1 liter of enrichment broth (large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocol). Standard AOAC International methods for 25-g samples in 225 ml of enrichment broth, using the same media, incubation conditions, and test kits, were used as reference methods. No significant differences were detected in the ability of any of the tests to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 in samples of raw ground beef components when enriched according to standard or large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols. The use of large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols provides cost savings for media and logistical benefits when handling and incubating large numbers of samples.

  20. Method for validating cloud mask obtained from satellite measurements using ground-based sky camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letu, Husi; Nagao, Takashi M; Nakajima, Takashi Y; Matsumae, Yoshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Error propagation in Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, and land surface parameters of the satellite products caused by misclassification of the cloud mask is a critical issue for improving the accuracy of satellite products. Thus, characterizing the accuracy of the cloud mask is important for investigating the influence of the cloud mask on satellite products. In this study, we proposed a method for validating multiwavelength satellite data derived cloud masks using ground-based sky camera (GSC) data. First, a cloud cover algorithm for GSC data has been developed using sky index and bright index. Then, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data derived cloud masks by two cloud-screening algorithms (i.e., MOD35 and CLAUDIA) were validated using the GSC cloud mask. The results indicate that MOD35 is likely to classify ambiguous pixels as "cloudy," whereas CLAUDIA is likely to classify them as "clear." Furthermore, the influence of error propagations caused by misclassification of the MOD35 and CLAUDIA cloud masks on MODIS derived reflectance, brightness temperature, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in clear and cloudy pixels was investigated using sky camera data. It shows that the influence of the error propagation by the MOD35 cloud mask on the MODIS derived monthly mean reflectance, brightness temperature, and NDVI for clear pixels is significantly smaller than for the CLAUDIA cloud mask; the influence of the error propagation by the CLAUDIA cloud mask on MODIS derived monthly mean cloud products for cloudy pixels is significantly smaller than that by the MOD35 cloud mask.

  1. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms for a well-observed historical earthquake. Then, the BBP calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes 5 simulation methods, 7 simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, the ability to compare simulation results

  2. Metrology of ground-based satellite validation: co-location mismatch and smoothing issues of total ozone comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Verhoelst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons with ground-based correlative measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite data on atmospheric composition. The error budget of these comparisons contains not only the measurement errors but also several terms related to differences in sampling and smoothing of the inhomogeneous and variable atmospheric field. A versatile system for Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs, named OSSSMOSE, is used here to quantify these terms. Based on the application of pragmatic observation operators onto high-resolution atmospheric fields, it allows a simulation of each individual measurement, and consequently, also of the differences to be expected from spatial and temporal field variations between both measurements making up a comparison pair. As a topical case study, the system is used to evaluate the error budget of total ozone column (TOC comparisons between GOME-type direct fitting (GODFITv3 satellite retrievals from GOME/ERS2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A, and ground-based direct-sun and zenith–sky reference measurements such as those from Dobsons, Brewers, and zenith-scattered light (ZSL-DOAS instruments, respectively. In particular, the focus is placed on the GODFITv3 reprocessed GOME-2A data record vs. the ground-based instruments contributing to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. The simulations are found to reproduce the actual measurements almost to within the measurement uncertainties, confirming that the OSSE approach and its technical implementation are appropriate. This work reveals that many features of the comparison spread and median difference can be understood as due to metrological differences, even when using strict co-location criteria. In particular, sampling difference errors exceed measurement uncertainties regularly at most mid- and high-latitude stations, with values up to 10 % and more in extreme cases. Smoothing difference errors only

  3. Instrument validation system of general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filshtein, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Instrument Validation System (IVS) as a software system which has the capability of evaluating the performance of a set of functionally related instrument channels to identify failed instruments and to quantify instrument drift. Under funding from Combustion Engineering (C-E), the IVS has been developed to the extent that a computer program exists whose use has been demonstrated. The initial development work shows promise for success and for wide application, not only to power plants, but also to industrial manufacturing and process control. Applications in the aerospace and military sector are also likely

  4. An Experimental Facility to Validate Ground Source Heat Pump Optimisation Models for the Australian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs are one of the most widespread forms of geothermal energy technology. They utilise the near-constant temperature of the ground below the frost line to achieve energy-efficiencies two or three times that of conventional air-conditioners, consequently allowing a significant offset in electricity demand for space heating and cooling. Relatively mature GSHP markets are established in Europe and North America. GSHP implementation in Australia, however, is limited, due to high capital price, uncertainties regarding optimum designs for the Australian climate, and limited consumer confidence in the technology. Existing GSHP design standards developed in the Northern Hemisphere are likely to lead to suboptimal performance in Australia where demand might be much more cooling-dominated. There is an urgent need to develop Australia’s own GSHP system optimisation principles on top of the industry standards to provide confidence to bring the GSHP market out of its infancy. To assist in this, the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE has commissioned a fully instrumented GSHP experimental facility in Gatton, Australia, as a publically-accessible demonstration of the technology and a platform for systematic studies of GSHPs, including optimisation of design and operations. This paper presents a brief review on current GSHP use in Australia, the technical details of the Gatton GSHP facility, and an analysis on the observed cooling performance of this facility to date.

  5. Modified ground-truthing: an accurate and cost-effective food environment validation method for town and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Friebur, Robin

    2016-03-17

    A major concern in food environment research is the lack of accuracy in commercial business listings of food stores, which are convenient and commonly used. Accuracy concerns may be particularly pronounced in rural areas. Ground-truthing or on-site verification has been deemed the necessary standard to validate business listings, but researchers perceive this process to be costly and time-consuming. This study calculated the accuracy and cost of ground-truthing three town/rural areas in Minnesota, USA (an area of 564 miles, or 908 km), and simulated a modified validation process to increase efficiency without comprising accuracy. For traditional ground-truthing, all streets in the study area were driven, while the route and geographic coordinates of food stores were recorded. The process required 1510 miles (2430 km) of driving and 114 staff hours. The ground-truthed list of stores was compared with commercial business listings, which had an average positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.57 and sensitivity of 0.62 across the three sites. Using observations from the field, a modified process was proposed in which only the streets located within central commercial clusters (the 1/8 mile or 200 m buffer around any cluster of 2 stores) would be validated. Modified ground-truthing would have yielded an estimated PPV of 1.00 and sensitivity of 0.95, and would have resulted in a reduction in approximately 88 % of the mileage costs. We conclude that ground-truthing is necessary in town/rural settings. The modified ground-truthing process, with excellent accuracy at a fraction of the costs, suggests a new standard and warrants further evaluation.

  6. Automatic Scheduling and Planning (ASAP) in future ground control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlin, Sam

    1988-01-01

    This report describes two complementary approaches to the problem of space mission planning and scheduling. The first is an Expert System or Knowledge-Based System for automatically resolving most of the activity conflicts in a candidate plan. The second is an Interactive Graphics Decision Aid to assist the operator in manually resolving the residual conflicts which are beyond the scope of the Expert System. The two system designs are consistent with future ground control station activity requirements, support activity timing constraints, resource limits and activity priority guidelines.

  7. The power of ground user in recommender systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Zhou

    Full Text Available Accuracy and diversity are two important aspects to evaluate the performance of recommender systems. Two diffusion-based methods were proposed respectively inspired by the mass diffusion (MD and heat conduction (HC processes on networks. It has been pointed out that MD has high recommendation accuracy yet low diversity, while HC succeeds in seeking out novel or niche items but with relatively low accuracy. The accuracy-diversity dilemma is a long-term challenge in recommender systems. To solve this problem, we introduced a background temperature by adding a ground user who connects to all the items in the user-item bipartite network. Performing the HC algorithm on the network with ground user (GHC, it showed that the accuracy can be largely improved while keeping the diversity. Furthermore, we proposed a weighted form of the ground user (WGHC by assigning some weights to the newly added links between the ground user and the items. By turning the weight as a free parameter, an optimal value subject to the highest accuracy is obtained. Experimental results on three benchmark data sets showed that the WGHC outperforms the state-of-the-art method MD for both accuracy and diversity.

  8. The power of ground user in recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanbo; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping; Zhang, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Accuracy and diversity are two important aspects to evaluate the performance of recommender systems. Two diffusion-based methods were proposed respectively inspired by the mass diffusion (MD) and heat conduction (HC) processes on networks. It has been pointed out that MD has high recommendation accuracy yet low diversity, while HC succeeds in seeking out novel or niche items but with relatively low accuracy. The accuracy-diversity dilemma is a long-term challenge in recommender systems. To solve this problem, we introduced a background temperature by adding a ground user who connects to all the items in the user-item bipartite network. Performing the HC algorithm on the network with ground user (GHC), it showed that the accuracy can be largely improved while keeping the diversity. Furthermore, we proposed a weighted form of the ground user (WGHC) by assigning some weights to the newly added links between the ground user and the items. By turning the weight as a free parameter, an optimal value subject to the highest accuracy is obtained. Experimental results on three benchmark data sets showed that the WGHC outperforms the state-of-the-art method MD for both accuracy and diversity.

  9. Engineering Software Suite Validates System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    EDAptive Computing Inc.'s (ECI) EDAstar engineering software tool suite, created to capture and validate system design requirements, was significantly funded by NASA's Ames Research Center through five Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. These programs specifically developed Syscape, used to capture executable specifications of multi-disciplinary systems, and VectorGen, used to automatically generate tests to ensure system implementations meet specifications. According to the company, the VectorGen tests considerably reduce the time and effort required to validate implementation of components, thereby ensuring their safe and reliable operation. EDASHIELD, an additional product offering from ECI, can be used to diagnose, predict, and correct errors after a system has been deployed using EDASTAR -created models. Initial commercialization for EDASTAR included application by a large prime contractor in a military setting, and customers include various branches within the U.S. Department of Defense, industry giants like the Lockheed Martin Corporation, Science Applications International Corporation, and Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, as well as NASA's Langley and Glenn Research Centers

  10. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  11. Validation of the CrIS fast physical NH3 retrieval with ground-based FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dammers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented here is the validation of the CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder fast physical NH3 retrieval (CFPR column and profile measurements using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR observations. We use the total columns and profiles from seven FTIR sites in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC to validate the satellite data products. The overall FTIR and CrIS total columns have a positive correlation of r  =  0.77 (N  =  218 with very little bias (a slope of 1.02. Binning the comparisons by total column amounts, for concentrations larger than 1.0  ×  1016 molecules cm−2, i.e. ranging from moderate to polluted conditions, the relative difference is on average ∼ 0–5 % with a standard deviation of 25–50 %, which is comparable to the estimated retrieval uncertainties in both CrIS and the FTIR. For the smallest total column range (< 1.0  × 1016 molecules cm−2 where there are a large number of observations at or near the CrIS noise level (detection limit the absolute differences between CrIS and the FTIR total columns show a slight positive column bias. The CrIS and FTIR profile comparison differences are mostly within the range of the single-level retrieved profile values from estimated retrieval uncertainties, showing average differences in the range of  ∼ 20 to 40 %. The CrIS retrievals typically show good vertical sensitivity down into the boundary layer which typically peaks at  ∼ 850 hPa (∼ 1.5 km. At this level the median absolute difference is 0.87 (std  =  ±0.08 ppb, corresponding to a median relative difference of 39 % (std  =  ±2 %. Most of the absolute and relative profile comparison differences are in the range of the estimated retrieval uncertainties. At the surface, where CrIS typically has lower sensitivity, it tends to overestimate in low-concentration conditions and underestimate

  12. Validation of strong-motion stochastic model using observed ground motion records in north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipok K. Bora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We focused on validation of applicability of semi-empirical technique (spectral models and stochastic simulation for the estimation of ground-motion characteristics in the northeastern region (NER of India. In the present study, it is assumed that the point source approximation in far field is valid. The one-dimensional stochastic point source seismological model of Boore (1983 (Boore, DM. 1983. Stochastic simulation of high frequency ground motions based on seismological models of the radiated spectra. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1865–1894. is used for modelling the acceleration time histories. Total ground-motion records of 30 earthquakes of magnitudes lying between MW 4.2 and 6.2 in NER India from March 2008 to April 2013 are used for this study. We considered peak ground acceleration (PGA and pseudospectral acceleration (response spectrum amplitudes with 5% damping ratio at three fundamental natural periods, namely: 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 s. The spectral models, which work well for PGA, overestimate the pseudospectral acceleration. It seems that there is a strong influence of local site amplification and crustal attenuation (kappa, which control spectral amplitudes at different frequencies. The results would allow analysing regional peculiarities of ground-motion excitation and propagation and updating seismic hazard assessment, both the probabilistic and deterministic approaches.

  13. Web-Altairis: An Internet-Enabled Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Phil; Coleman, Jason; Gemoets, Darren; Hughes, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Web-Altairis, an Internet-enabled ground system software package funded by the Advanced Automation and Architectures Branch (Code 588) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Web-Altairis supports the trend towards "lights out" ground systems, where the control center is unattended and problems are resolved by remote operators. This client/server software runs on most popular platforms and provides for remote data visualization using the rich functionality of the VisAGE toolkit. Web-Altairis also supports satellite commanding over the Internet. This paper describes the structure of Web-Altairis and VisAGE, the underlying technologies, the provisions for security, and our experiences in developing and testing the software.

  14. Advanced control for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP), also known as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are proven advanced HVAC systems that utilize clean and renewable geothermal energy, as well as the massive thermal storage capacity of the ground, to provide space conditioning and water heating for both residential and commercial buildings. GSHPs have higher energy efficiencies than conventional HVAC systems. It is estimated, if GSHPs achieve a 10% market share in the US, in each year, 0.6 Quad Btu primary energy consumption can be saved and 36 million tons carbon emissions can be avoided (Liu et al. 2017). However, the current market share of GSHPs is less than 1%. The foremost barrier preventing wider adoption of GSHPs is their high installation costs. To enable wider adoption of GSHPs, the costeffectiveness of GSHP applications must be improved.

  15. Ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Haule, Kristjan

    2012-02-10

    We resolve the controversy regarding the ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system near half filling. The numerical renormalization group predicts an underscreened Kondo state with residual spin-1/2 magnetic moment, ln2 residual impurity entropy, and unitary conductance, while the Bethe ansatz solution predicts a fully screened impurity, regular Fermi-liquid ground state, and zero conductance. We calculate the impurity entropy of the system as a function of the temperature using the hybridization-expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo technique, which is a numerically exact stochastic method, and find excellent agreement with the numerical renormalization group results. We show that the origin of the unconventional behavior in this model is the odd-symmetry "dark state" on the dots.

  16. Study on load temperature control system of ground laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xunhua; Zhang, Hongtao; Liu, Wangsheng; Zhang, Chijun; Zhou, Xun

    2007-12-01

    The ground laser communication terminal as the termination of a communication system, works at the temperature which varies from -40°C to 50°C. We design a temperature control system to keep optical and electronic components working properly in the load. The load is divided into two sections to control temperature respectively. Because the space is limited, we use heater film and thermoelectric cooler to clearify and refrigerate the load. We design a hardware and a software for the temperature control system, establish mathematic model, and emulate it with Matlab.

  17. Practical Approach on Lightning and Grounding Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Jose Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Lightning Protection and Grounding of Electrical and Mechanical equipment’s for the Protection of the Human Beings, Structure of the building and equipment protection, safe working of the Worker at Industry as per my latest practical knowledge in the site environment in extreme climatic condition of low lying areas of the Gulf Region in the challenging projects. All the conductor calculation, Lightning Risk Factor calculations, all the system information regarding the ...

  18. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Attitude Ground System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Joseph E.; Superfin, Emil; Raymond, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude ground system (AGS) design to be used for support of the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission. The AGS exists as one component of the mission operations control center. It has responsibility for validating the onboard attitude and accelerometer bias estimates, calibrating the attitude sensors and the spacecraft inertia tensor, and generating a definitive attitude history for use by the science teams. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland is responsible for developing the MMS spacecraft, for the overall management of the MMS mission, and for mission operations. MMS is scheduled for launch in 2014 for a planned two-year mission. The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation in an eccentric Earth orbit. The relatively tight formation, ranging from 10 to 400 km, will provide coordinated observations giving insight into small-scale magnetic field reconnection processes. By varying the size of the tetrahedron and the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity, and making use of the changing solar phase, this geometry allows for the study of both bow shock and magnetotail plasma physics, including acceleration, reconnection, and turbulence. The mission divides into two phases for science; these phases will have orbit dimensions of l.2xl2 Earth radii in the first phase and l.2x25 Earth radii in the second in order to study the dayside magnetopause and the nightside magnetotail, respectively. The orbital periods are roughly one day and three days for the two mission phases. Each of the four MMS spacecraft will be spin stabilized at 3 revolutions per minute (rpm), with the spin axis oriented near the ecliptic north pole but tipped approximately 2.5 deg towards the Sun line. The main body of each spacecraft will be an eight-sided platform with diameter of 3.4 m and height of 1.2 m. Several booms are attached to this central core: two axial booms of 14.9 m length, two radial

  19. Mitigation of ground motion effects via feedback systems in the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen; Schmickler, Hermann; Schulte, Daniel

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a future multi-TeV electron positron collider, which is currently being designed at CERN. To achieve its ambitious goals, CLIC has to produce particle beams of the highest quality, which makes the accelerator very sensitive to ground motion. Four mitigation methods have been foreseen by the CLIC design group to cope with the feasibility issue of ground motion. This thesis is concerned with the design of one of these mitigation methods, named linac feedback (L-FB), but also with the simultaneous simulation and validation of all mitigation methods. Additionally, a technique to improve the quality of the indispensable system knowledge has been developed. The L-FB suppresses beam oscillations along the accelerator. Its design is based on the decoupling of the overall accelerator system into independent channels. For each channel an individual compensator is found with the help of a semi- automatic control synthesis procedure. This technique allows the designer to incorporate ...

  20. Verification and Validation Issues in Systems of Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Honour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cutting edge in systems development today is in the area of "systems of systems" (SoS large networks of inter-related systems that are developed and managed separately, but that also perform collective activities. Such large systems typically involve constituent systems operating with different life cycles, often with uncoordinated evolution. The result is an ever-changing SoS in which adaptation and evolution replace the older engineering paradigm of "development". This short paper presents key thoughts about verification and validation in this environment. Classic verification and validation methods rely on having (a a basis of proof, in requirements and in operational scenarios, and (b a known system configuration to be proven. However, with constant SoS evolution, management of both requirements and system configurations are problematic. Often, it is impossible to maintain a valid set of requirements for the SoS due to the ongoing changes in the constituent systems. Frequently, it is even difficult to maintain a vision of the SoS operational use as users find new ways to adapt the SoS. These features of the SoS result in significant challenges for system proof. In addition to discussing the issues, the paper also indicates some of the solutions that are currently used to prove the SoS.

  1. Validation of human factor engineering integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Apart from hundreds of thousands of human-machine interface resources, the control room of a nuclear power plant is a complex system integrated with many factors such as procedures, operators, environment, organization and management. In the design stage, these factors are considered by different organizations separately. However, whether above factors could corporate with each other well in operation and whether they have good human factors engineering (HFE) design to avoid human error, should be answered in validation of the HFE integrated system before delivery of the plant. This paper addresses the research and implementation of the ISV technology based on case study. After introduction of the background, process and methodology of ISV, the results of the test are discussed. At last, lessons learned from this research are summarized. (authors)

  2. Active Sensor Configuration Validation for Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    -diagnosis methods falling short on this problem, this paper suggests an active diagnosis procedure to isolate sensor faults at the commissioning stage, before normal operation has started. Using statistical methods, residuals are evaluated versus multiple hypothesis models in a minimization process to uniquely......Major faults in the commissioning phase of refrigeration systems are caused by defects related to sensors. With a number of similar sensors available that do not differ by type but only by spatial location in the plant, interchange of sensors is a common defect. With sensors being used quite...... differently by the control system, fault-finding is difficult in practice and defects are regularly causing commissioning delays at considerable expense. Validation and handling of faults in the sensor configuration are therefore essential to cut costs during commissioning. With passive fault...

  3. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Buist, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Background: One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF) values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground

  4. Integrated Unmanned Air-Ground Robotics System, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-20

    3) IPT Integrated Product Team IRP Intermediate Power Rating JAUGS TBD JCDL TBD Joint Vision 2020 TBD Km Kilometer lbs. pounds MAE Mechanical and...compatible with emerging JCDL and/or JAUGS . 2.3.2.2. Payload must be “plug and play.” 2.3.3. Communications 2.3.3.1. System communications shall be robust...Power JCDL JAUGS Joint Architecture for Unmanned Ground Systems JP-8 Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 km Kilometer lbs. Pounds LOS Line Of Sight MAE Mechanical

  5. Ground target geolocation based on digital elevation model for airborne wide-area reconnaissance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chuan; Ding, Yalin; Xu, Yongsen; Xiu, Jihong

    2018-01-01

    To obtain the geographical position of the ground target accurately, a geolocation algorithm based on the digital elevation model (DEM) is developed for an airborne wide-area reconnaissance system. According to the platform position and attitude information measured by the airborne position and orientation system and the gimbal angles information from the encoder, the line-of-sight pointing vector in the Earth-centered Earth-fixed coordinate frame is solved by the homogeneous coordinate transformation. The target longitude and latitude can be solved with the elliptical Earth model and the global DEM. The influences of the systematic error and measurement error on ground target geolocation calculation accuracy are analyzed by the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that this algorithm can improve the geolocation accuracy of ground target in rough terrain area obviously. The geolocation accuracy of moving ground target can be improved by moving average filtering (MAF). The validity of the geolocation algorithm is verified by the flight test in which the plane flies at a geodetic height of 15,000 m and the outer gimbal angle is <47°. The geolocation root mean square error of the target trajectory is <45 and <7 m after MAF.

  6. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  7. Validity of single term energy expression for ground state rotational band of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: There are large numbers of empirical studies of gs band of even-even nuclei in various mass regions. The Bohr-Mottelson's energy expression is E(I) = AX + BX 2 +CX 3 +... where X = I(I+1). The anharmonic vibrator energy expression is: E(I) = al + bl 2 + cl 3 SF model with energy expression: E(I)= pX + qI + rXI... where the terms represents the rotational, vibrational and R-V interaction energy, respectively. The validity f the various energy expressions with two terms had been tested by Sharma for light, medium and heavy mass regions using R I s. R 4 plots (where, spin I=6, 8, 10, 12), which are parameter independent. It was also noted, that of the goodness of energy expression can be judged with the minimum input of energies (i.e. only 2 parameters) and predictability's of the model p to high spins. Recently, Gupta et. al proposed a single term energy expression (SSTE) which was applied for rare earth region. This proposed power law reflected the unity of rotation - vibration in a different way and was successful in explaining the structure of gs-band. It will be useful for test the single term energy expression for light and heavy mass region. The single term expression for energy of ground state band can be written as: E I =axI b , where the index b and the coefficient a are the constant for the band. The values of b+1 and a 1 are as follows: b 1 =log(R 1 )/log(I/2) and a 1 =E I /I b ... The following results were gained: 1) The sharp variation in the value of index b at given spin will be an indication of the change in the shape of the nucleus; 2) The value of E I /I b is fairly constant with spin below back-bending, which reflects the stability of shape with spin; 3) This proposed power law is successful in explaining the structure of gs-band of nuclei

  8. Ground loops detection system in the RFX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellina, F.; Pomaro, N.; Trevisan, F.

    1996-01-01

    RFX is a toroidal machine for the fusion research based on the RFP configuration. During the pulse, in any conductive loop close to the machine very strong currents can be induced, which may damage the diagnostics and the other instrumentation. To avoid loops, the earthing system of the machine is tree-shaped. However, an accidental contact between metallic earthed masses of the machine may give rise to an unwanted loop as well. An automatic system for the detection of ground loops in the earthing system has therefore been developed, which works continuously during shutdown intervals and between pulses. In the paper the design of the detection system is presented, together with the experimental results on prototypes. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral......The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint...

  10. Local spectral anisotropy is a valid cue for figure–ground organization in natural scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramenahalli, Sudarshan; Mihalas, Stefan; Niebur, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    An important step in the process of understanding visual scenes is its organization in different perceptual objects which requires figure-ground segregation. The determination which side of an occlusion boundary is figure (closer to the observer) and which is ground (further away from the observer) is made through a combination of global cues, like convexity, and local cues, like T-junctions. We here focus on a novel set of local cues in the intensity patterns along occlusion boundaries which...

  11. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  12. The reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cristiana Kahl; Johnson, Vicky Saliba; Godwin, Ellen M; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-07-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System (SPCS). Two physical therapists classified pictures of 100 volunteer participants standing in their habitual posture for inter and intra-tester reliability. For validity, 54 participants stood on a force plate in a habitual and a corrected posture, while a vertical force was applied through the shoulders until the clinician felt a postural give. Data were extracted at the time the give was felt and at a time in the corrected posture that matched the peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) in the habitual posture. Inter-tester reliability demonstrated 75% agreement with a Kappa = 0.64 (95% CI = 0.524-0.756, SE = 0.059). Intra-tester reliability demonstrated 87% agreement with a Kappa = 0.8, (95% CI = 0.702-0.898, SE = 0.05) and 80% agreement with a Kappa = 0.706, (95% CI = 0.594-0818, SE = 0.057). The examiner applied a significantly higher (p < 0.001) peak vertical force in the corrected posture prior to a postural give when compared to the habitual posture. Within the corrected posture, the %VGRF was higher when the test was ongoing vs. when a postural give was felt (p < 0.001). The %VGRF was not different between the two postures when comparing the peaks (p = 0.214). The SPCS has substantial agreement for inter- and intra-tester reliability and is largely a valid postural classification system as determined by the larger vertical forces in the corrected postures. Further studies on the correlation between the SPCS and diagnostic classifications are indicated.

  13. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  14. Effects of space weather on high-latitude ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Risto

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems, such as power grids, pipelines, cables and railways, are a ground manifestation of space weather. The first GIC observations were already made in early telegraph equipment more than 150 years ago. In power networks, GIC may saturate transformers with possible harmful consequences extending even to a collapse of the whole system or to permanent damage of transformers. In pipelines, GIC and the associated pipe-to-soil voltages may enhance corrosion or disturb surveys associated with corrosion control. GIC are driven by the geoelectric field induced by a geomagnetic variation at the Earth’s surface. The electric and magnetic fields are primarily produced by ionospheric currents and secondarily affected by the ground conductivity. Of great importance is the auroral electrojet with other rapidly varying currents indicating that GIC are a particular high-latitude problem. In this paper, we summarize the GIC research done in Finland during about 25 years, and discuss the calculation of GIC in a given network. Special attention is paid to modelling a power system. It is shown that, when considering GIC at a site, it is usually sufficient to take account for a smaller grid in the vicinity of the particular site. Modelling GIC also provides a basis for developing forecasting and warning methods of GIC.

