WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground validation experiment

  1. Modeling short wave radiation and ground surface temperature: a validation experiment in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliotti, P.; Cremonese, E.; Dallamico, M.; Gruber, S.; Migliavacca, M.; Morra di Cella, U.

    2009-12-01

    Permafrost distribution in high-mountain areas is influenced by topography (micro-climate) and high variability of ground covers conditions. Its monitoring is very difficult due to logistical problems like accessibility, costs, weather conditions and reliability of instrumentation. For these reasons physically-based modeling of surface rock/ground temperatures (GST) is fundamental for the study of mountain permafrost dynamics. With this awareness a 1D version of GEOtop model (www.geotop.org) is tested in several high-mountain sites and its accuracy to reproduce GST and incoming short wave radiation (SWin) is evaluated using independent field measurements. In order to describe the influence of topography, both flat and near-vertical sites with different aspects are considered. Since the validation of SWin is difficult on steep rock faces (due to the lack of direct measures) and validation of GST is difficult on flat sites (due to the presence of snow) the two parameters are validated as independent experiments: SWin only on flat morphologies, GST only on the steep ones. The main purpose is to investigate the effect of: (i) distance between driving meteo station location and simulation point location, (ii) cloudiness, (iii) simulation point aspect, (iv) winter/summer period. The temporal duration of model runs is variable from 3 years for the SWin experiment to 8 years for the validation of GST. The model parameterization is constant and tuned for a common massive bedrock of crystalline rock like granite. Ground temperature profile is not initialized because rock temperature is measured at only 10cm depth. A set of 9 performance measures is used for comparing model predictions and observations (including: fractional mean bias (FB), coefficient of residual mass (CMR), mean absolute error (MAE), modelling efficiency (ME), coefficient of determination (R2)). Results are very encouraging. For both experiments the distance (Km) between location of the driving meteo

  2. Monitoring Ground Subsidence in Hong Kong via Spaceborne Radar: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiao Qin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI technique is gradually becoming known for its capability of providing up to millimeter accuracy of measurement on ground displacement. Nevertheless, there is still quite a good amount of doubt regarding its correctness or accuracy. In this paper, we carried out an experiment corroborating the capability of the PSI technique with the help of a traditional survey method in the urban area of Hong Kong, China. Seventy three TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX images spanning over four years are used for the data process. There are three aims of this study. The first is to generate a displacement map of urban Hong Kong and to check for spots with possible ground movements. This information will be provided to the local surveyors so that they can check these specific locations. The second is to validate if the accuracy of the PSI technique can indeed reach the millimeter level in this real application scenario. For validating the accuracy of PSI, four corner reflectors (CR were installed at a construction site on reclaimed land in Hong Kong. They were manually moved up or down by a few to tens of millimeters, and the value derived from the PSI analysis was compared to the true value. The experiment, carried out in unideal conditions, nevertheless proved undoubtedly that millimeter accuracy can be achieved by the PSI technique. The last is to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PSI technique. Overall, the PSI technique can be extremely useful if used in collaboration with other techniques, so that the advantages can be highlighted and the drawbacks avoided.

  3. The Validity of Divergent Grounded Theory Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nils Amsteus PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assess whether divergence of grounded theory method may be considered valid. A review of literature provides a basis for understanding and evaluating grounded theory. The principles and nature of grounded theory are synthesized along with theoretical and practical implications. It is deduced that for a theory to be truly grounded in empirical data, the method resulting in the theory should be the equivalent of pure induction. Therefore, detailed, specified, stepwise a priori procedures may be seen as unbidden or arbitrary. It is concluded that divergent grounded theory can be considered valid. The author argues that securing methodological transparency through the description of the actual principles and procedures employed, as well as tailoring them to the particular circumstances, is more important than adhering to predetermined stepwise procedures. A theoretical foundation is provided from which diverse theoretical developments and methodological procedures may be developed, judged, and refined based on their own merits.

  4. Design analysis for grounding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, P.P.M.; Vredeveldt, A.W.; Pinkster, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 a series of six grounding experiments has been carried out with a 600 Tonne inland water way tanker. At the how of the vessel test sections could be fitted, which were run into an artificial rock. The design of the support structures for the test sections and for the rock required the predic

  5. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...

  6. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  7. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  8. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  9. Precipitation Ground Validation over the Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, C.; Bakan, S.

    2012-04-01

    State-of-the-art satellite derived and reanalysis based precipitation climatologies show remarkably large differences in detection, amount, variability and temporal behavior of precipitation over the oceans. The uncertainties are largest for light precipitation within the ITCZ and for cold season high-latitude precipitation including snowfall. Our HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite data, www.hoaps.org) precipitation retrieval exhibits fairly high accuracy in such regions compared to our ground validation data. However, the statistical basis for a conclusive validation has to be significantly improved with comprehensive ground validation efforts. However, existing in-situ instruments are not designed for precipitation measurements under high wind speeds on moving ships. To largely improve the ground validation data basis of precipitation over the oceans, especially for snow, the systematic data collection effort of the Initiative Pro Klima funded project at the KlimaCampus Hamburg uses automated shipboard optical disdrometers, called ODM470 that are capable of measuring liquid and solid precipitation on moving ships with high accuracy. The main goal of this project is to constrain the precipitation retrievals for HOAPS and the new Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite constellation. Currently, three instruments are long-term mounted on the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern (Alfred Wegner Institut) since June 2010, on R/V Akademik Ioffe (P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow, Russia) since September 2010 and on R/V Maria S. Merian (Brise Research, University of Hamburg) since December 2011. Three more instruments will follow shortly on further ships. The core regions for these long-term precipitation measurements comprise the Arctic Ocean, the Nordic Seas, the Labrador Sea, the subtropical Atlantic trade wind regions, the Caribbean, the ITCZ, and the Southern Oceans as far south to Antarctica. This

  10. Reflectance conversion methods for the VIS/NIR imaging spectrometer aboard the Chang'E-3 lunar rover: based on ground validation experiment data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liu; Jian-Zhong Liu; Guang-Liang Zhang; Zong-Cheng Ling; Jiang Zhang; Zhi-Ping He; Ben-Yong Yang

    2013-01-01

    The second phase of the Chang'E Program (also named Chang'E-3) has the goal to land and perform in-situ detection on the lunar surface.A VIS/NIR imaging spectrometer (VNIS) will be carried on the Chang'E-3 lunar rover to detect the distribution of lunar minerals and resources.VNIS is the first mission in history to perform in-situ spectral measurement on the surface of the Moon,the reflectance data of which are fundamental for interpretation of lunar composition,whose quality would greatly affect the accuracy of lunar element and mineral determination.Until now,in-situ detection by imaging spectrometers was only performed by rovers on Mars.We firstly review reflectance conversion methods for rovers on Mars (Viking landers,Pathfinder and Mars Exploration rovers,etc).Secondly,we discuss whether these conversion methods used on Mars can be applied to lunar in-situ detection.We also applied data from a laboratory bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) using simulated lunar soil to test the availability of this method.Finally,we modify reflectance conversion methods used on Mars by considering differences between environments on the Moon and Mars and apply the methods to experimental data obtained from the ground validation of VNIS.These results were obtained by comparing reflectance data from the VNIS measured in the laboratory with those from a standard spectrometer obtained at the same time and under the same observing conditions.The shape and amplitude of the spectrum fits well,and the spectral uncertainty parameters for most samples are within 8%,except for the ilmenite sample which has a low albedo.In conclusion,our reflectance conversion method is suitable for lunar in-situ detection.

  11. Nordic Seas Precipitation Ground Validation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Christian; Bumke, Karl; Bakan, Stephan; Andersson, Axel

    2010-05-01

    A thorough knowledge of global ocean precipitation is an indispensable prerequisite for the understanding of the water cycle in the global climate system. However, reliable detection of precipitation over the global oceans, especially of solid precipitation, remains a challenging task. This is true for both, passive microwave remote sensing and reanalysis based model estimates. The satellite based HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data) climatology contains fields of precipitation, evaporation and the resulting freshwater flux along with 12 additional atmospheric parameters over the global ice-free ocean between 1987 and 2005. Except for the NOAA Pathfinder SST, all basic state variables are calculated from SSM/I passive microwave radiometer measurements. HOAPS contains three main data subsets that originate from one common pixel-level data source. Gridded 0.5 degree monthly, pentad and twice daily data products are freely available from www.hoaps.org. The optical disdrometer ODM 470 is a ground validation instrument capable of measuring rain and snowfall on ships even under high wind speeds. It was used for the first time over the Nordic Seas during the LOFZY 2005 campaign. A dichotomous verification for these snowfall events resulted in a perfect score between the disdrometer, a precipitation detector and a shipboard observer's log. The disdrometer data is further point-to-area collocated against precipitation from three satellite derived climatologies, HOAPS-3, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one degree daily (1DD) data set, and the Goddard Profiling algorithm, version 2004 (GPROF 2004). Only the HOAPS precipitation turns out to be overall consistent with the disdrometer data resulting in an accuracy of 0.96. The collocated data comprises light precipitation events below 1 mm/h. Therefore two LOFZY case studies with high precipitation rates are presented that still indicate plausible results. Overall, this

  12. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing process is depicted, and the dynamic model of the deicing process is provided based on the analysis of the deicing mechanism. In the dynamic model, the surface temperature of the deicing fluids and the ice thickness are regarded as the state parameters, while the fluid flow rate, the initial temperature, and the injection time of the deicing fluids are treated as control parameters. Ignoring the heat exchange between the deicing fluids and the environment, the simplified model is obtained. The rationality of the simplified model is verified by the numerical simulation and the impacts of the flow rate, the initial temperature and the injection time on the deicing process are investigated. To verify the model, the semi-physical experiment system is established, consisting of the low-constant temperature test chamber, the ice simulation system, the deicing fluid heating and spraying system, the simulated wing, the test sensors, and the computer measure and control system. The actual test data verify the validity of the dynamic model and the accuracy of the simulation analysis.

  13. A Ground-Based Validation System of Teleoperation for a Space Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Xueqian Wang; Houde Liu; Wenfu Xu; Bin Liang; Yingchun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Teleoperation of space robots is very important for future on‐orbit service. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experiments are required to verify the function and validity of the teleoperation system before a space robot is launched. In this paper, a ground‐based validation subsystem is developed as a part of a teleoperation system. The subsystem is mainly composed of four parts: the input verification module, the onboard verification module, the dynamic and ima...

  14. Cross Validation of Spaceborne and Ground Polarimetric Radar Snowfall Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y.; Hong, Y.; Cao, Q.; Kirstetter, P.; Gourley, J. J.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Snow, as a primary contribution to regional or even global water budgets is of critical importance to our society. For large-scale weather monitoring and global climate studies, satellite-based snowfall observations with ground validations have become highly desirable. Ground-based polarimetric weather radar is the powerful validation tool that provides physical insight into the development and interpretation of spaceborne snowfall retrievals. This study aims to compare and resolve discrepancies in snowfall detection and estimation between Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) on board NASA's Cloudsat satellite and new polarimetric National Mosaic and Multi-sensor QPE (NMQ) system (Q3) developed by OU and NOAA/NSSL scientists. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission with its core satellite scheduled for launch in 2014 will carry active and passive microwave instrumentation anticipated to detect and estimate snowfall or snowpack. This study will potentially serve as the basis for global validation of space-based snowfall products and also invite synergistic development of coordinated space-ground multisensor snowfall products.

  15. Validation of Aura OMI by Aircraft and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, R. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Kroon, M.

    2006-12-01

    Both aircraft-based and ground-based measurements have been used to validate ozone measurements by the OMI instrument on Aura. Three Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) flights have been conducted, in November 2004 and June 2005 with the NASA WB57, and in January/February 2005 with the NASA DC-8. On these flights, validation of OMI was primarily done using data from the CAFS (CCD Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer) instrument, which is used to measure total column ozone above the aircraft. These measurements are used to differentiate changes in stratospheric ozone from changes in total column ozone. Also, changes in ozone over high clouds measured by OMI were checked in a flight over tropical storm Arlene on a flight on June 11th. Ground-based measurements were made during the SAUNA campaign in Sodankyla, Finland, in March and April 2006. Both total column ozone and the ozone vertical distribution were validated.

  16. Airborne ground penetrating radar: practical field experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) under conditions where the ground coupling of the antenna is potentially compromised is investigated. Of particular interest is the effect of increasing the distance between the antennae...

  17. Electrolysis Performance Improvement and Validation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Franz H.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electrolysis performance improvement and validation experiment are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis: an ever increasing need/role for space missions; static feed electrolysis (SFE) technology: a concept developed for space applications; experiment objectives: why test in microgravity environment; and experiment description: approach, hardware description, test sequence and schedule.

  18. The potential of ground gravity measurements to validate GRACE data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Crossley

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New satellite missions are returning high precision, time-varying, satellite measurements of the Earth’s gravity field. The GRACE mission is now in its calibration/- validation phase and first results of the gravity field solutions are imminent. We consider here the possibility of external validation using data from the superconducting gravimeters in the European sub-array of the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP as ‘ground truth’ for comparison with GRACE. This is a pilot study in which we use 14 months of 1-hour data from the beginning of GGP (1 July 1997 to 30 August 1998, when the Potsdam instrument was relocated to South Africa. There are 7 stations clustered in west central Europe, and one station, Metsahovi in Finland. We remove local tides, polar motion, local and global air pressure, and instrument drift and then decimate to 6-hour samples. We see large variations in the time series of 5–10µgal between even some neighboring stations, but there are also common features that correlate well over the 427-day period. The 8 stations are used to interpolate a minimum curvature (gridded surface that extends over the geographical region. This surface shows time and spatial coherency at the level of 2– 4µgal over the first half of the data and 1–2µgal over the latter half. The mean value of the surface clearly shows a rise in European gravity of about 3µgal over the first 150 days and a fairly constant value for the rest of the data. The accuracy of this mean is estimated at 1µgal, which compares favorably with GRACE predictions for wavelengths of 500 km or less. Preliminary studies of hydrology loading over Western Europe shows the difficulty of correlating the local hydrology, which can be highly variable, with large-scale gravity variations.Key words. GRACE, satellite gravity, superconducting gravimeter, GGP, ground truth

  19. GPM ground validation via commercial cellular networks: an exploratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Brasjen, Noud; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-04-01

    The suitability of commercial microwave link networks for ground validation of GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) data is evaluated here. Two state-of-the-art rainfall products are compared over the land surface of the Netherlands for a period of 7 months, i.e., rainfall maps from commercial cellular communication networks and Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG). Commercial microwave link networks are nowadays the core component in telecommunications worldwide. Rainfall rates can be retrieved from measurements of attenuation between transmitting and receiving antennas. If adequately set up, these networks enable rainfall monitoring tens of meters above the ground at high spatiotemporal resolutions (temporal sampling of seconds to tens of minutes, and spatial sampling of hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers). The GPM mission is the successor of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission). For two years now, IMERG offers rainfall estimates across the globe (180°W - 180°E and 60°N - 60°S) at spatiotemporal resolutions of 0.1° x 0.1° every 30 min. These two data sets are compared against a Dutch gauge-adjusted radar data set, considered to be the ground truth given its accuracy, spatiotemporal resolution and availability. The suitability of microwave link networks in satellite rainfall evaluation is of special interest, given the independent character of this technique, its high spatiotemporal resolutions and availability. These are valuable assets for water management and modeling of floods, landslides, and weather extremes; especially in places where rain gauge networks are scarce or poorly maintained, or where weather radar networks are too expensive to acquire and/or maintain.

  20. Ground validation of DPR precipitation rate over Italy using H-SAF validation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puca, Silvia; Petracca, Marco; Sebastianelli, Stefano; Vulpiani, Gianfranco

    2017-04-01

    The H-SAF project (Satellite Application Facility on support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management, funded by EUMETSAT) is aimed at retrieving key hydrological parameters such as precipitation, soil moisture and snow cover. Within the H-SAF consortium, the Product Precipitation Validation Group (PPVG) evaluate the accuracy of instantaneous and accumulated precipitation products with respect to ground radar and rain gauge data adopting the same methodology (using a Unique Common Code) throughout Europe. The adopted validation methodology can be summarized by the following few steps: (1) ground data (radar and rain gauge) quality control; (2) spatial interpolation of rain gauge measurements; (3) up-scaling of radar data to satellite native grid; (4) temporal comparison of satellite and ground-based precipitation products; and (5) production and evaluation of continuous and multi-categorical statistical scores for long time series and case studies. The statistical scores are evaluated taking into account the satellite product native grid. With the recent advent of the GPM era starting in march 2014, more new global precipitation products are available. The validation methodology developed in H-SAF can be easily applicable to different precipitation products. In this work, we have validated instantaneous precipitation data estimated from DPR (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar) instrument onboard of the GPM-CO (Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory) satellite. In particular, we have analyzed the near surface and estimated precipitation fields collected in the 2A-Level for 3 different scans (NS, MS and HS). The Italian radar mosaic managed by the National Department of Civil Protection available operationally every 10 minutes is used as ground reference data. The results obtained highlight the capability of the DPR to identify properly the precipitation areas with higher accuracy in estimating the stratiform precipitation (especially for the HS). An

  1. Evolution of the JPSS Ground Project Calibration and Validation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Jain, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) next-generation operational Earth observation Program that acquires and distributes global environmental data from multiple polar-orbiting satellites. The JPSS Program plays a critical role to NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in weather, climate, oceans, and coasts environments, which supports the nation's economy and protects lives and property. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is acquiring and implementing the JPSS, comprised of flight and ground systems on behalf of NOAA. The JPSS satellites are planned to fly in afternoon orbit and will provide operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system is a NOAA system developed and deployed by JPSS Ground Project to support Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val), Algorithm Integration, Investigation, and Tuning, and Data Quality Monitoring. It is a mature, deployed system that supports SNPP mission and has been in operations since SNPP launch. This paper discusses the major re-architecture for Block 2.0 that incorporates SNPP lessons learned, architecture of the system, and demonstrates how GRAVITE has evolved as a system with increased performance. It is a robust, reliable, maintainable, scalable, and secure system that supports development, test, and production strings, replaces proprietary and custom software, uses open source software, and is compliant with NASA and NOAA standards. "[Pending NASA Goddard Applied Engineering & Technology Directorate (AETD) Approval]"

  2. Relation of validation experiments to applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, James R. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Hills, Richard Guy

    2009-02-01

    Computational and mathematical models are developed in engineering to represent the behavior of physical systems to various system inputs and conditions. These models are often used to predict at other conditions, rather than to just reproduce the behavior of data obtained at the experimental conditions. For example, the boundary or initial conditions, time of prediction, geometry, material properties, and other model parameters can be different at test conditions than those for an anticipated application of a model. Situations for which the conditions may differ include those for which (1) one is in the design phase and a prototype of the system has not been constructed and tested under the anticipated conditions, (2) only one version of a final system can be built and destructive testing is not feasible, or (3) the anticipated design conditions are variable and one cannot easily reproduce the range of conditions with a limited number of carefully controlled experiments. Because data from these supporting experiments have value in model validation, even if the model was tested at different conditions than an anticipated application, methodology is required to evaluate the ability of the validation experiments to resolve the critical behavior for the anticipated application. The methodology presented uses models for the validation experiments and a model for the application to address how well the validation experiments resolve the application. More specifically, the methodology investigates the tradeoff that exists between the uncertainty (variability) in the behavior of the resolved critical variables for the anticipated application and the ability of the validation experiments to resolve this behavior. The important features of this approach are demonstrated through simple linear and non-linear heat conduction examples.

  3. Validation of space/ground antenna control algorithms using a computer-aided design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1995-01-01

    The validation of the algorithms for controlling the space-to-ground antenna subsystem for Space Station Alpha is an important step in assuring reliable communications. These algorithms have been developed and tested using a simulation environment based on a computer-aided design tool that can provide a time-based execution framework with variable environmental parameters. Our work this summer has involved the exploration of this environment and the documentation of the procedures used to validate these algorithms. We have installed a variety of tools in a laboratory of the Tracking and Communications division for reproducing the simulation experiments carried out on these algorithms to verify that they do meet their requirements for controlling the antenna systems. In this report, we describe the processes used in these simulations and our work in validating the tests used.

  4. Theoretical validation of ground-based microwave ozone observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ricaud

    Full Text Available Ground-based microwave measurements of the diurnal and seasonal variations of ozoneat 42±4.5 and 55±8 km are validated by comparing with results from a zero-dimensional photochemical model and a two-dimensional (2D chemical/radiative/dynamical model, respectively. O3 diurnal amplitudes measured in Bordeaux are shown to be in agreement with theory to within 5%. For the seasonal analysis of O3 variation, at 42±4.5 km, the 2D model underestimates the yearly averaged ozone concentration compared with the measurements. A double maximum oscillation (~3.5% is measured in Bordeaux with an extended maximum in September and a maximum in February, whilst the 2D model predicts only a single large maximum (17% in August and a pronounced minimum in January. Evidence suggests that dynamical transport causes the winter O3 maximum by propagation of planetary waves, phenomena which are not explicitly reproduced by the 2D model. At 55±8 km, the modeled yearly averaged O3 concentration is in very good agreement with the measured yearly average. A strong annual oscillation is both measured and modeled with differences in the amplitude shown to be exclusively linked to temperature fields.

  5. Validating global hydrological models by ground and space gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU JiangCun; SUN HePing; XU JianQiao

    2009-01-01

    The long-term continuous gravity observations obtained by the superconducting gravimeters (SG) at seven globally-distributed stations are comprehensively analyzed. After removing the signals related to the Earth's tides and variations in the Earth's rotation, the gravity residuals are used to describe the seasonal fluctuations in gravity field. Meanwhile, the gravity changes due to the air pressure loading are theoretically modeled from the measurements of the local air pressure, and those due to land water and nontidal ocean loading are also calculated according to the corresponding numerical models. The numerical results show that the gravity changes due to both the air pressure and land water loading are as large as 100×10-9 m s-2 in magnitude, and about 10×10-9 m s-2 for those due to the nontidal ocean loading in the coastal area. On the other hand, the monthly-averaged gravity variations over the area surrounding the stations are derived from the spherical harmonic coefficients of the GRACE-recovered gravity fields, by using Gaussian smoothing technique in which the radius is set to be 600 km. Compared the land water induced gravity variations, the SG observations after removal of tides, polar motion effects, air pressure and nontidal ocean loading effects and the GRACE-derived gravity variations with each other, it is inferred that both the ground- and space-based gravity observations can effectively detect the seasonal gravity variations with a magnitude of 100×10-9 m s-2 induced by the land water loading. This implies that high precision gravimetry is an effective technique to validate the reliabilities of the hydrological models.

  6. A Ground-Based Validation System of Teleoperation for a Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqian Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Teleoperation of space robots is very important for future on‐orbit service. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experiments are required to verify the function and validity of the teleoperation system before a space robot is launched. In this paper, a ground‐based validation subsystem is developed as a part of a teleoperation system. The subsystem is mainly composed of four parts: the input verification module, the onboard verification module, the dynamic and image workstation, and the communication simulator. The input verification module, consisting of hardware and software of the master, is used to verify the input ability. The onboard verification module, consisting of the same hardware and software as the onboard processor, is used to verify the processor’s computing ability and execution schedule. In addition, the dynamic and image workstation calculates the dynamic response of the space robot and target, and generates emulated camera images, including the hand‐eye cameras, global‐ vision camera and rendezvous camera. The communication simulator provides fidelity communication conditions, i.e., time delays and communication bandwidth. Lastly, we integrated a teleoperation system and conducted many experiments on the system. Experiment results show that the ground system is very useful for verified teleoperation technology.

  7. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  8. GIFTS EDU Ground-based Measurement Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, W. L., Sr.; Zollinger, L. J.; Huppi, R. J.; Reisse, R. A.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, X.; Tansock, J. J., Jr.; Jensen, S. M.; Revercomb, H. E.; Feltz, W. F.; Bingham, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. The EDU groundbased measurement experiment was held in Logan, Utah during September 2006 to demonstrate its extensive capabilities for geosynchronous and other applications.

  9. Spectropolarimeter of ground support of space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Siniavsky, I. I.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Sosonkim, M. G.

    2017-08-01

    At various space experiments it is necessary to plan carrying out parallel terrestrial observations. For this purpose spectropolarimeter of support of Space experiments in spectral range of 350-900 nm was developed and manufactured at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. As a dispersing system of SPS it was proposed to use a complex prism system, whose elements can be located in different parts of the optical system and work with different angular increase. In the spectral range of 370-870 nm, the variance was almost uniform. Spectropolarimeter SPS of SE support, has been used for observation of stars with exoplanets and of Solar System bodies.

  10. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing proce...

  11. Disruption Tolerant Networking Flight Validation Experiment on NASA's EPOXI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jay; Burleigh, Scott; Jones, Ross; Torgerson, Leigh; Wissler, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In October and November of 2008, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. This experiment, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET), was performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. During DINET some 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. All transmitted bundles were successfully received, without corruption. The DINET experiment demonstrated DTN readiness for operational use in space missions. This activity was part of a larger NASA space DTN development program to mature DTN to flight readiness for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. This paper describes the DTN protocols, the flight demo implementation, validation metrics which were created for the experiment, and validation results.

  12. Disruption Tolerant Networking Flight Validation Experiment on NASA's EPOXI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jay; Burleigh, Scott; Jones, Ross; Torgerson, Leigh; Wissler, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In October and November of 2008, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. This experiment, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET), was performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. During DINET some 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. All transmitted bundles were successfully received, without corruption. The DINET experiment demonstrated DTN readiness for operational use in space missions. This activity was part of a larger NASA space DTN development program to mature DTN to flight readiness for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. This paper describes the DTN protocols, the flight demo implementation, validation metrics which were created for the experiment, and validation results.

  13. ISOTHERMAL AIR-INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has conducted airingress experiments as part of a campaign to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations for very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) analysis. An isothermal test loop was designed to recreate exchange or stratified flow that occurs in the lower plenum of VHTR after a break in the primary loop allows helium to leak out and reactor building air to enter the reactor core. The experiment was designed to measure stratified flow in the inlet pipe connecting to the lower plenum of the General Atomics gas turbine–modular helium reactor (GT-MHR). Instead of helium and air, brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used as the lighter fluid to create, using scaling laws, the appropriate flow characteristics of the lower plenum immediately after depressurization. These results clearly indicate that stratified flow is established even for very small density differences. Corresponding CFD results were validated with the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations. The calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that current CFD methods are suitable for simulating density gradient stratified flow phenomena in an air-ingress accident.

  14. Ship Grounding on Rock - II. Validation and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    with errors less than 10%. The rock penetration to fracture is predictedwith errors of 10-15%. The sensitivity to uncertain input parameters is discussed. Analysis of an accidental grounding that was recorded in 1975, also shows that the theoretical model canreproduce the observed damage. Finally...