  15. Validation of new CFD release by Ground-Coupled Heat Transfer Test Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnalek Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented validation of ANSYS Fluent with IEA BESTEST Task 34. Article stars with outlook to the topic, afterward are described steady-state cases used for validation. Thereafter is mentioned implementation of these cases on CFD. Article is concluded with presentation of the simulated results with a comparison of those from already validated simulation software by IEA. These validation shows high correlation with an older version of tested ANSYS as well as with other main software. The paper ends by discussion with an outline of future research.

  16. Lessons learned on the Ground Test Accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubal, A.J.; Weiss, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    When we initiated the control system design for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), we envisioned a system that would be flexible enough to handle the changing requirements of an experimental project. This control system would use a developers' toolkit to reduce the cost and time to develop applications for GTA, and through the use of open standards, the system would accommodate unforeseen requirements as they arose. Furthermore, we would attempt to demonstrate on GTA a level of automation far beyond that achieved by existing accelerator control systems. How well did we achieve these goals? What were the stumbling blocks to deploying the control system, and what assumptions did we make about requirements that turned out to be incorrect? In this paper we look at the process of developing a control system that evolved into what is now the ''Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System'' (EPICS). Also, we assess the impact of this system on the GTA project, as well as the impact of GTA on EPICS. The lessons learned on GTA will be valuable for future projects

  17. Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in many years, the NASA budget presented to congress calls for a focused effort on the verification and validation (V&V) of complex systems. This is mostly motivated by the results of the VVFCS (V&V of Flight-Critical Systems) study, which should materialize as a a concrete effort under the Aviation Safety program. This talk will present the results of the study, from requirements coming out of discussions with the FAA and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) to technical plan addressing the issue, and its proposed current and future V&V research agenda, which will be addressed by NASA Ames, Langley, and Dryden as well as external partners through NASA Research Announcements (NRA) calls. This agenda calls for pushing V&V earlier in the life cycle and take advantage of formal methods to increase safety and reduce cost of V&V. I will present the on-going research work (especially the four main technical areas: Safety Assurance, Distributed Systems, Authority and Autonomy, and Software-Intensive Systems), possible extensions, and how VVFCS plans on grounding the research in realistic examples, including an intended V&V test-bench based on an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture and hosted by Dryden.

  18. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  19. SP-100 ground engineering system at Hanford. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  20. SP-100 ground engineering system at Hanford. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  1. SP-100 Ground Engineering System at Hanford. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  2. Local spectral anisotropy is a valid cue for figure-ground organization in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramenahalli, Sudarshan; Mihalas, Stefan; Niebur, Ernst

    2014-10-01

    An important step in the process of understanding visual scenes is its organization in different perceptual objects which requires figure-ground segregation. The determination of which side of an occlusion boundary is figure (closer to the observer) and which is ground (further away from the observer) is made through a combination of global cues, like convexity, and local cues, like T-junctions. We here focus on a novel set of local cues in the intensity patterns along occlusion boundaries which we show to differ between figure and ground. Image patches are extracted from natural scenes from two standard image sets along the boundaries of objects and spectral analysis is performed separately on figure and ground. On the figure side, oriented spectral power orthogonal to the occlusion boundary significantly exceeds that parallel to the boundary. This "spectral anisotropy" is present only for higher spatial frequencies, and absent on the ground side. The difference in spectral anisotropy between the two sides of an occlusion border predicts which is the figure and which the background with an accuracy exceeding 60% per patch. Spectral anisotropy of close-by locations along the boundary co-varies but is largely independent over larger distances which allows to combine results from different image regions. Given the low cost of this strictly local computation, we propose that spectral anisotropy along occlusion boundaries is a valuable cue for figure-ground segregation. A data base of images and extracted patches labeled for figure and ground is made freely available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. INERTIAL TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEMS FOR STABILIZATION OF GROUND VEHICLES EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Sushchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The vibratory inertial technology is a recent modern inertial technology. It represents the most perspective approach to design of inertial sensors, which can be used in stabilization and tracking systems operated on vehicles of the wide class. The purpose of the research is to consider advantages of this technology in comparison with laser and fiber-optic ones. Operation of the inertial sensors on the ground vehicles requires some improvement of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope with the goal to simplify information processing, increase reliability, and compensate bias. Methods: Improvement of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope includes introducing of the phase detector and additional excitation unit. The possibility to use the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in the stabilization systems operated on the ground vehicles is shown by means of analysis of gyroscope output signal. To prove efficiency of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in stabilization system the simulation technique is used. Results: The scheme of the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope including the phase detector and additional excitation unit is developed and analyzed. The way to compensate bias is determined. Simulation of the stabilization system with the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope is carried out. Expressions for the output signals of the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope are derived. The error of the output signal is estimated and the possibility to use the modified Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in stabilization systems is proved. The results of stabilization system simulation are given. Their analysis is carried out. Conclusions: The represented results prove efficiency of the proposed technical decisions. They can be useful for design of stabilization platform with instrumental equipment operated on moving vehicles of the wide class.

  4. Verification and validation of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, J.K. Jr.; Kisner, R.A.; Bhadtt, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The following guidelines are proposed for verification and validation (V ampersand V) of nuclear power plant control system software: (a) use risk management to decide what and how much V ampersand V is needed; (b) classify each software application using a scheme that reflects what type and how much V ampersand V is needed; (c) maintain a set of reference documents with current information about each application; (d) use Program Inspection as the initial basic verification method; and (e) establish a deficiencies log for each software application. The following additional practices are strongly recommended: (a) use a computer-based configuration management system to track all aspects of development and maintenance; (b) establish reference baselines of the software, associated reference documents, and development tools at regular intervals during development; (c) use object-oriented design and programming to promote greater software reliability and reuse; (d) provide a copy of the software development environment as part of the package of deliverables; and (e) initiate an effort to use formal methods for preparation of Technical Specifications. The paper provides background information and reasons for the guidelines and recommendations. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  6. A Proven Methodology for Developing Secure Software and Applying It to Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Part Two expands upon Part One in an attempt to translate the methodology for ground system personnel. The goal is to build upon the methodology presented in Part One by showing examples and details on how to implement the methodology. Section 1: Ground Systems Overview; Section 2: Secure Software Development; Section 3: Defense in Depth for Ground Systems; Section 4: What Now?

  7. A design for a ground-based data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambird, Barbara A.; Lavine, David

    1988-01-01

    An initial design for a ground-based data management system which includes intelligent data abstraction and cataloging is described. The large quantity of data on some current and future NASA missions leads to significant problems in providing scientists with quick access to relevant data. Human screening of data for potential relevance to a particular study is time-consuming and costly. Intelligent databases can provide automatic screening when given relevent scientific parameters and constraints. The data management system would provide, at a minimum, information of availability of the range of data, the type available, specific time periods covered together with data quality information, and related sources of data. The system would inform the user about the primary types of screening, analysis, and methods of presentation available to the user. The system would then aid the user with performing the desired tasks, in such a way that the user need only specify the scientific parameters and objectives, and not worry about specific details for running a particular program. The design contains modules for data abstraction, catalog plan abstraction, a user-friendly interface, and expert systems for data handling, data evaluation, and application analysis. The emphasis is on developing general facilities for data representation, description, analysis, and presentation that will be easily used by scientists directly, thus bypassing the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. Expert system technology is used for many different aspects of the data management system, including the direct user interface, the interface to the data analysis routines, and the analysis of instrument status.

  8. Recent Ground Hold and Rapid Depressurization Testing of Multilayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of flight insulation systems for large cryogenic orbital storage (spray on foam and multilayer insulation), testing need include all environments that are experienced during flight. While large efforts have been expended on studying, bounding, and modeling the orbital performance of the insulation systems, little effort has been expended on the ground hold and ascent phases of a mission. Historical cryogenic in-space systems that have flown have been able to ignore these phases of flight due to the insulation system being within a vacuum jacket. In the development phase of the Nuclear Mars Vehicle and the Shuttle Nuclear Vehicle, several insulation systems were evaluated for the full mission cycle. Since that time there had been minimal work on these phases of flight until the Constellation program began investigating cryogenic service modules and long duration upper stages. With the inception of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, a specific need was seen for the data and as such, several tests were added to the Cryogenic Boil-off Reduction System liquid hydrogen test matrix to provide more data on a insulation system. Testing was attempted with both gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and gaseous helium (GHe) backfills. The initial tests with nitrogen backfill were not successfully completed due to nitrogen liquefaction and solidification preventing the rapid pumpdown of the vacuum chamber. Subsequent helium backfill tests were successful and showed minimal degradation. The results are compared to the historical data.

  9. Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component report for the Ground Demonstration System Accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainard, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Model Number ORC1A3A01 System Accumulator for the Kilowatt Isotope Power System was expulsion tested and demonstrated to be in compliance with the requirements of Sundstrand Explusion Test Procedure, TP 400. Test requirements of TP 400 were extracted from the Kilowatt Isotope Power System, Ground Demonstration System Test Plan

  10. Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, D.; Sinyakov, V.; Semenov, V.

    Starting from 1995 the global monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide is carried out by the measurements of nadir-viewing GOME spectrometer aboard ERS-2 satellite. Continuous validation of that data by means of comparisons with well-controlled ground-based measurements is important to ensure the quality of GOME data products and improve related retrieval algorithms. At the station of Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) the ground-based spectroscopic observations of NO2 vertical column have been started since 1983. The station is located on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, 1650 meters above the sea level (42.6 N, 77.0 E). The site is equipped with grating spectrometer for the twilight measurements of zenith-scattered solar radiation in the visible range, and applies the DOAS technique to retrieve NO2 vertical column. It is included in the list of NDSC stations as a complementary one. The present study is focused on validation of GOME NO2 vertical column data, based on 8-year comparison with correlative ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul station in 1996-2003. Within the investigation, an agreement of both individual and monthly averaged GOME measurements with corresponding twilight ground-based observations is examined. Such agreement is analyzed with respect to different conditions (season, sun elevation), temporal/spatial criteria choice (actual overpass location, correction for diurnal variation) and data processing (GDP version 2.7, 3.0). In addition, NO2 vertical columns were integrated from simultaneous stratospheric profile measurements by NASA HALOE and SAGE-II/III satellite instruments and introduced to explain the differences with ground-based observations. In particular cases, NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from the twilight ground-based measurements at Issuk-Kul were also included into comparison. Overall, summertime GOME NO2 vertical columns were found to be systematicaly lower than ground-based data. This work was supported by International Association

  11. NRC Information No. 88-86: Operating with multiple grounds in direct current distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During recent NRC maintenance inspections at Quad Cities, Oconee, and D.C. Cook power reactor facilities, it was found that plants had been operating with multiple grounds in the dc distribution systems for extended periods. Specific examples are described. Most nuclear power plant dc systems are two-wire ungrounded, combination battery/charger systems equipped with ground detection. Typical ground detection system features include a remote annunciator and a local indicator and/or recorder. Ground detectors are incorporated in the dc system so that if a single ground point does occur, immediate steps can be taken to clear the ground fault from the system. Failure to respond to a single ground will mask subsequent grounds. Multiple grounds can cause the indiscriminate operation of equipment, which may have safety consequences. Grounds can cause control circuit fuses to fail and can render important safety equipment inoperable as previously described. Furthermore, batteries have a designed capacity to supply power during a station blackout condition, and this capacity can be affected by the presence of unanalyzed loads in the form of multiple grounds. It is recognized that troubleshooting and finding grounds on a dc system are difficult tasks that may affect plant operation. The licensees previously mentioned have reviewed their designs and conditions for potential impact on safety system operability and have taken corrective actions to minimize the effect of grounds

  12. Modelling of the evolution of ground waters in a granite system at low temperature: the Stripa ground waters, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaud, D.; Michard, G.; Beaucaire, C.

    1990-01-01

    From chemical data on the Stripa ground waters we have tried to model the evolution of the chemical composition of a ground water in a granitic system at low temperature. The existence of two end-member ground water compositions made it possible first, to test the conventional model of a geothermal system according to which an overall equilibrium between the waters and a given mineral assemblage can be defined, and then to show that such a model could be extended to low temperatures (10 o C). Conversely, if we know the mineral assemblage, the equilibration temperature and the charge of the mobile ions (in this case, Cl), the composition of the solution is entirely fixed. In our model of the Stripa ground waters, the existence of two end-member ground water compositions can be explained by an evolution from a ''kaolinite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium to a ''prehnite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium, the latter requiring less Al than the former. We have also emphasized the importance of the Cl ion concentrations of the ground waters, because they can be considered as indicators of the degree of reaction progress between rock and water, thus determining the degree of equilibration of the system. (author)

  13. Performance Analysis of Slinky Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers for a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the thermal performance of reclined (parallel to ground surface and standing (perpendicular to ground surface slinky horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs with different water mass flow rates in the heating mode of continuous and intermittent operations. A copper tube with an outer surface protected with low-density polyethylene was selected as the tube material of the ground heat exchanger. Effects on ground temperature around the reclined slinky HGHE due to heat extraction and the effect of variation of ground temperatures on reclined HGHE performance are discussed. A higher heat exchange rate was experienced in standing HGHE than in reclined HGHE. The standing HGHE was affected by deeper ground temperature and also a greater amount of backfilled sand in standing HGHE (4.20 m3 than reclined HGHE (1.58 m3, which has higher thermal conductivity than site soil. For mass flow rate of 1 L/min with inlet water temperature 7 °C, the 4-day average heat extraction rates increased 45.3% and 127.3%, respectively, when the initial average ground temperatures at 1.5 m depth around reclined HGHE increased from 10.4 °C to 11.7 °C and 10.4 °C to 13.7 °C. In the case of intermittent operation, which boosted the thermal performance, a short time interval of intermittent operation is better than a long time interval of intermittent operation. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of power consumption by the circulating pump, the intermittent operation is more efficient than continuous operation.

  14. Validation and Design Science Research in Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Gonzalez, Rafael A.; Mora, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Validation within design science research in Information Systems (DSRIS) is much debated. The relationship of validation to artifact evaluation is still not clear. This chapter aims at elucidating several components of DSRIS in relation to validation. The role of theory and theorizing are an

  15. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... board aircraft. Air-ground systems operating in these frequency bands are referred to in this part as... systems. 22.857 Section 22.857 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground...

  16. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141... customer as follows: (i) Chemical disinfection—(A) Ground water systems serving greater than 3,300 people...

  17. A method to estimate characteristics of grounding systems considering experimental studies and computational simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andre Nunes de; Silva, Ivan Nunes da; Ulson, Jose Alfredo C.; Zago, Maria Goretti [UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: andrejau@bauru.unesp.br

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes a novel approach for mapping characteristics of grounding systems using artificial neural networks. The network acts as identifier of structural features of the grounding processes. So that output parameters can be estimated and generalized from an input parameter set. The results obtained by the network are compared with other approaches also used to model grounding systems concerning lightning. (author)

  18. Development of Ground Test System For RKX-200EB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

    2018-04-01

    After being postponed for seven years, the development of RKX-200EB now restarts by initiating a ground test, preceding the real flight test. The series of the development starts from simulation test using the real vehicle and its components, focusing on a flight sequence test using hardware in the loop simulation. The result of the simulation shows that the autonomous control system in development is able to control the X tail fin vehicle, since take off using booster, separating booster-sustainer, making flight maneuver using sustainer with average cruise speed of 1000 km/h, and doing bank to maneuver up to ±40 deg heading to the target. The simulation result also shows that the presence of sustainer in vehicle control can expand the distance range by 162% (12.6 km) from its ballistic range using only a booster.

  19. Software Development and Test Methodology for a Distributed Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Guillebeau, Pat; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes in an effort to minimize unnecessary overhead while maximizing process benefits. The Software processes that have evolved still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Processes have evolved, highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project.

  20. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Computerized Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to operating procedures, both computer and paper-based, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed, the models used by the nuclear industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed, and scientist advances are also explored. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for computerized and paper-based procedures are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMLAB.

  1. Aircraft interrogation and display system: A ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor-based general purpose ground support equipment for electronic systems was developed. The hardware and software are designed to permit diverse applications in support of aircraft flight systems and simulation facilities. The implementation of the hardware, the structure of the software, describes the application of the system to an ongoing research aircraft project are described.

  2. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  3. Computer system validation: an overview of official requirements and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A; Kähny-Simonius, J; Plattner, M; Schmidli-Vckovski, V; Kronseder, C

    1998-02-01

    A brief overview of the relevant documents for companies in the pharmaceutical industry, which are to be taken into consideration to fulfil computer system validation requirements, is presented. We concentrate on official requirements and valid standards in the USA, European Community and Switzerland. There are basically three GMP-guidelines. their interpretations by the associations of interests like APV and PDA as well as the GAMP Suppliers Guide. However, the three GMP-guidelines imply the same philosophy about computer system validation. They describe more a what-to-do approach for validation, whereas the GAMP Suppliers Guide describes a how-to-do validation. Nevertheless, they do not contain major discrepancies.

  4. Box-ticking and Olympic high jumping - Physicians' perceptions and acceptance of national physician validation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlbach, Carolin; Govaerts, Marjan J B; Mitchell, Sharon; Rohde, Gernot G U; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Driessen, Erik W

    2018-05-24

    National physician validation systems aim to ensure lifelong learning through periodic appraisals of physicians' competence. Their effectiveness is determined by physicians' acceptance of and commitment to the system. This study, therefore, sought to explore physicians' perceptions and self-reported acceptance of validation across three different physician validation systems in Europe. Using a constructivist grounded-theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 32 respiratory specialists from three countries with markedly different validation systems: Germany, which has a mandatory, credit-based system oriented to continuing professional development; Denmark, with mandatory annual dialogs and ensuing, non-compulsory activities; and the UK, with a mandatory, portfolio-based revalidation system. We analyzed interview data with a view to identifying factors influencing physicians' perceptions and acceptance. Factors that influenced acceptance were the assessment's authenticity and alignment of its requirements with clinical practice, physicians' beliefs about learning, perceived autonomy, and organizational support. Users' acceptance levels determine any system's effectiveness. To support lifelong learning effectively, national physician validation systems must be carefully designed and integrated into daily practice. Involving physicians in their design may render systems more authentic and improve alignment between individual ambitions and the systems' goals, thereby promoting acceptance.

  5. Concurrent Validity of Physiological Cost Index in Walking over Ground and during Robotic Training in Subacute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sofia Delussu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological Cost Index (PCI has been proposed to assess gait demand. The purpose of the study was to establish whether PCI is a valid indicator in subacute stroke patients of energy cost of walking in different walking conditions, that is, over ground and on the Gait Trainer (GT with body weight support (BWS. The study tested if correlations exist between PCI and ECW, indicating validity of the measure and, by implication, validity of PCI. Six patients (patient group (PG with subacute stroke and 6 healthy age- and size-matched subjects as control group (CG performed, in a random sequence in different days, walking tests overground and on the GT with 0, 30, and 50% BWS. There was a good to excellent correlation between PCI and ECW in the observed walking conditions: in PG Pearson correlation was 0.919 (p<0.001; in CG Pearson correlation was 0.852 (p<0.001. In conclusion, the high significant correlations between PCI and ECW, in all the observed walking conditions, suggest that PCI is a valid outcome measure in subacute stroke patients.

  6. Concurrent validity of Physiological Cost Index in walking over ground and during robotic training in subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delussu, Anna Sofia; Morone, Giovanni; Iosa, Marco; Bragoni, Maura; Paolucci, Stefano; Traballesi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Physiological Cost Index (PCI) has been proposed to assess gait demand. The purpose of the study was to establish whether PCI is a valid indicator in subacute stroke patients of energy cost of walking in different walking conditions, that is, over ground and on the Gait Trainer (GT) with body weight support (BWS). The study tested if correlations exist between PCI and ECW, indicating validity of the measure and, by implication, validity of PCI. Six patients (patient group (PG)) with subacute stroke and 6 healthy age- and size-matched subjects as control group (CG) performed, in a random sequence in different days, walking tests overground and on the GT with 0, 30, and 50% BWS. There was a good to excellent correlation between PCI and ECW in the observed walking conditions: in PG Pearson correlation was 0.919 (p < 0.001); in CG Pearson correlation was 0.852 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the high significant correlations between PCI and ECW, in all the observed walking conditions, suggest that PCI is a valid outcome measure in subacute stroke patients.

  7. SCOS 2: A distributed architecture for ground system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyte, Karl P.

    The current generation of spacecraft ground control systems in use at the European Space Agency/European Space Operations Centre (ESA/ESOC) is based on the SCOS 1. Such systems have become difficult to manage in both functional and financial terms. The next generation of spacecraft is demanding more flexibility in the use, configuration and distribution of control facilities as well as functional requirements capable of matching those being planned for future missions. SCOS 2 is more than a successor to SCOS 1. Many of the shortcomings of the existing system have been carefully analyzed by user and technical communities and a complete redesign was made. Different technologies were used in many areas including hardware platform, network architecture, user interfaces and implementation techniques, methodologies and language. As far as possible a flexible design approach has been made using popular industry standards to provide vendor independence in both hardware and software areas. This paper describes many of the new approaches made in the architectural design of the SCOS 2.

  8. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  9. A new digital ground-fault protection system for generator-transformer unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielichowski, Mieczyslaw; Szlezak, Tomasz [Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    Ground faults are one of most often reasons of damages in stator windings of large generators. Under certain conditions, as a result of ground-fault protection systems maloperation, ground faults convert into high-current faults, causing severe failures in power system. Numerous publications in renowned journals and magazines testify about ground-fault matter importance and problems reported by exploitators confirm opinions, that some issues concerning ground-fault protection of large generators have not been solved yet or have been solved insufficiently. In this paper a new conception of a digital ground-fault protection system for stator winding of large generator was proposed. The process of intermittent arc ground fault in stator winding has been briefly discussed and actual ground-fault voltage waveforms were presented. A new relaying algorithm, based on third harmonic voltage measurement was also drawn and the methods of its implementation and testing were described. (author)

  10. Laboratory diagnostic methods, system of quality and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašanin Ružica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that laboratory investigations secure safe and reliable results that provide a final confirmation of the quality of work. Ideas, planning, knowledge, skills, experience, and environment, along with good laboratory practice, quality control and reliability of quality, make the area of biological investigations very complex. In recent years, quality control, including the control of work in the laboratory, is based on international standards and is used at that level. The implementation of widely recognized international standards, such as the International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 (1 and the implementing of the quality system series ISO/IEC 9000 (2 have become the imperative on the grounds of which laboratories have a formal, visible and corresponding system of quality. The diagnostic methods that are used must constantly yield results which identify the animal as positive or negative, and the precise status of the animal is determined with a predefined degree of statistical significance. Methods applied on a selected population reduce the risk of obtaining falsely positive or falsely negative results. A condition for this are well conceived and documented methods, with the application of the corresponding reagents, and work with professional and skilled staff. This process requires also a consistent implementation of the most rigorous experimental plans, epidemiological and statistical data and estimations, with constant monitoring of the validity of the applied methods. Such an approach is necessary in order to cut down the number of misconceptions and accidental mistakes, for a referent population of animals on which the validity of a method is tested. Once a valid method is included in daily routine investigations, it is necessary to apply constant monitoring for the purpose of internal quality control, in order adequately to evaluate its reproducibility and reliability. Consequently, it is necessary at least twice yearly to conduct

  11. The JPSS Ground Project Algorithm Verification, Test and Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, G. A.; Jain, P.; Chander, G.; Nguyen, V. T.; Dixon, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) is an operational system that provides services to the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Mission. It is also a unique environment for Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) and Data Quality Assessment (DQA) of the Join Polar Satellite System (JPSS) mission data products. GRAVITE provides a fast and direct access to the data and products created by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), the NASA/NOAA operational system that converts Raw Data Records (RDR's) generated by sensors on the S-NPP into calibrated geo-located Sensor Data Records (SDR's) and generates Mission Unique Products (MUPS). It also facilitates algorithm investigation, integration, checkouts and tuning, instrument and product calibration and data quality support, monitoring and data/products distribution. GRAVITE is the portal for the latest S-NPP and JPSS baselined Processing Coefficient Tables (PCT's) and Look-Up-Tables (LUT's) and hosts a number DQA offline tools that takes advantage of the proximity to the near-real time data flows. It also contains a set of automated and ad-hoc Cal/Val tools used for algorithm analysis and updates, including an instance of the IDPS called GRAVITE Algorithm Development Area (G-ADA), that has the latest installation of the IDPS algorithms running in an identical software and hardware platforms. Two other important GRAVITE component are the Investigator-led Processing System (IPS) and the Investigator Computing Facility (ICF). The IPS is a dedicated environment where authorized users run automated scripts called Product Generation Executables (PGE's) to support Cal/Val and data quality assurance offline. This data-rich and data-driven service holds its own distribution system and allows operators to retrieve science data products. The ICF is a workspace where users can share computing applications and resources and have full access to libraries and

  12. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  13. Use of a tibial accelerometer to measure ground reaction force in running: A reliability and validity comparison with force plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Damian P; Witchalls, Jeremy; Philips, Elissa J; Knight, Emma; Drew, Michael K; Waddington, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The use of microsensor technologies to conduct research and implement interventions in sports and exercise medicine has increased recently. The objective of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the ViPerform as a measure of load compared to vertical ground reaction force (GRF) as measured by force plates. Absolute reliability assessment, with concurrent validity. 10 professional triathletes ran 10 trials over force plates with the ViPerform mounted on the mid portion of the medial tibia. Calculated vertical ground reaction force data from the ViPerform was matched to the same stride on the force plate. Bland-Altman (BA) plot of comparative measure of agreement was used to assess the relationship between the calculated load from the accelerometer and the force plates. Reliability was calculated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals. BA plot indicates minimal agreement between the measures derived from the force plate and ViPerform, with variation at an individual participant plot level. Reliability was excellent (ICC=0.877; 95% CI=0.825-0.917) in calculating the same vertical GRF in a repeated trial. Standard error of measure (SEM) equalled 99.83 units (95% CI=82.10-119.09), which, in turn, gave a minimum detectable change (MDC) value of 276.72 units (95% CI=227.32-330.07). The ViPerform does not calculate absolute values of vertical GRF similar to those measured by a force plate. It does provide a valid and reliable calculation of an athlete's lower limb load at constant velocity. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Web-based ground loop supervision system for the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A. de la; Lapayese, F.; Pacios, L.; Carrasco, R.

    2005-01-01

    To minimize electromagnetic interferences in diagnostic and control signals, and to guarantee safe operation of TJ-II, ground loops must be avoided. In order to meet this goal, the whole grounding system of the TJ-II was split into multiple single branches that are connected at a single earth point located near the TJ-II structure in the torus hall. A real-time ground loop supervision system (GLSS) has been designed, manufactured and tested by the TJ-II control group for detecting unintentional short circuits between isolated grounded parts. A web server running on the real-time operating system OS-9 provides remote access to the real-time ground loops measurement. Ground loops monitoring and different operation modes can be configured via any web browser. This paper gives the detailed design of the whole TJ-II ground loop supervision system and its results during its operation

  15. Web-based ground loop supervision system for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A. de la [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: a.delapena@ciemat.es; Lapayese, F. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacios, L. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carrasco, R. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-15

    To minimize electromagnetic interferences in diagnostic and control signals, and to guarantee safe operation of TJ-II, ground loops must be avoided. In order to meet this goal, the whole grounding system of the TJ-II was split into multiple single branches that are connected at a single earth point located near the TJ-II structure in the torus hall. A real-time ground loop supervision system (GLSS) has been designed, manufactured and tested by the TJ-II control group for detecting unintentional short circuits between isolated grounded parts. A web server running on the real-time operating system OS-9 provides remote access to the real-time ground loops measurement. Ground loops monitoring and different operation modes can be configured via any web browser. This paper gives the detailed design of the whole TJ-II ground loop supervision system and its results during its operation.

  16. Principle and Design of a Single-phase Inverter-Based Grounding System for Neutral-to-ground Voltage Compensation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, Lingjie; Zeng, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Neutral-to-ground overvoltage may occur in non-effectively grounded power systems because of the distributed parameters asymmetry and resonance between Petersen coil and distributed capacitances. Thus, the constraint of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks....... In this paper, an active grounding system based on single-phase inverter and its control parameter design method is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between its output current and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral-to-ground voltage compensation. Then...

  17. Automated validation of a computer operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervage, M. M.; Milberg, B. A.

    1970-01-01

    Programs apply selected input/output loads to complex computer operating system and measure performance of that system under such loads. Technique lends itself to checkout of computer software designed to monitor automated complex industrial systems.

  18. Fault-tolerant clock synchronization validation methodology. [in computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A validation method for the synchronization subsystem of a fault-tolerant computer system is presented. The high reliability requirement of flight-crucial systems precludes the use of most traditional validation methods. The method presented utilizes formal design proof to uncover design and coding errors and experimentation to validate the assumptions of the design proof. The experimental method is described and illustrated by validating the clock synchronization system of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance computer. The design proof of the algorithm includes a theorem that defines the maximum skew between any two nonfaulty clocks in the system in terms of specific system parameters. Most of these parameters are deterministic. One crucial parameter is the upper bound on the clock read error, which is stochastic. The probability that this upper bound is exceeded is calculated from data obtained by the measurement of system parameters. This probability is then included in a detailed reliability analysis of the system.

  19. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  20. Preliminary Validation and Verification Plan for CAREM Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittipaldi, Ana; Maciel Felix

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, is to present a preliminary validation and verification plan for a particular architecture proposed for the CAREM reactor protection system with software modules (computer based system).These software modules can be either own design systems or systems based in commercial modules such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) redundant of last generation.During this study, it was seen that this plan can also be used as a validation and verification plan of commercial products (COTS, commercial off the shelf) and/or smart transmitters.The software life cycle proposed and its features are presented, and also the advantages of the preliminary validation and verification plan

  1. 226Ra and 228Ra in ground water of the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System in northern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Holtzman, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Over a large region of Illinois, ground water of the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System exceeds the US EPA drinking water standard of 5 pCi/L for the combined concentration of 226 Ra and 228 Ra. 226 Ra concentrations range from 226 Ra is the geochemistry of uranium in the ground-water flow system, while the 228 Ra activity in ground water which ranges from 232 Th-bearing minerals in the aquifer strata. The comparison of recent analyses to historical data gathered over the last 20 years indicates that, with few exceptions, 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities in ground water have remained constant. The combined concentrations of the two nuclides in ground water of the aquifer system ranged from 226 Ra concentrations were high (greater than or equal to 10 pCi/L), those of 228 Ra were low (less than or equal to 2 pCi/L), but, with few exceptions, in regions where 228 Ra concentrations were high, those of 226 Ra were also high. The range of values raises questions concerning the validity of the US EPA regulation which requires analysis for 228 Ra only when the concentration of 226 Ra exceeds 3.0 pCi/L

  2. Evaluation of a ground thermal energy storage system for heating and cooling of an existing dwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, W.H; Lawrence, C.J. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tarnawski, V.R. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Rosen, M.A. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2006-07-01

    A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system for heating and cooling a residential house in Ontario was simulated. The system uses the surface ground as a thermal energy storage for storing thermal energy in the summer for later use in the winter. In the summer, the ground receives both solar energy and the heat rejected by the system during cooling operation. The relationship between a heat pump and the ground is a ground heat exchanger (GHE). This presentation described the vertical and horizontal configurations of the GHE, which are the 2 basic configurations. It also described the modelling and analysis of the GCHP system. The modelling involved both simplified and comprehensive models. The simplified models of heating and cooling loads of a building, a heat pump unit, and heat transfer at the ground heat exchanger provided a direct link to the comprehensive model of heat and moisture transfer in the ground, based on the finite element method. This combination of models provided an accurate and practical simulation tool for GCHP systems. The energy analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the system. The use of a horizontal ground heat exchanging pipe and the impact of heat deposition and extraction through it in the ground were also studied with reference to the length of pipe, depth of pipe and layout of the pipe loop. The objective of the analysis was to find ways to optimize the thermal performance of the system and environmental sustainability of the ground. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  4. Evaluation of ground motion scaling methods for analysis of structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, A. P.; Beltsar, O.A.; Kurama, Y.C.; Kalkan, E.; Taflanidis, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ground motion selection and scaling comprises undoubtedly the most important component of any seismic risk assessment study that involves time-history analysis. Ironically, this is also the single parameter with the least guidance provided in current building codes, resulting in the use of mostly subjective choices in design. The relevant research to date has been primarily on single-degree-of-freedom systems, with only a few studies using multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Furthermore, the previous research is based solely on numerical simulations with no experimental data available for the validation of the results. By contrast, the research effort described in this paper focuses on an experimental evaluation of selected ground motion scaling methods based on small-scale shake-table experiments of re-configurable linearelastic and nonlinear multi-story building frame structure models. Ultimately, the experimental results will lead to the development of guidelines and procedures to achieve reliable demand estimates from nonlinear response history analysis in seismic design. In this paper, an overview of this research effort is discussed and preliminary results based on linear-elastic dynamic response are presented. ?? ASCE 2011.

  5. Automatic control system generation for robot design validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, James A. (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The specification and drawings present a new method, system and software product for and apparatus for generating a robotic validation system for a robot design. The robotic validation system for the robot design of a robotic system is automatically generated by converting a robot design into a generic robotic description using a predetermined format, then generating a control system from the generic robotic description and finally updating robot design parameters of the robotic system with an analysis tool using both the generic robot description and the control system.

  6. Validation of Embedded System Verification Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    The result of a model-based requirements verification shows that the model of a system satisfies (or not) formalised system requirements. The verification result is correct only if the model represents the system adequately. No matter what modelling technique we use, what precedes the model

  7. A spike sorting toolbox for up to thousands of electrodes validated with ground truth recordings in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Baptiste; Deny, Stéphane; Gardella, Christophe; Stimberg, Marcel; Jetter, Florian; Zeck, Guenther; Picaud, Serge; Duebel, Jens

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, multielectrode arrays and large silicon probes have been developed to record simultaneously between hundreds and thousands of electrodes packed with a high density. However, they require novel methods to extract the spiking activity of large ensembles of neurons. Here, we developed a new toolbox to sort spikes from these large-scale extracellular data. To validate our method, we performed simultaneous extracellular and loose patch recordings in rodents to obtain ‘ground truth’ data, where the solution to this sorting problem is known for one cell. The performance of our algorithm was always close to the best expected performance, over a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios, in vitro and in vivo. The algorithm is entirely parallelized and has been successfully tested on recordings with up to 4225 electrodes. Our toolbox thus offers a generic solution to sort accurately spikes for up to thousands of electrodes. PMID:29557782

  8. Ground Validation Drop Camera Transect Points - St. Thomas/ St. John USVI - 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater video that was collected by NOAA scientists using a SeaViewer drop camera system. Video were collected between...

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AIRBORNE SECOND GENERATION PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) is a dual-frequency (13 GHz and 35 GHz), Doppler, dual-polarization radar system. It has a downward...

  10. Validation Aspects of Water Treatment Systems for Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of conducting validation is to demonstrate that a process, when operated within established limits, produces a product of consistent and specified quality with a high degree of assurance. Validation of water treatment systems is necessary to obtain water with all desired quality attributes. This also provides a ...

  11. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  12. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  13. Energy and exergy analysis of a ground-coupled heat pump system with two horizontal ground heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa; Pihtili, Kazim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    In this paper we investigate of energetic and exergetic efficiencies of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system as a function of depth trenches for heating season. The horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs) were used and it were buried with in 1 m (HGHE1) and 2 m (HGHE2) depth trenches. The energy efficiency of GCHP systems are obtained to 2.5 and 2.8, respectively, while the exergetic efficiencies of the overall system are found to be 53.1% and 56.3%, respectively, for HGHE1 and HGHE2. The irreversibility of HGHE2 is less than of the HGHE1 as about 2.0%. The results show that the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the system increase when increasing the heat source (ground) temperature for heating season. And the end of this study, we deal with the effects of varying reference environment temperature on the exergy efficiencies of HGHE1 and HGHE2. The results show that increasing reference environment temperature decreases the exergy efficiency in both HGHE1 and HGHE2. (author)

  14. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    as if SATCOM is guaranteed. This complacency is accompanied by the procurement of high-data communication and mission command systems that deny...threat. To overcome these significant vulnerabilities, the US Army must procure communications systems that maintain the information high ground, but...precious gift of our freedom.”1 A key element of remaining strong on the ground is maintaining the capability to effectively communicate on the ground. If

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Detection Efficiency for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper Using Intercomparisons with Ground-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Monte; Mach, Douglas; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William

    2018-01-01

    As part of the calibration/validation (cal/val) effort for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-16, we need to assess instrument performance (detection efficiency and accuracy). One major effort is to calculate the detection efficiency of GLM by comparing to multiple ground-based systems. These comparisons will be done pair-wise between GLM and each other source. A complication in this process is that the ground-based systems sense different properties of the lightning signal than does GLM (e.g., RF vs. optical). Also, each system has a different time and space resolution and accuracy. Preliminary results indicate that GLM is performing at or above its specification.

  16. Development and preliminary validation of an interactive remote physical therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anup K; Skubic, Marjorie; Abbott, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interactive physical therapy system (IPTS) for remote quantitative assessment of clients in the home. The system consists of two different interactive interfaces connected through a network, for a real-time low latency video conference using audio, video, skeletal, and depth data streams from a Microsoft Kinect. To test the potential of IPTS, experiments were conducted with 5 independent living senior subjects in Kansas City, MO. Also, experiments were conducted in the lab to validate the real-time biomechanical measures calculated using the skeletal data from the Microsoft Xbox 360 Kinect and Microsoft Xbox One Kinect, with ground truth data from a Vicon motion capture system. Good agreements were found in the validation tests. The results show potential capabilities of the IPTS system to provide remote physical therapy to clients, especially older adults, who may find it difficult to visit the clinic.

  17. Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooers, Christopher; Meinen, Christopher; Baringer, Molly; Bang, Inkweon; Rhodes, Robert C; Barron, Charlie N; Bub, Frank

    2005-01-01

    With the ongoing development of ocean circulation models and real-time observing systems, routine estimation of the synoptic state of the ocean is becoming feasible for practical and scientific purposes...

  18. Transient analysis for grounding systems considering the ground ionization; Analisis transitorio de sistemas de puesta a tierra considerando la ionizacion del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado Salgado, Luis Alberto

    2008-06-15

    All electrical installation must have an effective grounding system. The purpose of this grounding system is to provide a low impedance path for draining electric currents generated by faults, switching operations or atmospheric discharges to earth, avoiding damage to people, equipment or installations. High currents drained to ground leads to an electric field which can be capable of breaking down the dielectric strength of the ground. When this happens, the ionization phenomena takes place, which reduce the grounding system impedance and modify its performance. In this thesis, a computational model for evaluating the transient performance of grounding systems subjected to high magnitude and frequency currents is presented. The model is based in a transmission line approach and the grounding system transient analysis is carried out in the frequency domain. The time domain translation is performed by means of the Fast Fourier Inverse Transform (FFIT). The computer model is capable of simulating soil ionization. The computer model developed is used to study the performance of vertical rods and grounding grids of different sizes. In every case, different electric field magnitudes and soil's resistivity were used, currents of different frequency components and magnitude values where used as well. The obtained results presented were compared and validated with other computer model results and measurements published in the literature. [Spanish] Toda instalacion electrica debe contar con un sistema de puesta a tierra efectivo. La finalidad de este sistema es proporcionar un camino de baja impedancia para drenar a tierra las corrientes generadas por fallas, maniobras o fenomenos naturales como las descargas atmosfericas, evitando de esta manera danos a las personas, equipos o instalaciones. Cuando las corrientes drenadas a tierra son de gran magnitud se origina un campo electrico critico capaz de romper la rigidez dielectrica del suelo que rodea los conductores del

  19. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, coagulopathy may not be identified until the patient manifests with ... To develop and validate a scoring system for managing snakebites in South Africa (SA). Methods. ... that its greatest value is in identifying those patients who do ...

  20. Development of knowledgebase system for assisting signal validation scheme design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.; Baba, T.; Washio, T.; Sugiyama, K.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a knowledgebase system to be used as a tool for designing signal validation schemes. The outputs from the signal validation scheme can be used as; (1) auxiliary signals for detecting sensor failures, (2) inputs to advanced instrumentation such as disturbance analysis and diagnosis system or safety parameter display system, and (3) inputs to digital control systems. Conventional signal validation techniques such as comparison of redundant sensors, limit checking, and calibration tests have been employed in nuclear power plants. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, e.g. needs for extra sensors, vulnerability to common mode failures, limited applicability to continuous monitoring, etc. To alleviate these difficulties, a new signal validation technique has been developed by using the methods called analytic redundancy and parity space. Although the new technique has been proved feasible as far as preliminary tests are concerned, further developments should be made in order to enhance its practical applicability

  1. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  2. QoS-Aware Resource Allocation for Network Virtualization in an Integrated Train Ground Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hongli

    2018-01-01

    Urban rail transit plays an increasingly important role in urbanization processes. Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) Systems, Passenger Information Systems (PIS), and Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) are key applications of urban rail transit to ensure its normal operation. In existing urban rail transit systems, different applications are deployed with independent train ground communication systems. When the train ground communication systems are built repeatedly, limited wireless sp...

  3. Quantitative system validation in model driven design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Hilger; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Raskin, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    The European STREP project Quasimodo1 develops theory, techniques and tool components for handling quantitative constraints in model-driven development of real-time embedded systems, covering in particular real-time, hybrid and stochastic aspects. This tutorial highlights the advances made, focus...

  4. Validation of reactor core protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Bae, Jong-Sik; Baeg, Seung-Yeob; Cho, Chang-Ho; Kim, Chang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hang-Bae; In, Wang-Kee; Park, Young-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Reactor COre Protection System (RCOPS), an advanced core protection calculator system, is a digitized one which provides core protection function based on two reactor core operation parameters, Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) and Local Power Density (LPD). It generates a reactor trip signal when the core condition exceeds the DNBR or LPD design limit. It consists of four independent channels adapted a two-out-of-four trip logic. System configuration, hardware platform and an improved algorithm of the newly designed core protection calculator system are described in this paper. One channel of RCOPS was implemented as a single channel facility for this R and D project where we performed final integration software testing. To implement custom function blocks, pSET is used. Software test is performed by two methods. The first method is a 'Software Module Test' and the second method is a 'Software Unit Test'. New features include improvement of core thermal margin through a revised on-line DNBR algorithm, resolution of the latching problem of control element assembly signal and addition of the pre-trip alarm generation. The change of the on-line DNBR calculation algorithm is considered to improve the DNBR net margin by 2.5%-3.3%. (author)

  5. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    , and cultural differences, to ensure an efficient response to customer issues using a small Customer Service Team (CST) and adaptability, constant communication with customers, technical expertise and knowledge of services, and dedication to customer service. The HOSC Customer Support Team has implemented a variety of processes, and procedures that help to mitigate the potential problems that arise when integrating ground system services for a variety of complex missions and the lessons learned from this experience will lead the future of customer service in the space operations industry.

  6. Tailoring NIST Security Controls for the Ground System: Selection and Implementation -- Recommendations for Information System Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Mangum, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests millions of dollars in spacecraft and ground system development, and in mission operations in the pursuit of scientific knowledge of the universe. In recent years, NASA sent a probe to Mars to study the Red Planet's upper atmosphere, obtained high resolution images of Pluto, and it is currently preparing to find new exoplanets, rendezvous with an asteroid, and bring a sample of the asteroid back to Earth for analysis. The success of these missions is enabled by mission assurance. In turn, mission assurance is backed by information assurance. The information systems supporting NASA missions must be reliable as well as secure. NASA - like every other U.S. Federal Government agency - is required to manage the security of its information systems according to federal mandates, the most prominent being the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002 and the legislative updates that followed it. Like the management of enterprise information technology (IT), federal information security management takes a "one-size fits all" approach for protecting IT systems. While this approach works for most organizations, it does not effectively translate into security of highly specialized systems such as those supporting NASA missions. These systems include command and control (C&C) systems, spacecraft and instrument simulators, and other elements comprising the ground segment. They must be carefully configured, monitored and maintained, sometimes for several years past the missions' initially planned life expectancy, to ensure the ground system is protected and remains operational without any compromise of its confidentiality, integrity and availability. Enterprise policies, processes, procedures and products, if not effectively tailored to meet mission requirements, may not offer the needed security for protecting the information system, and they may even become disruptive to mission operations

  7. A feasible system integrating combined heating and power system with ground-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, HongQiang; Kang, ShuShuo; Yu, Zhun; Cai, Bo; Zhang, GuoQiang

    2014-01-01

    A system integrating CHP (combined heating and power) subsystem based on natural gas and GSHP (ground-source heat pump subsystem) in series is proposed. By help of simulation software-Aspen Plus, the energy performance of a typical CHP and GSHP-S (S refers to ‘in series’) system was analyzed. The results show that the system can make a better use of waste heat in flue gas from CHP (combined heating and power subsystem). The total system energy efficiency is 123% and the COP (coefficient of performance) of GSHP (ground-source heat pump) subsystem is 5.3. A referenced CHP and GSHP-P (P refers to ‘in parallel’) system is used for comparison; its total system energy efficiency and COP of GSHP subsystem are 118.6% and 3.5 respectively. Compared with CHP and GSHP-P system with different operating parameters, the CHP and GSHP-S system can increase total system energy efficiency by 0.8–34.7%, with related output ratio of heat to power (R) from 1.9 to 18.3. Furthermore, the COP of GSHP subsystem can be increased between the range 3.6 and 6, which is much higher than that in conventional CHP and GSHP-P system. This study will be helpful for other efficient GSHP systems integrating if there is waste heat or other heat resources with low temperature. - Highlights: • CHP system based on natural gas and ground source heat pump. • The new system can make a better utilization of waste heat in flue gas by a special way. • The proposed system can realize energy saving potential from 0.8 to 34.7%. • The coefficient of performance of ground source heat pump subsystem is significantly improved from 3.5 to 3.6–6. • Warm water temperature and percentage of flue gas used to reheat are key parameters

  8. Numerical Simulation of Galvanic Corrosion Caused by Shaft Grounding Systems in Steel Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Y

    2005-01-01

    The shaft grounding systems used on board HMC ships have substantially reduced the shaft-to-hull resistance and, thus, improved the performance of the shipboard impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system...

  9. A psychologist's view of validating aviation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Earl S.; Wagner, Dan

    1994-01-01

    All systems, no matter what they are designed to do, have shortcomings that may make them less productive than was hoped during the initial development. Such shortcomings can arise at any stage of development: from conception to the end of the implementation life cycle. While systems failure and errors of a lesser magnitude can occur as a function of mechanical or software breakdown, the majority of such problems, in aviation are usually laid on the shoulders of the human operator and, to a lesser extent, on human factors. The operator bears the responsibility and blame even though, from a human factors perspective, error may have been designed into the system. Human factors is not a new concept in aviation. The name may be new, but the issues related to operators in the loop date back to the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and certainly to the aviation build-up for World War I. During this first global confrontation, military services from all sides discovered rather quickly that poor selection and training led to drastically increased personnel losses. While hardware design became an issue later, the early efforts were primarily focused on increased care in pilot selection and on their training. This actually involved early labor-intensive simulation, using such devices as sticks and chairs mounted on rope networks which could be manually moved in response to control input. The use of selection criteria and improved training led to more viable person-machine systems. More pilots survived training and their first ten missions in the air, a rule of thumb arrived at by experience which predicted ultimate survival better than any other. This rule was to hold through World War II. At that time, personnel selection and training became very sophisticated based on previous standards. Also, many psychologists were drafted into Army Air Corps programs which were geared towards refining the human factor. However, despite the talent involved in these programs

  10. Assessing the Relative Performance of Microwave-Based Satellite Rain Rate Retrievals Using TRMM Ground Validation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, David B.; Fisher, Brad L.

    2011-01-01

    Space-borne microwave sensors provide critical rain information used in several global multi-satellite rain products, which in turn are used for a variety of important studies, including landslide forecasting, flash flood warning, data assimilation, climate studies, and validation of model forecasts of precipitation. This study employs four years (2003-2006) of satellite data to assess the relative performance and skill of SSM/I (F13, F14 and F15), AMSU-B (N15, N16 and N17), AMSR-E (Aqua) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) in estimating surface rainfall based on direct instantaneous comparisons with ground-based rain estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) sites at Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands (KWAJ) and Melbourne, Florida (MELB). The relative performance of each of these satellite estimates is examined via comparisons with space- and time-coincident GV radar-based rain rate estimates. Because underlying surface terrain is known to affect the relative performance of the satellite algorithms, the data for MELB was further stratified into ocean, land and coast categories using a 0.25deg terrain mask. Of all the satellite estimates compared in this study, TMI and AMSR-E exhibited considerably higher correlations and skills in estimating/observing surface precipitation. While SSM/I and AMSU-B exhibited lower correlations and skills for each of the different terrain categories, the SSM/I absolute biases trended slightly lower than AMSR-E over ocean, where the observations from both emission and scattering channels were used in the retrievals. AMSU-B exhibited the least skill relative to GV in all of the relevant statistical categories, and an anomalous spike was observed in the probability distribution functions near 1.0 mm/hr. This statistical artifact appears to be related to attempts by algorithm developers to include some lighter rain rates, not easily detectable by its scatter-only frequencies. AMSU

  11. Ground state solutions for diffusion system with superlinear nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Luo

    2015-03-01

    where $z=(u,v\\colon\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}\\rightarrow\\mathbb{R}^{2}$, $b\\in C^{1}(\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}, \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ and $V(x\\in C(\\mathbb{R}^{N},\\mathbb{R}$. Under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, we establish the existence of ground state solutions by the generalized Nehari manifold method developed recently by Szulkin and Weth.

  12. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  13. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  14. Development Ground Fault Detecting System for D.C Voltage Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Taek Soo; Song Ung Il; Gwon, Young Dong; Lee Hyoung Kee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to keep the security of reliability and to maximize the efficiency of maintenance by prompt detection of a D.C feeder ground fault point at the built ed or a building power plants. At present, the most of the power plants are set up the ground fault indicator lamp in the monitor room. If a ground fault occurs on DC voltage feeder, a current through the ground fault relay is adjusted and the lamps have brightened while the current flows the relay coil. In order to develop such a system, it is analyzed a D.C feeder ground circuit theoretically and studied a principles which can determine ground fault point or a polarity discrimination and a phase discrimination of the line. So, the developed system through this principles can compute a resistance ground fault current and a capacitive ground fault current. It shows that the system can defect a ground fault point or a bad insulated line by measuring a power plant D.C feeder insulation resistance at the un interruptible power status, and therefore the power plant could protect an unexpected service interruption . (author). 18 refs., figs.

  15. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  16. Study on the System Design of a Solar Assisted Ground Heat Pump System Using Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of hybrid systems using multiple heat sources in buildings to ensure a stable energy supply and improve the system performance has gained attention. Among them, a heat pump system using both solar and ground heat was developed and various system configurations have been introduced. However, establishing a suitable design method for the solar-assisted ground heat pump (SAGHP system including a thermal storage tank is complicated and there are few quantitative studies on the detailed system configurations. Therefore, this study developed three SAGHP system design methods considering the design factors focused on the thermal storage tank. Using dynamic energy simulation code (TRNSYS 17, individual performance analysis models were developed and long-term quantitative analysis was carried out to suggest optimum design and operation methods. As a result, it was found that SYSTEM 2 which is a hybrid system with heat storage tank for only a solar system showed the highest average heat source temperature of 14.81 °C, which is about 11 °C higher than minimum temperature in SYSTEM 3. Furthermore, the best coefficient of performance (COP values of heat pump and system were 5.23 and 4.32 in SYSYEM 2, using high and stable solar heat from a thermal storage tank. Moreover, this paper considered five different geographical and climatic locations and the SAGHP system worked efficiently in having high solar radiation and cool climate zones and the system COP was 4.51 in the case of Winnipeg (Canada where the highest heating demand is required.

  17. Verification and validation of computer based systems for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirugnanamurthy, D.

    2017-01-01

    Verification and Validation (V and V) process is essential to build quality into system. Verification is the process of evaluating a system to determine whether the products of each development phase satisfies the requirements imposed by the previous phase. Validation is the process of evaluating a system at the end of the development process to ensure compliance with the functional, performance and interface requirements. This presentation elaborates the V and V process followed, documents submission requirements in each stage, V and V activities, check list used for reviews in each stage and reports

  18. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Current Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.; Panas, M.; Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture is being upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to "operationalize" S-NPP, leverage lessons learned to date in multi-mission support, take advantage of more reliable and efficient technologies, and satisfy new requirements and constraints in the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 49 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 10 categories, such as data latency, operational availability and scalability. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 10 TPM categories listed above. We will provide updates on how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  19. Reliability and validity of emergency department triage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, I.

    2010-01-01

    Reliability and validity of triage systems is important because this can affect patient safety. In this thesis, these aspects of two emergency department (ED) triage systems were studied as well as methodological aspects in these types of studies. The consistency, reproducibility, and criterion

  20. Model validation studies of solar systems, Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.; Winn, C.B.

    1978-12-01

    Results obtained from a validation study of the TRNSYS, SIMSHAC, and SOLCOST solar system simulation and design are presented. Also included are comparisons between the FCHART and SOLCOST solar system design programs and some changes that were made to the SOLCOST program. Finally, results obtained from the analysis of several solar radiation models are presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for ten papers.