  15. Full-Scale Cookoff Model Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, M A; Rattanapote, M K; Heimdahl, E R; Erikson, W E; Curran, P O; Atwood, A I

    2003-11-25

    This paper presents the experimental results of the third and final phase of a cookoff model validation effort. In this phase of the work, two generic Heavy Wall Penetrators (HWP) were tested in two heating orientations. Temperature and strain gage data were collected over the entire test period. Predictions for time and temperature of reaction were made prior to release of the live data. Predictions were comparable to the measured values and were highly dependent on the established boundary conditions. Both HWP tests failed at a weld located near the aft closure of the device. More than 90 percent of unreacted explosive was recovered in the end heated experiment and less than 30 percent recovered in the side heated test.

  16. University Students' Experiences of Nonmarital Breakups: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Sarah; Popadiuk, Natalee

    2008-01-01

    Prior nonmarital breakup research has been focused on negative outcomes, rarely examining the personal growth aspects of this experience. In this study, we used a qualitative grounded theory methodology to explore the changes that university students reported experiencing as a result of a heterosexual nonmarital breakup and how those changes…

  17. Validating Microwave-Based Satellite Rain Rate Retrievals Over TRMM Ground Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B. L.; Wolff, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    Multi-channel, passive microwave instruments are commonly used today to probe the structure of rain systems and to estimate surface rainfall from space. Until the advent of meteorological satellites and the development of remote sensing techniques for measuring precipitation from space, there was no observational system capable of providing accurate estimates of surface precipitation on global scales. Since the early 1970s, microwave measurements from satellites have provided quantitative estimates of surface rainfall by observing the emission and scattering processes due to the existence of clouds and precipitation in the atmosphere. This study assesses the relative performance of microwave precipitation estimates from seven polar-orbiting satellites and the TRMM TMI using four years (2003-2006) of instantaneous radar rain estimates obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) sites at Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands (KWAJ) and Melbourne, Florida (MELB). The seven polar orbiters include three different sensor types: SSM/I (F13, F14 and F15), AMSU-B (N15, N16 and N17), and AMSR-E. The TMI aboard the TRMM satellite flies in a sun asynchronous orbit between 35 S and 35 N latitudes. The rain information from these satellites are combined and used to generate several multi-satellite rain products, namely the Goddard TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), NOAA's CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). Instantaneous rain rates derived from each sensor were matched to the GV estimates in time and space at a resolution of 0.25 degrees. The study evaluates the measurement and error characteristics of the various satellite estimates through inter-comparisons with GV radar estimates. The GV rain observations provided an empirical ground-based reference for assessing the relative performance of each sensor and sensor

  18. SuReSim: simulating localization microscopy experiments from ground truth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Varun; Herrmannsdörfer, Frank; Heilemann, Mike; Kuner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a widely used tool in many areas of research. However, designing and validating super-resolution experiments to address a research question in a technically feasible and scientifically rigorous manner remains a fundamental challenge. We developed SuReSim, a software tool that simulates localization data of arbitrary three-dimensional structures represented by ground truth models, allowing users to systematically explore how changing experimental parameters can affect potential imaging outcomes.

  19. Satellite Cloud Data Validation through MAGIC Ground Observation and the S'COOL Project: Scientific Benefits grounded in Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Rogerson, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Students' Cloud Observation On-Line (S'COOL) Project was launched in 1997 as the Formal Education and Public Outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Mission. ROVER, the Citizen Scientist area of S'COOL, started in 2007 and allows participants to make 'roving' observations from any location as opposed to a fixed, registered classroom. The S'COOL Project aids the CERES Mission in trying to answer the research question: 'What is the Effect of Clouds on the Earth's Climate'. Participants from all 50 states, most U.S. Territories, and 63 countries have reported more than 100,500 observations to the S'COOL Project over the past 16 years. The Project is supported by an intuitive website that provides curriculum support and guidance through the observation steps; 1) Request satellite overpass schedule, 2) Observe clouds, and 3) Report cloud observations. The S'COOL Website also hosts a robust database housing all participants' observations as well as the matching satellite data. While the S'COOL observation parameters are based on the data collected by 5 satellite missions, ground observations provide a unique perspective to data validation. Specifically, low to mid level clouds can be obscured by overcast high-level clouds, or difficult to observe from a satellite's perspective due to surface cover or albedo. In these cases, ground observations play an important role in filling the data gaps and providing a better, global picture of our atmosphere and clouds. S'COOL participants, operating within the boundary layer, have an advantage when observing low-level clouds that affect the area we live in, regional weather patterns, and climate change. S'COOL's long-term data set provides a valuable resource to the scientific community in improving the "poorly characterized and poorly represented [clouds] in climate and weather prediction models'. The MAGIC Team contacted S'COOL in early 2012 about making cloud observations as part of the MAGIC

  20. Analyses of Cryogenic Propellant Tank Pressurization based upon Ground Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Carina; Dreyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The pressurization system of cryogenic propellant rockets requires on-board pressurant gas. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the pressurant gas temperature on the required pressurant gas mass in terms of lowering the launcher mass. First, ground experiments were performed in order to investigate the pressurization process with regard to the influence of the pressurant gas inlet temperature. Second, a system study for the cryogenic upper stage of a sma...

  1. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  2. Contrast validation test for retrieval method of high frequency ground wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hailong; GUO Peifang; HAN Shuzong; XIE Qiang; ZHOU Liangming

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of the working principles of high frequency ground wave radar for retrieval of ocean wave and sea wind elements were used to systematically study the data obtained from contrast validation test in Zhoushan sea area of Zhejiang Province on Oct. 2000, to validate the accuracy of OSMAR2000for wave and wind parameters, and to analyze the possible error caused when using OSMAR2000 to retrieve ocean parameters.

  3. Validation of Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for Japanese Crustal Earthquakes by the Recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, A.; Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Miyake, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan has organized the broadband ground motion simulation method into a standard procedure called the "recipe" (HERP, 2009). In the recipe, the source rupture is represented by the characterized source model (Irikura and Miyake, 2011). The broadband ground motion time histories are computed by a hybrid approach: the 3-D finite-difference method (Aoi et al. 2004) and the stochastic Green's function method (Dan and Sato, 1998; Dan et al. 2000) for the long- (> 1 s) and short-period (structure model. As the engineering significance of scenario earthquake ground motion prediction is increasing, thorough verification and validation are required for the simulation methods. This study presents the self-validation of the recipe for two MW6.6 crustal events in Japan, the 2000 Tottori and 2004 Chuetsu (Niigata) earthquakes. We first compare the simulated velocity time series with the observation. Main features of the velocity waveforms, such as the near-fault pulses and the large later phases on deep sediment sites are well reproduced by the simulations. Then we evaluate 5% damped pseudo acceleration spectra (PSA) in the framework of the SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) validation (Dreger et al. 2015). The validation results are generally acceptable in the period range 0.1 - 10 s, whereas those in the shortest period range (0.01-0.1 s) are less satisfactory. We also evaluate the simulations with the 1-D velocity structure models used in the SCEC BBP validation exercise. Although the goodness-of-fit parameters for PSA do not significantly differ from those for the 3-D velocity structure model, noticeable differences in velocity waveforms are observed. Our results suggest the importance of 1) well-constrained 3-D velocity structure model for broadband ground motion simulations and 2) evaluation of time series of ground motion as well as response spectra.

  4. Structure Modeling and Validation applied to Source Physics Experiments (SPEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmat, C. S.; Rowe, C. A.; Patton, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPEs) comprise a series of small chemical explosions used to develop a better understanding of seismic energy generation and wave propagation for low-yield explosions. In particular, we anticipate improved understanding of the processes through which shear waves are generated by the explosion source. Three tests, 100, 1000 and 1000 kg yields respectively, were detonated in the same emplacement hole and recorded on the same networks of ground motion sensors in the granites of Climax Stock at the Nevada National Security Site. We present results for the analysis and modeling of seismic waveforms recorded close-in on five linear geophone lines extending radially from ground zero, having offsets from 100 to 2000 m and station spacing of 100 m. These records exhibit azimuthal variations of P-wave arrival times, and phase velocity, spreading and attenuation properties of high-frequency Rg waves. We construct a 1D seismic body-wave model starting from a refraction analysis of P-waves and adjusting to address time-domain and frequency-domain dispersion measurements of Rg waves between 2 and 9 Hz. The shallowest part of the structure we address using the arrival times recorded by near-field accelerometers residing within 200 m of the shot hole. We additionally perform a 2D modeling study with the Spectral Element Method (SEM) to investigate which structural features are most responsible for the observed variations, in particular anomalously weak amplitude decay in some directions of this topographically complicated locality. We find that a near-surface, thin, weathered layer of varying thickness and low wave speeds plays a major role on the observed waveforms. We anticipate performing full 3D modeling of the seismic near-field through analysis and validation of waveforms on the 5 radial receiver arrays.

  5. Validity - a matter of resonant experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    across researcher’s past experience from the case study and her own life. The autobiographic way of analyzing conventional interview material is exemplified with a case of a junior researcher researching newcomer innovation of others, drawing on her own experience of being newcomer in work community...

  6. A methodology for global validation of microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladek Robert

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays are popular tools for measuring gene expression of biological samples. This ever increasing popularity is ensuring that a large number of microarray studies are conducted, many of which with data publicly available for mining by other investigators. Under most circumstances, validation of differential expression of genes is performed on a gene to gene basis. Thus, it is not possible to generalize validation results to the remaining majority of non-validated genes or to evaluate the overall quality of these studies. Results We present an approach for the global validation of DNA microarray experiments that will allow researchers to evaluate the general quality of their experiment and to extrapolate validation results of a subset of genes to the remaining non-validated genes. We illustrate why the popular strategy of selecting only the most differentially expressed genes for validation generally fails as a global validation strategy and propose random-stratified sampling as a better gene selection method. We also illustrate shortcomings of often-used validation indices such as overlap of significant effects and the correlation coefficient and recommend the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC as an alternative. Conclusion We provide recommendations that will enhance validity checks of microarray experiments while minimizing the need to run a large number of labour-intensive individual validation assays.

  7. Laser Ground System for Communication Experiments with ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkov, Volodymyr; Volovyk, Dmytro; Kuzkov, Sergii; Sodnik, Zoran; Pukha, Sergii; Caramia, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The ARTEMIS satellite with the OPALE laser communication terminal on-board was launched on 12 July, 2001. 1789 laser communications sessions were performed between ARTEMIS and SPOT-4 (PASTEL) from 01 April 2003 to 09 January 2008 with total duration of 378 hours. Regular laser communication experiments between ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS - altitude 2400 m above see level) and ARTEMIS in various atmosphere conditions were also performed. The Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched the KIRARI (OICETS) satellite with laser communication terminal called LUCE. Laser communication links between KIRARI and ARTEMIS were successfully realized and international laser communications experiments from the KIRARI satellite were also successfully performed with optical ground stations located in the USA (JPL), Spain (ESA OGS), Germany (DLR), and Japan (NICT). The German Space Agency (DLR) performed laser communication links between two LEO satellites (TerraSAR-X and NFIRE), demonstrating data transfer rates of 5.6Gbit/s and performed laser communication experiments between the satellites and the ESA optical ground station. To reduce the influence of weather conditions on laser communication between satellites and ground stations, a network of optical stations situated in different atmosphere regions needs to be created. In 2002, the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) started the development of its own laser communication system to be placed into the Cassegrain focus of its 0.7m AZT-2 telescope (Fe = 10.5m), located in Kyiv 190 meters above sea level. The work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA ARTEMIS has an orbital position of 21.4° E and an orbital inclination of more than 9.75°. As a result we developed a precise tracking system for AZT-2 telescope (weighing more than 2 tons) using micro-step motors. Software was developed for computer control of the telescope to track the satellite's orbit and a tracking accuracy of 0.6 arcsec was achieved

  8. Validation of wind loading codes by experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1997, full scale measurements of the wind and wind induced pressures were carried out on the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. Simultaneously, a comparative wind tunnel experiment was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. In this paper, the

  9. Validation of wind loading codes by experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1997, full scale measurements of the wind and wind induced pressures were carried out on the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. Simultaneously, a comparative wind tunnel experiment was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. In this paper, the trans

  10. [Validity of psychoprophylaxis in obstetrics. Authors' experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, A; Zaurito, V; Facchini, D; Di Stefano, L; Patacchiola, F; Cappa, F

    1990-12-01

    The Authors report the results based on 20 years of practice on obstetric psycho-prophylaxis (PPO). Data on presence at course, on frequency, on primipares/pluripares ratio, on labour, on timing and mode of delivery, are assembled. Moreover, neonatal status at birth and at 10th day of life, are investigated. The data obtained were compared with a control group, constituted by women without any treatment before delivery. The acquired experience confirm the utility of PPO in the ordinary clinical practice.

  11. [A Grounded Theory Approach on Nurses' Experience with Workplace Bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.

  12. Experiments for foam model development and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Mahoney, James F. (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Russick, Edward Mark; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Gorby, Allen D.

    2008-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to allow observation of the foaming process and the collection of temperature, rise rate, and microstructural data. Microfocus video is used in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to elucidate the boundary condition at the wall. Rheology, reaction kinetics and density measurements complement the flow visualization. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to examine the cured foams to determine density gradients. These data provide input to a continuum level finite element model of the blowing process.

  13. Validation of automated payload experiment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Provancha, Anna; Chattam, David

    1995-01-01

    The System Management and Production Laboratory, Research Institute, The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), was tasked by the Microgravity Experiment Projects (MEP) Office of the Payload projects Office (PPO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to conduct research in the current methods of written documentation control and retrieval. The goals of this research were to determine the logical interrelationships within selected NASA documentation, and to expand on a previously developed prototype system to deliver a distributable, electronic knowledge-based system. This computer application would then be used to provide a 'paperless' interface between the appropriate parties for the required NASA documentation.

  14. Ground Truth Observations of the Interior of a Rockglacier as Validation for Geophysical Monitoring Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbich, C.; Roer, I.; Hauck, C.

    2007-12-01

    Monitoring the permafrost evolution in mountain regions is currently one of the important tasks in cryospheric studies as little data on past and present changes of the ground thermal regime and its material properties are available. In addition to recently established borehole temperature monitoring networks, techniques to determine and monitor the ground ice content have to be developed. A reliable quantification of ground ice is especially important for modelling the thermal evolution of frozen ground and for assessing the hazard potential due to thawing permafrost induced slope instability. Near surface geophysical methods are increasingly applied to detect and monitor ground ice occurrences in permafrost areas. Commonly, characteristic values of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity are used as indicators for the presence of frozen material. However, validation of the correct interpretation of the geophysical parameters can only be obtained through boreholes, and only regarding vertical temperature profiles. Ground truth of the internal structure and the ice content is usually not available. In this contribution we will present a unique data set from a recently excavated rockglacier near Zermatt/Valais in the Swiss Alps, where an approximately 5 m deep trench was cut across the rockglacier body for the construction of a ski track. Longitudinal electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography profiles were conducted prior to the excavation, yielding data sets for cross validation of commonly applied geophysical interpretation approaches in the context of ground ice detection. A recently developed 4-phase model was applied to calculate ice-, air- and unfrozen water contents from the geophysical data sets, which were compared to the ground truth data from the excavated trench. The obtained data sets will be discussed in the context of currently established geophysical monitoring networks in permafrost areas. In addition to the

  15. EPIC Calibration/Validation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Steven E [National Severe Storm Laboratory/NOAA; Chilson, Phillip [University of Oklahoma; Argrow, Brian [University of Colorado

    2017-03-15

    conditions not observed with current operational systems. OU operated three UAS at the Lamont SGP site – the OU CopterSonde, the OU Iris, and the Meteomatics Meteodrone – under a blanket Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA) allowing flights up to 400 feet above ground level (AGL). The mission for the rotary-wing UAS involved four aircraft, three from the ARM Lamont site and one from an Oklahoma Mesonet site located at Medford, involving a vertical ascent to an altitude of 400 ft (130 m) AGL at ~ 30 minute intervals for ~ 5 hours duration on each of the two experiment days. This operation was conducted in close coordination with NSSL-launched rawinsonde balloons at the two sites, and operation of a fixed-wing UAS from the University of Colorado called the TTwistor that flew mission flight legs between the Lamont site and Medford. The NSSL operation at Medford (outside of ARM) also involved use of their Collaborative Lower Atmosphere Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS) ground-based remote-sensing system for measuring atmospheric profiles of temperature, moisture, and winds with atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), microwave radiometer, and Doppler wind lidar systems. The ARM Facility supported the project by providing access to their instrumented tower data at Lamont (at three levels), as well as AERI and Doppler wind lidar data obtained from systems quite similar to those used by CLAMPS. These non-UAS data from both ARM and NSSL provided the observations used to validate the experimental UAS observations.

  16. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    direction, although the direction of groundwater movement locally is influenced by water -supply wells and by groundwater extraction and treatment systems...Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device June 2011 i COST & PERFORMANCE REPORT Project: ER-200630 TABLE OF CONTENTS...range of analyte types. These included dissolved and total inorganics (including non-metal anions, metalloids , and metals) and four volatile organic

  17. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluitenberg Bas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground testing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity of an instrumented force measuring treadmill for measuring vertical ground-reaction force parameters during running. Methods Vertical ground-reaction forces of experienced runners (12 male, 12 female were obtained during overground and treadmill running at slow, preferred and fast self-selected running speeds. For each runner, 7 mean vertical ground-reaction force parameters of the right leg were calculated based on five successful overground steps and 30 seconds of treadmill running data. Intraclass correlations (ICC(3,1 and ratio limits of agreement (RLOA were used for further analysis. Results Qualitatively, the overground and treadmill ground-reaction force curves for heelstrike runners and non-heelstrike runners were very similar. Quantitatively, the time-related parameters and active peak showed excellent agreement (ICCs between 0.76 and 0.95, RLOA between 5.7% and 15.5%. Impact peak showed modest agreement (ICCs between 0.71 and 0.76, RLOA between 19.9% and 28.8%. The maximal and average loading-rate showed modest to excellent ICCs (between 0.70 and 0.89, but RLOA were higher (between 34.3% and 45.4%. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that the treadmill is a moderate to highly valid tool for the assessment of vertical ground-reaction forces during running for runners who showed a consistent landing strategy during overground and treadmill running. The high stride-to-stride variance during both overground and treadmill running demonstrates the importance of measuring sufficient steps for representative ground-reaction force values. Therefore, an

  18. Experiments on a Ground-Based Tomographic Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoonyol Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and experiment of three-dimensional image formation by using a ground-based tomographic synthetic aperture radar (GB-TomoSAR system. GB-TomoSAR formulates two-dimensional synthetic aperture by the motion of antennae, both in azimuth and vertical directions. After range compression, three-dimensional image focusing is performed by applying Deramp-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithms, both in azimuth and vertical directions. Geometric and radiometric calibrations were applied to make an image cube, which is then projected into range-azimuth and range-vertical cross-sections for visualization. An experiment with a C-band GB-TomoSAR system with a scan length of 2.49 m and 1.86 m in azimuth and vertical-direction, respectively, shows distinctive three-dimensional radar backscattering of stable buildings and roads with resolutions similar to the theoretical values. Unstable objects such as trees and moving cars generate severe noise due to decorrelation during the eight-hour image-acquisition time.

  19. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  20. Ground-based activities in preparation of SELENE ISS experiment on self-rewetting fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, R.; Abe, Y.; Castagnolo, D.; Celata, G. P.; Kabov, O.; Kawaji, M.; Sato, M.; Tanaka, K.; Thome, J. R.; Van Vaerenbergh, S.

    2011-12-01

    SELENE (SELf rewetting fluids for thermal ENErgy management) is a microgravity experiment proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in response to the Announcement of Opportunities for Physical Sciences. Main objectives of the microgravity research onboard ISS include the quantitative investigation of heat transfer performances of "self-rewetting fluids" and "nano self-rewetting fluids" in model heat pipes and validation of adequate theoretical and numerical modelling able to predict their behaviour in microgravity conditions. This article summarizes the results of ground-based research activities in preparation of the microgravity experiments. They include: 1) thermophysical properties measurements; 2) study of thermo-soluto-capillary effects in micro-channels; 3) numerical modelling; 4) thermal and concentration distribution measurements with optical (e.g. interferometric) and intrusive techniques; 5) surface tension-driven effects and thermal performances test on different capillary structures and heat pipes; 6) breadboards development and support to definition of scientific requirements.

  1. Climatological Processing and Product Development for the TRMM Ground Validation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, D. A.; Kulie, M. S.; Robinson, M.; Silberstein, D. S.; Wolff, D. B.; Ferrier, B. S.; Amitai, E.; Fisher, B.; Wang, J.; Augustine, D.; Thiele, O.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was successfully launched in November 1997.The main purpose of TRMM is to sample tropical rainfall using the first active spaceborne precipitation radar. To validate TRMM satellite observations, a comprehensive Ground Validation (GV) Program has been implemented. The primary goal of TRMM GV is to provide basic validation of satellite-derived precipitation measurements over monthly climatologies for the following primary sites: Melbourne, FL; Houston, TX; Darwin, Australia- and Kwajalein Atoll, RMI As part of the TRMM GV effort, research analysts at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generate standardized rainfall products using quality-controlled ground-based radar data from the four primary GV sites. This presentation will provide an overview of TRMM GV climatological processing and product generation. A description of the data flow between the primary GV sites, NASA GSFC, and the TRMM Science and Data Information System (TSDIS) will be presented. The radar quality control algorithm, which features eight adjustable height and reflectivity parameters, and its effect on monthly rainfall maps, will be described. The methodology used to create monthly, gauge-adjusted rainfall products for each primary site will also be summarized. The standardized monthly rainfall products are developed in discrete, modular steps with distinct intermediate products. A summary of recently reprocessed official GV rainfall products available for TRMM science users will be presented. Updated basic standardized product results involving monthly accumulation, Z-R relationship, and gauge statistics for each primary GV site will also be displayed.

  2. Comparisons of aerosol backscatter using satellite and ground lidars: implications for calibrating and validating spaceborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmestad, Gary; Forrister, Haviland; Grigas, Tomas; O’Dowd, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the polar orbiter Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is an elastic backscatter lidar that produces a global uniformly-calibrated aerosol data set. Several Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) studies for CALIOP conducted with ground-based lidars and CALIOP data showed large aerosol profile disagreements, both random and systematic. In an attempt to better understand these problems, we undertook a series of ground-based lidar measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, which did not provide better agreement with CALIOP data than the earlier efforts, but rather prompted us to investigate the statistical limitations of such comparisons. Meaningful Cal/Val requires intercomparison data sets with small enough uncertainties to provide a check on the maximum expected calibration error. For CALIOP total attenuated backscatter, reducing the noise to the required level requires averaging profiles along the ground track for distances of at least 1,500 km. Representative comparison profiles often cannot be acquired with ground-based lidars because spatial aerosol inhomogeneities introduce systematic error into the averages. These conclusions have implications for future satellite lidar Cal/Val efforts, because planned satellite lidars measuring aerosol backscatter, wind vector, and CO2 concentration profiles may all produce data requiring considerable along-track averaging for meaningful Cal/Val. PMID:28198389

  3. Comparisons of aerosol backscatter using satellite and ground lidars: implications for calibrating and validating spaceborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmestad, Gary; Forrister, Haviland; Grigas, Tomas; O’Dowd, Colin

    2017-02-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the polar orbiter Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is an elastic backscatter lidar that produces a global uniformly-calibrated aerosol data set. Several Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) studies for CALIOP conducted with ground-based lidars and CALIOP data showed large aerosol profile disagreements, both random and systematic. In an attempt to better understand these problems, we undertook a series of ground-based lidar measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, which did not provide better agreement with CALIOP data than the earlier efforts, but rather prompted us to investigate the statistical limitations of such comparisons. Meaningful Cal/Val requires intercomparison data sets with small enough uncertainties to provide a check on the maximum expected calibration error. For CALIOP total attenuated backscatter, reducing the noise to the required level requires averaging profiles along the ground track for distances of at least 1,500 km. Representative comparison profiles often cannot be acquired with ground-based lidars because spatial aerosol inhomogeneities introduce systematic error into the averages. These conclusions have implications for future satellite lidar Cal/Val efforts, because planned satellite lidars measuring aerosol backscatter, wind vector, and CO2 concentration profiles may all produce data requiring considerable along-track averaging for meaningful Cal/Val.

  4. Comparisons of aerosol backscatter using satellite and ground lidars: implications for calibrating and validating spaceborne lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmestad, Gary; Forrister, Haviland; Grigas, Tomas; O'Dowd, Colin

    2017-02-15

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the polar orbiter Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is an elastic backscatter lidar that produces a global uniformly-calibrated aerosol data set. Several Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) studies for CALIOP conducted with ground-based lidars and CALIOP data showed large aerosol profile disagreements, both random and systematic. In an attempt to better understand these problems, we undertook a series of ground-based lidar measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, which did not provide better agreement with CALIOP data than the earlier efforts, but rather prompted us to investigate the statistical limitations of such comparisons. Meaningful Cal/Val requires intercomparison data sets with small enough uncertainties to provide a check on the maximum expected calibration error. For CALIOP total attenuated backscatter, reducing the noise to the required level requires averaging profiles along the ground track for distances of at least 1,500 km. Representative comparison profiles often cannot be acquired with ground-based lidars because spatial aerosol inhomogeneities introduce systematic error into the averages. These conclusions have implications for future satellite lidar Cal/Val efforts, because planned satellite lidars measuring aerosol backscatter, wind vector, and CO2 concentration profiles may all produce data requiring considerable along-track averaging for meaningful Cal/Val.

  5. Validation of GOME-2/Metop total column water vapour with ground-based and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakoski, Niilo; Kujanpää, Jukka; Sofieva, Viktoria; Tamminen, Johanna; Grossi, Margherita; Valks, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    The total column water vapour product from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 on board Metop-A and Metop-B satellites (GOME-2/Metop-A and GOME-2/Metop-B) produced by the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) is compared with co-located radiosonde observations and global positioning system (GPS) retrievals. The validation is performed using recently reprocessed data by the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7. The time periods for the validation are January 2007-July 2013 (GOME-2A) and December 2012-July 2013 (GOME-2B). The radiosonde data are from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The ground-based GPS observations from the COSMIC/SuomiNet network are used as the second independent data source. We find a good general agreement between the GOME-2 and the radiosonde/GPS data. The median relative difference of GOME-2 to the radiosonde observations is -2.7 % for GOME-2A and -0.3 % for GOME-2B. Against the GPS, the median relative differences are 4.9 % and 3.2 % for GOME-2A and B, respectively. For water vapour total columns below 10 kg m-2, large wet biases are observed, especially against the GPS retrievals. Conversely, at values above 50 kg m-2, GOME-2 generally underestimates both ground-based observations.