  1. Validation of Atmosphere/Ionosphere Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes by Multi-Instrument Space-Borne and Ground Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Parrot, Michel; Liu, J. Y.; Yang, T. F.; Arellano-Baeza, Alonso; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    regions of the atmosphere and the modifications, by dc electric fields, in the ionosphere-atmosphere electric circuit. We retrospectively analyzed temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters (gas/radon counting rate, lineaments change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) characterizing the state of the lithosphere/atmosphere coupling several days before the onset of the earthquakes. Validation processes consist in two phases: A. Case studies for seven recent major earthquakes: Japan (M9.0, 2011), China (M7.9, 2008), Italy (M6.3, 2009), Samoa (M7, 2009), Haiti (M7.0, 2010) and, Chile (M8.8, 2010) and B. A continuous retrospective analysis was preformed over two different regions with high seismicity- Taiwan and Japan for 2003-2009. Satellite, ground surface, and troposphere data were obtained from Terra/ASTER, Aqua/AIRS, POES and ionospheric variations from DEMETER and COSMIC-I data. Radon and GPS/TEC were obtaining from monitoring sites in Taiwan, Japan and Italy and from global ionosphere maps (GIM) respectively. Our analysis of ground and satellite data during the occurrence of 7 global earthquakes has shown the presence of anomalies in the atmosphere. Our results for Tohoku M9.0 earthquake show that on March 7th, 2011 (4 days before the main shock and 1 day before the M7.2 foreshock of March 8, 2011) a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed by the satellite data and an anomaly was developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. From March 3 to 11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground-based ionosondes, which returned to normal after the main earthquake. Similar approach for analyzing atmospheric and ionospheric parameters has been applied for China (M7.9, 2008), Italy (M6.3, 2009), Samoa (M7, 2009), Haiti (M7.0, 2010) and Chile (M8.8, 2010

  2. Ground State Structure of a Coupled 2-Fermion System in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    1997-05-01

    We prove the uniqueness of the ground state for a supersymmetric quantum mechanical system of two fermions and two bosons, which is closely related to theN=1 WZ-model. The proof is constructive and gives detailed information on what the ground state looks like

  3. Ground state structure of a coupled 2-fermion system in supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, F.

    1997-01-01

    We prove the uniqueness of the ground state for a supersymmetric quantum mechanical system of two fermions and two bosons, which is closely related to the N=1 WZ-model. The proof is constructive and gives detailed information on what the ground state looks like. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc

  4. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  5. Modeling a ground-coupled heat pump system by a support vector machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    This paper reports on a modeling study of ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system performance (COP) by using a support vector machine (SVM) method. A GCHP system is a multi-variable system that is hard to model by conventional methods. As regards the SVM, it has a superior capability for generalization, and this capability is independent of the dimensionality of the input data. In this study, a SVM based method was intended to adopt GCHP system for efficient modeling. The Lin-kernel SVM method was quite efficient in modeling purposes and did not require a pre-knowledge about the system. The performance of the proposed methodology was evaluated by using several statistical validation parameters. It is found that the root-mean squared (RMS) value is 0.002722, the coefficient of multiple determinations (R{sup 2}) value is 0.999999, coefficient of variation (cov) value is 0.077295, and mean error function (MEF) value is 0.507437 for the proposed Lin-kernel SVM method. The optimum parameters of the SVM method were determined by using a greedy search algorithm. This search algorithm was effective for obtaining the optimum parameters. The simulation results show that the SVM is a good method for prediction of the COP of the GCHP system. The computation of SVM model is faster compared with other machine learning techniques (artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)); because there are fewer free parameters and only support vectors (only a fraction of all data) are used in the generalization process. (author)

  6. Operation performance investigation of ground-coupled heat-pump system for temperate region

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Man; Hongxing Yang; Jinggang Wang; Zhaohong Fang

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the operation performance of ground-coupled heat-pump (GCHP) system, an analytical simulation model of GCHP system on short time-step basis and a computer program based on this model to predict system operating parameters are developed in this study. Besides, detailed on-site experiments on GCHP test rig installed in a temperate region of China are carried out. The temperature distributions of borehole as well as ground around borehole at different depths are evaluated...

  7. The ground fault detection system for the Tore Supra toroidal pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, K.; Cara, P.; Fejoz, P.; Hourtoule, J.; Loarer, T.; Pomaro, N.; Santagiustina, A.; Spuig, P.; Villecroze, F.

    2003-01-01

    The toroidal pump limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is electrically insulated from the vacuum-vessel, to allow its polarization at a voltage of up to 1 kV. In order to monitor continuously the integrity of the TPL electrical insulation, an electronic diagnostic system called TPL ground fault detection system (GFDS) has been developed. The paper will report on the design and the operation experience of the GFD system and on the evolution of the TPL grounding

  8. A scientific operations plan for the large space telescope. [ground support system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an LST ground system which is compatible with the operational requirements of the LST. The goal of the approach is to minimize the cost of post launch operations without seriously compromising the quality and total throughput of LST science. Attention is given to cost constraints and guidelines, the telemetry operations processing systems (TELOPS), the image processing facility, ground system planning and data flow, and scientific interfaces.

  9. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  10. Expert system verification and validation for nuclear power industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of times required to perform certain functions, the prevention of equipment failures through predictive diagnostics, and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. The increased use of expert systems brings with it concerns about their reliability. Difficulties arising from software problems can affect plant safety, reliability, and availability. A joint project between EPRI and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is being initiated to develop a methodology for verification and validation of expert systems for nuclear power applications. This methodology will be tested on existing and developing expert systems. This effort will explore the applicability of conventional verification and validation methodologies to expert systems. The major area of concern will be certification of the knowledge base. This is expected to require new types of verification and validation techniques. A methodology for developing validation scenarios will also be studied

  11. Verification and Validation for Flight-Critical Systems (VVFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Sharon S.; Jacobsen, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    On March 31, 2009 a Request for Information (RFI) was issued by NASA s Aviation Safety Program to gather input on the subject of Verification and Validation (V & V) of Flight-Critical Systems. The responses were provided to NASA on or before April 24, 2009. The RFI asked for comments in three topic areas: Modeling and Validation of New Concepts for Vehicles and Operations; Verification of Complex Integrated and Distributed Systems; and Software Safety Assurance. There were a total of 34 responses to the RFI, representing a cross-section of academic (26%), small & large industry (47%) and government agency (27%).

  12. Practical requirements for software tools to assist in the validation and verification of hybrid expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.; Cadena, D.; Burgess, J.

    1992-01-01

    Any practical software development effort must remain focused on verification and validation of user requirements. Knowledge-based system development is no different in this regard. In industry today, most expert systems being produced are, in reality, hybrid software systems which, in addition to those components that provide the knowledge base and expert reasoning over the problem domain using various rule-based and object-oriented paradigms, incorporate significant bodies of code based on more traditional software techniques such as database management, graphical user interfaces, hypermedia, spreadsheets, as well as specially developed sequential code. Validation and verification of such hybrid systems must perforce integrate suitable methodologies from all such fields. This paper attempts to provide a broad overview of the practical requirements for methodologies and the concomitant groupware tools which would assist in such an enterprise. These methodologies and groupware tools would facilitate the teamwork efforts necessary to validate and verify all components of such hybrid systems by emphasizing cooperative recording of requirements and negotiated resolutions of any conflicts grounded in a solid understanding of the semantics of such a system

  13. Modelling flow and heat transfer through unsaturated chalk - Validation with experimental data from the ground surface to the aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, Dominique; Amraoui, Nadia; Noyer, Marie-Luce

    2018-01-01

    During the winter and spring of 2000-2001, large floods occurred in northern France (Somme River Basin) and southern England (Patcham area of Brighton) in valleys that are developed on Chalk outcrops. The floods durations were particularly long (more than 3 months in the Somme Basin) and caused significant damage in both countries. To improve the understanding of groundwater flooding in Chalk catchments, an experimental site was set up in the Hallue basin, which is located in the Somme River Basin (France). Unsaturated fractured chalk formation overlying the Chalk aquifer was monitored to understand its reaction to long and heavy rainfall events when it reaches a near saturation state. The water content and soil temperature were monitored to a depth of 8 m, and the matrix pressure was monitored down to the water table, 26.5 m below ground level. The monitoring extended over a 2.5-year period (2006-2008) under natural conditions and during two periods when heavy, artificial infiltration was induced. The objective of the paper is to describe a vertical numerical flow model based on Richards' equation using these data that was developed to simulate infiltrating rainwater flow from the ground surface to the saturated aquifer. The MARTHE computer code, which models the unsaturated-saturated continuum, was adapted to reproduce the monitored high saturation periods. Composite constitutive functions (hydraulic conductivity-saturation and pressure-saturation) that integrate the increase in hydraulic conductivity near saturation and extra available porosity resulting from fractures were introduced into the code. Using these composite constitutive functions, the model was able to accurately simulate the water contents and pressures at all depths over the entire monitored period, including the infiltration tests. The soil temperature was also accurately simulated at all depths, except during the infiltrations tests, which contributes to the model validation. The model was used

  14. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  15. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  16. Plug and Play Realtime Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is moving towards transforming parts of the Kennedy Space Center from a historically government-only...

  17. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...

  18. Validation of NCSSHP for highly enriched uranium systems containing beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krass, A.W.; Elliott, E.P.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the validation of KENO V.a using the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross section library for highly enriched uranium and beryllium neutronic systems, and is in accordance with ANSI/ANS-8.1-1983(R1988) requirements for calculational methods. The validation has been performed on a Hewlett Packard 9000/Series 700 Workstation at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Nuclear Criticality Safety Department using the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Nuclear Criticality Safety Software code package. Critical experiments from LA-2203, UCRL-4975, ORNL-2201, and ORNL/ENG-2 have been identified as having the constituents desired for this validation as well as sufficient experimental detail to allow accurate construction of KENO V.a calculational models. The results of these calculations establish the safety criteria to be employed in future calculational studies of these types of systems

  19. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  20. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D.

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities

  1. BEHAVIOUR OF BACKFILL MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. LIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Backfill materials like Bentonite and cement are effective in lowering grounding resistance of electrodes for a considerable period. During lightning, switching impulses and earth fault occurrences in medium and high voltage networks, the grounding system needs to handle extremely high currents either for a short duration or prolonged period respectively. This paper investigates the behaviour of bentonite, cement and sand under impulse and alternating high voltage (50Hz conditions. Fulguritic-formation was observed in all materials under alternating high voltage. The findings reveal that performance of grounding systems under high voltage conditions may significantly change from the outcomes anticipated at design stage.

  2. Concurrent validity and reliability of using ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters in the determination of leg movement initiation during single leg lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, Daniela; de Castro, Marcelo Peduzzi; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie Dawn

    2016-09-01

    Postural adjustment evaluations during single leg lift requires the initiation of heel lift (T1) identification. T1 measured by means of motion analyses system is the most reliable approach. However, this method involves considerable workspace, expensive cameras, and time processing data and setting up laboratory. The use of ground reaction forces (GRF) and centre of pressure (COP) data is an alternative method as its data processing and setting up is less time consuming. Further, kinetic data is normally collected using frequency samples higher than 1000Hz whereas kinematic data are commonly captured using 50-200Hz. This study describes the concurrent-validity and reliability of GRF and COP measurements in determining T1, using a motion analysis system as reference standard. Kinematic and kinetic data during single leg lift were collected from ten participants. GRF and COP data were collected using one and two force plates. Displacement of a single heel marker was captured by means of ten Vicon(©) cameras. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a sample frequency of 1000Hz. Data were analysed in two stages: identification of key events in the kinetic data, and assessing concurrent validity of T1 based on the chosen key events with T1 provided by the kinematic data. The key event presenting the least systematic bias, along with a narrow 95% CI and limits of agreement against the reference standard T1, was the Baseline COPy event. Baseline COPy event was obtained using one force plate and presented excellent between-tester reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper

  4. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper.

  5. Achieving Lights-Out Operation of SMAP Using Ground Data System Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The approach used in the SMAP ground data system to provide reliable, automated capabilities to conduct unattended operations has been presented. The impacts of automation on the ground data system architecture were discussed, including the three major automation patterns identified for SMAP and how these patterns address the operations use cases. The architecture and approaches used by SMAP will set the baseline for future JPL Earth Science missions.

  6. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors predictive of ATI and the optimal cut-off score for predicting an ATI were identified. These factors were then used to develop a standard scoring system. The score was then tested prospectively for accuracy in a new validation cohort consisting of 100 patients admitted for snakebite to our unit from 1 December 2014 to ...

  7. Pre-crash system validation with PRESCAN and VEHIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Verburg, D.J.; Labibes, K.; Oostendorp, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the tools for design and validation of Pre-Crash Systems: the software tool PRE-crash SCenario ANalyzer (PRESCAN) and the VEhicle-Hardware-In-the-Loop (VEHIL) facility. PRESCAN allows to investigate a pre-crash scenario in simulation. This scenario can then be compared with tests

  8. Design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents new tools and methods for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). ADASs aim to improve driving comfort and traffic safety by assisting the driver in recognizing and reacting to potentially dangerous traffic situations. A major challenge in

  9. Traffic modelling validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, R. van; Gietelink, O.J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a microscopic traffic model for the validation of advanced driver assistance systems. This model describes single-lane traffic and is calibrated with data from a field operational test. To illustrate the use of the model, a Monte Carlo simulation of single-lane traffic scenarios

  10. Formal validation of supervisory energy management systems for microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugumar, Gayathri; Selvamuthukumaran, R.; Dragicevic, T.

    2017-01-01

    techniques are available in the literature to monitor and control the energy flows among distributed RES in MGs, formal verification of those techniques was not proposed yet. The emphasis of this paper is to design and validate energy management system for a MG which consists of a solar photovoltaic (PV...

  11. Adding a Mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 With this established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS

  12. Solar House Obdach: experiences with a solar ground-coupled storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, M; Blum, P; Held, E; Aranovitch, E; Hardacre, A G; Ofverholm, E [eds.

    1982-09-14

    Within the framework of the Solar House Obdach-project, a system consisting of a ground heat exchanger, a low-temperature collector, a water-glycol/water heat pump and a low-temperature heating system was examined with regard to its suitability as only heat source of a house. With the design chosen (1 m/sup 2/ ground collector area and 0.3 m/sup 2/ low-temperature collector area per 80 W load), a seasonal performance factor of 2.83 could be obtained. About 40% of the low-temperature heat supplied to the heat pump were delivered directly or indirectly (by means of short-term storage in the ground) by the low-temperature collector, whereas about 60% came from the natural sources of energy of the ground (air heat, radiation, precipitation, ground water and slope water). The results obtained are used to verify and improve a computer model design program for ground collectors and ground-coupled storage systems which should help to optimize the design of solar plants, particularly under difficult conditions.

  13. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-30

    number of stowed kills Same basic load lasts longer range Gun/ammo parameters impact system weight, under - armor volume requirements Round volume...internal volume is reduced, the model assumes that the crew’s ability to operate while under armor will be impaired. If the size of a vehicle crew is...changing swept volume will alter under armor volume requirements for the total system; if system volume is fixed, changing swept volume will

  14. Annual simulations of heat pump systems with vertical ground heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M.A.; Randriamiarinjatovo, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    2001-06-01

    The recent increased popularity in ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems is due to their energy saving potential. However, in order for a GCHP to operate efficiently, they must be sized correctly. This paper presents a method to perform annual simulations of GCHP systems to optimize the length of the ground heat exchanger and provide annual energy consumption data. A computer program has been developed to simulate the building load, heat pump and the ground heat exchanger, the three most distinct parts of the system. The coupled governing equations of these three models are solved simultaneously until a converged solution is obtained at each time step. The simulations are performed using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES). This program has proven to be useful in balancing ground heat exchanger length against heat pump energy consumption.15 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  16. Resolution of holograms produced by the fluid experiment system and the holography ground system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Howard L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fluid Experiment System (FES) was developed to study low temperature crystal growth of triglycine sulfate from solution in a low gravity environment onboard Spacelab. The first flight of FES was in 1985. FES uses an optical system to take holograms of the growing crystal to be analyzed after the mission in the Holography Ground System (HGS) located in the Test Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center. Microscopic observation of the images formed by the reconstructed holograms is critical to determining crystal growth rate and particle velocity. FES and HGS were designed for a resolution of better than 20 micrometers, but initial observation of the flight holograms show a limit of 80 micrometers. The resolution of the FES holograms is investigated, as well as the role of beam intensity ratio and exposure time on the resolution of HGS produced holograms.

  17. Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Will, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluate the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones

  18. Validation of a new classification system for interprosthetic femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Silveira, Marcelo Peixoto Sena; Resende, Alessandra Regina da Silva; Junior, Egidio Oliveira Santana; Campos, Tulio Vinicius Oliveira; Santos, Leandro Emilio Nascimento; Balbachevsky, Daniel; Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope de

    2017-07-01

    Interprosthetic femoral fracture (IFF) incidence is gradually increasing as the population is progressively ageing. However, treatment remains challenging due to several contributing factors, such as poor bone quality, patient comorbidities, small interprosthetic fragment, and prostheses instability. An effective and specific classification system is essential to optimize treatment management, therefore diminishing complication rates. This study aims to validate a previously described classification system for interprosthetic femoral fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of safeguards monitoring systems and their simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standley, V.; Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Research is underway at the Atominstitut in Vienna Austria where the objective is to design and validate quantitatively a safeguards monitoring system (SMS) and its simulation. The work is novel because the simulation is also used as the basis for automated evaluation of SMS data. Preliminary results indicate that video and radiation data can be automatically interpreted using this approach. Application of the technique promises that an investment in a simulation supports directly the safeguards objective, which is to catch diversion of nuclear material. Consequently, it is easier for a safeguards agency to also realize other benefits associated with simulation-based acquisition, in addition to having a quantitative method for validation

  20. Modelling a ground-coupled heat pump system using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for the modelling of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system. The GCHP system connected to a test room with 16.24 m{sup 2} floor area in Firat University, Elazig (38.41 N, 39.14 E), Turkey, was designed and constructed. The heating and cooling loads of the test room were 2.5 and 3.1 kW at design conditions, respectively. The system was commissioned in November 2002 and the performance tests have been carried out since then. The average performance coefficients of the system (COPS) for horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHE) in the different trenches, at 1 and 2 m depths, were obtained to be 2.92 and 3.2, respectively. Experimental performances were performed to verify the results from the ANFIS approach. In order to achieve the optimal result, several computer simulations have been carried out with different membership functions and various number of membership functions. The most suitable membership function and number of membership functions are found as Gauss and 2, respectively. For this number level, after the training, it is found that root-mean squared (RMS) value is 0.0047, and absolute fraction of variance (R{sup 2}) value is 0.9999 and coefficient of variation in percent (cov) value is 0.1363. This paper shows that the values predicted with the ANFIS, especially with the hybrid learning algorithm, can be used to predict the performance of the GCHP system quite accurately. (author)

  1. Vent System Analysis for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage Transfer Ground Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A

    2013-01-01

    To test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots, NASA is leading the efforts to develop and design the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) payload. The primary objectives of CPST payload are to demonstrate: 1) in-space storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration applications; and 2) in-space transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Ground Test Article (GTA) is a technology development version of the CPST payload. The GTA consists of flight-sized and flight-like storage and transfer tanks, liquid acquisition devices, transfer, and pressurization systems with all of the CPST functionality. The GTA is designed to perform integrated passive and active thermal storage and transfer performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a vacuum environment. The GTA storage tank is designed to store liquid hydrogen and the transfer tank is designed to be 5% of the storage tank volume. The LH2 transfer subsystem is designed to transfer propellant from one tank to the other utilizing pressure or a pump. The LH2 vent subsystem is designed to prevent over-pressurization of the storage and transfer tanks. An in-house general-purpose computer program was utilized to model and simulate the vent subsystem operation. The modeling, analysis, and the results will be presented in the final paper.

  2. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  3. Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, and risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

    1988-01-01

    In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline); (2) standalone expert systems; (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS); and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

  4. Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

    1988-01-01

    In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline), (2) standalone expert systems, (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS), and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

  5. A new dataset validation system for the Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Zender, J.; Heather, D.; Martinez, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Planetary Science Archive is the official archive for the Mars Express mission. It has received its first data by the end of 2004. These data are delivered by the PI teams to the PSA team as datasets, which are formatted conform to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The PI teams are responsible for analyzing and calibrating the instrument data as well as the production of reduced and calibrated data. They are also responsible of the scientific validation of these data. ESA is responsible of the long-term data archiving and distribution to the scientific community and must ensure, in this regard, that all archived products meet quality. To do so, an archive peer-review is used to control the quality of the Mars Express science data archiving process. However a full validation of its content is missing. An independent review board recently recommended that the completeness of the archive as well as the consistency of the delivered data should be validated following well-defined procedures. A new validation software tool is being developed to complete the overall data quality control system functionality. This new tool aims to improve the quality of data and services provided to the scientific community through the PSA, and shall allow to track anomalies in and to control the completeness of datasets. It shall ensure that the PSA end-users: (1) can rely on the result of their queries, (2) will get data products that are suitable for scientific analysis, (3) can find all science data acquired during a mission. We defined dataset validation as the verification and assessment process to check the dataset content against pre-defined top-level criteria, which represent the general characteristics of good quality datasets. The dataset content that is checked includes the data and all types of information that are essential in the process of deriving scientific results and those interfacing with the PSA database. The validation software tool is a multi-mission tool that

  6. The setting for ground based augmentation system station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yude; Liu, Ruihua

    2007-11-01

    Based on the minimum field strength requirement within the whole GBAS service volume, this paper performs nominal link power budget for GBAS VHF data broadcast (VDB) system, and the required power transmitted from VDB system is derived. The paper elaborates the requirement of Desired-to-Undesired (D/U) signal ratio for a specific VHF airborne receiver to ensure the normal operation by the test, and presents the experimental method and results for acquiring the D/U signal ratios. The minimum geographical separations among GBAS, VOR and ILS stations are calculated according to the specifications of these three kinds of navigation systems.

  7. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I effort demonstrated, through actual development and tests with a spacecraft system, the technical and programmatic feasibility of developing, within the...

  8. Prognostics for Ground Support Systems: Case Study on Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics technologies determine the health (or damage) state of a component or sub- system, and make end of life (EOL) and remaining useful life (RUL)...

  9. Training Analyses Supporting the Land Warrior and Ground Soldier Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    systems and the resources required for NET. TRAC-WSMR then integrated the NET resources into the final cost estimates for the system...unit with LW and MW expressed in terms of unit force effectiveness, impacts to the DOTMLPF domains, life cycle cost , and ability to mitigate Joint...exposed. This was referred to as indirect view fire ( IVF ). Rounds were the same as the baseline. The M249 firers only executed the IVF . They also

  10. Strengthening the Security of ESA Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentge, Felix; Eggleston, James; Garcia Mateos, Marc

    2013-08-01

    A common approach to address information security has been implemented in ESA's Mission Operations (MOI) Infrastructure during the last years. This paper reports on the specific challenges to the Data Systems domain within the MOI and how security can be properly managed with an Information Security Management System (ISMS) according to ISO 27001. Results of an initial security risk assessment are reported and the different types of security controls that are being implemented in order to reduce the risks are briefly described.

  11. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a) No... system that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available from the FAA, 800...

  12. 47 CFR 15.509 - Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., fire fighting, emergency rescue, scientific research, commercial mining, or construction. (1) Parties... radars and wall imaging systems. 15.509 Section 15.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. (a) The UWB bandwidth of an imaging system operating...

  13. Estimates of evapotranspiration for riparian sites (Eucalyptus) in the Lower Murray -Darling Basin using ground validated sap flow and vegetation index scaling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Water accounting is becoming critical globally, and balancing consumptive water demands with environmental water requirements is especially difficult in in arid and semi-arid regions. Within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia, riparian water use has not been assessed across broad scales. This study therefore aimed to apply and validate an existing U.S. riparian ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) algorithm for the MDB river systems to assist water resource managers to quantify environmental water needs over wide ranges of niche conditions. Ground-based sap flow ET was correlated with remotely sensed predictions of ET, to provide a method to scale annual rates of water consumption by riparian vegetation over entire irrigation districts. Sap flux was measured at nine locations on the Murrumbidgee River between July 2011 and June 2012. Remotely sensed ET was calculated using a combination of local meteorological estimates of potential ET (ETo) and rainfall and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from selected 250 m resolution pixels. The sap flow data correlated well with MODIS EVI. Sap flow ranged from 0.81 mm/day to 3.60 mm/day and corresponded to a MODIS-based ET range of 1.43 mm/day to 2.42 mm/day. We found that mean ET across sites could be predicted by EVI-ETo methods with a standard error of about 20% across sites, but that ET at any given site could vary much more due to differences in aquifer and soil properties among sites. Water use was within range of that expected. We conclude that our algorithm developed for US arid land crops and riparian plants is applicable to this region of Australia. Future work includes the development of an adjusted algorithm using these sap flow validated results.

  14. Technology for meat-grinding systems to improve removal of hard particles from ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Sebranek, J G

    1997-03-01

    With increased consumption of ground meat, especially ground beef, quality issues for these products have become more important to industry and consumers alike. Ground meats are usually obtained from relatively low-value cuts and trimmings, and may on occasion contain undesirable hard particles. Hard particles in coarse-ground meat products may include bone chips or fragments, cartilage and dense connective tissue; all of which are considered undesirable defects and which can be reduced by utilizing hard-particle removal systems during grinding operations. This review discusses the principles of hard-particle separation from ground meat, the factors which influence performance of particle separation and some commercially available particle removal systems. Product and processing parameters such as initial bone and connective tissue content, fat content, temperature, pre-grinding size and grinder knife design are considered important for removing hard particles effectively. Pressure gradient on the grinder knife/plate interface was found to play a significant role in particle separation from soft (fat and lean) tissue. Various commercial systems, which are classified as central removal and periphery removal systems, are also discussed. Finally, the authors suggest some processing considerations for meat grinding to help achieve the best quality ground meat for consumers' satisfaction.

  15. There is need in new generation smart grid for the space and ground energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageev Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to considerate the opportunities of synchronization of the space and ground systems that generate and transfer energy on the basis of new generation smart grid using. The authors substantiate the necessity of new intellectual monitoring services that assess the processes took place in "generation-transportation-distribution-consumption" space and ground systems. This is made in order to improve the dynamic indicators of the energy system and to avoid the emergencies. The authors also give a prognosis of the dynamic indicators of the electric power super-system in analyzing metastable conditions in different energy modes.