  6. Blast Load Simulator Experiments for Computational Model Validation: Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    O’Daniel, 2016. Blast load simulator experiments for computational model validation – Report 1. ERDC/GSL TR-16-27. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer ...ER D C/ G SL T R- 16 -2 7 Blast Load Simulator Experiments for Computational Model Validation Report 2 G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr uc...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest

  7. An individual and dynamic Body Segment Inertial Parameter validation method using ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Venture, Gentiane; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe; Isableu, Brice

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decades a variety of research has been conducted with the goal to improve the Body Segment Inertial Parameters (BSIP) estimations but to our knowledge a real validation has never been completely successful, because no ground truth is available. The aim of this paper is to propose a validation method for a BSIP identification method (IM) and to confirm the results by comparing them with recalculated contact forces using inverse dynamics to those obtained by a force plate. Furthermore, the results are compared with the recently proposed estimation method by Dumas et al. (2007). Additionally, the results are cross validated with a high velocity overarm throwing movement. Throughout conditions higher correlations, smaller metrics and smaller RMSE can be found for the proposed BSIP estimation (IM) which shows its advantage compared to recently proposed methods as of Dumas et al. (2007). The purpose of the paper is to validate an already proposed method and to show that this method can be of significant advantage compared to conventional methods.

  8. Experiments Using a Ground-Based Electrostatic Levitator and Numerical Modeling of Melt Convection for the Iron-Cobalt System in Support of Space Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghyun; SanSoucie, Michael P.

    2017-08-01

    Materials research is being conducted using an electromagnetic levitator installed in the International Space Station. Various metallic alloys were tested to elucidate unknown links among the structures, processes, and properties. To accomplish the mission of these space experiments, several ground-based activities have been carried out. This article presents some of our ground-based supporting experiments and numerical modeling efforts. Mass evaporation of Fe50Co50, one of flight compositions, was predicted numerically and validated by the tests using an electrostatic levitator (ESL). The density of various compositions within the Fe-Co system was measured with ESL. These results are being served as reference data for the space experiments. The convection inside a electromagnetically-levitated droplet was also modeled to predict the flow status, shear rate, and convection velocity under various process parameters, which is essential information for designing and analyzing the space experiments of some flight compositions influenced by convection.

  9. Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) Ground Experiments and Concepts for Flight Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Trolinger, James D.; Lackey, Jeffrey D.; Milton, Martha E.; Waggoner, Jason; Pope, Regina D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design of an experimental test cell for ground-based testing to provide requirements for the Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) experiment. Ground-based testing of a hardware breadboard set-up is being conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. SHIVA objectives are to test and validate new solutions of the general equation of motion of a particle in a fluid, including particle-particle interaction, wall effects, motion at higher Reynolds Number, and a motion and dissolution of a crystal moving in a fluid. These objectives will be achieved by recording a large number of holograms of particle motion in the International Space Station (ISS) glove box under controlled conditions, extracting the precise three- dimensional position of all the particles as a function of time, and examining the effects of all parameters on the motion of the particles. This paper will describe the mechanistic approach to enabling the SHIVA experiment to be performed in a ISS glove box in microgravity. Because the particles are very small, surface tension becomes a major consideration in designing the mechanical method to meet the experiments objectives in microgravity, To keep a particle or particles in the center of the test cell long enough to perform and record the experiment and to preclude contribution to particle motion, requires avoiding any initial velocity in particle placement. A Particle Injection Mechanism (PIM) designed for microgravity has been devised and tested to enable SHIVA imaging. Also, a test cell capture mechanism, to secure the test cell during vibration on a specially designed shaker table for the SHIVA experiment will be described. Concepts for flight design are also presented.

  10. Validation of KENO V.a Comparison with Critical Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Section 1 of this report documents the validation of KENO V.a against 258 critical experiments. Experiments considered were primarily high or low enriched uranium systems. The results indicate that the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Criticality Program accurately calculates a broad range of critical experiments. A substantial number of the calculations showed a positive or negative bias in excess of 1 1/2% in k-effective (k{sub eff}). Classes of criticals which show a bias include 3% enriched green blocks, highly enriched uranyl fluoride slab arrays, and highly enriched uranyl nitrate arrays. If these biases are properly taken into account, the KENO V.a code can be used with confidence for the design and criticality safety analysis of uranium-containing systems. Section 2 of this report documents the results of investigation into the cause of the bias observed in Sect. 1. The results of this study indicate that the bias seen in Sect. 1 is caused by code bias, cross-section bias, reporting bias, and modeling bias. There is evidence that many of the experiments used in this validation and in previous validations are not adequately documented. The uncertainty in the experimental parameters overshadows bias caused by the code and cross sections and prohibits code validation to better than about 1% in k{sub eff}.

  11. The Mistra experiment for field containment code validation first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron-Charles, M.; Blumenfeld, L. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The MISTRA facility is a large scale experiment, designed for the purpose of thermal-hydraulics multi-D codes validation. A short description of the facility, the set up of the instrumentation and the test program are presented. Then, the first experimental results, studying helium injection in the containment and their calculations are detailed. (author)

  12. VERIFICATION & VALIDATION OF A SEMANTIC IMAGE TAGGING FRAMEWORK VIA GENERATION OF GEOSPATIAL IMAGERY GROUND TRUTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Ferrell, Regina Kay [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed [ORNL; Dema, Mesfin A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    As a result of increasing geospatial image libraries, many algorithms are being developed to automatically extract and classify regions of interest from these images. However, limited work has been done to compare, validate and verify these algorithms due to the lack of datasets with high accuracy ground truth annotations. In this paper, we present an approach to generate a large number of synthetic images accompanied by perfect ground truth annotation via learning scene statistics from few training images through Maximum Entropy (ME) modeling. The ME model [1,2] embeds a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) to model object attribute variations with Markov Random Fields (MRF) with the final goal of modeling contextual relations between objects. Using this model, 3D scenes are generated by configuring a 3D object model to obey the learned scene statistics. Finally, these plausible 3D scenes are captured by ray tracing software to produce synthetic images with the corresponding ground truth annotations that are useful for evaluating the performance of a variety of image analysis algorithms.

  13. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Self-organizing strategy design and validation for integrated air-ground detection swarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyan An; Zhaokui Wang; Yulin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A self-organized integrated air-ground detection swarm is tentatively applied to achieve reentry vehicle landing detection, such as searching and rescuing a manned spaceship. The detec-tion swarm consists of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The UAVs can access a detected object quickly for high mobility, while the UGVs can comprehensively investigate the object due to the variety of car-ried equipment. In addition, the integrated air-ground detection swarm is capable of detecting from the ground and the air si-multaneously. To accomplish the coordination of the UGVs and UAVs, they are al regarded as individuals of the artificial swarm. Those individuals make control decisions independently of others based on the self-organizing strategy. The overal requirements for the detection swarm are analyzed, and the theoretical model of the self-organizing strategy based on a combined individual and environmental virtual function is established. The numerical in-vestigation proves that the self-organizing strategy is suitable and scalable to control the detection swarm. To further inspect the en-gineering reliability, an experiment set is established in laboratory, and the experimental demonstration shows that the self-organizing strategy drives the detection swarm forming a close range and mul-tiangular surveil ance configuration of a landing spot.

  15. Satellite Based Soil Moisture Product Validation Using NOAA-CREST Ground and L-Band Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Campo, C.; Temimi, M.; Lakhankar, T.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture content is among most important physical parameters in hydrology, climate, and environmental studies. Many microwave-based satellite observations have been utilized to estimate this parameter. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is one of many remotely sensors that collects daily information of land surface soil moisture. However, many factors such as ancillary data and vegetation scattering can affect the signal and the estimation. Therefore, this information needs to be validated against some "ground-truth" observations. NOAA - Cooperative Remote Sensing and Technology (CREST) center at the City University of New York has a site located at Millbrook, NY with several insitu soil moisture probes and an L-Band radiometer similar to Soil Moisture Passive and Active (SMAP) one. This site is among SMAP Cal/Val sites. Soil moisture information was measured at seven different locations from 2012 to 2015. Hydra probes are used to measure six of these locations. This study utilizes the observations from insitu data and the L-Band radiometer close to ground (at 3 meters height) to validate and to compare soil moisture estimates from AMSR2. Analysis of the measurements and AMSR2 indicated a weak correlation with the hydra probes and a moderate correlation with Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS probes). Several differences including the differences between pixel size and point measurements can cause these discrepancies. Some interpolation techniques are used to expand point measurements from 6 locations to AMSR2 footprint. Finally, the effect of penetration depth in microwave signal and inconsistencies with other ancillary data such as skin temperature is investigated to provide a better understanding in the analysis. The results show that the retrieval algorithm of AMSR2 is appropriate under certain circumstances. This validation algorithm and similar study will be conducted for SMAP mission. Keywords: Remote Sensing, Soil

  16. Validation and modeling of earthquake strong ground motion using a composite source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Zeng et al. (1994) have proposed a composite source model for synthetic strong ground motion prediction. In that model, the source is taken as a superposition of circular subevents with a constant stress drop. The number of subevents and their radius follows a power law distribution equivalent to the Gutenberg and Richter's magnitude-frequency relation for seismicity. The heterogeneous nature of the composite source model is characterized by its maximum subevent size and subevent stress drop. As rupture propagates through each subevent, it radiates a Brune's pulse or a Sato and Hirasawa's circular crack pulse. The method has been proved to be successful in generating realistic strong motion seismograms in comparison with observations from earthquakes in California, eastern US, Guerrero of Mexico, Turkey and India. The model has since been improved by including scattering waves from small scale heterogeneity structure of the earth, site specific ground motion prediction using weak motion site amplification, and nonlinear soil response using geotechnical engineering models. Last year, I have introduced an asymmetric circular rupture to improve the subevent source radiation and to provide a consistent rupture model between overall fault rupture process and its subevents. In this study, I revisit the Landers, Loma Prieta, Northridge, Imperial Valley and Kobe earthquakes using the improved source model. The results show that the improved subevent ruptures provide an improved effect of rupture directivity compared to our previous studies. Additional validation includes comparison of synthetic strong ground motions to the observed ground accelerations from the Chi-Chi, Taiwan and Izmit, Turkey earthquakes. Since the method has evolved considerably when it was first proposed, I will also compare results between each major modification of the model and demonstrate its backward compatibility to any of its early simulation procedures.

  17. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  18. The experiences of families of critically ill patients in Greece: a social constructionist grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Sotirios; Cant, Bob; Taket, Ann

    2009-02-01

    The experiences of patients' families in intensive care units (ICUs) are of international concern. In Greece however, adequate attention has not been paid to this issue. To explore the experiences of critical care patients' families in Greece. The intensive care units of 3 general district hospitals in the area of Athens, Greece. The social constructionist version of grounded theory was used. In-depth interviews with 25 relatives of critically ill patients were carried out, and participant and non-participant observation was used to cross-validate the data obtained. Seven major categories were identified, with 32 components across all categories. The experiences of families revolved around the two core categories of "Intense Emotions" and "Vigilant Attendance". The study conceptualised two new categories in this field, "Religiosity" and "Loss of Intimacy" and enhanced the category "Vigilant Attendance". Three further categories were identified, namely "Caring", "Dignity" and "Information". The various interrelationships between the categories were also examined. The study has examined the experience of Greek patients' families from a qualitative perspective and suggests that major changes need to be made in terms of management and support.

  19. Train-induced ground vibrations: modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzel, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ground vibrations generated by high-speed trains are of great concern because of the possible damage they can cause to buildings or other structures near the track, and the annoyance to the public living in the vicinity of the track. Particularly in soft-soil regions, where the wave speed is compara

  20. Validation of MOPITT carbon monoxide using ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer data from NDACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Rebecca R.; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.; Gille, John; Edwards, David P.; Hannigan, James W.; Jones, Nicholas B.; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David W. T.; Smale, Dan; Robinson, John; Strong, Kimberly; Conway, Stephanie; Sussmann, Ralf; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Langerock, Bavo

    2017-06-01

    The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument provides the longest continuous dataset of carbon monoxide (CO) from space. We perform the first validation of MOPITT version 6 retrievals using total column CO measurements from ground-based remote-sensing Fourier transform infrared spectrometers (FTSs). Validation uses data recorded at 14 stations, that span a wide range of latitudes (80° N to 78° S), in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). MOPITT measurements are spatially co-located with each station, and different vertical sensitivities between instruments are accounted for by using MOPITT averaging kernels (AKs). All three MOPITT retrieval types are analyzed: thermal infrared (TIR-only), joint thermal and near infrared (TIR-NIR), and near infrared (NIR-only). Generally, MOPITT measurements overestimate CO relative to FTS measurements, but the bias is typically less than 10 %. Mean bias is 2.4 % for TIR-only, 5.1 % for TIR-NIR, and 6.5 % for NIR-only. The TIR-NIR and NIR-only products consistently produce a larger bias and lower correlation than the TIR-only. Validation performance of MOPITT for TIR-only and TIR-NIR retrievals over land or water scenes is equivalent. The four MOPITT detector element pixels are validated separately to account for their different uncertainty characteristics. Pixel 1 produces the highest standard deviation and lowest correlation for all three MOPITT products. However, for TIR-only and TIR-NIR, the error-weighted average that includes all four pixels often provides the best correlation, indicating compensating pixel biases and well-captured error characteristics. We find that MOPITT bias does not depend on latitude but rather is influenced by the proximity to rapidly changing atmospheric CO. MOPITT bias drift has been bound geographically to within ±0.5 % yr-1 or lower at almost all locations.

  1. Prognostics of Power Electronics, Methods and Validation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose R.; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Failure of electronic devices is a concern for future electric aircrafts that will see an increase of electronics to drive and control safety-critical equipment throughout the aircraft. As a result, investigation of precursors to failure in electronics and prediction of remaining life of electronic components is of key importance. DC-DC power converters are power electronics systems employed typically as sourcing elements for avionics equipment. Current research efforts in prognostics for these power systems focuses on the identification of failure mechanisms and the development of accelerated aging methodologies and systems to accelerate the aging process of test devices, while continuously measuring key electrical and thermal parameters. Preliminary model-based prognostics algorithms have been developed making use of empirical degradation models and physics-inspired degradation model with focus on key components like electrolytic capacitors and power MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor). This paper presents current results on the development of validation methods for prognostics algorithms of power electrolytic capacitors. Particularly, in the use of accelerated aging systems for algorithm validation. Validation of prognostics algorithms present difficulties in practice due to the lack of run-to-failure experiments in deployed systems. By using accelerated experiments, we circumvent this problem in order to define initial validation activities.

  2. Validation of the ostracism experience scale for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Rich; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne; Dewall, C Nathan; Adams, Ryan E; Carboni, Inga

    2013-06-01

    This study validates a new self-report measure, the Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents (OES-A). Nineteen items were tested on a sample of 876 high school seniors to assess 2 of the most common ostracism experiences: being actively excluded from the peer group and being largely ignored by others. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, bivariate correlations, and hierarchical regression provided support for the construct validity of the measure. The findings provided psychometric support for the OES-A, which could be used in research into the nature and correlates of social ostracism among older adolescents when a brief self-report measure is needed. Further, the OES-A may help determine how social ostracism subtypes differentially predict health-compromising behaviors later in development, as well as factors that protect against the most pernicious effects of ostracism.

  3. Flight validation of ground-based assessment for control power requirements at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.; Abbott, Troy D.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented in viewgraph format of an ongoing NASA/U.S. Navy study to determine control power requirements at high angles of attack for the next generation high-performance aircraft. This paper focuses on recent flight test activities using the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which are intended to validate results of previous ground-based simulation studies. The purpose of this study is discussed, and the overall program structure, approach, and objectives are described. Results from two areas of investigation are presented: (1) nose-down control power requirements and (2) lateral-directional control power requirements. Selected results which illustrate issues and challenges that are being addressed in the study are discussed including test methodology, comparisons between simulation and flight, and general lessons learned.

  4. Model validation for karst flow using sandbox experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, M.; Pacheco Castro, R. B.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    The study of flow in karst is complex due of the high heterogeneity of the porous media. Several approaches have been proposed in the literature to study overcome the natural complexity of karst. Some of those methods are the single continuum, double continuum and the discrete network of conduits coupled with the single continuum. Several mathematical and computing models are available in the literature for each approach. In this study one computer model has been selected for each category to validate its usefulness to model flow in karst using a sandbox experiment. The models chosen are: Modflow 2005, Modflow CFPV1 and Modflow CFPV2. A sandbox experiment was implemented in such way that all the parameters required for each model can be measured. The sandbox experiment was repeated several times under different conditions. The model validation will be carried out by comparing the results of the model simulation and the real data. This model validation will allows ud to compare the accuracy of each model and the applicability in Karst. Also we will be able to evaluate if the results of the complex models improve a lot compared to the simple models specially because some models require complex parameters that are difficult to measure in the real world.

  5. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... and foundation on the performance of the floor heating sys-tem. The ground coupled floor heating model is validated against measurements from a single-family house. The simulation model is coupled to a whole-building energy simu-lation model with inclusion of heat losses and heat supply to the room above...

  6. Validation of five years (2003–2007 of SCIAMACHY CO total column measurements using ground-based spectrometer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Poberovskii

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM algorithm using ground-based spectrometer observations from twenty surface stations for the five year time period of 2003–2007. Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and ground-based observations for both mean values as well as seasonal variations. For high-latitude Northern Hemisphere stations absolute differences between SCIAMACHY and ground-based measurements are close to or fall within the SCIAMACHY CO 2σ precision of 0.2 × 1018 molecules/cm2 (∼10% indicating that SCIAMACHY can observe CO accurately at high Northern Hemisphere latitudes. For Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude stations the validation is complicated due to the vicinity of emission sources for almost all stations, leading to higher ground-based measurements compared to SCIAMACHY CO within its typical sampling area of 8° × 8°. Comparisons with Northern Hemisphere mountain stations are hampered by elevation effects. After accounting for these effects, the validation provides satisfactory results. At Southern Hemisphere mid- to high latitudes SCIAMACHY is systematically lower than the ground-based measurements for 2003 and 2004, but for 2005 and later years the differences between SCIAMACHY and ground-based measurements fall within the SCIAMACHY precision. The 2003–2004 bias is consistent with previously reported results although its origin remains under investigation. No other systematic spatial or temporal biases could be identified based on the validation presented in this paper. Validation results are robust with regard to the choices of the instrument-noise error filter, sampling area, and time averaging required for the validation of SCIAMACHY CO total column measurements. Finally, our results show that the spatial coverage of the ground

  7. Validation of NH3 satellite observations by ground-based FTIR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammers, Enrico; Palm, Mathias; Van Damme, Martin; Shephard, Mark; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Capps, Shannon; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2016-04-01

    Global emissions of reactive nitrogen have been increasing to an unprecedented level due to human activities and are estimated to be a factor four larger than pre-industrial levels. Concentration levels of NOx are declining, but ammonia (NH3) levels are increasing around the globe. While NH3 at its current concentrations poses significant threats to the environment and human health, relatively little is known about the total budget and global distribution. Surface observations are sparse and mainly available for north-western Europe, the United States and China and are limited by the high costs and poor temporal and spatial resolution. Since the lifetime of atmospheric NH3 is short, on the order of hours to a few days, due to efficient deposition and fast conversion to particulate matter, the existing surface measurements are not sufficient to estimate global concentrations. Advanced space-based IR-sounders such as the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) enable global observations of atmospheric NH3 that help overcome some of the limitations of surface observations. However, the satellite NH3 retrievals are complex requiring extensive validation. Presently there have only been a few dedicated satellite NH3 validation campaigns performed with limited spatial, vertical or temporal coverage. Recently a retrieval methodology was developed for ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments to obtain vertical concentration profiles of NH3. Here we show the applicability of retrieved columns from nine globally distributed stations with a range of NH3 pollution levels to validate satellite NH3 products.

  8. The structural validity of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire (WLQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Best practice frameworks suggest that an assessment practitioner’s choice of an assessment tool should be based on scientific evidence that underpins the appropriate and just use of the instrument. This is a context-specific validity study involving a classified psychological instrument against the background of South African regulatory frameworks and contemporary validity theory principles.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the structural validity of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire (WLQ administered to employees in the automotive assembly plant of a South African automotive manufacturing company.Motivation for the study: Although the WLQ has been used by registered health practitioners and numerous researchers, evidence to support the structural validity is lacking. This study, therefore, addressed the need for context-specific empirical support for the validity of score inferences in respect of employees in a South African automotive manufacturing plant.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted using a convenience sample (N = 217 taken from the automotive manufacturing company where the instrument was used. Reliability and factor analyses were carried out to explore the structural validity of the WLQ.Main findings: The reliability of the WLQ appeared to be acceptable, and the assumptions made about unidimensionality were mostly confirmed. One of the proposed higher-order structural models of the said questionnaire administered to the sample group was confirmed, whereas the other one was partially confirmed.Practical/managerial implications: The conclusion reached was that preliminary empirical grounds existed for considering the continued use of the WLQ (with some suggested refinements by the relevant company, provided the process of accumulating a body of validity evidence continued.Contribution/value-add: This study identified some of the difficulties that

  9. Validation and Scaling of Soil Moisture in a Semi-Arid Environment: SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Cosh, Michael H.; Misra, Sidharth; Jackson, Thomas J.; Crow, Wade T.; Chan, Steven; Bindlish, Rajat; Chae, Chun; Holifield Collins, Chandra; Yueh, Simon H.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission conducted the SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15) in order to support the calibration and validation activities of SMAP soil moisture data products. The main goals of the experiment were to address issues regarding the spatial disaggregation methodologies for improvement of soil moisture products and validation of the in situ measurement upscaling techniques. To support these objectives high-resolution soil moisture maps were acquired with the airborne PALS (Passive Active L-band Sensor) instrument over an area in southeast Arizona that includes the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW), and intensive ground sampling was carried out to augment the permanent in situ instrumentation. The objective of the paper was to establish the correspondence and relationship between the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of soil moisture on the ground and the coarse resolution radiometer-based soil moisture retrievals of SMAP. The high-resolution mapping conducted with PALS provided the required connection between the in situ measurements and SMAP retrievals. The in situ measurements were used to validate the PALS soil moisture acquired at 1-km resolution. Based on the information from a dense network of rain gauges in the study area, the in situ soil moisture measurements did not capture all the precipitation events accurately. That is, the PALS and SMAP soil moisture estimates responded to precipitation events detected by rain gauges, which were in some cases not detected by the in situ soil moisture sensors. It was also concluded that the spatial distribution of the soil moisture resulted from the relatively small spatial extents of the typical convective storms in this region was not completely captured with the in situ stations. After removing those cases (approximately10 of the observations) the following metrics were obtained: RMSD (root mean square difference) of0.016m3m3 and correlation of 0.83. The

  10. Experiments for the Validation of Debris and Shrapnel Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koniges, A E; Andrew, J; Eder, D; Kalantar, D; Masters, N; Fisher, A; Anderson, R; Gunney, B; Brown, B; Sain, K; Tobin, A M; Debonnel, C; Gielle, A; Combis, P; Jadaud, J P; Meyers, M; Jarmakani, H

    2007-08-29

    The debris and shrapnel generated by laser targets are important factors in the operation of a large laser facility such as NIF, LMJ, and Orion. Past experience has shown that it is possible for such target debris to render diagnostics inoperable and also to penetrate or damage optical protection (debris) shields. We are developing the tools to allow evaluation of target configurations in order to better mitigate the generation and impact of debris, including development of dedicated modeling codes. In order to validate these predictive simulations, we briefly describe a series of experiments aimed at determining the amount of debris and/or shrapnel produced in controlled situations. We use glass and aerogel to capture generated debris/shrapnel. The experimental targets include hohlraums (halfraums) and thin foils in a variety of geometries. Post-shot analysis includes scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography. We show the results of some of these experiments and discuss modeling efforts.

  11. Validation of ACE-FTS measurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 using ground-based FTIR spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Mahieu, E.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Conway, S. A.; Dan, L.; Griffin, D.; Harrett, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kagawa, A.; Lindenmaier, R.; Strong, K.; Whaley, C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite datasets can be an effective global monitoring tool for long-lived compounds in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT-1. The primary instrument on SCISAT-1 is a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) which is capable of measuring a range of gases including key chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) species. These families of species are of interest because of their significant contribution to anthropogenic ozone depletion and to global warming. To assess the quality of data derived from satellite measurements, validation using other data sources is essential. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are particularly useful for this purpose. In this study, five FTIR spectrometers located at four sites around the world are used to validate the CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), and HCFC-22 (CHClF2) retrieved profiles from ACE-FTS measurements. These species are related because HCFC-22 was the primary replacement for CFC-11 and CFC-12 in refrigerant and propellant applications. The FTIR spectrometers used in this study record solar absorption spectra at Eureka (Canada), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Poker Flat (USA), and Toronto (Canada). The retrieval of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 are not standard products for many of these instruments, and as such, a harmonization of retrieval parameters between the sites has been conducted. The retrievals of these species from the FTIR spectra are sensitive from the surface to approximately 20 km, while the ACE-FTS profiles extend from approximately 6 to 30 km. For each site, partial column comparisons between coincident measurements of the three species and a validation of the observed trends will be discussed.