  16. Design of power cable grounding wire anti-theft monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xisheng; Lu, Peng; Wei, Niansheng; Hong, Gang

    2018-01-01

    In order to prevent the serious consequences of the power grid failure caused by the power cable grounding wire theft, this paper presents a GPRS based power cable grounding wire anti-theft monitoring device system, which includes a camera module, a sensor module, a micro processing system module, and a data monitoring center module, a mobile terminal module. Our design utilize two kinds of methods for detecting and reporting comprehensive image, it can effectively solve the problem of power and cable grounding wire box theft problem, timely follow-up grounded cable theft events, prevent the occurrence of electric field of high voltage transmission line fault, improve the reliability of the safe operation of power grid.

  17. Experimental analysis of direct-expansion ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, V. C.; Baxter, V. D.

    1991-09-01

    Direct-expansion ground-coil-coupled (DXGC) heat pump systems have certain energy efficiency advantages over conventional ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems. Principal among these advantages are that the secondary heat transfer fluid heat exchanger and circulating pump are eliminated. While the DXGC concept can produce higher efficiencies, it also produces more system design and environmental problems (e.g., compressor starting, oil return, possible ground pollution, and more refrigerant charging). Furthermore, general design guidelines for DXGC systems are not well documented. A two-pronged approach was adopted for this study: (1) a literature survey, and (2) a laboratory study of a DXGC heat pump system with R-22 as the refrigerant, for both heating and cooling mode tests done in parallel and series tube connections. The results of each task are described in this paper. A set of general design guidelines was derived from the test results and is also presented.

  18. Validating the JobFit system functional assessment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenny Legge; Robin Burgess-Limerick

    2007-05-15

    Workplace injuries are costing the Australian coal mining industry and its communities $410 Million a year. This ACARP study aims to meet those demands by developing a safe, reliable and valid pre-employment functional assessment tool. All JobFit System Pre-Employment Functional Assessments (PEFAs) consist of a musculoskeletal screen, balance test, aerobic fitness test and job-specific postural tolerances and material handling tasks. The results of each component are compared to the applicant's job demands and an overall PEFA score between 1 and 4 is given with 1 being the better score. The reliability study and validity study were conducted concurrently. The reliability study examined test-retest, intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of the JobFit System Functional Assessment Method. Overall, good to excellent reliability was found, which was sufficient to be used for comparison with injury data for determining the validity of the assessment. The overall assessment score and material handling tasks had the greatest reliability. The validity study compared the assessment results of 336 records from a Queensland underground and open cut coal mine with their injury records. A predictive relationship was found between PEFA score and the risk of a back/trunk/shoulder injury from manual handling. An association was also found between PEFA score of 1 and increased length of employment. Lower aerobic fitness test results had an inverse relationship with injury rates. The study found that underground workers, regardless of PEFA score, were more likely to have an injury when compared to other departments. No relationship was found between age and risk of injury. These results confirm the validity of the JobFit System Functional Assessment method.

  19. Bridging Ground Validation and Algorithms: Using Scattering and Integral Tables to Incorporate Observed DSD Correlations into Satellite Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) raindrop size distribution (DSD) Working Group is composed of NASA PMM Science Team Members and is charged to "investigate the correlations between DSD parameters using Ground Validation (GV) data sets that support, or guide, the assumptions used in satellite retrieval algorithms." Correlations between DSD parameters can be used to constrain the unknowns and reduce the degrees-of-freedom in under-constrained satellite algorithms. Over the past two years, the GPM DSD Working Group has analyzed GV data and has found correlations between the mass-weighted mean raindrop diameter (Dm) and the mass distribution standard deviation (Sm) that follows a power-law relationship. This Dm-Sm power-law relationship appears to be robust and has been observed in surface disdrometer and vertically pointing radar observations. One benefit of a Dm-Sm power-law relationship is that a three parameter DSD can be modeled with just two parameters: Dm and Nw that determines the DSD amplitude. In order to incorporate observed DSD correlations into satellite algorithms, the GPM DSD Working Group is developing scattering and integral tables that can be used by satellite algorithms. Scattering tables describe the interaction of electromagnetic waves on individual particles to generate cross sections of backscattering, extinction, and scattering. Scattering tables are independent of the distribution of particles. Integral tables combine scattering table outputs with DSD parameters and DSD correlations to generate integrated normalized reflectivity, attenuation, scattering, emission, and asymmetry coefficients. Integral tables contain both frequency dependent scattering properties and cloud microphysics. The GPM DSD Working Group has developed scattering tables for raindrops at both Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) frequencies and at all GMI radiometer frequencies less than 100 GHz. Scattering tables include Mie and T-matrix scattering with H- and V

  20. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-02-29

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach.

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this paragraph. (b) Separate monitoring systems for each waste management component of a facility are... which circumscribes the several waste management components. (c) All monitoring wells must be cased in a... Section 265.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  2. Integrated management system - ground for the global performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Filho, Jorge Amorim

    2000-01-01

    Organizations working in the pursuit of a sustainable development must create and continuously update their management systems, in order to achieve harmonic and lasting global results, capable of satisfying partners and clients in short and long terms. Such an improvement can be obtained by integrating preexisting classic management models, applicable to organizations of all types and scales. The implementation of this unique resulting system obeys systematic steps of planning, development, checking and correction, aiming to continuously improve the management. It is in fact a very challenging process because it demands changing people minds, increasing the amount of work and learning of new skills. Though hard-working, such implementation is encouraged both by perceiving the necessity to attain the strategic objectives and by seeing that there are some requisites not yet fully covered by the present system. Finally, this improved management system results in a better global performance, recorded under four angles: financial, increased client satisfaction, better internal processes and continuous learning, driving the organization to be more competitive and successful in the future. (author)

  3. VALIDATION OF THE SERVICEABILITY OF THE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM USING SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZÁR, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the creation and use of known algorithms in production that uses a flow-shop system to monitor and verify its operability. It also describes the input data, which must be further opportunities for decision entered into the system. In the next section are described in detail the different parts of this procedure. Than it describes the sequential problems that are not yet at a practical level, few addressed, but thus methods shorten the processing time. The conclusion focuses on the validation of the serviceability of the manufacturing system using knowledge mentioned and their embedding and verification by simulation.

  4. Development of an expert system for signal validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Uhrig, R.E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Diagnosis of malfunctions in power plants has traditionally been in the domain of the process operator, who relies on training, experience, and reasoning ability to diagnose faults. The authors describe a method of signal validation using expert system technology, which detects possible anomalies in an instrument channel's output, similar to the procedure used by an operator. The system can be used to scan quickly over an array of sensor outputs and flag those that are observed to have possible anomalies. This system, when implemented in an operating power plant, could be used for continuous, on-line instrument anomaly detection with a minimum of computational effort

  5. VEHIL: a test facility for validation of fault management systems for advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Ploeg, J.; Schutter, de B.; Verhaegen, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    We present a methodological approach for the validation of fault management systems for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). For the validation process the unique VEHIL facility, developed by TNO Automotive and currently situated in Helmond, The Netherlands, is applied. The VEHIL facility

  6. Cooling performance of a vertical ground-coupled heat pump system installed in a school building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yujin; Lee, Jae-Keun; Jeong, Young-Man; Koo, Kyung-Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Kumjung-Ku, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Lee, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Kyu; Jin, Sim-Won [LG Electronics, 391-2 Gaeumjeong-dong, Changwon City, Gyeongnam (Korea); Kim, Soo H. [Department of Nanosystems and Nanoprocess Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Kumjung-Ku, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the cooling performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground heat source heat pump system (GSHP) installed in a school building in Korea. The evaluation of the cooling performance has been conducted under the actual operation of GSHP system in the summer of year 2007. Ten heat pump units with the capacity of 10 HP each were installed in the building. Also, a closed vertical typed-ground heat exchanger with 24 boreholes of 175 m in depth was constructed for the GSHP system. To analyze the cooling performance of the GSHP system, we monitored various operating conditions, including the outdoor temperature, the ground temperature, and the water temperature of inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger. Simultaneously, the cooling capacity and the input power were evaluated to determine the cooling performance of the GSHP system. The average cooling coefficient of performance (COP) and overall COP of the GSHP system were found to be {proportional_to}8.3 and {proportional_to}5.9 at 65% partial load condition, respectively. While the air source heat pump (ASHP) system, which has the same capacity with the GSHP system, was found to have the average COP of {proportional_to}3.9 and overall COP of {proportional_to}3.4, implying that the GSHP system is more efficient than the ASHP system due to its lower temperature of condenser. (author)

  7. A new energy analysis tool for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michopoulos, A.; Kyriakis, N. [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, POB 487, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    A new tool, suitable for energy analysis of vertical ground source heat pump systems, is presented. The tool is based on analytical equations describing the heat exchanged with the ground, developed in Matlab {sup registered} environment. The time step of the simulation can be freely chosen by the user (e.g. 1, 2 h etc.) and the calculation time required is very short. The heating and cooling loads of the building, at the afore mentioned time step, are needed as input, along with the thermophysical properties of the soil and of the ground heat exchanger, the operation characteristic curves of the system's heat pumps and the basic ground source heat exchanger dimensions. The results include the electricity consumption of the system and the heat absorbed from or rejected to the ground. The efficiency of the tool is verified through comparison with actual electricity consumption data collected from an existing large scale ground coupled heat pump installation over a three-year period. (author)

  8. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files)...

  9. Tactical EO/IE System for Ground Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    this thesis is based on these ideas. We will give the guidelines to a project manager or to a beginner in EW research about EO/IR system acquisition...1982 Syria vs Israel Syria: 1 Syria 5+ By Syria: 89 by 96+ Sparrow AIM-9G/L PYTHON Korea: 1 B- Kamchatka 1983 Korea vs USSR 0 0 747(KAL-(07) by AA-3 or

  10. Adaptive and Cognitive Ground and Wall Penetrating Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Radiation pattern measurement setupFigure 1 – Block diagram of the burst laser system . . . . . . . . . . . Page 33 5 29. Figure 29 Measured (dashed... FCC 02-48 radiated electromagnetic emissions capability. Two of the main enabling technical features are full waveform digitization and dual-band...Figure 29 and Figure 30 show typical radiation pattern measurements . Figure 31 shows one of the antennas and a head-to-head transmission measurement

  11. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2012-01-01

    The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements, and incorporate new...

  12. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitmore, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaffine, Leah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  13. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Overview and Architectural Tenets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS architecture will receive a technology refresh in 2015 to satisfy several key

  14. Validation of the VTT's reactor physics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, A.

    1998-01-01

    At VTT Energy several international reactor physics codes and nuclear data libraries are used in a variety of applications. The codes and libraries are under constant development and every now and then new updated versions are released, which are taken in use as soon as they have been validated at VTT Energy. The primary aim of the validation is to ensure that the code works properly, and that it can be used correctly. Moreover, the applicability of the codes and libraries are studied in order to establish their advantages and weak points. The capability of generating program-specific nuclear data for different reactor physics codes starting from the same evaluated data is sometimes of great benefit. VTT Energy has acquired a nuclear data processing system based on the NJOY-94.105 and TRANSX-2.15 processing codes. The validity of the processing system has been demonstrated by generating pointwise (MCNP) and groupwise (ANISN) temperature-dependent cross section sets for the benchmark calculations of the Doppler coefficient of reactivity. At VTT Energy the KENO-VI three-dimensional Monte Carlo code is used in criticality safety analyses. The KENO-VI code and the 44GROUPNDF5 data library have been validated at VTT Energy against the ZR-6 and LR-0 critical experiments. Burnup Credit refers to the reduction in reactivity of burned nuclear fuel due to the change in composition during irradiation. VTT Energy has participated in the calculational VVER-440 burnup credit benchmark in order to validate criticality safety calculation tools. (orig.)

  15. Zero to Integration in Eight Months, the Dawn Ground Data System Engineering Challange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubon, Lydia P.

    2006-01-01

    The Dawn Project has presented the Ground Data System (GDS) with technical challenges driven by cost and schedule constraints commonly associated with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Projects. The Dawn mission consists of a new and exciting Deep Space partnership among: the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), responsible for project management and flight operations; Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), spacecraft builder and responsible for flight system test and integration; and the University of California, at Los Angeles (UCLA), responsible for science planning and operations. As a cost-capped mission, one of Dawn s implementation strategies is to leverage from both flight and ground heritage. OSC's ground data system is used for flight system test and integration as part of the flight heritage strategy. Mission operations, however, are to be conducted with JPL s ground system. The system engineering challenge of dealing with two heterogeneous ground systems emerged immediately. During the first technical interchange meeting between the JPL s GDS Team and OSC's Flight Software Team, August 2003, the need to integrate the ground system with the flight software was brought to the table. This need was driven by the project s commitment to enable instrument engineering model integration in a spacecraft simulator environment, for both demonstration and risk mitigation purposes, by April 2004. This paper will describe the system engineering approach that was undertaken by JPL's GDS Team in order to meet the technical challenge within a non-negotiable eight-month schedule. Key to the success was adherence to an overall systems engineering process and fundamental systems engineering practices: decomposition of the project request into manageable requirements; definition of a structured yet flexible development process; integration of multiple ground disciplines and experts into a focused team effort; in-process risk management; and aggregation

  16. A scientific operations plan for the NASA space telescope. [ground support systems, project planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, D. K.; Costa, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    A ground system is described which is compatible with the operational requirements of the space telescope. The goal of the ground system is to minimize the cost of post launch operations without seriously compromising the quality and total throughput of space telescope science, or jeopardizing the safety of the space telescope in orbit. The resulting system is able to accomplish this goal through optimum use of existing and planned resources and institutional facilities. Cost is also reduced and efficiency in operation increased by drawing on existing experience in interfacing guest astronomers with spacecraft as well as mission control experience obtained in the operation of present astronomical spacecraft.

  17. Validity, Reliability, and Inertia of Four Different Temperature Capsule Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Coen C W G; Daanen, Hein A M; Bogerd, Cornelis P; Hopman, Maria T E; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2018-01-01

    Telemetric temperature capsule systems are wireless, relatively noninvasive, and easily applicable in field conditions and have therefore great advantages for monitoring core body temperature. However, the accuracy and responsiveness of available capsule systems have not been compared previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and inertia characteristics of four ingestible temperature capsule systems (i.e., CorTemp, e-Celsius, myTemp, and VitalSense). Ten temperature capsules were examined for each system in a temperature-controlled water bath during three trials. The water bath temperature gradually increased from 33°C to 44°C in trials 1 and 2 to assess the validity and reliability, and from 36°C to 42°C in trial 3 to assess the inertia characteristics of the temperature capsules. A systematic difference between capsule and water bath temperature was found for CorTemp (0.077°C ± 0.040°C), e-Celsius (-0.081°C ± 0.055°C), myTemp (-0.003°C ± 0.006°C), and VitalSense (-0.017°C ± 0.023°C; P 0.05). Comparable inertia characteristics were found for CorTemp (25 ± 4 s), e-Celsius (21 ± 13 s), and myTemp (19 ± 2 s), whereas the VitalSense system responded more slowly (39 ± 6 s) to changes in water bath temperature (P inertia were observed between capsule systems, an excellent validity, test-retest reliability, and inertia was found for each system between 36°C and 44°C after removal of outliers.

  18. Development of a PC-based ground support system for a small satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschambault, Robert L.; Gregory, Philip R.; Spenler, Stephen; Whalen, Brian A.

    1993-11-01

    The importance of effective ground support for the remote control and data retrieval of a satellite instrument cannot be understated. Problems with ground support may include the need to base personnel at a ground tracking station for extended periods, and the delay between the instrument observation and the processing of the data by the science team. Flexible solutions to such problems in the case of small satellite systems are provided by using low-cost, powerful personal computers and off-the-shelf software for data acquisition and processing, and by using Internet as a communication pathway to enable scientists to view and manipulate satellite data in real time at any ground location. The personal computer based ground support system is illustrated for the case of the cold plasma analyzer flown on the Freja satellite. Commercial software was used as building blocks for writing the ground support equipment software. Several levels of hardware support, including unit tests and development, functional tests, and integration were provided by portable and desktop personal computers. Satellite stations in Saskatchewan and Sweden were linked to the science team via phone lines and Internet, which provided remote control through a central point. These successful strategies will be used on future small satellite space programs.

  19. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  20. Ground Simulation of an Autonomous Satellite Rendezvous and Tracking System Using Dual Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube, Matthew J.; Hyslop, Andrew M.; Carignan, Craig R.; Easley, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop ground system was developed for simulating a robotic servicer spacecraft tracking a target satellite at short range. A relative navigation sensor package "Argon" is mounted on the end-effector of a Fanuc 430 manipulator, which functions as the base platform of the robotic spacecraft servicer. Machine vision algorithms estimate the pose of the target spacecraft, mounted on a Rotopod R-2000 platform, relay the solution to a simulation of the servicer spacecraft running in "Freespace", which performs guidance, navigation and control functions, integrates dynamics, and issues motion commands to a Fanuc platform controller so that it tracks the simulated servicer spacecraft. Results will be reviewed for several satellite motion scenarios at different ranges. Key words: robotics, satellite, servicing, guidance, navigation, tracking, control, docking.

  1. DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF AN INTERORGANIZATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Rouibah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interorganizational information system that aims to structure collaboration of engineering activities as well as data sharing across company borders. The paper also describes the approach underlying the system, validates it by designing a system prototype, and tests the system using questionnaire and in-depth interviews in order to further knowledge about the subject. The main results from the test show: collaboration engineering is potentially important for senior managers; end-users were specifically attracted more by the concept rather by its implementation; engineering change management is a complex process; and the support of strategic level is a critical success factor. In addition, the paper describes other factors that emerged during the ongoing project and inhibit success of the system.

  2. A Simulation Approach for Performance Validation during Embedded Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonglei; Haberl, Wolfgang; Herkersdorf, Andreas; Wechs, Martin

    Due to the time-to-market pressure, it is highly desirable to design hardware and software of embedded systems in parallel. However, hardware and software are developed mostly using very different methods, so that performance evaluation and validation of the whole system is not an easy task. In this paper, we propose a simulation approach to bridge the gap between model-driven software development and simulation based hardware design, by merging hardware and software models into a SystemC based simulation environment. An automated procedure has been established to generate software simulation models from formal models, while the hardware design is originally modeled in SystemC. As the simulation models are annotated with timing information, performance issues are tackled in the same pass as system functionality, rather than in a dedicated approach.

  3. Games and Scenarios for Real-Time System Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuhao

    This thesis presents research on the validation of real-time embedded software systems in the context of model-based development. The thesis proposes scenario-based and game-theoretic approaches to system analysis, verification, synthesis and testing to address the challenges that arise from....... By linking our prototype translators with existing model checker Uppaal and game solver Uppaal-Tiga, we show that these methods contribute to the interaction correctness and timeliness of early system designs. The thesis also shows that testing a real-time reactive system can be viewed as playing a timed...... communicating real-time systems can be modeled and specified with LSC. By translating LSC to timed automata (TAs), we reduce scenario-based model consistency checking and property verification to CTL real-time model checking problems, and reduce scenario-based synthesis to a timed game solving problem...

  4. Predicting performance of a ground-source heat pump system using fuzzy weighted pre-processing-based ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The goal of this work is to predict the daily performance (COP) of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with the minimum data set based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with a fuzzy weighted pre-processing (FWP) method. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal (FWP-ANFIS), a computer simulation is developed on MATLAB environment. The comparison of the proposed hybridized system's results with the standard ANFIS results is carried out and the results are given in the tables. The efficiency of the proposed method was demonstrated by using the 3-fold cross-validation test. The statistical methods, such as the root-mean squared (RMS), the coefficient of multiple determinations (R{sup 2}) and the coefficient of variation (cov), are given to compare the predicted and actual values for model validation. The average R{sup 2} values is 0.9998, the average RMS value is 0.0272 and the average cov value is 0.7733, which can be considered as very promising. The data set for the COP of GSHP system available included 38 data patterns. The simulation results show that the FWP-based ANFIS can be used in an alternative way in these systems. The prediction results of the proposed structure were much better than the standard ANFIS results. Therefore, instead of limited experimental data found in the literature, faster and simpler solutions are obtained using hybridized structures such as FWP-based ANFIS. (author)

  5. Expert system verification and validation survey. Delivery 3: Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the state-of-the-practice in Verification and Validation (V and V) of Expert Systems (ESs) on current NASA and Industry applications. This is the first task of a series which has the ultimate purpose of ensuring that adequate ES V and V tools and techniques are available for Space Station Knowledge Based Systems development. The strategy for determining the state-of-the-practice is to check how well each of the known ES V and V issues are being addressed and to what extent they have impacted the development of ESs.

  6. Proof-of-Concept of a Networked Validation Environment for Distributed Air/Ground NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, James; Larson, Natalie; Nelson, Justin; Reed, Joshua; Suggs, Marvin; Underwood, Matthew; Papelis, Yiannis; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) must be improved to increase capacity, reduce flight delays, and minimize environmental impacts of air travel. NASA has been tasked with aiding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in NAS modernization. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology that is fundamental to realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Despite the 2020 FAA mandate requiring ADS-B Out equipage, airspace users are lacking incentives to equip with the requisite ADS-B avionics. A need exists to validate in flight tests advanced concepts of operation (ConOps) that rely on ADS-B and other data links without requiring costly equipage. A potential solution is presented in this paper. It is possible to emulate future data link capabilities using the existing in-flight Internet and reduced-cost test equipment. To establish proof-of-concept, a high-fidelity traffic operations simulation was modified to include a module that simulated Internet transmission of ADS-B messages. An advanced NASA ConOp, Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), was used to evaluate technical feasibility. A preliminary assessment of the effects of latency and dropout rate on FIM was performed. Flight hardware that would be used by proposed test environment was connected to the simulation so that data transfer from aircraft systems to test equipment could be verified. The results indicate that the FIM ConOp, and therefore, many other advanced ConOps with equal or lesser response characteristics and data requirements, can be evaluated in flight using the proposed concept.

  7. Numerical and experimental analysis of a horizontal ground-coupled heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate a heat pump system using the ground as a source of heat. A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system has been installed and tested at the test room, University of Firat, Elazig, Turkey. Results obtained during experimental testing are presented and discussed here. The coefficient of performance (COP{sub sys}) of the GCHP system is determined from the measured data. A numerical model of heat transfer in the ground was developed for determining the temperature distribution in the vicinity of the pipe. The finite difference approximation is used for numerical analysis. It is observed that the numerical results agree with the experimental results. (author) (author)

  8. Evaluation of three composting systems for the management of spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Price, G W

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the optimum composting approach for the management of spent coffee grounds from the restaurant and ready-to-serve coffee industry. Three composting systems were assessed, including in-vessel composting, vermicomposting bins, and aerated static pile bin composting, over study periods ranging from 47 to 98 days. Total carbon content was reduced by 5-7% in the spent coffee ground treatments across the three composting systems. Nitrogen and other mineral nutrient contents were conserved or enhanced from the initial to the final composts in all the composting systems assessed. Earthworm growth and survival (15-80%) was reduced in all the treatments but mortality rates were lower in coffee treatments with cardboard additions. A decline in earthworm mortality with cardboard additions was the result of reduced exposure to organic compounds and chemicals released through the decomposition of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. QoS-Aware Resource Allocation for Network Virtualization in an Integrated Train Ground Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit plays an increasingly important role in urbanization processes. Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC Systems, Passenger Information Systems (PIS, and Closed Circuit Television (CCTV are key applications of urban rail transit to ensure its normal operation. In existing urban rail transit systems, different applications are deployed with independent train ground communication systems. When the train ground communication systems are built repeatedly, limited wireless spectrum will be wasted, and the maintenance work will also become complicated. In this paper, we design a network virtualization based integrated train ground communication system, in which all the applications in urban rail transit can share the same physical infrastructure. In order to better satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS requirement of each application, this paper proposes a virtual resource allocation algorithm based on QoS guarantee, base station load balance, and application station fairness. Moreover, with the latest achievement of distributed convex optimization, we exploit a novel distributed optimization method based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM to solve the virtual resource allocation problem. Extensive simulation results indicate that the QoS of the designed integrated train ground communication system can be improved significantly using the proposed algorithm.

  10. Development of an expert system for signal validation: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Uhrig, R.E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1988-07-01

    A signal validation and sensor information expert system is developed and applied to nuclear power plant subsystems. The expert system interactively provides the user with a list of sensors used to monitor a subsystem of a power plant and answers the user's questions about the characteristics of those sensors. The expert system performs an evaluation of the present output characteristics of an instrument channel. The evaluation is fully automated and is designed to mimic an operator's approach to signal validation. The evaluation is designed to detect three types of possible sensor anomalies: (1) incorrect average output, (2) improper noise level,and (3) incorrect response to a system perturbation. There are two tests used to detect each possible anomalous condition. One test is a comparison of the specified sensor characteristic against the same characteristic of its redundant sensors. The second test is a prediction of the sensor's expected behavior and comparison with its observed behavior. The evaluation was tested using operational data from twelve sensors used to monitor level, pressure, primary and secondary coolant flow rates, and hot and cold leg temperatures of a steam generator in a commercial nuclear power plant. The results of the testing demonstrated successfully that the evaluation detected the three possible anomalies, and was able to handle conflicting information using the comparison among redundant sensors and the system specific test used to detect the anomalies

  11. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  12. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    when using M3 outside its realm of applicability. The verification exercises are designed to test the correct functioning of each part of the M3 code (Principal Components Analysis, mixing routines, mass balance routines, End-member Selection Module, and End-member Variability Module). Each test focuses on a particular algorithm or module. Synthetic datasets have been used in many tests as this is the best way to verify the results when dealing with mixing proportions and mass balance calculations. All the verification tests have been passed by M3, except the one dealing with the two-principal component mixing routine. This way of computing mixing proportions only gives consistent results with three end-members, and should not be used for cases with four or more end-members. The validation exercises go one step forward and test the ability of M3 methodology to solve mixing and reaction problems. Some tests focus on the uncertainties in the mixing proportions and others on the uncertainties in the calculated mass balances. Many validation exercises use a number of synthetic water samples inserted in a real groundwater dataset from the Laxemar- Simpevarp area in Sweden in order to assess the accuracy of the computed mixing proportions and deviations, to determine the limits of M3 applicability. In this respect, several validation exercises give clear indications that an incorrect use of M3 (i.e. for systems in which mixing is not the dominant process controlling the chemistry of the waters) can give rise to erroneous results. Most tests insist on the need for an independent assessment of the validity of the results given by M3 using, for example, expert judgment, other geochemical codes, or several lines of reasoning. In general, M3 deals successfully with most validation tests, although several clearly indicate where the limits of applicability are. This is particularly evident when chemical reactions significantly change the composition of the resulting mixed water

  13. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  14. Thermal hydraulics of accelerator driven system: validation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, I.; Khanna, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents validation of RELAP5/Mod4.0 code modified to incorporate Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE)fluid properties for simulation of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) against Barone's NACIE facility.Results of mass flow rates (MFR), Reynolds number, heat transfer coefficients, temperatures and temperature difference for three powers (10.8, 21.7 and 32.5 kW) under natural circulation of LBE match with Barone's values within 7%,18%,37%, 5% and 8% of relative error respectively. After this validation Indian ADS for thermal power of 15 kW has been simulated. Simulated profiles of temperature, MFR and pressure drop LBE and air are reported. Air and LBE temperatures of present work match with literature design values within 5% of relative error. (author)

  15. Ground truth data collection on mining industrial explosions registered by the International Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehl'tekov, A.Yu.; Gordon, V.P.; Firsov, V.A.; Chervyakov, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation is dedicated to organizational and technical issues connected with the task of Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization timely notification on large chemical explosions including data on explosion location and time, on applied explosive substance quantity and type, and also on configuration and assumed purpose of explosion. Explosions registered by International Monitoring System are of special interest. Their data could be used for calibration of the monitoring system. Ground truth data collection and some explosions location results on Russia's mining enterprises were given. Ground truth data collection peculiarities according to mining industrial explosions were considered. (author)

  16. Methods and practices for verification and validation of programmable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbuerger, H.; Haapanen, P.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1993-01-01

    The programmable systems deviate by their properties and behaviour from the conventional non-programmable systems in such extent, that their verification and validation for safety critical applications requires new methods and practices. The safety assessment can not be based on conventional probabilistic methods due to the difficulties in the quantification of the reliability of the software and hardware. The reliability estimate of the system must be based on qualitative arguments linked to a conservative claim limit. Due to the uncertainty of the quantitative reliability estimate other means must be used to get more assurance about the system safety. Methods and practices based on research done by VTT for STUK, are discussed in the paper as well as the methods applicable in the reliability analysis of software based safety functions. The most essential concepts and models of quantitative reliability analysis are described. The application of software models in probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is evaluated. (author). 18 refs

  17. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  18. Using simulation to validate and optimize the design of a hybrid solar-GCHP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kummert, M.; Bernier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique; Roy, M. [Martin Roy and Associates, Deux-Montagnes, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A redevelopment project that involves the sustainable construction of 3 buildings with 187 affordable and environmentally sound housing units in a Montreal community was discussed. The HVAC system was part of the integrated design process that focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, potable water use, the production of waste water and the production of solid waste through retrofitting, reuse and waste diversion. Design options were limited by pre-existing equipment and funding opportunities. The design was also influenced by the building's management structure whereby financial benefits from the energy savings go to a non-profit, community-run utility company that will re-invest in new phases of the project. The project involved the installation of a hybrid solar geothermal heat pump system. The design was different from the usual approach because the solar thermal system was sized to provide domestic hot water but not to compensate the annual imbalance in the ground loads. It was noted that the average temperature in the ground will decrease with time, due to the imbalance. This presentation provided the results of detailed TRNSYS simulations that validated and optimized the design of the hybrid ground-coupled heating plant including solar thermal collectors in the 3 multi-unit buildings. The TRNSYS simulation used building loads that were calculated in an earlier stage of the design process with DOE-2. A global heat exchange coefficient for radiators and floor heating was estimated in order to use realistic temperature levels. An analysis of the long-term system performance of this unique design showed that on a yearly basis, 33 per cent of the total heating load can come from renewable energy sources. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  19. A rating system for post pulse data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buceti, G.; Centioli, Cristina; Iannone, F.; Panella, M.; Rizzo, A.; Vitale, V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of an automatic data validation system in a fusion experiment is to account--after every shot--for any occurrence of faulty sensors and unreliable measurements, thus preventing the proliferation of poor pulse data. In the past years a prototype has been successfully developed at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) on a small set of density measurements. The results have shown that the model can be further extended to plant and diagnostic data, and that the same system can be used to assign to raw data a quality factor, to be stored in the archive and to be used in the post-shot elaboration phase as a selection criterion. In this way, a data validation system can also provide data analysts with an useful tool to be used as a key--together with other significant parameters, like plasma current, or magnetic field--to search the archive for quality data. This paper will describe how, using soft computing techniques, both these functions have been implemented on FTU, providing the users with a simple interface for fault detection developed in an open source environment (PHP-MySQL), to be finalised into the realisation of an overall rating system for FTU data

  20. A rating system for post pulse data validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buceti, G.; Centioli, Cristina E-mail: centioli@frascati.enea.it; Iannone, F.; Panella, M.; Rizzo, A.; Vitale, V

    2003-09-01

    The aim of an automatic data validation system in a fusion experiment is to account--after every shot--for any occurrence of faulty sensors and unreliable measurements, thus preventing the proliferation of poor pulse data. In the past years a prototype has been successfully developed at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) on a small set of density measurements. The results have shown that the model can be further extended to plant and diagnostic data, and that the same system can be used to assign to raw data a quality factor, to be stored in the archive and to be used in the post-shot elaboration phase as a selection criterion. In this way, a data validation system can also provide data analysts with an useful tool to be used as a key--together with other significant parameters, like plasma current, or magnetic field--to search the archive for quality data. This paper will describe how, using soft computing techniques, both these functions have been implemented on FTU, providing the users with a simple interface for fault detection developed in an open source environment (PHP-MySQL), to be finalised into the realisation of an overall rating system for FTU data.

  1. Development and validation of novel digitalized cervicography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Nyung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Nam, Kye-Hyun; Lee, Seon-Kyung; Lee, Tae Sung; Choi, Ho-Sun; Han, Sei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Digital cervicography systems would be expected to reduce the costs of film cervicography, and provide the opportunity for "telemedicine-based" screening. We aimed to develop web-based digital cervicography system, and validate it compared with conventional film cervicography. Methods A hundred cases from five centers were prospectively included, and cervical images (analogue, digitalized by scanning analogue, and digital) were taken separately using both analogue (Cerviscope) and digital camera (Dr. Cervicam) in each patient. Nine specialists evaluated the three kinds of images of each case with time interval between evaluations of each image. To validate novel digitalized system, we analyzed intra-observer variance among evaluation results of three kinds of images. Results Sixty-three cases were finally analyzed after excluding technically defective cases that cannot be evaluable on analogue images. The generalized kappa for analogue versus digital image was 0.83, for analogue versus scanned image 0.72, and for digital versus scanned image was 0.71; all were in excellent consensus. Conclusion Digitalized cervicography system can be substituted for the film cervicography very reliably, and can be used as a promising telemedicine tool for cervical cancer screening. PMID:27200314

  2. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  3. Analysis of CPolSK-based FSO system working in space-to-ground channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuwei; Sato, Takuro

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the transmission performance of a circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK)-based free space optical (FSO) system working in space-to-ground channel is analyzed. Formulas describing the optical polarization distortion caused by the atmospheric turbulence and the communication qualities in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), bit-error-ratio (BER) and outage probability of the proposed system are derived. Based on the Stokes parameters data measured by a Japanese optical communication satellite, we evaluate the space-to-ground FSO link and simulate the system performance under a varying regime of turbulence strength. The proposed system provides a more efficient way to compensate scintillation effects in a comparison with the on-off-keying (OOK)-based FSO system. These results are useful to the designing and evaluating of a deep space FSO communication system.

  4. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J.-L.; Clarisse, L.; Worden, J.; Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; Risi, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2015-03-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying onboard MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD) in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio-temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Izaña, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows one to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because the sensitivity profiles of the two observing systems do not allow to take into account their differences of sensitivity. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3‰) between IASI retrieved δD with the TES, which are bias corrected, but important with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observation comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high

  5. Developmental validation of the PowerPlex(®) 21 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensenberger, Martin G; Hill, Carolyn R; McLaren, Robert S; Sprecher, Cynthia J; Storts, Douglas R

    2014-03-01

    The PowerPlex(®) 21 System is a STR multiplex that has been optimized for casework samples while still being capable of database workflows including direct amplification. The loci included in the multiplex offer increasing overlap with core loci used in different countries and regions throughout the world. The PowerPlex(®) 21 System contains D1S1656, D2S1338, D3S1358, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D12S391, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, Amelogenin, CSF1PO, FGA, Penta D, Penta E, TH01, TPOX, and vWA. These loci represent all 13 core CODIS loci in addition to loci commonly used in Asia and Europe. A developmental validation study was completed to document performance capabilities and limitations of the PowerPlex(®) 21 System. Data from this validation work served as the basis for the following conclusions: genotyping of single-source samples was reliable across a range of template DNA concentrations with >95% alleles called at 50 pg. Direct amplification of samples from FTA(®) storage cards was successfully performed using the reagents provided with the system and modified cycling protocols provided in the technical manual. Mixture analysis showed that over 95% of minor alleles were detected at 1:9 ratios. Reaction conditions including volume and annealing temperature as well as the concentrations of primers, DNA polymerase, magnesium, and Master Mix were shown to be optimal and able to withstand moderate variations without affecting system performance. Reproducible results were generated by different users at different sites. Finally, concordance studies showed consistent results when comparing the PowerPlex(®) 21 System with other commercially available STR-genotyping systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Human Proximity Operations System test case validation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Justin; Straub, Jeremy

    A Human Proximity Operations System (HPOS) poses numerous risks in a real world environment. These risks range from mundane tasks such as avoiding walls and fixed obstacles to the critical need to keep people and processes safe in the context of the HPOS's situation-specific decision making. Validating the performance of an HPOS, which must operate in a real-world environment, is an ill posed problem due to the complexity that is introduced by erratic (non-computer) actors. In order to prove the HPOS's usefulness, test cases must be generated to simulate possible actions of these actors, so the HPOS can be shown to be able perform safely in environments where it will be operated. The HPOS must demonstrate its ability to be as safe as a human, across a wide range of foreseeable circumstances. This paper evaluates the use of test cases to validate HPOS performance and utility. It considers an HPOS's safe performance in the context of a common human activity, moving through a crowded corridor, and extrapolates (based on this) to the suitability of using test cases for AI validation in other areas of prospective application.

  7. Smoke Management: Toward a Data Base to Validate PB-Piedmont - Numerical Simulation of Smoke on the Ground at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    1999-01-01

    The use of fire for controlled burning to meet objectives for silviculture or for ecosystem management carries the risk of liability for smoke. Near-ground smoke can degrade air quality, reduce visibility, aggravate health problems, and create a general nuisance. At night, smoke can locally limit visibility over roadways creating serious hazards to transportation. PB-...

  8. Use of simulators for validation of advanced plant monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytterhoeven, G.; Vlaminck, M. De [Belgatom, Brussels (Belgium); Javaux, D. [Cognitive Ergonomics Work-Psychology Department, University of Liege, Sart-Tilman (Belgium)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes how the full-scope nuclear power plant simulator of Doel (Belgium) was used to assess Situation Awareness for the validation of a process monitoring and supervision system, named DIMOS. The method (derived from a method originally developed for the aerospace industry) has been adapted and applied to compare the efficiency of two versions of the monitoring system: Alarm-masking and non alarm-masking versions of DIMOS have been analysed in their ability to support Situation Awareness, to improve performance and to fulfil the satisfaction of operators. Both normal power plant operating conditions and abnormal operating conditions were simulated and a large number of power plant operators were involved in the evaluation. The paper focuses on the rationale behind the 'Situation Awareness' evaluation, the experiment environment and the results regarding the added value of the alarm masking version of the monitoring system. (author)

  9. Use of simulators for validation of advanced plant monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uytterhoeven, G.; Vlaminck, M. De; Javaux, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how the full-scope nuclear power plant simulator of Doel (Belgium) was used to assess Situation Awareness for the validation of a process monitoring and supervision system, named DIMOS. The method (derived from a method originally developed for the aerospace industry) has been adapted and applied to compare the efficiency of two versions of the monitoring system: Alarm-masking and non alarm-masking versions of DIMOS have been analysed in their ability to support Situation Awareness, to improve performance and to fulfil the satisfaction of operators. Both normal power plant operating conditions and abnormal operating conditions were simulated and a large number of power plant operators were involved in the evaluation. The paper focuses on the rationale behind the 'Situation Awareness' evaluation, the experiment environment and the results regarding the added value of the alarm masking version of the monitoring system. (author)

  10. Modeling the effects of longwall mining on the ground water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matetic, R.J.; Liu, J.; Elsworth, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this US Bureau of Mines hydrologic-subsidence investigation was to evaluate the effects of longwall mining on the local ground water regime through field monitoring and numerical modeling. Field data were obtained from multiple-position borehole extensometers (MPBXs) that were used to measure subsurface displacements. Survey monuments were installed to measure mining-induced surface deformations. Numerous drawdown and recovery tests were performed to characterized hydrologic properties of the overburden strata. Coreholes were drilled above the study area to determine lithologic and strength characteristics of the overburden strata using the rock samples collected. Electronic recorders were installed on all monitoring wells to continuously monitor ground water levels in coordination with mining of the longwall panels. A combined finite element model of the deformation of overlying strata, and its influence on ground water flow was used to define the change in local and regional water budgets. The predicted effects of the postmining ground water system determined by the model correlated well with field data collected from the fieldsite. Without an infiltration rate added to the model, a static decrease of 3.0 m (10 ft) in water level would occur due to mining of both longwall panels and if an infiltration rate was inputted in the model, no predicted long-term effects would occur to the ground water system

  11. Modeling and validation of existing VAV system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The optimization of supervisory control strategies and local-loop controllers can improve the performance of HVAC (heating, ventilating, air-conditioning) systems. In this study, the component model of the fan, the damper and the cooling coil were developed and validated against monitored data of an existing variable air volume (VAV) system installed at Montreal's Ecole de Technologie Superieure. The measured variables that influence energy use in individual HVAC models included: (1) outdoor and return air temperature and relative humidity, (2) supply air and water temperatures, (3) zone airflow rates, (4) supply duct, outlet fan, mixing plenum static pressures, (5) fan speed, and (6) minimum and principal damper and cooling and heating coil valve positions. The additional variables that were considered, but not measured were: (1) fan and outdoor airflow rate, (2) inlet and outlet cooling coil relative humidity, and (3) liquid flow rate through the heating or cooling coils. The paper demonstrates the challenges of the validation process when monitored data of existing VAV systems are used. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Statistically validated network of portfolio overlaps and systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, Stanislao; Cimini, Giulio; Primicerio, Kevin; Di Clemente, Riccardo; Challet, Damien

    2016-12-21

    Common asset holding by financial institutions (portfolio overlap) is nowadays regarded as an important channel for financial contagion with the potential to trigger fire sales and severe losses at the systemic level. We propose a method to assess the statistical significance of the overlap between heterogeneously diversified portfolios, which we use to build a validated network of financial institutions where links indicate potential contagion channels. The method is implemented on a historical database of institutional holdings ranging from 1999 to the end of 2013, but can be applied to any bipartite network. We find that the proportion of validated links (i.e. of significant overlaps) increased steadily before the 2007-2008 financial crisis and reached a maximum when the crisis occurred. We argue that the nature of this measure implies that systemic risk from fire sales liquidation was maximal at that time. After a sharp drop in 2008, systemic risk resumed its growth in 2009, with a notable acceleration in 2013. We finally show that market trends tend to be amplified in the portfolios identified by the algorithm, such that it is possible to have an informative signal about institutions that are about to suffer (enjoy) the most significant losses (gains).

  13. Validation of the AGDISP model for predicting airborne atrazine spray drift: a South African ground application case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nsibande, SA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Air dispersion software models for evaluating pesticide spray drift during application have been developed that can potentially serve as a cheaper convenient alternative to field monitoring campaigns. Such models require validation against field...

  14. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Joseph [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lantz, Kathy [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is preparing for the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) satellite in 2015. This satellite will feature higher time (5-minute versus 30-minute sampling) and spatial resolution (0.5 km vs 1 km in the visible channel) than current GOES instruments provide. NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service has funded the Global Monitoring Division at the Earth System Research Laboratory to provide ground-based validation data for many of the new and old products the new GOES instruments will retrieve specifically related to radiation at the surface and aerosol and its extensive and intensive properties in the column. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) had an emphasis on aerosol; therefore, we asked to be involved in this campaign to de-bug our new instrumentation and to provide a new capability that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facilities (AMF) did not possess, namely surface albedo measurement out to 1625 nm. This gave us a chance to test remote operation of our new multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer/multi-filter radiometer (MFRSR/MFR) combination. We did not deploy standard broadband shortwave and longwave radiation instrumentation because ARM does this as part of every AMF deployment. As it turned out, the ARM standard MFRSR had issues, and we were able to provide the aerosol column data for the first 2 months of the campaign covering the summer flight phase of the deployment. Using these data, we were able to work with personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to retrieve not only aerosol optical depth (AOD), but single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, as well.

  15. Design of an ultra-wideband ground-penetrating radar system using impulse radiating antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Giri, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    At TNO-FEL, one of the research programs is to explore the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields in a bi-static ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system for the detection, location and identification of buried items of unexploded ordnance (e.g. land mines). In the present paper we describe

  16. Design of an ultra-wideband ground-penetrating radar system using impulse radiating antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Giri, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    At TNO-FEL, one of the research programs is to explore the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields in a bi-static ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system for the detection, location and identification of buried items of unexploded ordnance (e.g. land mines). In the present paper we describe

  17. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  18. Long-term above-ground biomass production in a red oak-pecan agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems have widely been recognized for their potential to foster long-term carbon sequestration in woody perennials. This study aims to determine the above-ground biomass in a 16-year-old red oak (Quercus rubra) - pecan (Carya illinoinensis) silvopastoral planting (141 and 53 trees ha-...

  19. Patterns of the ground states in the presence of random interactions : Nucleon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, YM; Arima, A; Shimizu, N; Ogawa, K; Yoshinaga, N; Scholten, O

    We present our results on properties of ground states for nucleonic systems in the presence of random two-body interactions. In particular, we calculate probability distributions for parity, seniority, spectroscopic (i.e., in the laboratory frame) quadrupole moments, and discuss a clustering in the

  20. A strategy for modeling ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R; Younger, P L

    2001-01-01

    Discharges of polluted water from abandoned mines are a major cause of degradation of water resources worldwide. Pollution arises after abandoned workings flood up to surface level, by the process termed ground water rebound. As flow in large, open mine voids is often turbulent, standard techniques for modeling ground water flow (which assume laminar flow) are inappropriate for predicting ground water rebound. More physically realistic models are therefore desirable, yet these are often expensive to apply to all but the smallest of systems. An overall strategy for ground water rebound modeling is proposed, with models of decreasing complexity applied as the temporal and spatial scales of the systems under analysis increase. For relatively modest systems (area modeling approach has been developed, in which 3-D pipe networks (representing major mine roadways, etc.) are routed through a variably saturated, 3-D porous medium (representing the country rock). For systems extending more than 100 to 3000 km2, a semidistributed model (GRAM) has been developed, which conceptualizes extensively interconnected volumes of workings as ponds, which are connected to other ponds only at discrete overflow points, such as major inter-mine roadways, through which flow can be efficiently modeled using the Prandtl-Nikuradse pipe-flow formulation. At the very largest scales, simple water-balance calculations are probably as useful as any other approach, and a variety of proprietary codes may be used for the purpose.

  1. An Innovative Use of Renewable Ground Heat for Insulation in Low Exergy Building Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjürg Leibundgut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground heat is a renewable resource that is readily available for buildings in cool climates, but its relatively low temperature requires the use of a heat pump to extract it for heating. We developed a system that uses low temperature ground heat directly in a building wall to reduce transmission heat losses. The Active Low Exergy Geothermal Insulation Systems (ALEGIS minimizes exergy demand and maximizes the use of renewable geothermal heat from the ground. A fluid is pumped into a small pipe network in an external layer of a wall construction that is linked to a ground heat source. This decouples the building from the outside temperature, therefore eliminating large peak demands and reducing the primary energy demand. Our steady-state analysis shows that at a design temperature of −10 °C the 6 cm thick active insulation system has equivalent performance to 11 cm of passive insulation. Our comparison of heating performance of a building with our active insulation system versus a building with static insulation of the same thickness shows a 15% reduction in annual electricity demand, and thus exergy input. We present an overview of the operation and analysis of our low exergy concept and its modeled performance.

  2. The development of ground unmanned vehicles, driver assistance systems and components according to patent publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saykin, A. M.; Tuktakiev, G. S.; Zhuravlev, A. V.; Zaitseva, E. P.

    2018-02-01

    The paper contains the analysis of the main trends in the patenting of ground unmanned vehicles, driver assistance systems (ADAS) and unmanned vehicle components abroad during the period from 2010 to 2016. The conclusion was made that the intensity of their patenting abroad increased.

  3. Ground-state energy of an exciton-(LO) phonon system in a parabolic quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, B.; Wüsthoff, J.; Smondyrev, M. A.

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents a variational study of the ground-state energy of an exciton-(LO) phonon system, which is spatially confined to a quantum well. The exciton-phonon interaction is of Fröhlich type, the confinement potentials are assumed to be parabolic functions of the coordinates. Making use of functional integral techniques, the phonon part of the problem can be eliminated exactly, leading us to an effective two-particle system, which has the same spectral properties as the original one. Subsequently, Jensen's inequality is applied to obtain an upper bound on the ground-state energy. The main intention of this paper is to analyze the influence of the quantum-well-induced localization of the exciton on its ground-state energy (or its binding energy, respectively). To do so, we neglect any mismatch of the masses or the dielectric constants, but admit an arbitrary strength of the confinement potentials. Our approach allows for a smooth interpolation of the ultimate limits of vanishing and infinite confinement, corresponding to the cases of a free three-dimensional and a free two-dimensional exciton-phonon system. The interpolation formula for the ground-state energy bound corresponds to similar formulas for the free polaron or the free exciton-phonon system. These bounds in turn are known to compare favorably with all previous ones, which we are aware of.

  4. Exergy Analysis of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Heating System with Different Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate and improve the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP heating system with radiant floors as terminals, an exergy analysis based on test results is performed in this study. The system is divided into four subsystems, and the exergy loss and exergy efficiency of each subsystem are calculated using the expressions derived based on exergy balance equations. The average values of the measured parameters are used for the exergy analysis. The analysis results show that the two largest exergy losses occur in the heat pump and terminals, with losses of 55.3% and 22.06%, respectively, and the lowest exergy efficiency occurs in the ground heat exchange system. Therefore, GCHP system designers should pay close attention to the selection of heat pumps and terminals, especially in the design of ground heat exchange systems. Compared with the scenario system in which fan coil units (FCUs are substituted for the radiant floors, the adoption of radiant floors can result in a decrease of 12% in heating load, an increase of 3.24% in exergy efficiency of terminals and an increase of 1.18% in total exergy efficiency of the system. The results may point out the direction and ways of optimizing GCHP systems.

  5. Modeling and Experimental Studies for the Thermal Performance of a Ground Heat Storage System Integrated with a Greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooli, Sami; Lazaar, Mariem; Hazami, Majdi; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Belghith, Ali

    2009-01-01

    A thermal model has been developed to investigate the potential of using the stored thermal energy of the ground for greenhouse heating and cooling with the help of a ground heat storage system (GHSS) integrated with the greenhouse located in the premises of CRTEn, Tunis, Tunisia. Experiments were conducted extensively throughout the years 2006-2007, and the developed model was validated against several consecutive arbitrary days experiments. The predicted and measured values of the greenhouse air temperatures and humidities that were verified, in terms of root mean square deviation and correlation coefficient, exhibited fair agreement. The results of this study showed that the GHS system kept the inside air temperature 1-3 degree higher than that of outside air at nighttime. The main reason for this low efficiency is due to the weak heat transfer area of the water-air heat exchanger. The simulation results indicate that the GHSS does not yield any significant effect for cooling greenhouses during sunny daytime. The GHSS fulfils its full potential for a heat transfer area of 150 m 2 . With this area, there occurs 4-6 degree rise of temperature in greenhouse as compared to the temperatures without GHSS and respectively 5-7.5 degree rise in greenhouse as compared to outside air

  6. H-Bridge Transformerless Inverter with Common Ground for Single-Phase Solar-Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase H-Bridge transformerless inverter with common ground for grid-connected photovoltaic systems (hereafter it is called ‘Siwakoti-H’ inverter). The inverter works on the principle of flying capacitor and consists of only four power switches (two reverse blocking...... IGBT's (RB-IGBT) and two MOSFET's), a capacitor and a small filter at the output stage. The proposed topology share a common ground with the grid and the PV source. A Unipolar Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) technique is used to modulate the inverter to minimize switching loss, output current...

  7. Validated TRNSYS Model for Solar Assisted Space Heating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Nedal

    2014-01-01

    The present study involves a validated TRNSYS model for solar assisted space heating system as applied to a residential building in Jordan using new detailed radiation models of the TRNSYS 17.1 and geometric building model Trnsys3d for the Google SketchUp 3D drawing program. The annual heating load for a building (Solar House) which is located at the Royal ScientiFIc Society (RS5) in Jordan is estimated under climatological conditions of Amman. The aim of this Paper is to compare measured thermal performance of the Solar House with that modeled using TRNSYS. The results showed that the annual measured space heating load for the building was 6,188 kWh while the heati.ng load for the modeled building was 6,391 kWh. Moreover, the measured solar fraction for the solar system was 50% while the modeled solar fraction was 55%. A comparison of modeled and measured data resulted in percentage mean absolute errors for solar energy for space heating, auxiliary heating and solar fraction of 13%, 7% and 10%, respectively. The validated model will be useful for long-term performance simulation under different weather and operating conditions.(author)

  8. Integrated Validation System for a Thermal-hydraulic System Code, TASS/SMR-S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Hwang, Young-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon-Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Development including enhancement and modification of thermal-hydraulic system computer code is indispensable to a new reactor, SMART. Usually, a thermal-hydraulic system code validation is achieved by a comparison with the results of corresponding physical effect tests. In the reactor safety field, a similar concept, referred to as separate effect tests has been used for a long time. But there are so many test data for comparison because a lot of separate effect tests and integral effect tests are required for a code validation. It is not easy to a code developer to validate a computer code whenever a code modification is occurred. IVS produces graphs which shown the comparison the code calculation results with the corresponding test results automatically. IVS was developed for a validation of TASS/SMR-S code. The code validation could be achieved by a comparison code calculation results with corresponding test results. This comparison was represented as a graph for convenience. IVS is useful before release a new code version. The code developer can validate code result easily using IVS. Even during code development, IVS could be used for validation of code modification. The code developer could gain a confidence about his code modification easily and fast and could be free from tedious and long validation work. The popular software introduced in IVS supplies better usability and portability.