  12. The NASA CloudSat/GPM Light Precipitation Validation Experiment (LPVEx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Moisseev, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of cool-season precipitation at mid and high latitudes (e.g., above 45 deg N/S) suggest that a significant fraction of the total precipitation volume falls in the form of light rain, i.e., at rates less than or equal to a few mm/h. These cool-season light rainfall events often originate in situations of a low-altitude (e.g., lower than 2 km) melting level and pose a significant challenge to the fidelity of all satellite-based precipitation measurements, especially those relying on the use of multifrequency passive microwave (PMW) radiometers. As a result, significant disagreements exist between satellite estimates of rainfall accumulation poleward of 45 deg. Ongoing efforts to develop, improve, and ultimately evaluate physically-based algorithms designed to detect and accurately quantify high latitude rainfall, however, suffer from a general lack of detailed, observationally-based ground validation datasets. These datasets serve as a physically consistent framework from which to test and refine algorithm assumptions, and as a means to build the library of algorithm retrieval databases in higher latitude cold-season light precipitation regimes. These databases are especially relevant to NASA's CloudSat and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ground validation programs that are collecting high-latitude precipitation measurements in meteorological systems associated with frequent coolseason light precipitation events. In an effort to improve the inventory of cool-season high-latitude light precipitation databases and advance the physical process assumptions made in satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithm development, the CloudSat and GPM mission ground validation programs collaborated with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the University of Helsinki (UH), and Environment Canada (EC) to conduct the Light Precipitation Validation Experiment (LPVEx). The LPVEx field campaign was designed to make detailed measurements of

  13. The Outcomes and Experiences Questionnaire: development and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Gibbons, Paul Hewitson, David Morley, Crispin Jenkinson, Ray Fitzpatrick Health Service Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Background: This report presents evidence regarding the development and validation of a new questionnaire, the Outcomes and Experiences Questionnaire (OEQ. The rationale for the questionnaire is to bring together into one short instrument questions about two distinct domains – patients' reports of the outcomes of their care and how they experience care.Methods: The OEQ was developed from literature reviews, iterative drafting and discussion within the research group and cognitive testing with a sample of patients who had a hospital experience. Two validation studies were carried out with an eleven item OEQ. The goals of the studies were to examine response rates and to test specific hypotheses of how OEQ should relate to other variables normally collected in the two studies. In the first study, the OEQ was added to the follow-up questionnaires for patients (n=490 receiving surgery for hip or knee replacement or varicose vein procedures participating in the national Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs program permitting the analysis of the OEQ against change scores for the measures obtained before and after surgery. In the second study the OEQ was included in a sample of patients (n=586 who had been selected to receive the National Health Service (NHS inpatient survey from three contrasting hospital trusts.Results: Results from study one provided consistent and substantial evidence of construct validity of OEQ particularly for those receiving hip or knee replacement. The OEQ sub-scales behaved differently and as predicted against other PROMs variables. Again hypotheses of how the two sub-scales regarding outcomes and experiences would relate to the existing domains of patient experience in the inpatient survey were broadly confirmed in study two

  14. Method for validating cloud mask obtained from satellite measurements using ground-based sky camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letu, Husi; Nagao, Takashi M; Nakajima, Takashi Y; Matsumae, Yoshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Error propagation in Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, and land surface parameters of the satellite products caused by misclassification of the cloud mask is a critical issue for improving the accuracy of satellite products. Thus, characterizing the accuracy of the cloud mask is important for investigating the influence of the cloud mask on satellite products. In this study, we proposed a method for validating multiwavelength satellite data derived cloud masks using ground-based sky camera (GSC) data. First, a cloud cover algorithm for GSC data has been developed using sky index and bright index. Then, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data derived cloud masks by two cloud-screening algorithms (i.e., MOD35 and CLAUDIA) were validated using the GSC cloud mask. The results indicate that MOD35 is likely to classify ambiguous pixels as "cloudy," whereas CLAUDIA is likely to classify them as "clear." Furthermore, the influence of error propagations caused by misclassification of the MOD35 and CLAUDIA cloud masks on MODIS derived reflectance, brightness temperature, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in clear and cloudy pixels was investigated using sky camera data. It shows that the influence of the error propagation by the MOD35 cloud mask on the MODIS derived monthly mean reflectance, brightness temperature, and NDVI for clear pixels is significantly smaller than for the CLAUDIA cloud mask; the influence of the error propagation by the CLAUDIA cloud mask on MODIS derived monthly mean cloud products for cloudy pixels is significantly smaller than that by the MOD35 cloud mask.

  15. Active Thermal Control Experiments for LISA Ground Verification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Sei; DeBra, Daniel B.

    2006-11-01

    The primary mission goal of LISA is detecting gravitational waves. LISA uses laser metrology to measure the distance between proof masses in three identical spacecrafts. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 × 10-15 m/s2√Hz . Optical path length variations on each optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/√Hz over 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz. Thermal variations due to, for example, solar radiation or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing will distort the spacecraft causing changes in the mass attraction and sensor location. We have developed a thermal control system developed for the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability better than 1 mK/√Hz to f control for the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiation. Thermally stable environment is very demanded for LISA performance verification. In a lab environment specifications can be met with considerable amount of insulation and thermal mass. For spacecraft, the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements simultaneously in the presence of long time delay. A simple proportional plus integral control law presently provides approximately 1 mK/√Hz of thermal stability for over 80 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feed-forward algorithm will extend performance to below 1 mK/√Hz at f < 1 mHz and lower.

  16. Validation and downscaling of Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture using ground measurements in the Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available of Plant and Soil: DOI: 10.1080/02571862.2017.1318962 Validation and downscaling of Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture using ground measurements in the Western Cape, South Africa Moller J Jovanovic N Garcia CL Bugan RDH Mazvimavi D...

  17. Ground validation of oceanic snowfall detection in satellite climatologies during LOFZY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Christian; Bumke, Karl; Bakan, Stephan; Bauer, Peter

    2010-08-01

    A thorough knowledge of global ocean precipitation is an indispensable prerequisite for the understanding of the water cycle in the global climate system. However, reliable detection of precipitation over the global oceans, especially of solid precipitation, remains a challenging task. This is true for both, passive microwave remote sensing and reanalysis based model estimates. The optical disdrometer ODM 470 is a ground validation instrument capable of measuring rain and snowfall on ships even under high wind speeds. It was used for the first time over the Nordic Seas during the LOFZY 2005 campaign. A dichotomous verification of precipitation occurrence resulted in a perfect correspondence between the disdrometer, a precipitation detector and a shipboard observer's log. The disdrometer data is further point-to-area collocated against precipitation from the satellite based Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and fluxes from Satellite data (HOAPS) climatology. HOAPS precipitation turns out to be overall consistent with the disdrometer data resulting in a detection accuracy of 0.96. The collocated data comprises light precipitation events below 1 mm h-1. Therefore two LOFZY case studies with high precipitation rates are presented that indicate plausible HOAPS satellite precipitation rates. Overall, this encourages longer term measurements of ship-to-satellite collocated precipitation in the near future.

  18. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; van Geffen, Jos H. G. M.; Taylor, Michael; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald J.; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Charikleia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4) UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh), in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN) was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990) and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units) proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5° (lat × long) grid cells. TEMIS

  19. Misers Bluff Phase I Single Burst Experiments. Ground Shock Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-17

    not exhibit the behavoir shown in the other experiments. The "eyeball" fit to the data is a single line and the constant attenuation rate has a value...Library Defense ;erhnical Information Center 12 cy ATTN: DD DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY Field Command %aval Construction Battalion Center Defense Nuclear Agency...Corp. ATTN: Technical Library ATTN: Technical Information Services ATTN: H. Mirels R & D Associates ATTN: J. Carpenter Agbabian Associates ATTN: R. Port

  20. Validation of ACE and OSIRIS ozone and NO2 measurements using ground-based instruments at 80° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pazmino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, which is located at Eureka, Canada (80° N, 86° W and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC. The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80° N. Satellite 14–52 km ozone and 17–40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2 plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% and −0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.0 ozone and NO2, respectively. Ozone columns were constructed from 14–52 km satellite and 0–14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree

  1. Construct validity of RT3 accelerometer: A comparison of level-ground and treadmill walking at self-selected speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hendrick, MPhty

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in accelerometer output when subjects walked on level ground and on a treadmill. We asked 25 nondisabled participants to wear an RT3 triaxial accelerometer (StayHealthy, Inc; Monrovia, California and walk at their "normal" and "brisk" walking speeds for 10 minutes. These activities were repeated on a treadmill using the individual speeds from level-ground walking on two occasions 1 week apart. Paired t-tests found a difference in RT3 accelerometer vector magnitude (VM counts/min between the two walking speeds on both surfaces on days 1 and 2 (p 0.05, we found wide limits of agreement between level ground and treadmill walking at both speeds. Measurement and discrimination of walking intensity employing RT3 accelerometer VM counts/min on the treadmill demonstrated reasonable validity and stability over two time points compared with level-ground walking.

  2. A detailed numerical simulation of a liquid-propellant rocket engine ground test experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, D. W.; Simmons, M. A.; Heikkinen, B. D.

    1992-07-01

    A computational simulation of a Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) ground test experiment was performed using two modeling approaches. The results of the models were compared with selected data to assess the validity of state-of-the-art computational tools for predicting the flowfield and radiative transfer in complex flow environments. The data used for comparison consisted of in-band station radiation measurements obtained in the near-field portion of the plume exhaust. The test article was a subscale LRE with an afterbody, resulting in a large base region. The flight conditions were such that afterburning regions were observed in the plume flowfield. A conventional standard modeling approach underpredicted the extent of afterburning and the associated radiation levels. These results were attributed to the absence of the base flow region which is not accounted for in this model. To assess the effects of the base region a Navier-Stokes model was applied. The results of this calculation indicate that the base recirculation effects are dominant features in the immediate expansion region and resulted in a much improved comparison. However, the downstream in-band station radiation data remained underpredicted by this model.

  3. Experiments for the validation of debris and shrapnel calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koniges, A E; Eder, D; Kalantar, D; Masters, N; Fisher, A; Anderson, R; Gunney, B; Brown, B; Sain, K [LLNL Livermore, CA (United States); Debonnel, C S; Bonneau, F; Bourgade, J-L; Combis, P; Jadaud, J-P; Maroni; Ulmer, J-L [CEA/DIF (France); Andrew, J [AWE (United Kingdom); Chevalier, J-M; Geille, A; Raffestin, D [CEA/CESTA (France)], E-mail: koniges@llnl.gov (and others)

    2008-05-15

    The debris and shrapnel generated by laser targets will play an increasingly major role in the operation of large laser facilities such as NIF, LMJ, and Orion. Past experience has shown that it is possible for such target debris/shrapnel to render diagnostics inoperable and also to penetrate or damage optical protection (debris) shields. We are developing the tools to evaluate target configurations, in order to better mitigate the generation and impact of debris/shrapnel, including development of dedicated modelling codes. In order to validate these predictive simulations, we briefly describe a series of experiments aimed at determining the amount of debris and/or shrapnel produced in controlled situations. We use glass plates and aerogel to capture generated debris/shrapnel. The experimental targets include hohlraums, halfraums, and thin foils in a variety of geometries. Post-shot analysis includes scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography. We show results from a few of these experiments and discuss related modelling efforts.

  4. Metrology of ground-based satellite validation: co-location mismatch and smoothing issues of total ozone comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Verhoelst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons with ground-based correlative measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite data on atmospheric composition. The error budget of these comparisons contains not only the measurement errors but also several terms related to differences in sampling and smoothing of the inhomogeneous and variable atmospheric field. A versatile system for Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs, named OSSSMOSE, is used here to quantify these terms. Based on the application of pragmatic observation operators onto high-resolution atmospheric fields, it allows a simulation of each individual measurement, and consequently, also of the differences to be expected from spatial and temporal field variations between both measurements making up a comparison pair. As a topical case study, the system is used to evaluate the error budget of total ozone column (TOC comparisons between GOME-type direct fitting (GODFITv3 satellite retrievals from GOME/ERS2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A, and ground-based direct-sun and zenith–sky reference measurements such as those from Dobsons, Brewers, and zenith-scattered light (ZSL-DOAS instruments, respectively. In particular, the focus is placed on the GODFITv3 reprocessed GOME-2A data record vs. the ground-based instruments contributing to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. The simulations are found to reproduce the actual measurements almost to within the measurement uncertainties, confirming that the OSSE approach and its technical implementation are appropriate. This work reveals that many features of the comparison spread and median difference can be understood as due to metrological differences, even when using strict co-location criteria. In particular, sampling difference errors exceed measurement uncertainties regularly at most mid- and high-latitude stations, with values up to 10 % and more in extreme cases. Smoothing difference errors only

  5. Metrology of ground-based satellite validation: co-location mismatch and smoothing issues of total ozone comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; Hendrick, F.; Köhler, U.; Lerot, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Redondas, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2015-12-01

    Comparisons with ground-based correlative measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite data on atmospheric composition. The error budget of these comparisons contains not only the measurement errors but also several terms related to differences in sampling and smoothing of the inhomogeneous and variable atmospheric field. A versatile system for Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), named OSSSMOSE, is used here to quantify these terms. Based on the application of pragmatic observation operators onto high-resolution atmospheric fields, it allows a simulation of each individual measurement, and consequently, also of the differences to be expected from spatial and temporal field variations between both measurements making up a comparison pair. As a topical case study, the system is used to evaluate the error budget of total ozone column (TOC) comparisons between GOME-type direct fitting (GODFITv3) satellite retrievals from GOME/ERS2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A, and ground-based direct-sun and zenith-sky reference measurements such as those from Dobsons, Brewers, and zenith-scattered light (ZSL-)DOAS instruments, respectively. In particular, the focus is placed on the GODFITv3 reprocessed GOME-2A data record vs. the ground-based instruments contributing to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The simulations are found to reproduce the actual measurements almost to within the measurement uncertainties, confirming that the OSSE approach and its technical implementation are appropriate. This work reveals that many features of the comparison spread and median difference can be understood as due to metrological differences, even when using strict co-location criteria. In particular, sampling difference errors exceed measurement uncertainties regularly at most mid- and high-latitude stations, with values up to 10 % and more in extreme cases. Smoothing difference errors only play a role in the

  6. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  7. Validation of the CrIS fast physical NH3 retrieval with ground-based FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dammers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented here is the validation of the CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder fast physical NH3 retrieval (CFPR column and profile measurements using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR observations. We use the total columns and profiles from seven FTIR sites in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC to validate the satellite data products. The overall FTIR and CrIS total columns have a positive correlation of r  =  0.77 (N  =  218 with very little bias (a slope of 1.02. Binning the comparisons by total column amounts, for concentrations larger than 1.0  ×  1016 molecules cm−2, i.e. ranging from moderate to polluted conditions, the relative difference is on average ∼ 0–5 % with a standard deviation of 25–50 %, which is comparable to the estimated retrieval uncertainties in both CrIS and the FTIR. For the smallest total column range (< 1.0  × 1016 molecules cm−2 where there are a large number of observations at or near the CrIS noise level (detection limit the absolute differences between CrIS and the FTIR total columns show a slight positive column bias. The CrIS and FTIR profile comparison differences are mostly within the range of the single-level retrieved profile values from estimated retrieval uncertainties, showing average differences in the range of  ∼ 20 to 40 %. The CrIS retrievals typically show good vertical sensitivity down into the boundary layer which typically peaks at  ∼ 850 hPa (∼ 1.5 km. At this level the median absolute difference is 0.87 (std  =  ±0.08 ppb, corresponding to a median relative difference of 39 % (std  =  ±2 %. Most of the absolute and relative profile comparison differences are in the range of the estimated retrieval uncertainties. At the surface, where CrIS typically has lower sensitivity, it tends to overestimate in low-concentration conditions and underestimate

  8. Measurements and Status at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, B. E.; Denn, F. M.; Schuster, G. L.; Arduini, R. F.; Madigan, J. J.; Rutan, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a suite of instruments flying on several earth-observing satellites that provides data products of radiant energy from the top of the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) was established in 1999 as an ocean surface validation site for CERES and other satellite instruments. COVE is located at Chesapeake Light Station, approximately 25 kilometers east of Virginia (coordinates: 36.90N, 75.71W). COVE measurements include downwelling and upwelling radiant flux at visible and infrared wavelengths, basic meteorological parameters, aerosol optical depth, black carbon, total column water vapor, cloud heights, and more. COVE is part of several networks including the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) and Global Positioning System Meteorology (GPS-MET). A table will be displayed that outlines the current instrumentation and measurements being collected at COVE. Select data results will be presented, including CERES satellite derived data versus COVE surface observed measurements. Also, climatologies such as black carbon from an Aethalometer will be disclosed. In October 2012, the Department of Energy (D.O.E.) purchased Chesapeake Light with the goal of producing a base station for vertically defined wind profiles. While this project is still in the planning phase, the D.O.E. has allowed our research to continue in its current state.

  9. A Guide to Designing Future Ground-based CMB Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, W. L.K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo, Park, CA (United States); Errard, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dvorkin, C. [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Kuo, C. L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo, Park, CA (United States); Lee, A. T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonald, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Slosar, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zahn, O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), CA (United States)

    2014-02-18

    In this follow-up work to the High Energy Physics Community Summer Study 2013 (HEP CSS 2013, a.k.a. Snowmass), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage-IV Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment (CMB-S4) under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties in cosmological parameters in vΛCDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark-energy equation of state, dark-matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal as measured by DESI to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1-σ constraints: σ(Mv ) = 15 meV, σ(Neff ) = 0.0156, Dark energy Figure of Merit = 303, σ(pann) = 0.00588 x 3 x 10-26 cm3/s/GeV, σ( ΩK) = 0.00074, σ(ns) = 0.00110, σ( αs) = 0.00145, and σ(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependences of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.

  10. Benchmark validation by means of pulsed sphere experiment at OKTAVIAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Chihiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Hayashi, Shu A.; Kimura, Itsuro; Yamamoto, Junji; Takahashi, Akito

    1998-03-01

    In order to make benchmark validation of the existing evaluated nuclear data for fusion related material, neutron leakage spectra from spherical piles were measured with a time-of-flight technique using the intense 14 MeV neutron source, OKTAVIAN in the energy range from 0.1 to 15 MeV. The neutron energy spectra were obtained as the absolute value normalized per the source neutron. The measured spectra were compared with those by theoretical calculation using a Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP with several libraries processed from the evaluated nuclear data files. Comparison has been made with the spectrum shape, the C/E values of neutron numbers integrated in 4 energy regions and the calculated spectra unfolded by the number of collisions, especially those after a single collision. The new libraries predicted the experiment fairly well for Li, Cr, Mn, Cu and Mo. For Al, Si, Zr, Nb and W, new data files could give fair prediction. However, C/E differed more than 20% for several regions. For LiF, CF{sub 2}, Ti and Co, no calculation could predict the experiment. The detailed discussion has been given for Cr, Mn and Cu samples. EFF-2 calculation overestimated by 24% for the Cr experiment between 1 and 5-MeV neutron energy region, presumably because of overestimation of inelastic cross section and {sup 52}Cr(n,2n) cross section and the problem in energy and angular distribution of secondary neutrons in EFF-2. For Cu, ENDF/B-VI and EFF-2 overestimated the experiment by about 20 to 30-% in the energy range between 5 and 12-MeV, presumably from the problem in inelastic scattering cross section. (author)

  11. MODEL IMPROVEMENT AND EXPERI-MENT VALIDATION OF PNEUMATIC ARTIFICIAL MUSCLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Aiguo; Shi Guanglin; Zhong Tingxiu

    2004-01-01

    According to the deficiency of the present model of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM), a serial model is built up based on the PAM's essential working principle with the elastic theory, it is validated by the quasi-static and dynamic experiment results, which are gained from two experiment systems.The experiment results and the simulation results illustrate that the serial model has made a great success compared with Chou's model, which can describe the force characteristics of PAM more precisely.A compensation item considering the braid's elasticity and the coulomb damp is attached to the serial model based on the analysis of the experiment results.The dynamic experiment proves that the viscous damp of the PAM could be ignored in order to simplify the model of PAM.Finally, an improved serial model of PAM is obtained.

  12. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Buist, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Background: One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF) values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground te

  13. Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill running. A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Buist, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Background: One major drawback in measuring ground-reaction forces during running is that it is time consuming to get representative ground-reaction force (GRF) values with a traditional force platform. An instrumented force measuring treadmill can overcome the shortcomings inherent to overground te

  14. Calibration of Predictor Models Using Multiple Validation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for calibrating computational models using data from several and possibly dissimilar validation experiments. The offset between model predictions and observations, which might be caused by measurement noise, model-form uncertainty, and numerical error, drives the process by which uncertainty in the models parameters is characterized. The resulting description of uncertainty along with the computational model constitute a predictor model. Two types of predictor models are studied: Interval Predictor Models (IPMs) and Random Predictor Models (RPMs). IPMs use sets to characterize uncertainty, whereas RPMs use random vectors. The propagation of a set through a model makes the response an interval valued function of the state, whereas the propagation of a random vector yields a random process. Optimization-based strategies for calculating both types of predictor models are proposed. Whereas the formulations used to calculate IPMs target solutions leading to the interval value function of minimal spread containing all observations, those for RPMs seek to maximize the models' ability to reproduce the distribution of observations. Regarding RPMs, we choose a structure for the random vector (i.e., the assignment of probability to points in the parameter space) solely dependent on the prediction error. As such, the probabilistic description of uncertainty is not a subjective assignment of belief, nor is it expected to asymptotically converge to a fixed value, but instead it casts the model's ability to reproduce the experimental data. This framework enables evaluating the spread and distribution of the predicted response of target applications depending on the same parameters beyond the validation domain.

  15. EAQUATE: An International Experiment for Hyper-Spectral Atmospheric Sounding Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. P.; Smith, W.; Cuomo, V.; Larar, A.; Zhou, D.; Serio, C.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Newman, S.; Antonelli, P.; text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20080024204'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20080024204_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20080024204_hide'); "> hide

    2008-01-01

    The international experiment called EAQUATE (European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment) was held in September 2004 in Italy and the United Kingdom to demonstrate certain ground-based and airborne systems useful for validating hyperspectral satellite sounding observations. A range of flights over land and marine surfaces were conducted to coincide with overpasses of the AIRS instrument on the EOS Aqua platform. Direct radiance evaluation of AIRS using NAST-I and SHIS has shown excellent agreement. Comparisons of level 2 retrievals of temperature and water vapor from AIRS and NAST-I validated against high quality lidar and drop sonde data show that the 1K/1km and 10%/1km requirements for temperature and water vapor (respectively) are generally being met. The EAQUATE campaign has proven the need for synergistic measurements from a range of observing systems for satellite cal/val and has paved the way for future cal/val activities in support of IASI on the European Metop platform and CrIS on the US NPP/NPOESS platform.

  16. Validation of mathematical models for Salmonella growth in raw ground beef under dynamic temperature conditions representing loss of refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jennifer A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-07-01

    Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food product starts at an initial 41 °F (5 °C) temperature and does not exceed 70 °F (21 °C) at 6 h. This project validates existing ComBase computer models for Salmonella growth under changing temperature conditions modeling scenarios using raw ground beef as a model system. A cocktail of Salmonella serovars isolated from different meat products ( Salmonella Copenhagen, Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Heidelberg) was made rifampin resistant and used for all experiments. Inoculated samples were held in a programmable water bath at 4.4 °C (40 °F) and subjected to linear temperature changes to different final temperatures over various lengths of time and then returned to 4.4 °C (40 °F). Maximum temperatures reached were 15.6, 26.7, or 37.8 °C (60, 80, or 100 °F), and the temperature increases took place over 4, 6, and 8 h, with varying cooling times. Our experiments show that when maximum temperatures were lower (15.6 or 26.7 °C), there was generally good agreement between the ComBase models and experiments: when temperature increases of 15.6 or 26.7 °C occurred over 8 h, experimental data were within 0.13 log CFU of the model predictions. When maximum temperatures were 37 °C, predictive models were fail-safe. Overall bias of the models was 1.11. and accuracy was 2.11. Our experiments show the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines for holding food out of temperature control are quite conservative. Our research also shows that the ComBase models for Salmonella growth are accurate or fail-safe for dynamic temperature conditions as might be observed due to power loss from natural disasters or during transport out of

  17. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  18. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Alka B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS using geographic information systems (GIS. The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval. The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre

  19. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Blanchard, Ian E; Doig, Christopher J; Ghali, William A

    2012-10-03

    Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7-8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based on US data may not be appropriate in a

  20. Benchmark validation by means of pulsed sphere experiment at OKTAVIAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Chihiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Hayashi, S.A.; Kimura, Itsuro; Yamamoto, Junji; Takahashi, Akito

    1997-03-01

    The new version of Japanese nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 has recently been released. JENDL Fusion File which adopted DDX representations for secondary neutrons was also improved with the new evaluation method. On the other hand, FENDL nuclear data project to compile nuclear data library for fusion related research has been conducted partly under auspices of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The first version FENDL-1 consists of JENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VI, BROND-2 and EFF-1 and has been released in 1995. The work for the second version FENDL-2 is now ongoing. The Bench mark validation of the nuclear data libraries have been performed to help selecting the candidate for the FENDL-2. The benchmark experiment have been conducted at OKTAVIAN of Osaka university. The sample spheres were constructed by filling the spherical shells with sample. The leakage neutron spectra from sphere piles were measured with a time-of-flight method. The measured spectra were compared with the theoretical calculation using MCNP 4A and the processed libraries from JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, JENDL Fusion File, and FENDL-1. JENDL Fusion File and JENDL-3.2 gave almost the same prediction for the experiment. And both prediction are almost satisfying for Li, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zr, Nb and Mo, whereas for Al, LiF, CF2, Si, Ti, Co and W there is some discrepancy. However, they gave better prediction than the calculations using the library from FENDL-1, except for W. (author)

  1. Validation of Satellite AOD Data with the Ground PM10 Data over Islamabad Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran

    2016-07-01

    health. In this study, concentrations of PM10 will be monitored at different sites in H-12 sector and Kashmir Highway Islamabad using High volume air sampler and its chemical characterization will be done using Energy Dispersive XRF. The first application of satellite remote sensing for aerosol monitoring began in the mid-1970s to detect the desert particles above the ocean using data from Landsat, GOES, and AVHRR remote sensing satellites. Maps of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over the ocean were produced using the 0.63 µm channel of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) . Aerosols properties were retrieved using AVHRR. The useable range of wavelengths of spectrum (shorter wavelengths and the longer wavelengths) for the remote sensing of the aerosols particles is mostly restricted due to ozone and gaseous absorptions. The purpose of the study is to validate the satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for the regional and local scale for Pakistan Objectives • To quantify the concentration of PM10 • To investigate their elemental composition • To find out their possible sources • Validation with MODIS satellite AOD Methodology: PM10 concentration will be measured at different sites of NUST Islamabad, Pakistan using High volume air sampler an Air sampling equipment capable of sampling high volumes of air (typically 57,000 ft3 or 1,600 m3) at high flow rates (typically 1.13 m3/min or 40 ft3/min) over an extended sampling duration (typically 24 hrs). The sampling period will be of 24 hours. Particles in the PM10 size range are then collected on the filter(s) during the specified 24-h sampling period. Each sample filter will be weighed before and after sampling to determine the net weight (mass) gain of the collected PM10 sample (40 CFR Part 50, Appendix M, US EPA). Next step will be the chemical characterization. Element concentrations will be determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. The ED-XRF system uses an X-ray tube to

  2. Metrology of ground-based satellite validation: co-location mismatch and smoothing issues of total ozone comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Verhoelst

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons with ground-based correlative measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite data on atmospheric composition. The error budget of these comparisons contains not only the measurement uncertainties but also several terms related to differences in sampling and smoothing of the inhomogeneous and variable atmospheric field. A versatile system for Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs, named OSSSMOSE, is used here to quantify these terms. Based on the application of pragmatic observation operators onto high-resolution atmospheric fields, it allows a simulation of each individual measurement, and consequently also of the differences to be expected from spatial and temporal field variations between both measurements making up a comparison pair. As a topical case study, the system is used to evaluate the error budget of total ozone column (TOC comparisons between on the one hand GOME-type direct fitting (GODFITv3 satellite retrievals from GOME/ERS2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A, and on the other hand direct-sun and zenith-sky reference measurements such as from Dobsons, Brewers, and zenith scattered light (ZSL-DOAS instruments respectively. In particular, the focus is placed on the GODFITv3 reprocessed GOME-2A data record vs. the ground-based instruments contributing to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. The simulations are found to reproduce the actual measurements almost to within the measurement uncertainties, confirming that the OSSE approach and its technical implementation are appropriate. This work reveals that many features of the comparison spread and median difference can be understood as due to metrological differences, even when using strict co-location criteria. In particular, sampling difference errors exceed measurement uncertainties regularly at most mid- and high-latitude stations, with values up to 10 % and more in extreme cases. Smoothing

  3. Air versus ground transport of the major trauma patient: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Jennifer; Petrie, David A; Tallon, John M

    2010-01-01

    1) To compare the outcomes of adult trauma patients transported to a level I trauma center by helicopter vs. ground ambulance. 2) To determine whether using a unique "natural experiment" design to obtain the ground comparison group will reduce potential confounders. Outcomes in adult trauma patients transported to a tertiary care trauma center by air were compared with outcomes in a group of patients who were accepted by the online medical control physician for air transport, but whose air missions were aborted for aviation reasons (weather, maintenance, out on a mission); these patients were subsequently transported by ground ambulance instead. Outcomes were also analyzed for a third ground control group composed of all other adult trauma patients transported by ground during this time period. Data were collected by retrospective database review of trauma patients transferred between July 1, 1997, and June 30, 2003. Outcomes were measured by Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) analysis. Z and W scores were calculated. Three hundred ninety-seven missions were flown by LifeFlight during the study period vs. 57 in the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group. The mean ages, gender distributions, mechanisms of injury, and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were similar in the two groups. Per 100 patients transported, 5.61 more lives were saved in the air group vs. the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group (Z = 3.37). As per TRISS analysis, this is relative to the expected mortality seen with a similar group in the Major Trauma Outcomes Study (MTOS). The Z score for the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group was 0.4. The 1,195 patients in the third all-other ground control group had a higher mean age, lower mean ISS, and worse outcomes according to TRISS analysis (W = -2.02). This unique natural experiment led to better matched air vs. ground cohorts for comparison. As per TRISS analysis, air transport of the adult major trauma

  4. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  5. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  6. Earth at Rest - Aesthetic Experience and Students' Grounding in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2017-07-01

    Focus of this article is the current situation characterized by students' de-rootedness and possible measures to improve the situation within the frame of education for sustainable development. My main line of argument is that science teachers can practice teaching in such a way that students are brought in deeper contact to the environment. I discuss efforts to promote aesthetic experience in science class and in science teacher education. Within a wide range of definitions, my main understanding of aesthetic experience is that of pre-conceptual experience, relational to the environment and incorporated in students' embodied knowledge. I ground the idea of Earth at rest in Husserl's phenomenological philosophy and Heidegger's notion of science' deprivation of the world. A critique of the ontological reversal leads to an ontological re-reversal that implies giving lifeworld experience back its value and rooting scientific concepts in students' everyday lives. Six aspects of facilitating grounding in sustainability-oriented science teaching and teacher education are highlighted and discussed: students' everyday knowledge and experience, aesthetic experience and grounding, fostering aesthetic sensibility, cross-curricular integration with art, ontological and epistemological aspects, and belongingness and (re-)connection to Earth. I conclude that both science students and student-teachers need to practice their sense of caring and belonging, as well as refining their sensibility towards the world. With an intension of educating for a sustainable development, there is an urgent need for a critical discussion in science education when it comes to engaging learners for a sustainable future.

  7. The SCEC Broadband Platform: Open-Source Software for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, C.; Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Callaghan, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform (BBP) is a carefully integrated collection of open-source scientific software programs that can simulate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes at regional scales. The BBP scientific software modules implement kinematic rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis using wave propagation through 1D layered velocity structures, seismogram ground motion amplitude calculations, and goodness of fit measurements. These modules are integrated into a software system that provides user-defined, repeatable, calculation of ground motion seismograms, using multiple alternative ground motion simulation methods, and software utilities that can generate plots, charts, and maps. The BBP has been developed over the last five years in a collaborative scientific, engineering, and software development project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and SCEC scientific software developers. The BBP can run earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to simulate ground motions for well-observed historical earthquakes and to quantify how well the simulated broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms. The BBP can also run simulations for hypothetical earthquakes. In this case, users input an earthquake location and magnitude description, a list of station locations, and a 1D velocity model for the region of interest, and the BBP software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. The SCEC BBP software released in 2015 can be compiled and run on recent Linux systems with GNU compilers. It includes 5 simulation methods, 7 simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, the ability to compare simulation results against GMPEs, updated ground motion simulation methods, and a simplified command line user interface.

  8. The Effects of Highlighting, Validity, and Feature Type on Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    cultura I taget Target type Validity X target X leadin interaction on initial response time (highlighted trials) WRONG HIGHLIGHTING ÖU - M ea...natural - leadin cultural ndurd cultura taget I taget Target type Figure 3.10: Validity X lead-in X Target interaction Confirmation time A

  9. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kui; Yan, Li; Huang, Guoman; Chen, Chu; Wu, Zhengpeng

    2016-12-20

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated.

  10. Validation of NEPTUNE-CFD on ULPU-V experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamet, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.jamet@edf.fr; Lavieville, Jerome; Atkhen, Kresna; Mechitoua, Namane

    2015-11-15

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of molten corium through external cooling of the reactor pressure vessel is one possible means of severe accident mitigation for a class of nuclear power plants. The aim is to successfully terminate the progression of a core melt within the reactor vessel. The probability of success depends on the efficacy of the cooling strategy; hence one of the key aspects of an IVR demonstration relates to the heat removal capability through the vessel wall by convection and boiling in the external water flow. This is only possible if the in-vessel thermal loading is lower than the local critical heat flux expected along the outer wall of the vessel, which is in turn highly dependent on the flow characteristics between the vessel and the insulator. The NEPTUNE-CFD multiphase flow solver is used to obtain a better understanding at local scale of the thermal hydraulics involved in this situation. The validation of the NEPTUNE-CFD code on the ULPU-V facility experiments carried out at the University of California Santa Barbara is presented as a first attempt of using CFD codes at EDF to address such an issue. Two types of computation are performed. On the one hand, a steady state algorithm is used to compute natural circulation flow rates and differential pressures and, on the other, a transient algorithm computation reveals the oscillatory nature of the pressure data recorded in the ULPU facility. Several dominant frequencies are highlighted. In both cases, the CFD simulations reproduce reasonably well the experimental data for these quantities.

  11. Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satellite- Level 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E. A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET, the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO overpasses the station location within a maximum distance of 100 km. The duration of the ground–based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60% which is attributed to the increase of aerosol horizontal inhomogeneity within the Planetary Boundary Layer, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses by the two instruments. In cases of aerosol layers underlying Cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worse. This is attributed to the significant multiple scattering effects in Cirrus clouds experienced by CALIPSO which result in an attenuation which is less than that measured by the ground-based lidar.

  12. Validation of a Torso-Mounted Accelerometer for Measures of Vertical Oscillation and Ground Contact Time During Treadmill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Ricky; Hettinga, Blayne; Osis, Sean; Ferber, Reed

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate measures of vertical oscillation (VO) and ground contact time (GCT) derived from a commercially-available, torso-mounted accelerometer compared with single marker kinematics and kinetic ground reaction force (GRF) data. Twenty-two semi-elite runners ran on an instrumented treadmill while GRF data (1000 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics (200 Hz) were collected for 60 s across 5 different running speeds ranging from 2.7 to 3.9 m/s. Measurement agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman plots with 95% limits of agreement and by concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). The accelerometer had excellent CCC agreement (> 0.97) with marker kinematics, but only moderate agreement, and overestimated measures between 16.27 mm to 17.56 mm compared with GRF VO measures. The GCT measures from the accelerometer had very good CCC agreement with GRF data, with less than 6 ms of mean bias at higher speeds. These results indicate a torso-mounted accelerometer provides valid and accurate measures of torso-segment VO, but both a marker placed on the torso and the accelerometer yield systematic overestimations of center of mass VO. Measures of GCT from the accelerometer are valid when compared with GRF data, particularly at faster running speeds.

  13. Validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles for vertical ground reaction force assessment in field situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Ernst, Michael; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles (medilogic® insoles) when measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field situations. Various weights were applied to and removed from the insoles in static mechanical tests. The force values measured simultaneously by the insoles and force plates were compared for 15 subjects simulating work activities. Reliability testing during the static mechanical tests yielded an average interclass correlation coefficient of 0.998. Static loads led to a creeping pattern of the output force signal. An individual load response could be observed for each insole. The average root mean square error between the insoles and force plates ranged from 6.6% to 17.7% in standing, walking, lifting and catching trials and was 142.3% in kneeling trials. The results show that the use of insoles may be an acceptable method for measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field studies, except for kneeling positions.

  14. Validation of the Danish language Injustice Experience Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    /somatoform symptoms. These patients also completed questionnaires concerning sociodemographics, anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, and overall physical and mental functioning. Our results showed satisfactory interpretability and face validity, and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .90...

  15. Validation and understanding of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol products (C5) using ground-based measurements from the handheld Sun photometer network in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanqing Li; Feng Niu; Kwon-Ho Lee; Jinyuan Xin; Wei Min Hao; Bryce L. Nordgren; Yuesi Wang; Pucai Wang

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) currently provides the most extensive aerosol retrievals on a global basis, but validation is limited to a small number of ground stations. This study presents a comprehensive evaluation of Collection 4 and 5 MODIS aerosol products using ground measurements from the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET). The...

  16. Dimensionless Maps for the Validity of Analytical Ground Heat Transfer Models for GSHP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Conti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides plain and handy expressions to decide the most suitable analytical model for the thermal analysis of the ground source in vertical ground-coupled heat pump applications. We perform a comprehensive dimensionless analysis of the reciprocal deviation among the classical infinite, finite, linear and cylindrical heat source models in purely conductive media. Besides, we complete the framework of possible boreholes model with the “hollow” finite cylindrical heat source solution, still lacking in the literature. Analytical expressions are effective tools for both design and performance assessment: they are able to provide practical and general indications on the thermal behavior of the ground with an advantageous tradeoff between calculation efforts and solution accuracy. This notwithstanding, their applicability to any specific case is always subjected to the coherence of the model assumptions, also in terms of length and time scales, with the specific case of interest. We propose several dimensionless criteria to evaluate when one model is practically equivalent to another one and handy maps that can be used for both design and performance analysis. Finally, we found that the finite line source represents the most suitable model for borehole heat exchangers (BHEs, as it is applicable to a wide range of space and time scales, practically providing the same results of more complex models.

  17. Development and Ground-Test Validation of Fiber Optic Sensor Attachment Techniques for Hot Structures Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Anthony; Hudson, Larry D.; Richards, W. Lance

    2005-01-01

    Fiber Optic Strain Measurements: a) Successfully attached silica fiber optic sensors to both metallics and composites; b) Accomplished valid EFPI strain measurements to 1850 F; c) Successfully attached EFPI sensors to large scale hot-structures; and d) Attached and thermally validated FBG bond and epsilon(sub app). Future Development a) Improve characterization of sensors on C-C and C-SiC substrates; b) Apply application to other composites such as SiC-SiC; c) Assist development of interferometer based Sapphire sensor currently being conducted under a Phase II SBIR; and d) Complete combined thermal/mechanical testing of FBG on composite substrates in controlled laboratory environment.

  18. Validation experiments for LBM simulations of electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Regina; Rüde, Ulrich; Markl, Matthias; Jüchter, Vera; Körner, Carolin

    2014-05-01

    This paper validates three-dimensional (3D) simulation results of electron beam melting (EBM) processes by comparing experimental and numerical data. The physical setup is presented which is discretized by a 3D thermal lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). An experimental process window is used for the validation depending on the line energy injected into the metal powder bed and the scan velocity of the electron beam. In the process window, the EBM products are classified into the categories, porous, good and swelling, depending on the quality of the surface. The same parameter sets are used to generate a numerical process window. A comparison of numerical and experimental process windows shows a good agreement. This validates the EBM model and justifies simulations for future improvements of the EBM processes. In particular, numerical simulations can be used to explain future process window scenarios and find the best parameter set for a good surface quality and dense products.

  19. Measuring the experience of hospitality : Scale development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies what customers experience as hospitality and subsequently presents a novel and compact assessment scale for measuring customers’ experience of hospitality at any kind of service organization. The Experience of Hospitality Scale (EH-Scale) takes a broader perspective compared to

  20. BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment): Preliminary results on Antarctic black cryptoendolithic fungi in ground based experiments

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pacelli; Selbmann, L.; S. Onofri; de Vera, J.P.P.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal for astrobiologists is to find traces of present or past life in extraterrestrial environment or in meteorites. Biomolecules, such as lipids, pigments or polysaccharides, may be useful to establish the presence of extant or extinct life (Simoneit, B et al., 1998). BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment) aims to measure to what extent biomolecules, such as pigments and cellular components, preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. The experiment has just been la...

  1. A Ground Experiment System of a Free-Floating Robot for Fine Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houde Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in future space activities with the development of space technology. One broad area of application is in the servicing, construction and maintenance of satellites and large space structures in orbit. Fine manipulation technology is very important for space robots to be able to perform these tasks, since it must ensure safe and reliable interaction with objects or the environment. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experimentations are required in order to verify key planning and control algorithms before the space robot is launched. In this paper, based on the concept of a hybrid approach combining the mathematical model with the physical model, a ground experiment system is set up, which is composed of two industrial robots, global and hand‐eye visual equipment, six‐axis force/torquesensors, guide rail and four computers. Many control approaches of fine manipulation, such as compliance control, impedance control, hybrid force/position control, intelligent control and so on, can be verified using this system. As an example, a contour curves tracking experiment based on the compliance control strategy is performed. Experiment results show that the ground system is very useful for verifying the dexterous manipulation technology of space robots.

  2. Ground-based water vapor Raman lidar measurements up to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere – Part 1: Instrument development, optimization, and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. McDermid

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS and the scarcity of high-quality, long-term measurements, JPL began the development of a powerful Raman lidar in 2005 to try to meet these needs. This development was endorsed by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and the validation program for the EOS-Aura satellite. In this paper we review the stages in the instrumental development of the lidar and the conclusions from three validation campaigns: MOHAVE, MOHAVE-II, and MOHAVE 2009 (Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments. The data analysis, profile retrieval and calibration procedures, as well as additional results from MOHAVE-2009 are presented in detail in a companion paper (Leblanc et al., 2011a. Ultimately the lidar has demonstrated capability to measure water vapor profiles from ~1 km above the ground to the lower stratosphere, reaching 14 km for 1-h integrated profiles and 21 km for 6-h integrated profiles, with a precision of 10 % or better near 13 km and below, and an estimated accuracy of 5 %.

  3. Space-borne detection of volcanic carbon dioxide anomalies: The importance of ground-based validation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Carn, S. A.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Salerno, G.; La Spina, A.

    2012-04-01

    2011 activity we compare GOSAT custom re-processed target mode observation CO2 data to SO2 data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and ground-based SO2 measurements obtained by the FLAME ultraviolet scanning DOAS network, as well as ground-based multi-species measurements obtained by FTIR technique. GOSAT CO2 data show an expected seasonal pattern, because the signal is dominated by ambient atmospheric CO2. However, some possible significant variations do appear to exist before and during eruptive events. Besides cloud and aerosol effects and volcanic emission pulses, two further factors seem to also strongly affect the signal beyond seasonal variability: different altitudes ranges of sensitivity for OMI and GOSAT appear to cause inverse signal correlations when the presence of clouds allows for multiple scattering effects. The second effect is wintertime high-altitude snow cover, which enhances the reflected light yield in the suspected high-concentration column portions near the ground. The latter two effects may dominate between emission pulses and their inverse correlations stand in contrast to magmatic events, which we suspect to give rise to positive correlations. (2) Integration of space-borne and ground-based observations of volcanic CO2 emissions. Monitoring of remote terrestrial volcanic point sources of CO2 from space and using ground-based observations have advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of satellite methods include homogenous coverage potential, a single data format, and a largely unbiased, mostly global coverage potential. Advantages of ground-based observations include easier calibration and targeting, validation and spatial resolution capacity. While cost plays a strong role in either approach, ground-based methods are often hampered by available personnel to expand observations to global coverage, by a patchwork of instrumentation types, coverage, availability, quality, and

  4. Inversion model validation of ground emissivity. Contribution to the development of SMOS algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Demontoux, François; Ruffié, Gilles; Wigneron, Jean Pierre; Grant, Jennifer; Hernandez, Daniel Medina

    2007-01-01

    SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), is the second mission of 'Earth Explorer' to be developed within the program 'Living Planet' of the European Space Agency (ESA). This satellite, containing the very first 1.4GHz interferometric radiometer 2D, will carry out the first cartography on a planetary scale of the moisture of the grounds and the salinity of the oceans. The forests are relatively opaque, and the knowledge of moisture remains problematic. The effect of the vegetation can be corrected thanks a simple radiative model. Nevertheless simulations show that the effect of the litter on the emissivity of a system litter + ground is not negligible. Our objective is to highlight the effects of this layer on the total multi layer system. This will make it possible to lead to a simple analytical formulation of a model of litter which can be integrated into the calculation algorithm of SMOS. Radiometer measurements, coupled to dielectric characterizations of samples in laboratory can enable us to characterize...

  5. An Experimental Facility to Validate Ground Source Heat Pump Optimisation Models for the Australian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs are one of the most widespread forms of geothermal energy technology. They utilise the near-constant temperature of the ground below the frost line to achieve energy-efficiencies two or three times that of conventional air-conditioners, consequently allowing a significant offset in electricity demand for space heating and cooling. Relatively mature GSHP markets are established in Europe and North America. GSHP implementation in Australia, however, is limited, due to high capital price, uncertainties regarding optimum designs for the Australian climate, and limited consumer confidence in the technology. Existing GSHP design standards developed in the Northern Hemisphere are likely to lead to suboptimal performance in Australia where demand might be much more cooling-dominated. There is an urgent need to develop Australia’s own GSHP system optimisation principles on top of the industry standards to provide confidence to bring the GSHP market out of its infancy. To assist in this, the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE has commissioned a fully instrumented GSHP experimental facility in Gatton, Australia, as a publically-accessible demonstration of the technology and a platform for systematic studies of GSHPs, including optimisation of design and operations. This paper presents a brief review on current GSHP use in Australia, the technical details of the Gatton GSHP facility, and an analysis on the observed cooling performance of this facility to date.

  6. The thermal performance of ground floor slabs - a full scale in-situ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H.R.; Rees, S.W. [Cardiff School of Engineering (United Kingdom). Geoenvironmental Engineering Research Centre

    1999-03-01

    A detailed description of a comprehensive in-situ experiment designed to monitor the thermal performance of real ground floor slabs is presented. In particular, the experiment was installed at the time of construction of a modern commercial building and subsequently monitored continuously for a one and a half year period. A detailed account of the design of the experiment and the instrumentation used is provided. Results achieved include transient variations of heat flux through the floor slab, air temperature, ground temperature and ground moisture content. Automatic electronic data logging enabled readings to be taken at thirty minute intervals from most instruments. Therefore both the seasonal and diurnal response of the system were observed. Significant differences in summer and winter heat transfer processes are revealed. The results also show that ground temperature and moisture content may change significantly near the external wall of the building. Underneath the building, temperature and moisture content variations were relatively small. Therefore the presence of an edge effect near the outer boundary wall of the building is revealed. The ability of the ground to act as a thermal store is also indicated by the measured data. The thermal response of two ground floor slabs is presented. The first was constructed of normal weight concrete and the second of light weight concrete. The insulating effect of the light weight concrete is evident from the results obtained. The measured thermal data has been used to determine thermal transmittance values for each floor slab considered. These values have been compared to values calculated adopting the approach outlined in current design guides. In conclusion, the U value calculated using the CIBSE guide was almost identical with the measured value for the normal weight concrete floor slab. However, the method could not be directly applied to the light weight concrete slab. The U-values calculated using the CEN draft

  7. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

    2005-08-01

    With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

  8. Validation of vertical ground reaction forces on individual limbs calculated from kinematics of horse locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Gómez Alvarez, Constanza B; van Weeren, P René; Roepstorff, Lars; Weishaupt, Michael A

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual limb forces could be calculated accurately from kinematics of trotting and walking horses. We collected kinematic data and measured vertical ground reaction forces on the individual limbs of seven Warmblood dressage horses, trotting at 3.4 m s(-1) and walking at 1.6 m s(-1) on a treadmill. First, using a segmental model, we calculated from kinematics the total ground reaction force vector and its moment arm relative to each of the hoofs. Second, for phases in which the body was supported by only two limbs, we calculated the individual reaction forces on these limbs. Third, we assumed that the distal limbs operated as linear springs, and determined their force-length relationships using calculated individual limb forces at trot. Finally, we calculated individual limb force-time histories from distal limb lengths. A good correspondence was obtained between calculated and measured individual limb forces. At trot, the average peak vertical reaction force on the forelimb was calculated to be 11.5+/-0.9 N kg(-1) and measured to be 11.7+/-0.9 N kg(-1), and for the hindlimb these values were 9.8+/-0.7 N kg(-1) and 10.0+/-0.6 N kg(-1), respectively. At walk, the average peak vertical reaction force on the forelimb was calculated to be 6.9+/-0.5 N kg(-1) and measured to be 7.1+/-0.3 N kg(-1), and for the hindlimb these values were 4.8+/-0.5 N kg(-1) and 4.7+/-0.3 N kg(-1), respectively. It was concluded that the proposed method of calculating individual limb reaction forces is sufficiently accurate to detect changes in loading reported in the literature for mild to moderate lameness at trot.

  9. AATSR Land Surface Temperature Product Validation Using Ground Measurements in China and Implications for SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Zmuda, Andy; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Ma, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most important parameters at the interface between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. It acts as a sensitive indicator of climate change and is an essential input parameter for land surface models. Because of the intense variability at different spatial and temporal scales, satellite remote sensing provides the sole opportunity to acquire LSTs over large regions. Validation of the LST products is an necessary step before their applications conducted by scientific community and it is essential for the developers to improve the LST products.

  10. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungshin Y.; Cole, Nicolas; Reyes, America; Lai, San-Huei; Klotz, Rebecca; Beegle, Janet E.; Wigley, Cecilia L.; Pletcher, David; Globus, Ruth K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Prior rodent experiments on the Shuttle were limited by the short flight duration. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a new platform for conducting rodent experiments under long duration conditions. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 days (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNAlater at -80C (n2group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses on-orbit were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC) housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between Flight (FLT) and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were processed under optimal conditions in the laboratory. Liver samples dissected on-orbit yielded high quality RNA (RIN8.99+-0.59, n7). Liver samples dissected post-flight from the intact, frozen FLT carcasses yielded RIN of 7.27 +- 0.52 (n6). Additionally, wet weights of various tissues were measured. Adrenal glands and spleen showed no significant differences in FLT compared to GC although thymus and livers weights were significantly greater in FLT compared to GC. Over 3,000 tissue aliquots collected post-flight from the four groups of mice were deposited into the Ames Life Science Data Archives for future Biospecimen

  11. Tennessee Valley Authority validation experience with substation reliability centered maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, S.M.; Graziano, J.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses the approach the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) used in the application of the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) process during the evaluation of a Delle air blast circuit breaker. It discusses the selection of a system, establishing system boundaries, and the problems encountered in reviewing test data and personnel interviews. This paper also shows the functional failure analysis process, critical failure mode causes and resulting tasks. From the failure mode causes a task comparison is developed. The results from the RCM evaluation are shown as a cost savings. Finally, from this evaluation a list of conclusions and recommendations concerning the RCM validation process is provided.

  12. Chemical Characterization of the Aerosol During the CLAMS Experiment Using Aircraft and Ground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Martins, J.; Artaxo, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Remer, L.; Yamasoe, M.; Fattori, A.

    2002-05-01

    During the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment Nuclepore filters were collected in two ground stations and aboard the University of Wasghington's Convair 580 Reserarch Aircraft. The two ground stations were chosen in strategic positions to characterize the chemical composition, the mass concentration, black carbon (BC) content, and the absorption properties of the aerosol particles at the surface level. One of the stations was located at the Cheasapeake lighthouse (25 km from the coast) and the other one was located at the Wallops Island. Aerosol particles where collected in two stages, fine (d2.5um) and coarse mode (2.5experiment. Airborne samples were also collected on the UW Convair 580 Aircraft. The aircraft samples where used to characterize the elemental composition, mass concentration, BC content, and absorption properties of the aerosol in the atmospheric column in the CLAMS Experiment area. Some of the filters were also submitted to Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis. The particulate matter mass for all the samples were obtained gravimetrically. The concentration of black carbon in the fine filters was optically determined by a broadband reflectance technique. The spectral (from UV to near IR) reflectance in the fine and coarse mode filter were also obtained with a FieldSpec ASD spectrometer. Aerosol elemental characterization (Na through Pb) was obtained by the PIXE (Particle induced X ray emission) analyses of the nuclepore filters. The sources of the aerosol measured at the ground stations were estimated by principal component analyses mainly in the Wallops Island, where a longer time series was collected. One of the main urban components identified in the aerosol during the experiment was sulfate. Black carbon

  13. Validation of VIIRS Cloud Base Heights at Night Using Ground and Satellite Measurements over Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOH, Y. J.; Miller, S. D.; Seaman, C.; Forsythe, J. M.; Brummer, R.; Lindsey, D. T.; Walther, A.; Heidinger, A. K.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of Cloud Base Height (CBH) is critical to describing cloud radiative feedbacks in numerical models and is of practical significance to aviation communities. We have developed a new CBH algorithm constrained by Cloud Top Height (CTH) and Cloud Water Path (CWP) by performing a statistical analysis of A-Train satellite data. It includes an extinction-based method for thin cirrus. In the algorithm, cloud geometric thickness is derived with upstream CTH and CWP input and subtracted from CTH to generate the topmost layer CBH. The CBH information is a key parameter for an improved Cloud Cover/Layers product. The algorithm has been applied to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi NPP spacecraft. Nighttime cloud optical properties for CWP are retrieved from the nighttime lunar cloud optical and microphysical properties (NLCOMP) algorithm based on a lunar reflectance model for the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) measuring nighttime visible light such as moonlight. The DNB has innovative capabilities to fill the polar winter and nighttime gap of cloud observations which has been an important shortfall from conventional radiometers. The CBH products have been intensively evaluated against CloudSat data. The results showed the new algorithm yields significantly improved performance over the original VIIRS CBH algorithm. However, since CloudSat is now operational during daytime only due to a battery anomaly, the nighttime performance has not been fully assessed. This presentation will show our approach to assess the performance of the CBH algorithm at night. VIIRS CBHs are retrieved over the Alaska region from October 2015 to April 2016 using the Clouds from AVHRR Extended (CLAVR-x) processing system. Ground-based measurements from ceilometer and micropulse lidar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site on the North Slope of Alaska are used for the analysis. Local weather conditions are checked using temperature and precipitation

  14. Distributed Disdrometer and Rain Gauge Measurement Infrastructure Developed for GPM Ground Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.; Bringi, V.; Carey, L. D.; Gatlin, P. N.; Phillips, D.; Schwaller, M.; Tokay, A.; Wingo, M.; Wolff, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)retrieval algorithm validation requires datasets characterizing the 4-D structure, variability, and correlation properties of hydrometeor particle size distributions (PSD) and accumulations over satellite fields of view (FOV;tropospheric sounding data to refine GPM snowfall retrievals. The gauge and disdrometer instruments are being developed to operate autonomously when necessary using solar power and wireless communications. These systems will be deployed in numerous field campaigns through 2016. Planned deployment of these systems include field campaigns in Finland (2010), Oklahoma (2011), Canada (2012) and North Carolina (2013). GPM will also deploy 20 pairs of TBRGs within a 25 km2 region along the Virginia coast under NASA NPOL radar coverage in order to quantify errors in point-area rainfall measurements.