  9. Conceptual design for relocation of the underground monitoring systems to ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toya, Naruhisa; Ogawa, Ken; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ohnuki, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    One of the major subjects of the ongoing geoscientific research program, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in the Tono area, central Japan, is accumulation of knowledge on a recovery of the geological environment during and after the facility closure. Then it is necessary to plan the observation system which can be use of after the backfill of research tunnels. The main purpose of this report is contribution to the detailed design for relocation of the underground monitoring systems to ground surface. We discussed the restriction and requirement for the underground monitoring systems which can be use of after the backfill. Furthermore, we made the conceptual design for relocation of the current underground monitoring systems to ground surface. (author)

  10. Ground water impact assessment report for the 216-B-3 Pond system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.G.; Law, A.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Evelo, S.D.; Barnett, D.B.; Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water impact assessments were required for a number of liquid effluent receiving sites according to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestones M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed upon by the US Department of Energy. This report is one of the last three assessments required and addresses the impact of continued discharge of uncontaminated wastewater to the 216-B-3C expansion lobe of the B Pond system in the 200 East Area until June 1997. Evaluation of past and projected effluent volumes and composition, geohydrology of the receiving site, and contaminant plume distribution patterns, combined with ground water modeling, were used to assess both changes in ground water flow regime and contaminant-related impacts

  11. Application of verification and validation on safety parameter display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Offers some explanation of how verification and validation (VandV) can support development and licensing of the Safety Parameter Display Systems (SPDS). Advocates that VandV can be more readily accepted within the nuclear industry if a better understanding exists of what the objectives of VandV are and should be. Includes a discussion regarding a reasonable balance of costs and benefits of VandV as applied to the SPDS and to other digital systems. Represents the author's perception of the regulator's perspective based on background information and experience, and discussions with regulators about their current concerns and objectives. Suggests that the introduction of the SPDS into the Control Room is a first step towards growing dependency on use of computers

  12. Experimental Validation of the LHC Helium Relief System Flow Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fydrych, J; Riddone, G

    2006-01-01

    In case of simultaneous resistive transitions in a whole sector of magnets in the Large Hadron Collider, the helium would be vented from the cold masses to a dedicated recovery system. During the discharge the cold helium will eventually enter a pipe at room temperature. During the first period of the flow the helium will be heated intensely due to the pipe heat capacity. To study the changes of the helium thermodynamic and flow parameters we have simulated numerically the most critical flow cases. To verify and validate numerical results, a dedicated laboratory test rig representing the helium relief system has been designed and commissioned. Both numerical and experimental results allow us to determine the distributions of the helium parameters along the pipes as well as mechanical strains and stresses.

  13. CALIPSO satellite validation using an elastic backscattering Lidar system and the AERONET sun photometer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Fabio Juliano da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol and clouds play an important role in the Earth's climate process through their direct and indirect contributions to the radiation budget. The largest difficulty in predicting the climate change processes is associated with uncertainties in the distribution and properties of aerosols and clouds, as well as their interactions on a global scale. The CALIPSO mission was developed as part of the NASA program, in collaboration with the French space agency CNES, with the main goal to develop studies that will help to quantify the uncertainties about aerosols and clouds. The CALIPSO satellite carried a Lidar system on board, named CALIOP, as a primary instrument, able to provide the aerosol and cloud vertical profiles and distribution, as well as their interactions. Once the optical properties measured by CALIOP are retrieved, using a complex set of algorithms, it is necessary to study and develop methodologies in order to assess the accuracy of the CALIOP products. In this context, a validation methodology was developed in order to verify the assumed values of the Lidar Ratio selected by the CALIOP algorithms, using two ground-based remote sensing instruments, an elastic backscatter Lidar system (MSP) installed at IPEN in Sao Paulo and the AERONET sun photometers operating at five different locations in Brazil, Rio Branco - Acre (RB), Alta Floresta - Mato Grosso (AF), Cuiaba - Mato Grosso (CB), Campo Grande - Mato Grosso do Sul (CG) e Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo (SP). Those days when the CALIOP system and ground-based instruments spatially coincided, were selected and analyzed under cloud-free conditions, as well as days when the trajectories of air masses indicated the transport of air parcels from the CALIOP track towards the ground-based sensors. The Lidar Ratio values from the Aeronet/Caliop proposed model was determined and showed good consistency with those initially assumed by the CALIOP Algorithm. Based on the quantitative comparison, a mean difference of -2

  14. Ground-water pumpage in the Willamette lowland regional aquifer system, Oregon and Washington, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Charles A.; Broad, Tyson M.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage for 1990 was estimated for an area of about 5,700 square miles in northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington as part of the Puget-Willamette Lowland Regional Aquifer System Analysis study. The estimated total ground-water pumpage in 1990 was about 340,000 acre-feet. Ground water in the study area is pumped mainly from Quaternary sediment; lesser amounts are withdrawn from Tertiary volcanic materials. Large parts of the area are used for agriculture, and about two and one-half times as much ground water was pumped for irrigation as for either public- supply or industrial needs. Estimates of ground- water pumpage for irrigation in the central part of the Willamette Valley were generated by using image-processing techniques and Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Field data and published reports were used to estimate pumpage for irrigation in other parts of the study area. Information on public- supply and industrial pumpage was collected from Federal, State, and private organizations and individuals.

  15. Annual investigation of vertical type ground source heat pump system performance on a wall heating and cooling system in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, U.; Yoru, Y.; Kincay, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University (Turkey)], email: akbulutugur@yahoo.com, email: yilmazyoru@gmail.com, email: okincay@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Wall heating and cooling systems (WHCS) are equipped with heating serpentines or panels for water circulation. These systems operate in a low temperature range so they are preferable to other, conventional systems. Furthermore, when these systems are connected to a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, energy performance and thermal comfort are further enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an annual inspection done on a vertical type ground-coupled heat pump systems (V-GSHP) WHCS in Istanbul and present the results. The performance data from the Yildiz Renewable Energy House at Davutpasa Campus of Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, during the year 2010 were collected and analyzed. The conclusions drawn from the inspection and analysis were listed in this paper. Using renewable energy sources effectively will bring both economic and environmental benefits and it is hoped that the use of these energy efficient WHCS systems will become widespread.

  16. Validation of the FAMACHA© system in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Bobby E; Williamson, Lisa H; Howell, Sue B; Terrill, Thomas H; Berghaus, Roy; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-08-30

    Haemonchus contortus resistant to multiple anthelmintics threaten the viability of the small ruminant industry in areas where this parasite is prevalent. In response to this situation, the FAMACHA© system was developed and validated for use with small ruminants as a way to detect clinical anemia associated with haemonchosis. Given that H. contortus and multiple anthelmintic resistance is a similar problem in camelids, the FAMACHA© system might also provide the same benefits. To address this need, a validation study of the FAMACHA© system was conducted on 21 alpaca and llama farms over a 2-year period. H. contortus was the predominant nematode parasite on 17 of the 21 farms (10 alpaca and 7 llama farms) enrolled in the study, based on fecal culture results. The FAMACHA© card was used to score the color of the lower palpebral (lower eye lid) conjunctiva on a 1-5 scale. Packed cell volume (PCV) values were measured and compared to FAMACHA© scores using FAMACHA© score cutoffs of ≥3 or ≥4 and with anemia defined as a PCV ≤15%, ≤17%, or≤20%. PCV was significantly associated with FAMACHA© score, fecal egg count (FEC), and body condition score (BCS), regardless of the FAMACHA© cutoff score or the PCV% chosen to define clinical anemia (p<0.01 in all cases). The use of FAMACHA© scores ≥3 and PCV ≥ 15% indicating anemia provided the best sensitivity (96.4% vs 92.9% for FAMACHA© ≥4), whereas FAMACHA scores ≥ 4 and PCV ≤20% provided the best specificity (94.2% vs 69.1% for FAMACHA© ≥3). The data from this study support the FAMACHA© system as a useful tool for detecting clinical anemia in camelids suffering from haemonchosis. Parameters for making treatment decisions based on FAMACHA© score in camelids should mirror those established for small ruminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of extreme ionospheric total electron content gradient associated with plasma bubbles for GNSS Ground-Based Augmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2017-08-01

    Associated with plasma bubbles, extreme spatial gradients in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) were observed on 8 April 2008 at Ishigaki (24.3°N, 124.2°E, +19.6° magnetic latitude), Japan. The largest gradient was 3.38 TECU km-1 (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), which is equivalent to an ionospheric delay gradient of 540 mm km-1 at the GPS L1 frequency (1.57542 GHz). This value is confirmed by using multiple estimating methods. The observed value exceeds the maximum ionospheric gradient that has ever been observed (412 mm km-1 or 2.59 TECU km-1) to be associated with a severe magnetic storm. It also exceeds the assumed maximum value (500 mm km-1 or 3.08 TECU km-1) which was used to validate the draft international standard for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) to support Category II/III approaches and landings. The steepest part of this extreme gradient had a scale size of 5.3 km, and the front-normal velocities were estimated to be 71 m s-1 with a wavefront-normal direction of east-northeastward. The total width of the transition region from outside to inside the plasma bubble was estimated to be 35.3 km. The gradient of relatively small spatial scale size may fall between an aircraft and a GBAS ground subsystem and may be undetectable by both aircraft and ground.

  18. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  19. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  20. Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity in a complex fluvial hydrogeologic system to evaluate migration in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.G.; Pavlik, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogeology and extent of ground water contamination were characterized at a site in northern California. Wood preserving compounds, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, have been detected in the soil and ground water. A plume of dissolved PCP up to 1.5 miles long has been identified south of the plant. The aquifer consists of a complex multizonal system of permeable gravels and sands composed of units from four geologic formations deposited by the ancestral Feather River. Fluvial channel gravels form the principal aquifer zones and contain overbank clay and silt deposits which locally form clay lenses or more continuous aquitards. The geometric mean horizontal hydraulic conductivities for channel gravels range between 120 to 530 feet/day. Mean vertical aquitard hydraulic conductivity is 0.07 feet/day. Ground water flow is generally southward with a velocity ranging from 470 to 1000 feet/year. The spatial distribution of dissolved PCP in the aquifer documents the interactions between major permeable zones. Hydrostratigraphic evidence pointing to the separation of aquifer zones is supported by the major ion chemistry of ground water. The sodium and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate-rich water present in the upper aquifer zones is significantly different in chemical composition from the predominantly sodium chloride-rich water present in the deeper permeable zone. This indicates that hydrodynamic separation exists between the upper and lower zones of the aquifer, limiting the vertical movement of the PCP plume. A numerical ground water model, based on this conceptual hydrogeologic model, was developed to evaluate groundwater transport pathways and for use in the design of a ground water extraction and treatment system. (9 refs., 7 figs., tab.)

  1. Internal validation of the RapidHIT® ID system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Rachel; Sage, Kelly; LaRue, Bobby; Budowle, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    Traditionally, forensic DNA analysis has required highly skilled forensic geneticists in a dedicated laboratory to generate short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. STR profiles are routinely used either to associate or exclude potential donors of forensic biological evidence. The typing of forensic reference samples has become more demanding, especially with the requirement in some jurisdictions to DNA profile arrestees. The Rapid DNA (RDNA) platform, the RapidHIT ® ID (IntegenX ® , Pleasanton, CA), is a fully automated system capable of processing reference samples in approximately 90min with minimal human intervention. Thus, the RapidHIT ID instrument can be deployed to non-laboratory environments (e.g., booking stations) and run by trained atypical personnel such as law enforcement. In order to implement the RapidHIT ID platform, validation studies are needed to define the performance and limitations of the system. Internal validation studies were undertaken with four early-production RapidHIT ID units. Reliable and concordant STR profiles were obtained from reference buccal swabs. Throughout the study, no contamination was observed. The overall first-pass success rate with an "expert-like system" was 72%, which is comparable to another current RDNA platform commercially available. The system's second-pass success rate (involving manual interpretation on first-pass inconclusive results) increased to 90%. Inhibitors (i.e., coffee, smoking tobacco, and chewing tobacco) did not appear to affect typing by the instrument system; however, substrate (i.e., swab type) did impact typing success. Additionally, one desirable feature not available with other Rapid systems is that in the event of a system failed run, a swab can be recovered and subsequently re-analyzed in a new sample cartridge. Therefore, rarely should additional sampling or swab consumption be necessary. The RapidHIT ID system is a robust and reliable tool capable of generating complete STR profiles within

  2. Flight critical system design guidelines and validation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, H. M.; Lupton, A. O.; Holden, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts being expended at NASA-Langley to define a validation methodology, techniques for comparing advanced systems concepts, and design guidelines for characterizing fault tolerant digital avionics are described with an emphasis on the capabilities of AIRLAB, an environmentally controlled laboratory. AIRLAB has VAX 11/750 and 11/780 computers with an aggregate of 22 Mb memory and over 650 Mb storage, interconnected at 256 kbaud. An additional computer is programmed to emulate digital devices. Ongoing work is easily accessed at user stations by either chronological or key word indexing. The CARE III program aids in analyzing the capabilities of test systems to recover from faults. An additional code, the semi-Markov unreliability program (SURE) generates upper and lower reliability bounds. The AIRLAB facility is mainly dedicated to research on designs of digital flight-critical systems which must have acceptable reliability before incorporation into aircraft control systems. The digital systems would be too costly to submit to a full battery of flight tests and must be initially examined with the AIRLAB simulation capabilities.

  3. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATERWORKS IN FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Meirami Ikonen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and microbiological water quality in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs of five waterworks in Finland with different raw water sources and treatment processes was explored. Water quality was monitored during four seasons with on-line equipment and bulk water samples were analysed in laboratory. Seasonal changes in the water quality were more evident in DWDSs of surface waterworks compared to the ground waterworks and artificially recharging ground waterworks (AGR. Between seasons, temperature changed significantly in every system but pH and EC changed only in one AGR system. Seasonal change was seen also in the absorbance values of all systems. The concentration of microbially available phosphorus (MAP, μg PO₄-P/l was the highest in drinking water originating from the waterworks supplying groundwater. Total assimilable organic carbon (AOC, μg AOC-C/l concentrations were significantly different between the DWDSs other than between the two AGR systems. This study reports differences in the water quality between surface and ground waterworks using a wide set of parameters commonly used for monitoring. The results confirm that every distribution system is unique, and the water quality is affected by environmental factors, raw water source, treatment methods and disinfection.

  4. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. Successful application of frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic system with a grounded electric source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L.; Lin, J.; Liu, C.; Zhou, H.; Ren, T.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A new frequency-domain AEM system with a grounded electric source, which was called ground-airborne frequency-domain electromagnetic (GAFEM) system, was proposed to extend penetration depth without compromising the resolution and detection efficiency. In GAFEM system, an electric source was placed on the ground to enlarge the strength of response signals. UVA was chosen as aircraft to reduce interaction noise and improve its ability to adapt to complex terrain. Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method has been researched and applied to improve the efficiency of GAFEM system. 2n pseudorandom sequence was introduced as transmitting waveform, to ensure resolution and detection efficiency. Inversion-procedure based on full-space apparent resistivity formula was built to realize GAFEM method and extend the survey area to non-far field. Based on GAFEM system, two application was conducted in Changchun, China, to map the deep conductive structure. As shown in the results of this exploration, GAFEM system shows its effectiveness to conductive structure, obtaining a depth of about 1km with a source-receiver distance of over 6km. And it shows the same level of resolution with CSAMT method with an over 10 times of efficiency. This extended a range of important applications where the terrain is too complex to be accessed or large penetration depth is required in a large survey area.

  6. Preliminary Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.

  7. Determining Component Probability using Problem Report Data for Ground Systems used in Manned Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Gillespie, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    During the shuttle era NASA utilized a failure reporting system called the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) it purpose was to identify and track system non-conformance. The PRACA system over the years evolved from a relatively nominal way to identify system problems to a very complex tracking and report generating data base. The PRACA system became the primary method to categorize any and all anomalies from corrosion to catastrophic failure. The systems documented in the PRACA system range from flight hardware to ground or facility support equipment. While the PRACA system is complex, it does possess all the failure modes, times of occurrence, length of system delay, parts repaired or replaced, and corrective action performed. The difficulty is mining the data then to utilize that data in order to estimate component, Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and system reliability analysis metrics. In this paper, we identify a methodology to categorize qualitative data from the ground system PRACA data base for common ground or facility support equipment. Then utilizing a heuristic developed for review of the PRACA data determine what reports identify a credible failure. These data are the used to determine inter-arrival times to perform an estimation of a metric for repairable component-or LRU reliability. This analysis is used to determine failure modes of the equipment, determine the probability of the component failure mode, and support various quantitative differing techniques for performing repairable system analysis. The result is that an effective and concise estimate of components used in manned space flight operations. The advantage is the components or LRU's are evaluated in the same environment and condition that occurs during the launch process.

  8. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  9. Optimization of Serial Combined System of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; LU Suzhen; CUI Junkui

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical optimization model was set up for a ground-solar combined system based on in-situ experimental results,in which the solar collector was combined serially with a ground-coupled heat pump(GCHP).The universal optimal equations were solved by the constrained variable metric method considering both the performance and economics.Then the model was applied to a specific case concerning an actual solar assisted GCHP system for space heating.The results indicated a system coefficient of performance(COP)of 3.9 for the optimal method under the seriaI heating mode,and 3.2 for the conventional one.In addition,the optimum solution also showed advantages in energy and cost saving.1eading to a 16.7%improvement in the heat pump performance at 17.2%less energy consumption and 11.8%lower annual cost,respectively.

  10. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal

  11. Rehabilitation of a house with high radon level, using a ground ventilation system with double barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefous, Y.C.; Richon, P.; Arnautou, J.C.; Sabroux, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A ground ventilation system has been designed and implemented in a town hall in Brittany. Radon concentration in the heating unit room of this building has been reduced from 10000 Bq/m 3 to less than 200 Bq/m 3 by the means of a depressurization system using a 32 W fan, which blows air into a permeable gravel layer intercalated between two radon barrier mylar films. Results show that passive systems should be applicable; for new buildings, very low energy consumption systems with 10 W fans, are easily implemented if designed before construction

  12. The laser calibration system for the STACEE ground-based gamma ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the laser system used for calibration monitoring of components of the STACEE detector. STACEE is a ground based gamma ray detector which uses the heliostats of a solar power facility to collect and focus Cherenkov light onto a system of secondary optics and photomultiplier tubes. To monitor the gain and check the linearity and timing properties of the phototubes and associated electronics, a system based on a dye laser, neutral density filters and optical fibres has been developed. In this paper we describe the system and present some results from initial tests made with it.

  13. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, part I: Validation using the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We compute ground motions for the Beroza (1991) and Wald et al. (1991) source models of the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake using four different wave-propagation codes and recently developed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. In preparation for modeling the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we use this well-recorded earthquake to characterize how well our ground-motion simulations reproduce the observed shaking intensities and amplitude and durations of recorded motions throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. All of the simulations generate ground motions consistent with the large-scale spatial variations in shaking associated with rupture directivity and the geologic structure. We attribute the small variations among the synthetics to the minimum shear-wave speed permitted in the simulations and how they accommodate topography. Our long-period simulations, on average, under predict shaking intensities by about one-half modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units (25%-35% in peak velocity), while our broadband simulations, on average, under predict the shaking intensities by one-fourth MMI units (16% in peak velocity). Discrepancies with observations arise due to errors in the source models and geologic structure. The consistency in the synthetic waveforms across the wave-propagation codes for a given source model suggests the uncertainty in the source parameters tends to exceed the uncertainty in the seismic velocity structure. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that a source model with slip more evenly distributed northwest and southeast of the hypocenter would be preferable to both the Beroza and Wald source models. Although the new 3D seismic velocity model improves upon previous velocity models, we identify two areas needing improvement. Nevertheless, we find that the seismic velocity model and the wave-propagation codes are suitable for modeling the 1906 earthquake and scenario events in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  14. Modelling ground movements at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy): the role of the shallow geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Giulia di Giuseppe, Maria; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Troise, Claudia; de Natale, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Campi Flegrei caldera is characterized by large ground movements, well known since Roman times. Superimposed to a general secular subsidence occurring at a rate of 1.5-2.0 cm/year, an episode of sharp uplift is in progress since 1969, with peak rates up to 1 m/year (in 1982-1984), similar to another episode which culminated with the 1538 eruption. Peak uplift episodes are often followed by some amount of subsidence, which prevent a simple interpretation in terms of purely magmatic inflation phenomena. Such up and down episodes of ground deformations are rather common at large calderas, like in Yellowstone (USA), Long Valley (USA), etc. Here we propose an interpretation based on a mixed mechanical-fluid-dynamical model, in which part of the uplift is generated by increase of water pressure in the shallow geothermal system, as a response to rapid inflow of magmatic fluids exsolved from a deeper magma chamber. We use the program THOUGH2 to model the changes of temperature and pressure in the geothermal system due to the magmatic fluids inflow. Changes in pressure in the caldera volume are then used to compute ground deformations. This way, a theoretical time evolution of ground deformation has been obtained, which compares well with the observed one, if appropriate values of permeability are used. We discuss the implication of such a model for eruption forecast purposes, and the extent at which the required values of permeability can be really representative of the real medium.

  15. A validation system for data preservation in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Yves; Strutz, Marco; Hessling, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Preserving data from past experiments and preserving the ability to perform analysis with old data is of growing importance in many domains of science, including High Energy Physics (HEP). A study group on this issue, DPHEP, has been established in this field to provide guidelines and a structure for international collaboration on data preservation projects in HEP. This contribution presents a framework that allows experimentalists to validate their software against a previously defined set of tests in an automated way. The framework has been designed with a special focus for longevity, as it makes use of open protocols, has a modular design and is based on simple communication mechanisms. On the fabrics side, tests are carried out in a virtual environment using a cloud infrastructure. Within the framework, it is easy to run validation tests on different hardware platforms, or different major or minor versions of operating systems. Experts from IT or the experiments can automatically detect failures in the test procedure by the help of reporting tools. Hence, appropriate actions can be taken in a timely manner. The design and important implementation aspects of the framework are shown and first experiences from early-bird users will be presented.

  16. Ground System Architectures Workshop GMSEC SERVICES SUITE (GSS): an Agile Development Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Vuong

    2017-01-01

    The GMSEC (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center) Services Suite (GSS) is a collection of tools and software services along with a robust customizable web-based portal that enables the user to capture, monitor, report, and analyze system-wide GMSEC data. Given our plug-and-play architecture and the needs for rapid system development, we opted to follow the Scrum Agile Methodology for software development. Being one of the first few projects to implement the Agile methodology at NASA GSFC, in this presentation we will present our approaches, tools, successes, and challenges in implementing this methodology. The GMSEC architecture provides a scalable, extensible ground and flight system for existing and future missions. GMSEC comes with a robust Application Programming Interface (GMSEC API) and a core set of Java-based GMSEC components that facilitate the development of a GMSEC-based ground system. Over the past few years, we have seen an upbeat in the number of customers who are moving from a native desktop application environment to a web based environment particularly for data monitoring and analysis. We also see a need to provide separation of the business logic from the GUI display for our Java-based components and also to consolidate all the GUI displays into one interface. This combination of separation and consolidation brings immediate value to a GMSEC-based ground system through increased ease of data access via a uniform interface, built-in security measures, centralized configuration management, and ease of feature extensibility.

  17. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  18. Multi-actuators vehicle collision avoidance system - Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Umar Zakir Abdul; Zakuan, Fakhrul Razi Ahmad; Akmal Zulkepli, Khairul; Zulfaqar Azmi, Muhammad; Zamzuri, Hairi; Rahman, Mohd Azizi Abdul; Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) of the United States of America in their reports has mentioned that a significant amount of the road mishaps would be preventable if more automated active safety applications are adopted into the vehicle. This includes the incorporation of collision avoidance system. The autonomous intervention by the active steering and braking systems in the hazardous scenario can aid the driver in mitigating the collisions. In this work, a real-time platform of a multi-actuators vehicle collision avoidance system is developed. It is a continuous research scheme to develop a fully autonomous vehicle in Malaysia. The vehicle is a modular platform which can be utilized for different research purposes and is denominated as Intelligent Drive Project (iDrive). The vehicle collision avoidance proposed design is validated in a controlled environment, where the coupled longitudinal and lateral motion control system is expected to provide desired braking and steering actuation in the occurrence of a frontal static obstacle. Results indicate the ability of the platform to yield multi-actuators collision avoidance navigation in the hazardous scenario, thus avoiding the obstacle. The findings of this work are beneficial for the development of a more complex and nonlinear real-time collision avoidance work in the future.

  19. Expert systems application to plant diagnosis and sensor data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.; Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.; Chandrasekaran, B.; Josephson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, over 2000 alarms and displays are available to the operator. For any given set of alarms and displays, the operator must be able to diagnose and correct the problem (s) quickly and accurately. At the same time, the operator is expected to distinguish the plant system faults from instrumentation channel failures and drifts. Needs for plant operator aids have been considered since the accident at TMI. Many of these aids are of the form of the Safety Parameter Display Systems and offer improved methods of displaying otherwise available data to the operator in a more concise and summarized format. diagnosis, however, remains a desirable objective of an operator aid. At The Ohio State University, faculty and students in nuclear engineering and computer science have evaluated this problem. The results of these studies have shown that plant diagnosis and sensor data validation must be considered as one integral problem and cannot be isolated from one another. Otherwise, an incorrect diagnosis based on faulty instrument information might be provided to the operator. In this study, the Knowlege Based System (KBS) technology is being incorporated to accomplish a final goal of an intelligent operator aid system

  20. Design validation and performance of closed loop gas recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Shinde, R.R.; Joshi, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    A pilot experimental set up of the India Based Neutrino Observatory's ICAL detector has been operational for the last 4 years at TIFR, Mumbai. Twelve glass RPC detectors of size 2 × 2 m 2 , with a gas gap of 2 mm are under test in a closed loop gas recirculation system. These RPCs are continuously purged individually, with a gas mixture of R134a (C 2 H 2 F 4 ), isobutane (iC 4 H 10 ) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) at a steady rate of 360 ml/h to maintain about one volume change a day. To economize gas mixture consumption and to reduce the effluents from being released into the atmosphere, a closed loop system has been designed, fabricated and installed at TIFR. The pressure and flow rate in the loop is controlled by mass flow controllers and pressure transmitters. The performance and integrity of RPCs in the pilot experimental set up is being monitored to assess the effect of periodic fluctuation and transients in atmospheric pressure and temperature, room pressure variation, flow pulsations, uniformity of gas distribution and power failures. The capability of closed loop gas recirculation system to respond to these changes is also studied. The conclusions from the above experiment are presented. The validations of the first design considerations and subsequent modifications have provided improved guidelines for the future design of the engineering module gas system.