  15. Validation of ground-motion simulations for historical events using SDoF systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, C.; Zareian, F.; Iervolino, I.; Graves, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is among the first in a series of studies toward the engineering validation of the hybrid broadband ground‐motion simulation methodology by Graves and Pitarka (2010). This paper provides a statistical comparison between seismic demands of single degree of freedom (SDoF) systems subjected to past events using simulations and actual recordings. A number of SDoF systems are selected considering the following: (1) 16 oscillation periods between 0.1 and 6 s; (2) elastic case and four nonlinearity levels, from mildly inelastic to severely inelastic systems; and (3) two hysteretic behaviors, in particular, nondegrading–nonevolutionary and degrading–evolutionary. Demand spectra are derived in terms of peak and cyclic response, as well as their statistics for four historical earthquakes: 1979 Mw 6.5 Imperial Valley, 1989 Mw 6.8 Loma Prieta, 1992 Mw 7.2 Landers, and 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge.

  16. Validation Experiments supporting the CryoSat-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, R.; Davidson, M.; Wingham, D.

    2009-12-01

    The primary goals of CryoSat are to derive improved estimates of the rates of change concerning land ice elevation and sea ice thickness and freeboard of the Earth’s land and marine ice fields. Validating such retrievals derived from a phase coherent pulse-width limited polar observing radar altimeter such as SIRAL, the primary payload of CryoSat, is not a simple one. In order to understand all the respective error co-variances it is necessary to acquire many different types of in-situ measurements (GPR, neutron probe density profiles, drilled and electromagnetic derived sea-ice thicknesses, for example) in highly inhospitable regions of the cryosphere at times of the year to detect relevant signals. In order to correlate retrievals from CryoSat with the in-situ data it was decided early in the CryoSat development that an aircraft borne radar altimeter with similar functionality to SIRAL would provide the necessary link, albeit on the smaller scale, and provide pre-launch incite into expected performances. In 2001 ESA commenced the development of its own prototype radar altimeter that mimics the functionality of SIRAL to be operated along-side an airborne laser scanner. Similar to SIRAL, but with subtle functional differences, the airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) has now been the centre piece instrument for a number of large scale land and sea ice field campaigns in the Arctic during spring and autumn 2004 and 2006 and 2008. Additional smaller science/test campaigns have taken place in March 2003 (Svalbard), March 2005 (Bay of Bothnia), March 2006 (Western Greenland) and April 2007 (CryoVEx 2007 in Svalbard). It is a credit to all parties that constitute the CryoSat Validation and Retrieval Team (CVRT) for the coordination, planning, acquisition of in-situ and airborne measurements and the subsequent processing and distributing of its data for analysis. CVRT has a robust infrastructure in place for validating and providing measures of

  17. Validation of system codes for plant application on selected experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Marco K.; Risken, Tobias; Agethen, Kathrin; Bratfisch, Christoph [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2016-05-15

    For decades, the Reactor Simulation and Safety Group at Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB) contributes to nuclear safety by computer code validation and model development for nuclear safety analysis. Severe accident analysis codes are relevant tools for the understanding and the development of accident management measures. The accidents in the plants Three Mile Island (USA) in 1979 and Fukushima Daiichi (Japan) in 2011 influenced these research activities significantly due to the observed phenomena, such as molten core concrete interaction and hydrogen combustion. This paper gives a brief outline of recent research activities at RUB in the named fields, contributing to code preparation for plant applications. Simulations of the molten core concrete interaction tests CCI-2 and CCI-3 with ASTEC and the hydrogen combustion test Ix9 with COCOSYS are presented exemplarily. Additionally, the application on plants is demonstrated on chosen results of preliminary Fukushima calculations.

  18. Experiences from Designing and Validating a Software Modernization Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Software modernization often involves complex code transformations that convert legacy code to new architectures or platforms, while preserving the semantics of the original programs. We present the lessons learnt from an industrial software modernization project of considerable size. This includes...... collecting requirements for a code-to-model transformation, designing and implementing the transformation algorithm, and then validating correctness of this transformation for the code-base at hand. Our transformation is implemented in the TXL rewriting language and assumes specifically structured C++ code...... as input, which it translates to a declarative configuration model. The correctness criterion for the transformation is that the produced model admits the same configurations as the input code. The transformation converts C++ functions specifying around a thousand configuration parameters. We verify...

  19. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2017-08-01

    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Group Performance Under Experienced and Inexperienced Leaders; A Validation Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.; Chemers, Martin M.

    This study investigated the effect of experience and training on the performance of Belgian naval officers in an experimental leadership situation. As in a previous study conducted with Belgian naval personnel, group performance under trained and experienced officers was not significantly better than performance under untrained recruits. Moreover,…

  1. Development, Validity, and Reliability of the Campus Residential Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Rishi; Scales, Laine; Shushok, Frank, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of living on campus is well established, but extant research that examines administrator perceptions of what comprises the best educational experience for students living on campus is generally unavailable. This study reports the development of a psychometric instrument designed to uncover underlying paradigms and attitudes of…

  2. Ozone columns obtained by ground-based remote sensing in Kiev for Aura Ozone Measuring Instrument validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrina, A. V.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Veles, A.; Syniavskyi, I.; Kroon, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ground-based observations with a Fourier transform spectrometer in the infrared region (FTIR) were performed in Kiev (Ukraine) during the time frames August-October 2005 and June-October 2006 within the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) validation project 2907 entitled "OMI validation by ground based remote sensing: ozone columns and profiles" in the frame of the international European Space Agency/Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programmes/Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute OMI Announcement of Opportunity effort. Ozone column data for 2005 were obtained by modeling the ozone spectral band at 9.6 μm with the radiative transfer code MODTRAN3.5. Our total ozone column values were found to be lower than OMI Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) total ozone column data by 8-10 Dobson units (DU, 1 DU = 0.001 atm cm) on average, while our observations have a relatively small standard error of about 2 DU. Improved modeling of the ozone spectral band, now based on HITRAN-2004 spectral data as calculated by us, moves our results toward better agreement with the OMI DOAS total ozone column data. The observations made during 2006 with a modernized FTIR spectrometer and higher signal-to-noise ratio were simulated by the MODTRAN4 model computations. For ozone column estimates the Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder satellite water vapor and temperature profiles were combined with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric ozone profiles and Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service-Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut climatological profiles to create a priori input files for spectral modeling. The MODTRAN4 estimates of ozone columns from the 2006 observations compare rather well with the OMI total ozone column data: standard errors are of 1.11 DU and 0.68 DU, standard deviation are of 8.77 DU and 5.37 DU for OMI DOAS and OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, respectively.

  3. LLNL Calibration Program: Data Collection, Ground Truth Validation, and Regional Coda Magnitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S C; Mayeda, K; Walter, C; Schultz, C; O' Boyle, J; Hofstetter, A; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S

    2001-08-28

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) integrates and collects data for use in calibration of seismic detection, location, and identification. Calibration data is collected by (1) numerous seismic field efforts, many conducted under NNSA (ROA) and DTRA (PRDA) contracts, and (2) permanent seismic stations that are operated by national and international organizations. Local-network operators and international organizations (e.g. International Seismic Center) provide location and other source characterization (collectively referred to as source parameters) to LLNL, or LLNL determines these parameters from raw data. For each seismic event, LLNL rigorously characterizes the uncertainty of source parameters. This validation process is used to identify events whose source parameters are accurate enough for use in calibration. LLNL has developed criteria for determining the accuracy of seismic locations and methods to characterize the covariance of calibration datasets. Although the most desirable calibration events are chemical and nuclear explosions with highly accurate locations and origin times, catalogues of naturally occurring earthquakes offer needed geographic coverage that is not provided by man made sources. The issue in using seismically determined locations for calibration is validating the location accuracy. Sweeney (1998) presented a 50/90 teleseismic, network-coverage criterion (50 defining phases and 90{sup o} maximum azimuthal gap) that generally results in 15-km maximum epicenter error. We have also conducted tests of recently proposed local/regional criteria and found that 10-km accuracy can be achieved by applying a 20/90 criteria. We continue to conduct tests that may validate less stringent criteria (which will produce more calibration events) while maintaining desirable location accuracy. Lastly, we examine methods of characterizing the covariance structure of calibration datasets. Each dataset is likely to be effected by distinct error

  4. LLNL Calibration Program: Data Collection, Ground Truth Validation, and Regional Coda Magnitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S C; Mayeda, K; Walter, C; Schultz, C; O' Boyle, J; Hofstetter, A; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S

    2001-08-28

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) integrates and collects data for use in calibration of seismic detection, location, and identification. Calibration data is collected by (1) numerous seismic field efforts, many conducted under NNSA (ROA) and DTRA (PRDA) contracts, and (2) permanent seismic stations that are operated by national and international organizations. Local-network operators and international organizations (e.g. International Seismic Center) provide location and other source characterization (collectively referred to as source parameters) to LLNL, or LLNL determines these parameters from raw data. For each seismic event, LLNL rigorously characterizes the uncertainty of source parameters. This validation process is used to identify events whose source parameters are accurate enough for use in calibration. LLNL has developed criteria for determining the accuracy of seismic locations and methods to characterize the covariance of calibration datasets. Although the most desirable calibration events are chemical and nuclear explosions with highly accurate locations and origin times, catalogues of naturally occurring earthquakes offer needed geographic coverage that is not provided by man made sources. The issue in using seismically determined locations for calibration is validating the location accuracy. Sweeney (1998) presented a 50/90 teleseismic, network-coverage criterion (50 defining phases and 90{sup o} maximum azimuthal gap) that generally results in 15-km maximum epicenter error. We have also conducted tests of recently proposed local/regional criteria and found that 10-km accuracy can be achieved by applying a 20/90 criteria. We continue to conduct tests that may validate less stringent criteria (which will produce more calibration events) while maintaining desirable location accuracy. Lastly, we examine methods of characterizing the covariance structure of calibration datasets. Each dataset is likely to be effected by distinct error

  5. Validation of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature trends has become recognized as an important indicator of climate change, because different climate forcing mechanisms exhibit distinct vertical warming and cooling patterns. For example, the cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming. Despite its importance, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. One of the main reason is because stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. This study presents an evaluation of the stratospheric temperature profiles from a newly ground-based microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) which has been built and designed at the University of Bern. The measurements from TEMPERA are compared with the ones from other different techniques such as in-situ (radiosondes), active remote sensing (lidar) and passive remote sensing on board of Aura satellite (MLS) measurements. In addition a statistical analysis of the stratospheric temperature obtained from TEMPERA measurements during four years of data has been performed. This analysis evidenced the capability of TEMPERA radiometer to monitor the temperature in the stratosphere for a long-term. The detection of some singular sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) during the analyzed period shows the necessity of these

  6. Problems and possibilities of astronauts—Ground communication content analysis validity check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna

    The analysis of space crew's communication with mission control (MC) is the standard operational procedure of the psychological support group in the Institute for Biomedical problems, Russia. For more than 20 years it is used for the monitoring of the behavioral health of Russian crewmembers in space. We apply quantitative speech content analysis to reveal relationship dynamics within the group and between the crew and MC. We suggest that the features of individual communicative style reflect psychological emotional status and individuality of communicator, his coping strategy, fixed by POMS. Moreover, the appearance of certain psychological complexities would become apparent both in POMS profile change and in communicative style change. As a result of the validity check we arrived to a new objective method of crews' dynamic psychological monitoring. This method would not take any of astronauts' time, would not need any on-board equipment, and at the same time it is based on real performance in space, i.e. astronauts communication with MC.

  7. Investigating Validity Evidence for the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; Finney, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    The current study gathered internal structural validity and external criterion validity evidence for the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire (ECR-R) scores. Specifically, confirmatory factor analysis of the data provided general support for the hypothesized two-factor model, and hypothesized relationships with external…

  8. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  9. Why a Trade-Off? The Relationship between the External and Internal Validity of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jimenez-Buedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of the methodological discussion around experiments in economics and other social sciences is framed in terms of the notions of internal and external validity. The standard view is that internal validity and external validity stand in a relationship best described as a trade-off. However, it is also commonly held that internal validity is a prerequisite to external validity. This article addresses the problem of the compatibility of these two ideas and analyzes critically the standard arguments about the conditions under which a trade-off between internal and external validity arises. Our argument stands against common associations of internal validity and external validity with the distinction between field and laboratory experiments and assesses critically the arguments that link the artificiality of experimental settings done in the laboratory with the purported trade-off between internal and external validity. We conclude that the idea of a trade-off or tension between internal and external validity seems, upon analysis, far less cogent than its intuitive attractiveness may lead us to think at first sight.

  10. Validation of GPM Ka-Radar Algorithm Using a Ground-based Ka-Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    GPM led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of US (NASA) aims to observe global precipitation. The core satellite is equipped with a microwave radiometer (GMI) and a dual-frequency radar (DPR) which is the first spaceborne Ku/Ka-band dual-wavelength radar dedicated for precipitation measurement. In the DPR algorithm, measured radar reflectivity is converted to effective radar reflectivity by estimating the rain attenuation. Here, the scattering/attenuation characteristics of Ka-band radiowaves are crucial, particularly for wet snow. A melting layer observation using a dual Ka-band radar system developed by JAXA was conducted along the slope of Mt. Zao in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The dual Ka-band radar system consists of two nearly identical Ka-band FM-CW radars, and the precipitation systems between two radars were observed in opposite directions. From this experiment, equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) and specific attenuation (k) were obtained. The experiments were conducted for two winter seasons. During the data analyses, it was found that k estimate easily fluctuates because the estimate is based on double difference calculation. With much temporal and spatial averaging, k-Ze relationship was obtained for melting layers. One of the results is that the height of the peak of k seems slightly higher than that of Ze. The results are compared with in-situ precipitation particle measurements.

  11. Music Therapists’ Conceptualization of Clients’ Experience of Healing: Grounded Theory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Hwang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the meaning, distinctive features, and process of therapists’ perception of their clients’ experience related to healing in music therapy. Twenty Korean music therapists who work with a variety of clients were recruited to participate through purposive sampling. Corbin and Strauss’s (2008 grounded theory qualitative analysis method was used. Ten categories and nineteen subcategories were obtained. The central phenomenon was active participation in music therapy, which was influenced by client’s readiness. Clients’ experiences lead to healing through awareness of inner self, expression of emotions, and solving problems. These changes were related to the therapists’ interventions, professionalism and qualifications, and their use of music. It was concluded that the clients experienced four types of healing in their music therapy sessions: physical, emotional, social, and transformative.

  12. Fascination and isolation: a grounded theory exploration of unusual sensory experiences in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard S; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant Messaging software. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory. A number of inter-related categories and focused codes were identified. The categories included heightened senses, sensory stress, the stress avalanche, moderating factors, coping strategies, other people, self-acceptance, fascination, and isolation. A model was constructed as to how these categories and codes interact. How these findings link with previous research into autism spectrum disorders is discussed. Implications for services and future research are also made.

  13. From Fantasy to Reality: A Grounded Theory of Experiences in the Swinging Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly, Claire; Hans, Jason D

    2015-11-23

    Swinger couples-committed couples who consensually engage in extra-relational sex for recreational purposes-are difficult for researchers to access due to the social stigma associated with swinging. This study builds upon the limited research on swinger couples by examining personal experiences with swinging. Specifically, 32 semi-structured interviews with swingers (16 husband-wife dyads, interviewed separately) were analyzed using grounded theory methods to understand the process of transitioning into and maintaining marital satisfaction in the swinging lifestyle. The model formed included (a) antecedent steps taken to enter into the lifestyle, (b) types of desires fulfilled, (c) stated benefits of being in the lifestyle, and (d) rules that guided couples throughout the process. Although variations were found across couples, the effective use of verbal and non-verbal communication to increase sexual and marital satisfaction within these non-monogamous couples was paramount to their experiences.

  14. Bubble motion in a rotating liquid body. [ground based tests for space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, P.; Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of a single gas bubble inside a rotating liquid-filled sphere has been investigated analytically and experimentally as part of ground-based investigations aimed at aiding in the design and interpretation of Shuttle experiments. In the analysis, a quasi-static description of the motion of a bubble was developed in the limit of small values of the Taylor number. A series of rotation experiments using air bubbles and silicone oils were designed to match the conditions specified in the analysis, i.e., the bubble size, sphere rotation rate, and liquid kinematic viscosity were chosen such that the Taylor number was much less than unity. The analytical description predicts the bubble velocity and its asymptotic location. It is shown that the asymptotic position is removed from the axis of rotation.

  15. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms for a well-observed historical earthquake. Then, the BBP calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes 5 simulation methods, 7 simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, the ability to compare simulation results

  16. Assessing the capability of numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion: the Euroseistest verification and validation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaljub, E. O.; Bard, P.; Tsuno, S.; Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.; Franek, P.; Hollender, F.; Manakou, M.; Raptakis, D.; Pitilakis, K.

    2009-12-01

    During the last decades, an important effort has been dedicated to develop accurate and computationally efficient numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion in heterogeneous 3D media. The progress in methods and increasing capability of computers have made it technically feasible to calculate realistic seismograms for frequencies of interest in seismic design applications. In order to foster the use of numerical simulation in practical prediction, it is important to (1) evaluate the accuracy of current numerical methods when applied to realistic 3D applications where no reference solution exists (verification) and (2) quantify the agreement between recorded and numerically simulated earthquake ground motion (validation). Here we report the results of the Euroseistest verification and validation project - an ongoing international collaborative work organized jointly by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, the Cashima research project (supported by the French nuclear agency, CEA, and the Laue-Langevin institute, ILL, Grenoble), and the Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France. The project involves more than 10 international teams from Europe, Japan and USA. The teams employ the Finite Difference Method (FDM), the Finite Element Method (FEM), the Global Pseudospectral Method (GPSM), the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The project makes use of a new detailed 3D model of the Mygdonian basin (about 5 km wide, 15 km long, sediments reach about 400 m depth, surface S-wave velocity is 200 m/s). The prime target is to simulate 8 local earthquakes with magnitude from 3 to 5. In the verification, numerical predictions for frequencies up to 4 Hz for a series of models with increasing structural and rheological complexity are analyzed and compared using quantitative time-frequency goodness-of-fit criteria. Predictions obtained by one FDM team and the SEM team are close and different from other predictions

  17. TRIMS: Validating T2 Molecular Effects for Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Bodine, Laura; Enomoto, Sanshiro; Kallander, Matthew; Machado, Eric; Parno, Diana; Robertson, Hamish; Trims Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upcoming KATRIN and Project 8 experiments will measure the model-independent effective neutrino mass through the kinematics near the endpoint of tritium beta-decay. A critical systematic, however, is the understanding of the molecular final-state distribution populated by tritium decay. In fact, the current theory incorporated in the KATRIN analysis framework predicts an observable that disagrees with an experimental result from the 1950s. The Tritium Recoil-Ion Mass Spectrometer (TRIMS) experiment will reexamine branching ratio of the molecular tritium (T2) beta decay to the bound state (3HeT+). TRIMS consists of a magnet-guided time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a detector located on each end. By measuring the kinetic energy and time-of-flight difference of the ions and beta particles reaching the detectors, we will be able to distinguish molecular ions from atomic ones and hence derive the ratio in question.We will give an update on simulation software, analysis tools, and the apparatus, including early commissioning results. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  18. Progress Towards a Microgravity CFD Validation Study Using the ISS SPHERES-SLOSH Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Jedediah M.; Kirk, Daniel; Marsell, Brandon (Editor); Schallhorn, Paul (Editor)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding, predicting, and controlling fluid slosh dynamics is critical to safety and improving performance of space missions when a significant percentage of the spacecrafts mass is a liquid. Computational fluid dynamics simulations can be used to predict the dynamics of slosh, but these programs require extensive validation. Many CFD programs have been validated by slosh experiments using various fluids in earth gravity, but prior to the ISS SPHERES-Slosh experiment1, little experimental data for long-duration, zero-gravity slosh existed. This paper presents the current status of an ongoing CFD validation study using the ISS SPHERES-Slosh experimental data.

  19. Experience with Aero- and Fluid-Dynamic Testing for Engineering and CFD Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Ever since computations have been used to simulate aerodynamics the need to ensure that the computations adequately represent real life has followed. Many experiments have been performed specifically for validation and as computational methods have improved, so have the validation experiments. Validation is also a moving target because computational methods improve requiring validation for the new aspect of flow physics that the computations aim to capture. Concurrently, new measurement techniques are being developed that can help capture more detailed flow features pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) come to mind. This paper will present various wind-tunnel tests the author has been involved with and how they were used for validation of various kinds of CFD. A particular focus is the application of advanced measurement techniques to flow fields (and geometries) that had proven to be difficult to predict computationally. Many of these difficult flow problems arose from engineering and development problems that needed to be solved for a particular vehicle or research program. In some cases the experiments required to solve the engineering problems were refined to provide valuable CFD validation data in addition to the primary engineering data. All of these experiments have provided physical insight and validation data for a wide range of aerodynamic and acoustic phenomena for vehicles ranging from tractor-trailers to crewed spacecraft.

  20. Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: validation of the technique through correlative comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hendrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM has been developed in order to provide vertical distributions of NO2 in the stratosphere from ground-based (GB zenith-sky UV-visible observations. It has been applied to observational data sets from the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations of Harestua (60° N, 10° E and Andøya (69° N, 16° E in Norway. The information content and retrieval errors have been analyzed following a formalism used for characterizing ozone profiles retrieved from solar infrared absorption spectra. In order to validate the technique, the retrieved NO2 vertical profiles and columns have been compared to correlative balloon and satellite observations. Such extensive validation of the profile and column retrievals was not reported in previously published work on the profiling from GB UV-visible measurements. A good agreement - generally better than 25% - has been found with the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloons. A similar agreement has been reached with correlative satellite data from the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instruments above 25km of altitude. Below 25km, a systematic underestimation - by up to 40% in some cases - of both HALOE and POAM III profiles by our GB profile retrievals has been observed, pointing out more likely a limitation of both satellite instruments at these altitudes. We have concluded that our study strengthens our confidence in the reliability of the retrieval of vertical distribution information from GB UV-visible observations and offers new perspectives in the use of GB UV-visible network data for validation purposes.

  1. Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: validation of the technique through correlative comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hendrick

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM has been developed in order to provide vertical distributions of NO2 in the stratosphere from ground-based (GB zenith-sky UV-visible observations. It has been applied to observational data sets from the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations of Harestua (60° N, 10° E and Andøya (69.3° N, 16.1° E in Norway. The information content and retrieval errors have been analyzed following a formalism used for characterizing ozone profiles retrieved from solar infrared absorption spectra. In order to validate the technique, the retrieved NO2 vertical profiles and columns have been compared to correlative balloon and satellite observations. Such extensive validation of the profile and column retrievals was not reported in previously published work on the profiling from GB UV-visible measurements. A good agreement – generally better than 25% – has been found with the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloon data. A similar agreement has been reached with correlative satellite data from HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instruments above 25 km of altitude. Below 25 km, a systematic overestimation of our retrieved profiles – by up to 50% in some cases – has been observed by both HALOE and POAM III, pointing out the limitation of the satellite solar occultation technique at these altitudes. We have concluded that our study strengthens our confidence in the reliability of the retrieval of vertical distribution information from GB UV-visible observations and offers new perspectives in the use of GB UV-visible network data for validation purposes.

  2. Simulated forecasts for primordial B -mode searches in ground-based experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Dunkley, Joanna; Thorne, Ben; Næss, Sigurd

    2017-02-01

    Detecting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves on the B -mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is one of the main science cases for current and next-generation CMB experiments. In this work we explore some of the challenges that ground-based facilities will have to face in order to carry out this measurement in the presence of galactic foregrounds and correlated atmospheric noise. We present forecasts for stage-3 (S3) and planned stage-4 (S4) experiments based on the analysis of simulated sky maps using a map-based Bayesian foreground-cleaning method. Our results thus consistently propagate the uncertainties on foreground parameters such as spatially varying spectral indices, as well as the bias on the measured tensor-to-scalar ratio r caused by an incorrect modeling of the foregrounds. We find that S3 and S4-like experiments should be able to put constraints on r of the order σ (r )=(0.5 - 1.0 )×10-2 and σ (r )=(0.5 - 1.0 )×10-3 respectively, assuming instrumental systematic effects are under control. We further study deviations from the fiducial foreground model, finding that, while the effects of a second polarized dust component would be minimal on both S3 and S4, a 2% polarized anomalous dust emission component would be clearly detectable by stage-4 experiments.

  3. Ground-based acoustic parametric generator impact on the atmosphere and ionosphere in an active experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Yuriy G.; Cheremnykh, Oleg K.; Koshovy, Volodymyr V.; Melnik, Mykola O.; Ivantyshyn, Oleh L.; Nogach, Roman T.; Selivanov, Yuriy A.; Grimalsky, Vladimir V.; Mezentsev, Valentyn P.; Karataeva, Larysa M.; Ivchenko, Vasyl. M.; Milinevsky, Gennadi P.; Fedun, Viktor N.; Tkachenko, Eugen N.

    2017-01-01

    We develop theoretical basics of active experiments with two beams of acoustic waves, radiated by a ground-based sound generator. These beams are transformed into atmospheric acoustic gravity waves (AGWs), which have parameters that enable them to penetrate to the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions where they influence the electron concentration of the ionosphere. Acoustic waves are generated by the ground-based parametric sound generator (PSG) at the two close frequencies. The main idea of the experiment is to design the output parameters of the PSG to build a cascade scheme of nonlinear wave frequency downshift transformations to provide the necessary conditions for their vertical propagation and to enable penetration to ionospheric altitudes. The PSG generates sound waves (SWs) with frequencies f1 = 600 and f2 = 625 Hz and large amplitudes (100-420 m s-1). Each of these waves is modulated with the frequency of 0.016 Hz. The novelty of the proposed analytical-numerical model is due to simultaneous accounting for nonlinearity, diffraction, losses, and dispersion and inclusion of the two-stage transformation (1) of the initial acoustic waves to the acoustic wave with the difference frequency Δf = f2 - f1 in the altitude ranges 0-0.1 km, in the strongly nonlinear regime, and (2) of the acoustic wave with the difference frequency to atmospheric acoustic gravity waves with the modulational frequency in the altitude ranges 0.1-20 km, which then reach the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions, in a practically linear regime. AGWs, nonlinearly transformed from the sound waves, launched by the two-frequency ground-based sound generator can increase the transparency of the ionosphere for the electromagnetic waves in HF (MHz) and VLF (kHz) ranges. The developed theoretical model can be used for interpreting an active experiment that includes the PSG impact on the atmosphere-ionosphere system, measurements of electromagnetic and acoustic fields, study of

  4. Navigating cancer using online communities: a grounded theory of survivor and family experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Lydia Jo; Beaver, Kinta; Dey, Paola; Choong, Kartina

    2017-05-03

    People affected by cancer often have unmet emotional and social support needs. Online cancer communities are a convenient channel for connecting cancer survivors, allowing them to support one another. However, it is unclear whether online community use makes a meaningful contribution to cancer survivorship, as little previous research has examined the experience of using contemporary cancer communities. We aimed to explore the experiences of visitors to online cancer communities. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with online cancer community visitors, including cancer survivors (n = 18), family members (n = 2), and individuals who were both a survivor and family member (n = 3). Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A theory developed explaining how individuals 'navigated' the experience of cancer using online cancer communities. Online advice and information led participants on a 'journey to become informed'. Online friendships normalised survivorship and cast participants on a 'journey to recreate identity'. Participants navigated a 'journey through different worlds' as they discovered relevant and hidden communities. This theory highlights virtual paths people affected by cancer can take to self-manage their experience of the disease. Online community experiences can be improved by promoting online evaluation skills and signposting visitors to bereavement support. Cancer survivors can benefit through both lurking and posting in online communities. However, individuals risk becoming distressed when they befriend individuals who may soon die. Additionally, people affected by rarer cancers can struggle to find shared experiences online and may need to look elsewhere for support.

  5. Validation of TRMM Precipitation Radar Through Comparison of its Multi-Year Measurements to Ground-Based Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A procedure to accurately resample spaceborne and ground-based radar data is described, and then applied to the measurements taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and the ground-based Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D or WSR) for the validation of the PR measurements and estimates. Through comparisons with the well-calibrated, non-attenuated WSR at Melbourne, Florida for the period 1998-2007, the calibration of the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite is checked using measurements near the storm top. Analysis of the results indicates that the PR, after taking into account differences in radar reflectivity factors between the PR and WSR, has a small positive bias of 0.8 dB relative to the WSR, implying a soundness of the PR calibration in view of the uncertainties involved in the comparisons. Comparisons between the PR and WSR reflectivities are also made near the surface for evaluation of the attenuation-correction procedures used in the PR algorithms. It is found that the PR attenuation is accurately corrected in stratiform rain but is underestimated in convective rain, particularly in heavy rain. Tests of the PR estimates of rainfall rate are conducted through comparisons in the overlap area between the TRMM overpass and WSR scan. Analyses of the data are made both on a conditional basis, in which the instantaneous rain rates are compared only at those pixels where both the PR and WSR detect rain, and an unconditional basis, in which the area-averaged rain rates are estimated independently for the PR and WSR. Results of the conditional rain comparisons show that the PR-derived rain is about 9% greater and 19% less than the WSR estimates for stratiform and convective storms, respectively. Overall, the PR tends to underestimate the conditional mean rain rate by 8% for all rain categories, a finding that conforms to the results of the area-averaged rain (unconditional) comparisons.

  6. Docking validation resources: protein family and ligand flexibility experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudipto; Balius, Trent E; Rizzo, Robert C

    2010-11-22

    A database consisting of 780 ligand-receptor complexes, termed SB2010, has been derived from the Protein Databank to evaluate the accuracy of docking protocols for regenerating bound ligand conformations. The goal is to provide easily accessible community resources for development of improved procedures to aid virtual screening for ligands with a wide range of flexibilities. Three core experiments using the program DOCK, which employ rigid (RGD), fixed anchor (FAD), and flexible (FLX) protocols, were used to gauge performance by several different metrics: (1) global results, (2) ligand flexibility, (3) protein family, and (4) cross-docking. Global spectrum plots of successes and failures vs rmsd reveal well-defined inflection regions, which suggest the commonly used 2 Å criteria is a reasonable choice for defining success. Across all 780 systems, success tracks with the relative difficulty of the calculations: RGD (82.3%) > FAD (78.1%) > FLX (63.8%). In general, failures due to scoring strongly outweigh those due to sampling. Subsets of SB2010 grouped by ligand flexibility (7-or-less, 8-to-15, and 15-plus rotatable bonds) reveal that success degrades linearly for FAD and FLX protocols, in contrast to RGD, which remains constant. Despite the challenges associated with FLX anchor orientation and on-the-fly flexible growth, success rates for the 7-or-less (74.5%) and, in particular, the 8-to-15 (55.2%) subset are encouraging. Poorer results for the very flexible 15-plus set (39.3%) indicate substantial room for improvement. Family-based success appears largely independent of ligand flexibility, suggesting a strong dependence on the binding site environment. For example, zinc-containing proteins are generally problematic, despite moderately flexible ligands. Finally, representative cross-docking examples, for carbonic anhydrase, thermolysin, and neuraminidase families, show the utility of family-based analysis for rapid identification of particularly good or bad

  7. Validation of the revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire in experimental sessions with psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2015-11-01

    The 30-item revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ30) was previously developed within an online survey of mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin-containing mushrooms. The rated experiences occurred on average eight years before completion of the questionnaire. The current paper validates the MEQ30 using data from experimental studies with controlled doses of psilocybin. Data were pooled and analyzed from five laboratory experiments in which participants (n=184) received a moderate to high oral dose of psilocybin (at least 20 mg/70 kg). Results of confirmatory factor analysis demonstrate the reliability and internal validity of the MEQ30. Structural equation models demonstrate the external and convergent validity of the MEQ30 by showing that latent variable scores on the MEQ30 positively predict persisting change in attitudes, behavior, and well-being attributed to experiences with psilocybin while controlling for the contribution of the participant-rated intensity of drug effects. These findings support the use of the MEQ30 as an efficient measure of individual mystical experiences. A method to score a "complete mystical experience" that was used in previous versions of the mystical experience questionnaire is validated in the MEQ30, and a stand-alone version of the MEQ30 is provided for use in future research.

  8. Assessing the Relative Performance of Microwave-Based Satellite Rain Rate Retrievals Using TRMM Ground Validation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, David B.; Fisher, Brad L.

    2011-01-01

    Space-borne microwave sensors provide critical rain information used in several global multi-satellite rain products, which in turn are used for a variety of important studies, including landslide forecasting, flash flood warning, data assimilation, climate studies, and validation of model forecasts of precipitation. This study employs four years (2003-2006) of satellite data to assess the relative performance and skill of SSM/I (F13, F14 and F15), AMSU-B (N15, N16 and N17), AMSR-E (Aqua) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) in estimating surface rainfall based on direct instantaneous comparisons with ground-based rain estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) sites at Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands (KWAJ) and Melbourne, Florida (MELB). The relative performance of each of these satellite estimates is examined via comparisons with space- and time-coincident GV radar-based rain rate estimates. Because underlying surface terrain is known to affect the relative performance of the satellite algorithms, the data for MELB was further stratified into ocean, land and coast categories using a 0.25deg terrain mask. Of all the satellite estimates compared in this study, TMI and AMSR-E exhibited considerably higher correlations and skills in estimating/observing surface precipitation. While SSM/I and AMSU-B exhibited lower correlations and skills for each of the different terrain categories, the SSM/I absolute biases trended slightly lower than AMSR-E over ocean, where the observations from both emission and scattering channels were used in the retrievals. AMSU-B exhibited the least skill relative to GV in all of the relevant statistical categories, and an anomalous spike was observed in the probability distribution functions near 1.0 mm/hr. This statistical artifact appears to be related to attempts by algorithm developers to include some lighter rain rates, not easily detectable by its scatter-only frequencies. AMSU

  9. Solidification kinetics of a Cu-Zr alloy: ground-based and microgravity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenko, P. K.; Hanke, R.; Paul, P.; Koch, S.; Rettenmayr, M.; Gegner, J.; Herlach, D. M.; Dreier, W.; Kharanzhevski, E. V.

    2017-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical results obtained in the MULTIPHAS-project (ESA-European Space Agency and DLR-German Aerospace Center) are critically discussed regarding solidification kinetics of congruently melting and glass forming Cu50Zr50 alloy samples. The samples are investigated during solidification using a containerless technique in the Electromagnetic Levitation Facility [1]. Applying elaborated methodologies for ground-based and microgravity experimental investigations [2], the kinetics of primary dendritic solidification is quantitatively evaluated. Electromagnetic Levitator in microgravity (parabolic flights and on board of the International Space Station) and Electrostatic Levitator on Ground are employed. The solidification kinetics is determined using a high-speed camera and applying two evaluation methods: “Frame by Frame” (FFM) and “First Frame - Last Frame” (FLM). In the theoretical interpretation of the solidification experiments, special attention is given to the behavior of the cluster structure in Cu50Zr50 samples with the increase of undercooling. Experimental results on solidification kinetics are interpreted using a theoretical model of diffusion controlled dendrite growth.

  10. Validation Experiments for Spent- Fuel Dry-Cask In-Basket Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2016-08-16

    This work consisted of the following major efforts; 1. Literature survey on validation of external natural convection; 2. Design the experiment; 3. Build the experiment; 4. Run the experiment; 5. Collect results; 6. Disseminate results; and 7. Perform a CFD validation study using the results. We note that while all tasks are complete, some deviations from the original plan were made. Specifically, geometrical changes in the parameter space were skipped in favor of flow condition changes, which were found to be much more practical to implement. Changing the geometry required new as-built measurements, which proved extremely costly and impractical given the time and funds available

  11. Validation Experiments for Spent-Fuel Dry-Cask In-Basket Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2016-08-16

    This work consisted of the following major efforts; 1. Literature survey on validation of external natural convection; 2. Design the experiment; 3. Build the experiment; 4. Run the experiment; 5. Collect results; 6. Disseminate results; and 7. Perform a CFD validation study using the results. We note that while all tasks are complete, some deviations from the original plan were made. Specifically, geometrical changes in the parameter space were skipped in favor of flow condition changes, which were found to be much more practical to implement. Changing the geometry required new as-built measurements, which proved extremely costly and impractical given the time and funds available

  12. Ground based measurements on reflectance towards validating atmospheric correction algorithms on IRS-P6 AWiFS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani Sharma, Anu; Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Kvs, Badarinath; Roy, P. S.

    In Earth observation, the atmosphere has a non-negligible influence on the visible and infrared radiation which is strong enough to modify the reflected electromagnetic signal and at-target reflectance. Scattering of solar irradiance by atmospheric molecules and aerosol generates path radiance, which increases the apparent surface reflectance over dark surfaces while absorption by aerosols and other molecules in the atmosphere causes loss of brightness to the scene, as recorded by the satellite sensor. In order to derive precise surface reflectance from satellite image data, it is indispensable to apply the atmospheric correction which serves to remove the effects of molecular and aerosol scattering. In the present study, we have implemented a fast atmospheric correction algorithm to IRS-P6 AWiFS satellite data which can effectively retrieve surface reflectance under different atmospheric and surface conditions. The algorithm is based on MODIS climatology products and simplified use of Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code, which is used to generate look-up-tables (LUTs). The algorithm requires information on aerosol optical depth for correcting the satellite dataset. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement for estimating surface reflectance from the at sensor recorded signal, on a per pixel basis. The atmospheric correction algorithm has been tested for different IRS-P6 AWiFS False color composites (FCC) covering the ICRISAT Farm, Patancheru, Hyderabad, India under varying atmospheric conditions. Ground measurements of surface reflectance representing different land use/land cover, i.e., Red soil, Chick Pea crop, Groundnut crop and Pigeon Pea crop were conducted to validate the algorithm and found a very good match between surface reflectance and atmospherically corrected reflectance for all spectral bands. Further, we aggregated all datasets together and compared the retrieved AWiFS reflectance with

  13. Rainfall measurements from cellular networks microwave links : an alternative ground reference for satellite validation and hydrology in Africa .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, Marielle; cazenave, frederic; Zougmore, françois; Doumounia, Ali; kacou, Modeste

    2015-04-01

    In many part of the Tropics the ground based gauge networks are sparse, often degrading and accessing this data for monitoring rainfall or for validating satellite products is sometime difficult. Here, an alternative rainfall measuring technique is proposed and tested in West Africa. It is based on using commercial microwave links from cellular telephone networks to detect and quantify rainfall. Rainfall monitoring based on commercial terrestrial microwave links has been tested for the first time in Burkina Faso, in Sahel. The rainfall regime is characterized by intense rainfall intensities brought by mesoscale Convective systems (MCS), generated by deep organized convection. The region is subjected to drought as well as dramatic floods associated with the intense rainfall provided by a few MCSs. The hydrometeorological risk is increasing and need to be monitored. In collaboration with the national cellular phone operator, Telecel Faso, the attenuation on 29 km long microwave links operating at 7 GHz was monitored at 1s time rate for the monsoon season 2012. The time series of attenuation is transformed into rain rates and compared with rain gauge data. The method is successful in quantifying rainfall: 95% of the rainy days are detected. The correlation with the daily raingauge series is 0.8 and the season bias is 5%. The correlation at the 5 min time step within each event is also high. We will present the quantitative results, discuss the uncertainties and compare the time series and the 2D maps with those derived from a polarimetric radar. The results demonstrate the potential interest of exploiting national and regional wireless telecommunication networks to provide rainfall maps for various applications : urban hydrology, agro-hydrological risk monitoring, satellite validation and development of combined rainfall products. We will also present the outcome of the first international Rain Cell Africa workshop held in Ouagadougou early 2015.

  14. Quantitative analysis results of CE-1 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ground base experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xing-Zhu; GAO Min; YANG Jia-Wei; WANG Huan-Yu; ZHANG Cheng-Mo; CHEN Yong; ZHANG Jia-Yu; PENG Wen-Xi; CAO Xue-Lei; LIANG Xiao-Hua; WANG Jin-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    As the nearest celestial body to the earth, the moon has become a hot spot again in astronomy field recently. The element analysis is a much important subject in many lunar projects. Remote X-ray spectrometry plays an important role in the geochemical exploration of the solar bodies. Because of th equasi-vacuum atmosphere on the moon, which has no absorption of X-ray, the X-ray fluorescence analysis is an effective way to determine the elemental abundance of lunar surface. The CE-1 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (CE-1/XFS) aims to map the major elemental compositions on the lunar surface. This paper describes a method for quantitative analysis of elemental compositions. A series of ground base experiments are done to examine the capability of XFS. The obtained results, which show a reasonable agreement with the certified values at a 30% uncertainty level for major elements, are presented.

  15. The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics—ground-breaking experiments on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Y.

    2011-11-01

    The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Professors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their ground-breaking experiments on graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, and more generally, for their pioneering work in uncovering a new class of materials, namely two-dimensional atomic crystals. This paper gives an accessible account and review of the story of graphene; from its first description in the literature, to the realization and confirmation of its remarkable properties, through to its impressive potential for broad-reaching applications. The story of graphene is written within the context of the enormous impact that Geim and Novoselovs' work has had on this field of research, and recounts their personal pathways of discovery, which ultimately led to their award of the 2010 Nobel Prize.

  16. Normalization of Neglect: A Grounded Theory of RNs' Experiences as Family Caregivers of Hospitalized Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Tarnia; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Taipale, Priscilla

    2016-06-01

    Often older people, while maintaining a level of independence, rely on family members to provide care and assistance. Caregivers who are also registered nurses (RNs) may provide a different perspective around the experience when their older relative is admitted to acute care. The aim of our research was to investigate and develop theory regarding nursing care provision as described by RNs, who were family caregivers to older adults, when that older adult was admitted to acute care. Over a six-month period in 2011, RNs meeting this criterion (n = 12) were interviewed individually. We identified two central categories: "Culture of Neglect" and "Vigil by the Bedside". The core category "Normalization of Neglect" was identified as the theory, grounded in the data the participants provided which described a culture of neglect that had normalized poor nursing care. These findings highlight the issue of neglect and abuse, and further investigation is warranted.

  17. Validation of middle atmospheric campaign-based water vapour measured by the ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tschanz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Middle atmospheric water vapour can be used as a tracer for dynamical processes. It is mainly measured by satellite instruments and ground-based microwave radiometers. Ground-based instruments capable of measuring middle atmospheric water vapour are sparse but valuable as they complement satellite measurements, are relatively easy to maintain and have a long lifetime. MIAWARA-C is a ground-based microwave radiometer for middle atmospheric water vapour designed for use on measurement campaigns for both atmospheric case studies and instrument intercomparisons. MIAWARA-C's retrieval version 1.1 (v1.1 is set up in a way to provide a consistent data set even if the instrument is operated from different locations on a campaign basis. The sensitive altitude range for v1.1 extends from 4 hPa (37 km to 0.017 hPa (75 km. MIAWARA-C measures two polarisations of the incident radiation in separate receiver channels and can therefore provide two independent measurements of the same air mass. The standard deviation of the difference between the profiles obtained from the two polarisations is in excellent agreement with the estimated random error of v1.1. In this paper, the quality of v1.1 data is assessed during two measurement campaigns: (1 five months of measurements in the Arctic (Sodankylä, 67.37° N/26.63° E and (2 nine months of measurements at mid-latitudes (Zimmerwald, 46.88° N/7.46° E. For both campaigns MIAWARA-C's profiles are compared to measurements from the satellite experiments Aura MLS and MIPAS. In addition, comparisons to ACE-FTS and SOFIE are presented for the Arctic and to the ground-based radiometer MIAWARA for the mid-latitudinal campaign. In general all intercomparisons show high correlation coefficients, above 0.5 at altitudes above 45 km, confirming the ability of MIAWARA-C to monitor temporal variations on the order of days. The biases are generally below 10% and within the estimated systematic uncertainty of MIAWARA-C. No

  18. Simulated forecasts for primordial B-mode searches in ground-based experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, David; Naess, Sigurd; Thorne, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves on the $B$-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is one of the main science cases for current and next-generation CMB experiments. In this work we explore some of the challenges that ground-based facilities will have to face in order to carry out this measurement in the presence of Galactic foregrounds and correlated atmospheric noise. We present forecasts for Stage-3 (S3) and planned Stage-4 (S4) experiments based on the analysis of simulated sky maps using a map-based Bayesian foreground cleaning method. Our results thus consistently propagate the uncertainties on foreground parameters such as spatially-varying spectral indices, as well as the bias on the measured tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ caused by an incorrect modelling of the foregrounds. We find that S3 and S4-like experiments should be able to put constraints on $r$ of the order $\\sigma(r)=(0.5-1.0)\\times10^{-2}$ and $\\sigma(r)=(0.5-1.0)\\times10^{-3}$ respectively, assuming...

  19. Observation of TGFs onboard "Vernov" satellite and TGEs in ground-based experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Vitaly; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Garipov, Gali; Iyudin, Anatoly; Klimov, Pavel; Morozenko, Violetta; Maximov, Ivan; Mishieva, Tatiana; Klimov, Stanislav; Pozanenko, Alexey; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    "Vernov" satellite with RELEC experiment on-board was launched on 2014 July, 8 into a polar solar-synchronous orbit. The payload includes DRGE gamma-ray spectrometer providing measurements in 10-3000 keV energy range with four detectors directed to atmosphere. Total area of DRGE detectors is ~500 cm2. The data were recorded both in monitoring and gamma by gamma modes with timing accuracy ~15 us. Several TGF candidates with 10-40 gammas in a burst with duration instruments on-board "Vernov" satellite shows the absence of significant electromagnetic pulses around correspondent time moments. Comparison with WWLLN lightning network data base also indicates that there were no thunderstorms connected with most of detected TGF candidates. Possible connection of these flashes with electron precipitations is discussed. Ground-based experiments, with similar gamma-spectrometers were conducted, to study the spectral, temporal and spatial characteristics of TGEs in 20-3000 keV energy range, as well, as to search the fast hard X-ray and gamma-ray flashes possibly appearing at the moment of lightning. The time of each gamma-quantum interaction was recorded with an ~15 us s accuracy together with detailed spectral data. Measurements were done on the ground at Moscow region, and at mountain altitude in Armenia at Aragatz station. During the time interval covering spring, summer and autumn of 2015 a number of TGEs were detected. Measured low-energy gamma-ray spectra usually contain a set of lines that can be interpreted as radiation of Rn-222 daughter isotopes. The increase of Rn-222 radiation was detected during rainfalls with thunderstorm, as well, as during rainy weather without thunderstorms. Variations of Rn-222 radiation dominate at low energies (measure low energy gamma-radiation from the electrons accelerated in thunderclouds. There were no significant flashes with duration of ~1ms detected in coincidence with a nearby lightnings.

  20. The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiona Martin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations.Research purpose: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in maledominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths.Motivation for the study: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more female-dominated or gender-balanced career paths. An understanding of women’s experiences may facilitate strategies geared towards their motivation and retention in male-dominated occupations.Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. They used a purposive sample of five women and conducted in-depth unstructured interviews. They analysed data using a constructivist grounded theory methodology.Main findings: The authors found that formal and covert organisational practices, which upheld gender discrimination and bias, were the main challenges that women face. These practices included the inadequate accommodation of women’s unique physical, identity and work-life balance needs. Elements of women’s resilience included the use of femininity, adopting male characteristics, mentorship and intrinsic motivational factors. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide organisations to develop and implement policies, strategies and initiatives geared towards attracting, integrating, retaining, supporting and motivating women who are, or wish to be, employed in historically maledominated occupations.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to an evolving body of knowledge aimed at understanding how to integrate and retain women in male-dominated occupations better.

  1. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastjerdi Mahdieh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains

  2. Validation of the Cooray‐Rubinstein (C‐R) formula for a rough ground surface by using three‐dimensional (3‐D) FDTD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Dongshuai; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Zhenhui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have extended the Cooray‐Rubinstein (C‐R) approximate formula into the fractal rough ground surface and then validate its accuracy by using three‐dimensional (3‐D) finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD...

  3. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  4. Validation of Atmosphere/Ionosphere Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes by Multi-Instrument Space-Borne and Ground Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Parrot, Michel; Liu, J. Y.; Yang, T. F.; Arellano-Baeza, Alonso; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    regions of the atmosphere and the modifications, by dc electric fields, in the ionosphere-atmosphere electric circuit. We retrospectively analyzed temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters (gas/radon counting rate, lineaments change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) characterizing the state of the lithosphere/atmosphere coupling several days before the onset of the earthquakes. Validation processes consist in two phases: A. Case studies for seven recent major earthquakes: Japan (M9.0, 2011), China (M7.9, 2008), Italy (M6.3, 2009), Samoa (M7, 2009), Haiti (M7.0, 2010) and, Chile (M8.8, 2010) and B. A continuous retrospective analysis was preformed over two different regions with high seismicity- Taiwan and Japan for 2003-2009. Satellite, ground surface, and troposphere data were obtained from Terra/ASTER, Aqua/AIRS, POES and ionospheric variations from DEMETER and COSMIC-I data. Radon and GPS/TEC were obtaining from monitoring sites in Taiwan, Japan and Italy and from global ionosphere maps (GIM) respectively. Our analysis of ground and satellite data during the occurrence of 7 global earthquakes has shown the presence of anomalies in the atmosphere. Our results for Tohoku M9.0 earthquake show that on March 7th, 2011 (4 days before the main shock and 1 day before the M7.2 foreshock of March 8, 2011) a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed by the satellite data and an anomaly was developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. From March 3 to 11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground-based ionosondes, which returned to normal after the main earthquake. Similar approach for analyzing atmospheric and ionospheric parameters has been applied for China (M7.9, 2008), Italy (M6.3, 2009), Samoa (M7, 2009), Haiti (M7.0, 2010) and Chile (M8.8, 2010

  5. Development and Experimental Validation of a TRNSYS Dynamic Tool for Design and Energy Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ruiz-Calvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems stand for an efficient technology for renewable heating and cooling in buildings. To optimize not only the design but also the operation of the system, a complete dynamic model becomes a highly useful tool, since it allows testing any design modifications and different optimization strategies without actually implementing them at the experimental facility. Usually, this type of systems presents strong dynamic operating conditions. Therefore, the model should be able to predict not only the steady-state behavior of the system but also the short-term response. This paper presents a complete GSHP system model based on an experimental facility, located at Universitat Politècnica de València. The installation was constructed in the framework of a European collaborative project with title GeoCool. The model, developed in TRNSYS, has been validated against experimental data, and it accurately predicts both the short- and long-term behavior of the system.

  6. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  7. Mapping the User Experience: Development of a Validated Instrument from the Plans and Scripts of the Computer Community of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Lehane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A plethora of surveys for assessing computer use for usability or technology acceptance exist today. This article discusses the Systems Acceptance Indicator, a validated survey instrument for assessing the user experience from a cognitive–ergonomic perspective. The action research discussed in this paper utilized grounded theory analysis to establish the data-driven emergent theoretical constructs that provided the system acceptance categories (criteria for the survey. These data-driven emergent theoretical constructs were the basis for the proposed theoretical abstraction hierarchy of the survey criteria. Principle component analysis of the survey data produced an abstraction hierarchy identical to the theoretical model. This result confirmed the alignment of the human–computer interaction theoretical constructs with the data-driven emergent theory. The intent behind the human–computer interaction theoretical rationale for the emergent abstraction hierarchy was to provide a consistent and repeatable interpretation of the user response to the survey.