  1. Modelling of the activity system - development of an evaluation method for integrated system validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, Leena; Savioja, Paula

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent research which focuses on creating an evaluation method for human-system interfaces of complex systems. The method is aimed for use in the validation of modernised nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms, and other complex systems with high reliability requirements. The task in validation is to determine whether the human-system functions safely and effectively. This question can be operationalized to the selection of relevant operational features and their appropriate acceptance criteria. Thus, there is a need to ensure that the results of the evaluation can be generalized so that they serve the purpose of integrated system validation. The definition of the appropriate acceptance criteria provides basis for the judgement of the appropriateness of the performance of the system. We propose that the operational situations and the acceptance criteria should be defined based on modelling of the NPP operation that is comprehended as an activity system. We developed a new core-tasks modelling framework. It is a formative modelling approach that combines causal, functional and understanding explanations of system performance. In this paper we reason how modelling can be used as a medium to determine the validity of the emerging control room system. (Author)

  2. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  3. Calibration and validation of coarse-grained models of atomic systems: application to semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kathryn; Oden, J. Tinsley

    2014-07-01

    Coarse-grained models of atomic systems, created by aggregating groups of atoms into molecules to reduce the number of degrees of freedom, have been used for decades in important scientific and technological applications. In recent years, interest in developing a more rigorous theory for coarse graining and in assessing the predictivity of coarse-grained models has arisen. In this work, Bayesian methods for the calibration and validation of coarse-grained models of atomistic systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are developed. For specificity, only configurational models of systems in canonical ensembles are considered. Among major challenges in validating coarse-grained models are (1) the development of validation processes that lead to information essential in establishing confidence in the model's ability predict key quantities of interest and (2), above all, the determination of the coarse-grained model itself; that is, the characterization of the molecular architecture, the choice of interaction potentials and thus parameters, which best fit available data. The all-atom model is treated as the "ground truth," and it provides the basis with respect to which properties of the coarse-grained model are compared. This base all-atom model is characterized by an appropriate statistical mechanics framework in this work by canonical ensembles involving only configurational energies. The all-atom model thus supplies data for Bayesian calibration and validation methods for the molecular model. To address the first challenge, we develop priors based on the maximum entropy principle and likelihood functions based on Gaussian approximations of the uncertainties in the parameter-to-observation error. To address challenge (2), we introduce the notion of model plausibilities as a means for model selection. This methodology provides a powerful approach toward constructing coarse-grained models which are most plausible for given all-atom data. We demonstrate the theory and

  4. Vertical-borehole ground-coupled heat pumps: A review of models and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.; Cui, P. [Renewable Energy Research Group, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Fang, Z. [Ground Source Heat Pump Research Center, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan (China)

    2010-01-15

    A large number of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been used in residential and commercial buildings throughout the world due to the attractive advantages of high efficiency and environmental friendliness. This paper gives a detailed literature review of the research and developments of the vertical-borehole GCHP technology for applications in air-conditioning. A general introduction on the ground source heat pump system and its development is briefly presented first. Then, the most typical simulation models of the vertical ground heat exchangers currently available are summarized in detail including the heat transfer processes outside and inside the boreholes. The various design/simulation programs for vertical GCHP systems primarily based on the typical simulation models are also reviewed in this paper. Finally, the various hybrid GCHP systems for cooling or heating-dominated buildings are well described. It is found that the GCHP technology can be used both in cold and hot weather areas and the energy saving potential is significant. (author)

  5. An Aerial-Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments.

  6. Effect of Neutral Grounding Protection Methods for Compensated Wind/PV Grid-Connected Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Çetinkaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the wind/PV grid-connected system (GCS can be categorized as technical, environmental, and economic impacts. It has a vital impact for improving the voltage in the power systems; however, it has some negative effects such as interfacing and fault clearing. This paper discusses different grounding methods for fault protection of High-voltage (HV power systems. Influences of these grounding methods for various fault characteristics on wind/PV GCSs are discussed. Simulation models are implemented in the Alternative Transient Program (ATP version of the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP. The models allow for different fault factors and grounding methods. Results are obtained to evaluate the impact of each grounding method on the 3-phase short-circuit fault (SCF, double-line-to-ground (DLG fault, and single-line-to-ground (SLG fault features. Solid, resistance, and Petersen coil grounding are compared for different faults on wind/PV GCSs. Transient overcurrent and overvoltage waveforms are used to describe the fault case. This paper is intended as a guide to engineers in selecting adequate grounding and ground fault protection schemes for HV, for evaluating existing wind/PV GCSs to minimize the damage of the system components from faults. This research presents the contribution of wind/PV generators and their comparison with the conventional system alone.

  7. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  8. Design, construction and validation of a portable care system for the daily telerehabiliatation of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Brocco, Monica

    2013-10-01

    When designing a complete system of daily-telerehabilitation it should be borne in mind that properly designed methodologies should be furnished for patients to execute specific motion tasks and for care givers to assess the relevant parameters. Whether in hospital or at home, the system should feature two basic elements: (a) instrumented and walking aids or supports, (b) equipment for the assessment of parameters. Being gait the focus, the idea was to design, construct and validate - as an alternative to the complex and expensive instruments currently used - a simple, portable kit that may be easily interfaced/integrated with the most common mechanical tools used in motion rehabilitation (instrumented walkways, aids, supports), with feedback to both patient for self-monitoring and trainer/therapist (present or remote) for clinical reporting. The proposed system consists of: one step-counter, three couples of photo-emitter detectors, one central unit for collecting and processing the telemetrically transmitted data; a software interface on a dedicated PC and a network adapter. The system has been successfully validated in a clinical application on two groups of 16 subjects at the 1st and 2nd level of the Tinetti test. The degree of acceptance by subjects and care-givers was high. The system was also successfully compared with an Inertial Measurement Unit, a de facto standard. The portable kit can be used with different rehabilitation tools and different ground rugosity. The advantages are: (a) very low costs when compared with optoelectronic solutions and other portable solutions; (b) very high accuracy, also for subjects with imbalance problems; (c) good compatibility with any rehabilitative tool. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A 2.5D finite element and boundary element model for the ground vibration from trains in tunnels and validation using measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiyun; Thompson, David J.; Lurcock, Daniel E. J.; Toward, Martin G. R.; Ntotsios, Evangelos

    2018-05-01

    A numerical model is presented for the ground-borne vibration produced by trains running in tunnels. The model makes use of the assumption that the geometry and material properties are invariant in the axial direction. It is based on the so-called two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) coupled Finite Element and Boundary Element methodology, in which a two-dimensional cross-section is discretised into finite elements and boundary elements and the third dimension is represented by a Fourier transform over wavenumbers. The model is applied to a particular case of a metro line built with a cast-iron tunnel lining. An equivalent continuous model of the tunnel is developed to allow it to be readily implemented in the 2.5D framework. The tunnel structure and the track are modelled using solid and beam finite elements while the ground is modelled using boundary elements. The 2.5D track-tunnel-ground model is coupled with a train consisting of several vehicles, which are represented by multi-body models. The response caused by the passage of a train is calculated as the sum of the dynamic component, excited by the combined rail and wheel roughness, and the quasi-static component, induced by the constant moving axle loads. Field measurements have been carried out to provide experimental validation of the model. These include measurements of the vibration of the rail, the tunnel invert and the tunnel wall. In addition, simultaneous measurements were made on the ground surface above the tunnel. Rail roughness and track characterisation measurements were also made. The prediction results are compared with measured vibration obtained during train passages, with good agreement.

  10. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  11. Using XML Configuration-Driven Development to Create a Customizable Ground Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Brent; DeMore, Martha

    2009-01-01

    The Mission data Processing and Control Subsystem (MPCS) is being developed as a multi-mission Ground Data System with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) as the first fully supported mission. MPCS is a fully featured, Java-based Ground Data System (GDS) for telecommand and telemetry processing based on Configuration-Driven Development (CDD). The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the ideal language for CDD because it is easily readable and editable by all levels of users and is also backed by a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard and numerous powerful processing tools that make it uniquely flexible. The CDD approach adopted by MPCS minimizes changes to compiled code by using XML to create a series of configuration files that provide both coarse and fine grained control over all aspects of GDS operation.

  12. CONCEPT AND 3D MODELING OF GROUND DE-ICING SYSTEM WITH APPLICATION IN LIGHT AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARE Liviu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of a de-icing system on the ground, semi-automatic, intended to replace existing traditional solutions. A specific classification of ice protection systems based on action mode criterion is proposed. A characterization of functional aspects characteristic for this classification is given and discussed. This work contains full details of the appearance and the functionality of chemical deicing system, designed for applications in light aircraft. The software used for modeling is 3D Studio Max.

  13. Goaf water detection using the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Ji, Y.; Guan, S.; Wu, Y.; Wang, A.

    2017-12-01

    To detect the geoelectric characteristic of goaf water, the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system (developed by Jilin University, China) is applied to the goaf water detection since its advantages of considerable prospecting depth, lateral resolution and detection efficiency. For the test of GREATEM system in goaf water detection, an experimental survey was conducted at Qinshui coal mine (Shanxi province, China). After data acquisition, noise reduction and inversion, the resistivity profiles of survey area is presented. The results highly agree the investigation information provided by Shanxi Coal Geology Geophysical Surveying Exploration Institute (China), conforming that the GREATEM system is an effective technique for resistivity detection of goaf water.

  14. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  15. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  16. On the Distribution of Lightning Current among Interconnected Grounding Systems in Medium Voltage Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ala

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a first investigation on the effects of lightning stroke on medium voltage installations’ grounding systems, interconnected with the metal shields of the Medium Voltage (MV distribution grid cables or with bare buried copper ropes. The study enables us to evaluate the distribution of the lightning current among interconnected ground electrodes in order to estimate if the interconnection, usually created to reduce ground potential rise during a single-line-to-ground fault, can give place to dangerous situations far from the installation hit by the lightning stroke. Four different case studies of direct lightning stroke are presented and discussed: (1 two secondary substations interconnected by the cables’ shields; (2 two secondary substations interconnected by a bare buried conductor; (3 a high voltage/medium voltage station connected with a secondary substation by the medium voltage cables’ shields; (4 a high voltage/medium voltage station connected with a secondary substation by a bare buried conductor. The results of the simulations show that a higher peak-lowering action on the lighting-stroke current occurs due to the use of bare conductors as interconnection elements in comparison to the cables’ shields.

  17. Hierarchical neural network model of the visual system determining figure/ground relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important functions of the visual perception in the brain is figure/ground interpretation from input images. Figural region in 2D image corresponding to object in 3D space are distinguished from background region extended behind the object. Previously the author proposed a neural network model of figure/ground separation constructed on the standpoint that local geometric features such as curvatures and outer angles at corners are extracted and propagated along input contour in a single layer network (Kikuchi & Akashi, 2001). However, such a processing principle has the defect that signal propagation requires manyiterations despite the fact that actual visual system determines figure/ground relation within the short period (Zhou et al., 2000). In order to attain speed-up for determining figure/ground, this study incorporates hierarchical architecture into the previous model. This study confirmed the effect of the hierarchization as for the computation time by simulation. As the number of layers increased, the required computation time reduced. However, such speed-up effect was saturatedas the layers increased to some extent. This study attempted to explain this saturation effect by the notion of average distance between vertices in the area of complex network, and succeeded to mimic the saturation effect by computer simulation.

  18. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  19. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  20. A Bayesian and Physics-Based Ground Motion Parameters Map Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Quiroz, A.; Sandoval, H.; Perez-Yanez, C.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macias, M. A.; Alcántara, L.

    2014-12-01

    We present the Ground Motion Parameters Map Generation (GMPMG) system developed by the Institute of Engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The system delivers estimates of information associated with the social impact of earthquakes, engineering ground motion parameters (gmp), and macroseismic intensity maps. The gmp calculated are peak ground acceleration and velocity (pga and pgv) and response spectral acceleration (SA). The GMPMG relies on real-time data received from strong ground motion stations belonging to UNAM's networks throughout Mexico. Data are gathered via satellite and internet service providers, and managed with the data acquisition software Earthworm. The system is self-contained and can perform all calculations required for estimating gmp and intensity maps due to earthquakes, automatically or manually. An initial data processing, by baseline correcting and removing records containing glitches or low signal-to-noise ratio, is performed. The system then assigns a hypocentral location using first arrivals and a simplified 3D model, followed by a moment tensor inversion, which is performed using a pre-calculated Receiver Green's Tensors (RGT) database for a realistic 3D model of Mexico. A backup system to compute epicentral location and magnitude is in place. A Bayesian Kriging is employed to combine recorded values with grids of computed gmp. The latter are obtained by using appropriate ground motion prediction equations (for pgv, pga and SA with T=0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 s ) and numerical simulations performed in real time, using the aforementioned RGT database (for SA with T=2, 2.5 and 3 s). Estimated intensity maps are then computed using SA(T=2S) to Modified Mercalli Intensity correlations derived for central Mexico. The maps are made available to the institutions in charge of the disaster prevention systems. In order to analyze the accuracy of the maps, we compare them against observations not considered in the

  1. Working Group 11F Opening Comments NASA Planning for NASA's Future Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford S.

    2016-01-01

    These are simple charts for the introductory comments to be made at the start of a panel session at the Ground System Architecture Workshop (GSAW2016). It is not meant as a formal paper, but rather contains information to prompt further discussion of the panel members and audience. The panel topic is: Embracing Change via the Use of Service-Based Frameworks and Products in an Enterprise.

  2. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  3. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  4. Preliminary PANSAT ground station software design and use of an expert system to analyze telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory W.

    1994-03-01

    The Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) is a communications satellite designed to be used by civilian amateur radio operators. A master ground station is being built at the Naval Postgraduate School. This computer system performs satellite commands, displays telemetry, trouble-shoots problems, and passes messages. The system also controls an open loop tracking antenna. This paper concentrates on the telemetry display, decoding, and interpretation through artificial intelligence (AI). The telemetry is displayed in an easily interpretable format, so that any user can understand the current health of the satellite and be cued as to any problems and possible solutions. Only the master ground station has the ability to receive all telemetry and send commands to the spacecraft; civilian ham users do not have access to this information. The telemetry data is decommutated and analyzed before it is displayed to the user, so that the raw data will not have to be interpreted by ground users. The analysis will use CLIPS imbedded in the code, and derive its inputs from telemetry decommutation. The program is an expert system using a forward chaining set of rules based on the expected operation and parameters of the satellite. By building the rules during the construction and design of the satellite, the telemetry can be well understood and interpreted after the satellite is launched and the designers may no longer be available to provide input to the problem.

  5. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  6. The application of ground source heat pumps to a subdivision-wide district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciavaglia, L.

    2005-01-01

    Design guidelines for economic ground source heat pumps (GSHP) in district energy systems were presented. The broad economics of using central GSHP in a community district energy system were examined. Design parameters needed to utilize GSHP in district energy system were outlined. The sensitivity of energy prices and the costs of major capital were reviewed. District heating load duration curves were outlined. It was suggested that varying GSHP capacity from 0 to 100 per cent of load was advisable. In addition, capacity should be balanced with gas boiler technology. The amortizing of capital within energy costs was recommended. It was suggested that the best scenario was a minimum of 50 per cent ground energy. Details of pipings and heat exchanger costs were presented, along with costs for gas boilers and gas costs for the district energy system. Charts of current costing and reduction of piping capital were included. It was concluded that GSHP can be a viable component of a district energy system, as a GSHP based district energy system can provide more stable energy prices than conventional fossil fuel systems. It was suggested that sizing of GSHP at, or near, 40 per cent of peak demand provided optimal conditions with respect to energy cost and use of earth energy. tabs., figs

  7. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  8. System verification and validation report for the TMAD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finfrock, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as the Verification and Validation Report for the TMAD code system, which includes the TMAD code and the LIBMAKR Code. The TMAD code was commissioned to facilitate the interpretation of moisture probe measurements in the Hanford Site waste tanks. In principle, the code is an interpolation routine that acts over a library of benchmark data based on two independent variables, typically anomaly size and moisture content. Two additional variables, anomaly type and detector type, can also be considered independent variables, but no interpolation is done over them. The dependent variable is detector response. The intent is to provide the code with measured detector responses from two or more detectors. The code will then interrogate (and interpolate upon) the benchmark data library and find the anomaly-type/anomaly-size/moisture-content combination that provides the closest match to the measured data. The primary purpose of this document is to provide the results of the system testing and the conclusions based thereon. The results of the testing process are documented in the body of the report. Appendix A gives the test plan, including test procedures, used in conducting the tests. Appendix B lists the input data required to conduct the tests, and Appendices C and 0 list the numerical results of the tests

  9. Hybrid ground-source heat pump system with active air source regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaerts, K.; Coomans, M.; Salenbien, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid ground source heat pump system with two separate borefields is modelled. • The maximum underground storage temperature depends on the size of the drycooler. • Drycooler selection curves are given as function of underground storage temperature. • The size of the cold storage is reduced with 47% in the cost optimal configuration. • The cooling seasonal performance factor decreases with reduced storage capacity. - Abstract: Ground-source heat pump systems (GSHP) offer great advantages over traditional heating and cooling installations. However, their applications are limited due to the high initial costs of borehole drilling. One way to avoid these costs is by reducing the size of the borefield, e.g. by combining the system with other renewable energy sources or by using active regeneration to increase the system efficiency. In this paper a hybrid ground-source heat pump system (HGSHP) is analyzed. The borefield is split into a warm part and a cold part, which allows for seasonal thermal-energy storage. Additionally, supplementary drycoolers capture heat during summer and cold during winter. The relationship between the underground storage size and temperature and the drycooler capacity is described, using an office building in Flanders (Belgium) as reference case. Results show that with a HGSHP system a significant borefield size reduction can be achieved without compromising system performance; i.e. for the reference case a reduction of 47% was achieved in the cost-optimal configuration. It is also shown that the cooling seasonal performance factor decreases significantly with underground storage capacity. In addition, the HGSHP can be used to maintain or restore thermal balance in the geothermal source when heating and cooling loads do not match

  10. Potential for saturated ground-water system contamination at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.; Ruggieri, M.R.; Rogers, L.L.; Emerson, D.O.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A program of hydrogeologic investigation has been carried out to determine the likelihood of contaminant movement to the saturated zone from near the ground surface at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A companion survey of potential contaminant sources was also conducted at the LLNL. Water samples from selected LLNL wells were analyzed to test the water quality in the uppermost part of the saturated zone, which is from 14 to 48 m (45 to 158 ft) beneath the surface. Only nitrate and tritium were found in concentrations above natural background. In one well, the nitrate was slightly more concentrated than the drinking water limit. The nitrate source has not been found. The tritium in all ground-water samples from wells was found far less concentrated than the drinking water limit. The extent of infiltration of surface water was traced with environmental tritium. The thickness and stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone beneath the LLNL, and nearby area, was determined with specially constructed wells and boreholes. Well hydrograph analysis indicated where infiltration of surface water reached the saturated ground-water system. The investigation indicates that water infiltrating from the surface, through alluvial deposits, reaches the saturated zone along the course of Arroyo Seco, Arroyo Las Positas, and from the depression near the center of the site where seasonal water accumulates. Several potential contaminant sources were identified, and it is likely that contaminants could move from near the ground surface to the saturated zone beneath LLNL. Additional ground-water sampling and analysis will be performed and ongoing investigations will provide estimates of the speed with which potential contaminants can flow laterally in the saturated zone beneath LLNL. 34 references, 61 figures, 16 tables

  11. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  12. Performance analysis of hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system with multi-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Tian; Wang, Baolong; Wu, Wei; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The hybrid GCHP system with multi-functions is proposed. • The system maintains the soil temperature and heating reliability steady. • The multi-functional operation of HCUT can save more energy of the system. - Abstract: Underground thermal imbalance is a significant problem for ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems that serve predominately heated buildings in cold regions, which extract more heat from the ground and inject less heat, especially in buildings requiring domestic hot water (DHW). To solve this problem, a previously developed heat compensation unit with thermosyphon (HCUT) is integrated with a GCHP unit to build a hybrid GCHP system. To improve the energy savings of this hybrid GCHP system, the HCUT unit is set to have multiple functions (heat compensation, direct DHW and direct space heating) in this paper. To analyze the improved system performance, a hotel requiring air-conditioning and DHW is selected and simulated in three typical cold cities using the dynamic software DeST and TRNSYS. The results indicate that the hybrid GCHP system can maintain the underground thermal balance while keeping the indoor air temperature within the design range. Furthermore, the HCUT unit efficiently reduces the energy consumption via its multi-functional operations. Compared to the previous system that only used HCUT for heat compensation, adding the direct DHW function further saves 7.5–11.0% energy in heat compensation (HC) and DHW (i.e., 3.6–4.8% of the whole system). Simultaneously adding the direct DHW and space heating functions to the HCUT can save 9.8–12.9% energy in HC and DHW (i.e., 5.1–6.0% of the whole system). The hybrid GCHP system with a multi-functional HCUT provides more energy savings while maintaining the underground thermal balance in cold regions that demand both air-conditioning and DHW

  13. LWIR passive perception system for stealthy unmanned ground vehicle night operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daren; Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Nash, Jeremy; Ahuja, Gaurav; Matthies, Larry

    2016-05-01

    Resupplying forward-deployed units in rugged terrain in the presence of hostile forces creates a high threat to manned air and ground vehicles. An autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) capable of navigating stealthily at night in off-road and on-road terrain could significantly increase the safety and success rate of such resupply missions for warfighters. Passive night-time perception of terrain and obstacle features is a vital requirement for such missions. As part of the ONR 30 Autonomy Team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a passive, low-cost night-time perception system under the ONR Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare and Combating Terrorism Applied Research program. Using a stereo pair of forward looking LWIR uncooled microbolometer cameras, the perception system generates disparity maps using a local window-based stereo correlator to achieve real-time performance while maintaining low power consumption. To overcome the lower signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution of LWIR thermal imaging technologies, a series of pre-filters were applied to the input images to increase the image contrast and stereo correlator enhancements were applied to increase the disparity density. To overcome false positives generated by mixed pixels, noisy disparities from repeated textures, and uncertainty in far range measurements, a series of consistency, multi-resolution, and temporal based post-filters were employed to improve the fidelity of the output range measurements. The stereo processing leverages multi-core processors and runs under the Robot Operating System (ROS). The night-time passive perception system was tested and evaluated on fully autonomous testbed ground vehicles at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) and Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. This paper describes the challenges, techniques, and experimental results of developing a passive, low-cost perception system for night-time autonomous navigation.

  14. Verification and Validation of Embedded Knowledge-Based Software Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, Eugene

    1999-01-01

    .... We pursued this by carefully examining the nature of uncertainty and information semantics and developing intelligent tools for verification and validation that provides assistance to the subject...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF SEA ICE FREEBOARD AND THICKNESS IN MCMURDO SOUND, ANTARCTICA, DERIVED BY GROUND VALIDATED SATELLITE ALTIMETER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Price

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation employs the use of ICESat to derive freeboard measurements in McMurdo Sound in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, for the time period 2003-2009. Methods closely follow those previously presented in the literature but are complemented by a good understanding of general sea ice characteristics in the study region from extensive temporal ground investigations but with limited spatial coverage. The aim of remote sensing applications in this area is to expand the good knowledge of sea ice characteristics within these limited areas to the wider McMurdo Sound and western Ross Sea region. The seven year Austral Spring (September, October, and November investigation is presented for sea ice freeboard alone. An interannual comparison of mean freeboard indicates an increase in multiyear sea ice freeboard from 1.08 m in 2003 to 1.15 m in 2009 with positive and negative variation in between. No significant trend was detected for first year sea ice freeboard. Further, an Envisat imagery investigation complements the freeboard assessment. The multiyear sea ice was observed to increase by 254 % of its original 2003 area, as firstyear sea ice persisted through the 2004 melt season into 2005. This maximum coverage then gradually diminished by 2009 to 20 % above the original 2003 value. The mid study period increase is likely attributed to the passage of iceberg B-15A minimising oceanic pressures and preventing sea ice breakout in the region.

  16. Artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy assessments for ground-coupled heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    This article present a comparison of artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) applied for modelling a ground-coupled heat pump system (GCHP). The aim of this study is predicting system performance related to ground and air (condenser inlet and outlet) temperatures by using desired models. Performance forecasting is the precondition for the optimal design and energy-saving operation of air-conditioning systems. So obtained models will help the system designer to realize this precondition. The most suitable algorithm and neuron number in the hidden layer are found as Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) with seven neurons for ANN model whereas the most suitable membership function and number of membership functions are found as Gauss and two, respectively, for ANFIS model. The root-mean squared (RMS) value and the coefficient of variation in percent (cov) value are 0.0047 and 0.1363, respectively. The absolute fraction of variance (R{sup 2}) is 0.9999 which can be considered as very promising. This paper shows the appropriateness of ANFIS for the quantitative modeling of GCHP systems. (author)

  17. Wire position system to consistently measure and record the location change of girders following ground changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.

  18. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  19. Multi-sided metallization of textile fibres by using magnetron system with grounded cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafał

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of coatings on textiles fibers enables functionalization of their properties e.g.: changing the reaction on IR radiation. In our experiment, a magnetron with a grounded cathode and positively biased anode was used as a source of plasma. A ring anode was positioned at 8 cm distance from the cathode. Samples of glass and cotton textile were placed at the plane of the anode. Ti and TiN coatings were deposited by sputtering of titanium target in Ar or Ar+ N2 atmosphere. SEM studies showed that, using the magnetron system described above, the textile fibers were covered by the 2 μm to 3 μm thick coatings. Unexpectedly, the coatings were deposited at both sides of the samples: the front side was exposed to glow discharge plasma and the backside was completely shaded from the plasma. IR optical investigation exhibited significant change in reflectance and transmittance of the coated textiles. The using of standard magnetron system (grounded anode and cathode at negative potential resulted in a coating deposition at the textile side exposed to the plasma action only. We believe that the multi-sided deposition of coatings observed during the process run with magnetron with grounded cathode is a result of an ambipolar diffusion mechanism in the anodic potential drop region.

  20. Design and optimization of a ground water monitoring system using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D.; Gupta, A.D.; Ramnarong, V.

    1998-12-31

    A GIS-based methodology has been developed to design a ground water monitoring system and implemented for a selected area in Mae-Klong River Basin, Thailand. A multicriteria decision-making analysis has been performed to optimize the network system based on major criteria which govern the monitoring network design such as minimization of cost of construction, reduction of kriging standard deviations, etc. The methodology developed in this study is a new approach to designing monitoring networks which can be used for any site considering site-specific aspects. It makes it possible to choose the best monitoring network from various alternatives based on the prioritization of decision factors.