  8. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  9. Time-lapse 3D ground-penetrating radar during plot-scale infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Jackisch, Conrad; Tronicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    In electrical resistive soils, surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is known as the geophysical tool providing the highest spatial resolution. Thus, 2D and 3D GPR surveys are commonly used for imaging subsurface structures or estimating soil moisture content. Due to its sensitivity to soil moisture and its non-invasive character, GPR provides a large potential to monitor soil moisture variation at high temporal and spatial resolution. As shown in previous experiments, the acquisition of time-lapse GPR data under field conditions requires a high data quality in terms of repeatability as well as spatial and temporal resolution. We present hydrogeophysical field experiments at the plot scale (1m x 1m), during which we record time-lapse 3D GPR. For GPR data acquisition, we use a pulseEKKO PRO GPR system equipped with a pair of 500 MHz antennas in combination with a specially designed metal-free measuring platform. Additionally, we collect tracer and soil moisture data, which are used to improve the interpretation of the GPR data with special focus on preferential flow paths and their structured advective flow field. After an accurate time-lapse GPR data processing, we compare 3D reflection events before and after infiltration and quantitatively interpret their relative time-shift in terms of soil moisture variations. Thereby, we are able to account for basically all of the infiltrated water. The first experiments demonstrate the general applicability of our experimental approach but are limited by the number of acquired time steps and measurement during the sprinkling period (the time of the highest temporal dynamics) are not possible at all. Based on this experience we redesign our experimental setup to continuously collect GPR data during irrigation and infiltration. Thereby, we strongly increase the temporal resolution of our measurements, improve the interpretability of the GPR data, and monitor the temporal and spatial dynamics of shallow subsurface

  10. Free Radicals and Reactive Intermediates for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    2001-01-01

    This grant provided partial support for participation in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. The NASA-sponsored SOLVE mission was conducted Jointly with the European Commission-sponsored Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO 2000). Researchers examined processes that control ozone amounts at mid to high latitudes during the arctic winter and acquired correlative data needed to validate the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III satellite measurements that are used to quantitatively assess high-latitude ozone loss. The campaign began in September 1999 with intercomparison flights out of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards. CA. and continued through March 2000. with midwinter deployments out of Kiruna. Sweden. SOLVE was co-sponsored by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP). Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP). Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP). and Earth Observing System (EOS) of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) as part of the validation program for the SAGE III instrument.

  11. Complementing the ground-based CMB Stage-4 experiment on large scales with the PIXIE satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Jo

    2016-01-01

    We present forecasts for cosmological parameters from future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data measured by the Stage-4 (S4) generation of ground-based experiments in combination with large-scale anisotropy data from the PIXIE satellite. We demonstrate the complementarity of the two experiments and focus on science targets that benefit from their combination. We show that a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization provided by PIXIE, with error $\\sigma(\\tau)=0.002$, is vital for enabling a 5$\\sigma$ detection of the sum of the neutrino masses when combined with a CMB-S4 lensing measurement, and with lower-redshift constraints on the growth of structure and the distance-redshift relation. Parameters characterizing the epoch of reionization will also be tightly constrained; PIXIE's $\\tau$ constraint converts into $\\sigma(\\rm{z_{re}})=0.2$ for the mean time of reionization, and a kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurement from S4 gives $\\sigma(\\Delta \\rm{z_{re}})=0.03$ for the du...

  12. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  13. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  14. CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clerbaux

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO, a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006. We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above. These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km, than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km, and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.

  15. CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clerbaux

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO, a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006. We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above. These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km, than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km, and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.

  16. Validation of ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY columnar methane by solar FTIR spectrometry at the Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane total-vertical column retrievals from ground-based solar FTIR measurements at the Permanent Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E, 2964 m a.s.l., Germany are used to validate column averaged methane retrieved from ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY spectra by WFM-DOAS (WFMD version 0.4 and 0.41 for 153 days in 2003. Smoothing errors are estimated to be below 0.10% for FTIR and 0.14% for SCIAMACHY-WFMD retrievals and can be neglected for the assessment of observed bias and day-to-day-scatter. In order to minimize the altitude-difference effect, dry-air column averaged mixing ratios (XCH4 have been utilized. From the FTIR-time series of XCH4 an atmospheric day-to-day variability of 1% was found, and a sinusoidal annual cycle with a ≈1.6% amplitude. To obtain the WFMD bias, a polynomial fitted to the FTIR series was used as a reference. The result is WFMD v0.4/FTIR=1.008±0.019 and WFMD v0.41/FTIR=1.058±0.008. WFMD v0.41 was significantly improved by a time-dependent bias correction. It can still not capture the natural day-to-day variability, i.e., the standard deviation calculated from the daily-mean values is 2.4% using averages within a 2000-km radius, and 2.7% for a 1000-km radius. These numbers are dominated by a residual time-dependent bias in the order of 3%/month. The latter can be reduced, e.g., from 2.4% to 1.6% as shown by an empirical time-dependent bias correction. Standard deviations of the daily means, calculated from the individual measurements of each day, are excluding time-dependent biases, thus showing the potential precision of WFMD daily means, i.e., 0.3% for a 2000-km selection radius, and 0.6% for a 1000-km selection radius. Therefore, the natural variability could be captured under the prerequisite of further advanced time-dependent bias corrections, or the use of other channels, where the icing issue is less prominent.

  17. Preservation of Multiple Mammalian Tissues to Maximize Science Return from Ground Based and Spaceflight Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungshin; Ray, Hami E; Lai, San-Huei; Alwood, Joshua S; Globus, Ruth K

    2016-01-01

    Even with recent scientific advancements, challenges posed by limited resources and capabilities at the time of sample dissection continue to limit the collection of high quality tissues from experiments that can be conducted only infrequently and at high cost, such as in space. The resources and time it takes to harvest tissues post-euthanasia, and the methods and duration of long duration storage, potentially have negative impacts on sample quantity and quality, thereby limiting the scientific outcome that can be achieved. The goals of this study were to optimize methods for both sample recovery and science return from rodent experiments, with possible relevance to both ground based and spaceflight studies. The first objective was to determine the impacts of tissue harvest time post-euthanasia, preservation methods, and storage duration, focusing on RNA quality and enzyme activities in liver and spleen as indices of sample quality. The second objective was to develop methods that will maximize science return by dissecting multiple tissues after long duration storage in situ at -80°C. Tissues of C57Bl/6J mice were dissected and preserved at various time points post-euthanasia and stored at -80°C for up to 11 months. In some experiments, tissues were recovered from frozen carcasses which had been stored at -80°C up to 7 months. RNA quantity and quality was assessed by measuring RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values using an Agilent Bioanalyzer. Additionally, the quality of tissues was assessed by measuring activities of hepatic enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase and GAPDH). Fresh tissues were collected up to one hour post-euthanasia, and stored up to 11 months at -80°C, with minimal adverse effects on the RNA quality of either livers or RNAlater-preserved spleens. Liver enzyme activities were similar to those of positive controls, with no significant effect observed at any time point. Tissues dissected from frozen carcasses that had been stored for up to 7

  18. Electrophoresis tests on STS-3 and ground control experiments - A basis for future biological sample selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Static zone electrophoresis is an electrokinetic method of separating macromolecules and small particles. However, its application for the isolation of biological cells and concentrated protein solutions is limited by sedimentation and convection. Microgravity eliminates or reduces sedimentation, floatation, and density-driven convection arising from either Joule heating or concentration differences. The advantages of such an environment were first demonstrated in space during the Apollo 14 and 16 missions. In 1975 the Electrophoresis Technology Experiment (MA-011) was conducted during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project flight. In 1979 a project was initiated to repeat the separations of human kidney cells. One of the major objectives of the Electrophoresis Equipment Verification Tests (EEVT) on STS-3 was to repeat and thereby validate the first successful electrophoretic separation of human kidney cells. Attention is given to the EEVT apparatus, the preflight electrophoresis, and inflight operational results.

  19. Report of Earthquake Drills with Experiences of Ground Motion in Childcare for Young Children, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, N.

    2013-12-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, this disaster has become one of the opportunities to raise awareness of earthquake and tsunami disaster prevention, and the improvement of disaster prevention education is to be emphasized. The influences of these bring the extension to the spatial axis in Japan, and also, it is important to make a development of the education with continuous to the expansion of time axes. Although fire or earthquake drills as the disaster prevention education are often found in Japan, the children and teachers only go from school building to outside. Besides, only the shortness of the time to spend for the drill often attracts attention. The complementary practice education by the cooperation with experts such as the firefighting is practiced, but the verification of the effects is not enough, and it is the present conditions that do not advance to the study either. Although it is expected that improvement and development of the disaster prevention educations are accomplished in future, there are a lot of the problems. Our target is construction and utilization of material contributing to the education about "During the strong motion" in case of the earthquake which may experience even if wherever of Japan. One of the our productions is the handicraft shaking table to utilize as teaching tools of the education to protect the body which is not hurt at the time of strong motion. This made much of simplicity than high reproduction of the earthquake ground motions. We aimed to helping the disaster prevention education including not only the education for young children but also for the school staff and their parents. In this report, the focusing on a way of the non-injured during the time of the earthquake ground motion, and adopting activity of the play, we are going to show the example of the framework of earthquake disaster prevention childcare through the virtual experience. This presentation has a discussion as a practice study with

  20. OMI/Aura UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Arola, Antti; Kouremeti, Natalia; Balis, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to evaluate the NASA EOS AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) UV irradiance estimates through ground-based measurements performed by a NILU-UV multichannel radiometer (NILU-UV) operating in Thessaloniki, Greece, for the time period between January 2005 and December 2014. NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers can provide measurements at 5 UV wavelength bands with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm approximately and a time analysis of 1 min. An additional channel measuring the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is also incorporated to the instrument and is used for the stringent characterization of the cloud free instances. The OMI instrument estimates solar UV irradiances at four wavelengths close to those of the NILU-UV in Thessaloniki. Clear and all-sky overpass-time, as well as solar local-noon time, UV estimates are provided by the NASA Aura Data Validation Center. Spectra measured from a collocated MKIII Brewer spectrophotometer with serial number 086 (Brewer #086) were utilized for the whole period (2005-2014) in order to estimate the NILU-UV irradiances at the OMI wavelength irradiances and therefore provide a direct comparison and validation to the NILU UV measurements provided by OMI. For the nominal comparisons, using un-flagged OMI data within a 50 km radius from Thessaloniki, the linear determination coefficient, R2, ranges between 0.91 and 0.97 for the 305 nm and between 0.75 and 0.92 for 380 nm depending on the choice of overpass or local-noon time data and the cloudiness flags. The best agreement is found for the clear-sky overpass-time comparisons as well as the both PAR- and satellite algorithm-deduced clear-sky overpass and local-noon comparisons for all wavelengths. The OMI irradiances were found to overestimate the NILU-UV observations in Thessaloniki between ∼4.5% and 13.5% for the 305 nm and between ∼1.5% and ∼10.0% for the 310 nm wavelength depending on the choice of time [overpass vs local noon

  1. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  2. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol

  3. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of a Testing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of validating a probability of detection (POD) testing system using directed design of experiments (DOE) includes recording an input data set of observed hit and miss or analog data for sample components as a function of size of a flaw in the components. The method also includes processing the input data set to generate an output data set having an optimal class width, assigning a case number to the output data set, and generating validation instructions based on the assigned case number. An apparatus includes a host machine for receiving the input data set from the testing system and an algorithm for executing DOE to validate the test system. The algorithm applies DOE to the input data set to determine a data set having an optimal class width, assigns a case number to that data set, and generates validation instructions based on the case number.

  4. Ground-based experiments complement microgravity flight opportunities in the investigation of the effects of space flight on the immune response: is protein kinase C gravity sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, S. K.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews ground-based and flight experiments, discusses how those experiments complement each other, and details how those experiments lead us to speculate about the gravity-sensitive nature of protein kinase C.

  5. Design of experiment and data analysis by JMP (SAS institute) in analytical method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C; Liu, J; Ren, F; Okafo, N

    2000-08-15

    Validation of an analytical method through a series of experiments demonstrates that the method is suitable for its intended purpose. Due to multi-parameters to be examined and a large number of experiments involved in validation, it is important to design the experiments scientifically so that appropriate validation parameters can be examined simultaneously to provide a sound, overall knowledge of the capabilities of the analytical method. A statistical method through design of experiment (DOE) was applied to the validation of a HPLC analytical method for the quantitation of a small molecule in drug product in terms of intermediate precision and robustness study. The data were analyzed in JMP (SAS institute) software using analyses of variance method. Confidence intervals for outcomes and control limits for individual parameters were determined. It was demonstrated that the experimental design and statistical analysis used in this study provided an efficient and systematic approach to evaluating intermediate precision and robustness for a HPLC analytical method for small molecule quantitation.

  6. Service validity and service reliability of search, experience and credence services: A scenario study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Verhoeven, Joost W.M.; Pruyn, Ad Th.H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to add to our understanding of the antecedents of customer satisfaction by examining the effects of service reliability (Is the service “correctly” produced?) and service validity (Is the “correct” service produced?) of search, experience and credence services. Design

  7. (In)validation in the Minority: The Experiences of Latino Students Enrolled in an HBCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Taryn Ozuna

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the academic and interpersonal validation experiences of four female and four male Latino students who were enrolled in their second- to fifth-year at an HBCU in Texas. Using interviews, campus observations, a questionnaire, and analytic memos, this study sought to understand the role of in- and…

  8. Control of groundwater pH during bioremediation: Improvement and validation of a geochemical model to assess the buffering potential of ground silicate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Elsa; Brovelli, Alessandro; Holliger, Christof; Barry, D. A.

    2014-05-01

    Accurate control of groundwater pH is of critical importance for in situ biological treatment of chlorinated solvents. The use of ground silicate minerals mixed with groundwater is an appealing buffering strategy as silicate minerals may act as long-term sources of alkalinity. In a previous study, we developed a geochemical model for evaluation of the pH buffering capacity of such minerals. The model included the main microbial processes driving groundwater acidification as well as mineral dissolution. In the present study, abiotic mineral dissolution experiments were conducted with five silicate minerals (andradite, diopside, fayalite, forsterite, nepheline). The goal of the study was to validate the model and to test the buffering capacity of the candidate minerals identified previously. These five minerals increased the pH from acidic to neutral and slightly basic values. The model was revised and improved to represent better the experimental observations. In particular, the experiments revealed the importance of secondary mineral precipitation on the buffering potential of silicates, a process not included in the original formulation. The main secondary phases likely to precipitate were identified through model calibration, as well as the degree of saturation at which they formed. The predictions of the revised geochemical model were in good agreement with the observations, with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9 in most cases. This study confirmed the potential of silicates to act as pH control agents and showed the reliability of the geochemical model, which can be used as a design tool for field applications.

  9. Control of groundwater pH during bioremediation: improvement and validation of a geochemical model to assess the buffering potential of ground silicate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Elsa; Brovelli, Alessandro; Holliger, Christof; Barry, D A

    2014-05-01

    Accurate control of groundwater pH is of critical importance for in situ biological treatment of chlorinated solvents. The use of ground silicate minerals mixed with groundwater is an appealing buffering strategy as silicate minerals may act as long-term sources of alkalinity. In a previous study, we developed a geochemical model for evaluation of the pH buffering capacity of such minerals. The model included the main microbial processes driving groundwater acidification as well as mineral dissolution. In the present study, abiotic mineral dissolution experiments were conducted with five silicate minerals (andradite, diopside, fayalite, forsterite, nepheline). The goal of the study was to validate the model and to test the buffering capacity of the candidate minerals identified previously. These five minerals increased the pH from acidic to neutral and slightly basic values. The model was revised and improved to represent better the experimental observations. In particular, the experiments revealed the importance of secondary mineral precipitation on the buffering potential of silicates, a process not included in the original formulation. The main secondary phases likely to precipitate were identified through model calibration, as well as the degree of saturation at which they formed. The predictions of the revised geochemical model were in good agreement with the observations, with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9 in most cases. This study confirmed the potential of silicates to act as pH control agents and showed the reliability of the geochemical model, which can be used as a design tool for field applications.

  10. Solar tower atmospheric Cherenkov effect experiment (STACEE) for ground based gamma ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Chantell, M. C.; Coppi, P.; Covault, C. E.; Dragovan, M.; Gregorich, D. T.; Hanna, D. S.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Oser, S.; Ragan, K.; Tümer, O. T.; Williams, D. A.

    1997-05-01

    The STACEE experiment is being developed to study very high energy astrophysical gamma rays between 50 and 500 GeV. During the last few years this previously unexplored region has received much attention due to the detection of sources up to about 10 GeV by the EGRET instrument on board the CGRO. However, the paucity of detected sources at ~1 TeV indicates that fundamental processes working within these sources and/or in the intergalactic space are responsible for the cutoff in the photon spectra of the EGRET sources. The cutoff or the spectral change of these sources can be observed with ground-based Cherenkov detectors with a very low threshold. The use of large arrays of mirrors at solar power facilities is a promising way of lowering the threshold. Using this concept a series of tests were conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) with a full size prototype of the STACEE telescope system. The tests show that STACEE will be capable of meaningful exploration of the gamma-ray sky between 50 and 500 GeV with good sensitivity.

  11. Ground-Based Phase of Spaceflight Experiment "Biosignal" Using Autonomic Microflurimeter "Fluor-K"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, O. V.; Gal'chuk, S. V.; Rudimov, E. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2013-02-01

    The majority of flight experiments with the use of cell cultures and equipment like KUBIK and CRIOGEM carried out on board of the satellites (Bion, Foton) and ISS only allows the after-flight biosamples to be analyzed. As far as with few exceptions, the real-time cellular parameters registration for a long period is hard to be implemented. We developed the "Fluor-K" equipment - precision, small-sized, autonomous, two-channel, programmed fluorimeter. This device is designed for registration of differential fluorescent signal from organic and non-organic objects of microscale in small volumes (cellular organelles suspensions, animal and human cells, unicellular algae, bacteria, various fluorescent colloid solutions). Beside that, "Fluor-K" allows simultaneous detection of temperature. The ground-based tests of the device proved successful. The developed software can support experimental schedules while real-time data registration with the built-in storage device allows changes in selected parameters to be analyzed using wide range of fluorescent probes.

  12. Making things right: nurses' experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Donna A; Demarco, Rosanna F; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A; Budin, Wendy C

    2012-01-01

    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.

  13. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Donna A.; DeMarco, Rosanna F.; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A.; Budin, Wendy C.

    2012-01-01

    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace. PMID:22567223

  14. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna A. Gaffney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.

  15. Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

  16. Radiometric modeling and calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) ground based measurement experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  17. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  18. Retrieval and validation of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR spectrometer at equatorial station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele Kenea, S.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.

    2012-09-01

    Since May 2009 high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra are recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude a.s.l.), Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3) are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5) and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS). A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels analysis of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information always comes from the measurement. We obtained 2.1 degrees of freedom on average for signals in the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. We have compared the FTIR retrieval of ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR) profiles and column amounts with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS), Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument. The mean relative differences are generally found below +15% in the altitude range of 27 to 36 km for comparison of VMR profiles made between MLS and MIPAS, whereas comparison with TES has shown below 9.4% relative difference. Furthermore, the mean relative difference is positive above 31 km, suggesting positive bias in the FTIR measurement of O3 VMR with respect to MLS, MIPAS and TES. The overall comparisons of column amounts of satellite measurements with the ground-based FTIR instruments show better agreement exhibiting mean relative differences of ground-based FTIR with respect to MLS and GOME-2 within +0.4% to +4.0% and corresponding standard deviations of 2.2 to 4.3% whereas, in the case of OMI, TES, AIRS, the mean relative differences are from -0.38 to -6.8%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit

  19. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  20. The Experience of Gifted Girls Transitioning from Elementary School to Sixth and Seventh Grade: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperell, Jennifer L.; Rubel, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the experiences of gifted girls transitioning from elementary school to sixth and seventh grade. The current literature indicates that gifted girls often struggle emotionally during this transition. Seven research participants were selected and interviewed over a four-month period. Grounded theory methodology was used to…

  1. Cope and Grow: A Grounded Theory Approach to Early College Entrants' Lived Experiences and Changes in a STEM Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, David Yun; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Zhou, Yehan

    2015-01-01

    In this grounded theory qualitative study, we interviewed 34 graduates from one cohort of 51 students from a prestigious early college entrance program in China. Based on the interview data, we identified distinct convergent and divergent patterns of lived experiences and changes. We found several dominant themes, including peers' mutual…

  2. BUGLE-96 validation with MORSE-SGC/S using water and iron experiments from SINBAD 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-03

    This document summarizes the validation of MORSE-SGC/S with the BUGLE-96 cross section library. SINBAD Benchmark Experiment 2.004, Winfrith Water Benchmark Experiment and SBE 6.001, Karlsruhe Iron Sphere Benchmark Experiment were utilized for this validation. The MORESE-SGC/S code with the BUGLE-96 cross-section library was used to model the experimental configurations as given in SINDBAD 97. SINDBAD is a shielding integral benchmark archive and database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). For means of comparison, the experimental models were also executed with MORSE-SGC/S using the BUGLE-80 cross-section library. BUGLE-96 cross section will be used for shielding applications only as recommended by ORNL.

  3. The Development and Validation of the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mikki H; Keebler, Joseph R; Chaparro, Barbara S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a new instrument that comprehensively measures video game satisfaction based on key factors. Playtesting is often conducted in the video game industry to help game developers build better games by providing insight into the players' attitudes and preferences. However, quality feedback is difficult to obtain from playtesting sessions without a quality gaming assessment tool. There is a need for a psychometrically validated and comprehensive gaming scale that is appropriate for playtesting and game evaluation purposes. The process of developing and validating this new scale followed current best practices of scale development and validation. As a result, a mixed-method design that consisted of item pool generation, expert review, questionnaire pilot study, exploratory factor analysis (N = 629), and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 729) was implemented. A new instrument measuring video game satisfaction, called the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS), with nine subscales emerged. The GUESS was demonstrated to have content validity, internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity. The GUESS was developed and validated based on the assessments of over 450 unique video game titles across many popular genres. Thus, it can be applied across many types of video games in the industry both as a way to assess what aspects of a game contribute to user satisfaction and as a tool to aid in debriefing users on their gaming experience. The GUESS can be administered to evaluate user satisfaction of different types of video games by a variety of users. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  5. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2011-03-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  6. Contribution to a dynamic wind turbine model validation from a wind farm islanding experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2003-01-01

    and possible discrepancies are explained. The work with the wind turbine model validation relates to the dynamic stability investigations on incorporation of large amount of wind power in the Danish power grid, where the dynamic wind turbine model is applied.......Measurements from an islanding experiment on the Rejsby Hede wind farm, Denmark, are used for the validation of the dynamic model of grid-connected, stall-controlled wind turbines equipped with induction generators. The simulated results are found to be in good agreement with the measurements...

  7. Bridging Ground Validation and Algorithms: Using Scattering and Integral Tables to Incorporate Observed DSD Correlations into Satellite Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) raindrop size distribution (DSD) Working Group is composed of NASA PMM Science Team Members and is charged to "investigate the correlations between DSD parameters using Ground Validation (GV) data sets that support, or guide, the assumptions used in satellite retrieval algorithms." Correlations between DSD parameters can be used to constrain the unknowns and reduce the degrees-of-freedom in under-constrained satellite algorithms. Over the past two years, the GPM DSD Working Group has analyzed GV data and has found correlations between the mass-weighted mean raindrop diameter (Dm) and the mass distribution standard deviation (Sm) that follows a power-law relationship. This Dm-Sm power-law relationship appears to be robust and has been observed in surface disdrometer and vertically pointing radar observations. One benefit of a Dm-Sm power-law relationship is that a three parameter DSD can be modeled with just two parameters: Dm and Nw that determines the DSD amplitude. In order to incorporate observed DSD correlations into satellite algorithms, the GPM DSD Working Group is developing scattering and integral tables that can be used by satellite algorithms. Scattering tables describe the interaction of electromagnetic waves on individual particles to generate cross sections of backscattering, extinction, and scattering. Scattering tables are independent of the distribution of particles. Integral tables combine scattering table outputs with DSD parameters and DSD correlations to generate integrated normalized reflectivity, attenuation, scattering, emission, and asymmetry coefficients. Integral tables contain both frequency dependent scattering properties and cloud microphysics. The GPM DSD Working Group has developed scattering tables for raindrops at both Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) frequencies and at all GMI radiometer frequencies less than 100 GHz. Scattering tables include Mie and T-matrix scattering with H- and V

  8. The effect of altered gravity on immune cells (Ground studies: TRIPLE LUX-A BIOLAB experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Astrid; Huber, Kathrin; Kuebler, Ulrich; Briganti, Luca; Baerwalde, Sven; Zander, Vanja; Ullrich, Oliver; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    The experiment TRIPLE LUX A, whose performance on Biolab is foreseen for 2010, aims to increase the information about the functioning of immune cells during space flight. Thus, we investigate the impact of altered gravity -microgravity and hypergravity conditions -on the immune response of mammalian macrophages. Previous studies had already demonstrated that phagocytosis in macrophages, an essential step in the innate immune response, is decreased on a fast rotating clinostat. Now, the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) within the oxidative burst reaction, was measured by means of a luminol assay (luminescence + photo-multiplier technique) comparable to the set up which will be used in the TRIPLE LUX flight hardware. The kinetics of the ROS production was investigated a) under 1 g conditions, b) on a clinostat (with one rotation axis) under varied rotational speed c) in short-term real micro-gravity on a parabolic flight and d) in hypergravity (1.8 g) on the Short Arm Human Centrifuge (SAHC) at DLR Cologne. By means of a photomultiplier clinostat online kinetic luminescent measurements during clinorotation were possible. Permanent fast clinorotation (60 rpm) leads to a dramatic reduction of the oxidative burst signal by up to 60% compared to the signal at 1 g. Slower rotation (30 rpm to 2 rpm) reduces the signal strength even more by up to 90% of the original strength. 60 rpm clinorotation as well as short-term real microgravity (22 s) during parabolic flight likewise decreases the signal of the oxidative burst to a comparable amount, thus the term "simulated weightlessness" is valid for the chosen experimental condi-tion. In contrast, hypergravity leads to a significant signal increase. The results demonstrate a clear effect of altered gravity on the immune response of the macrophages. In the upcoming ISS experiment the established test system (oxidative burst of macrophages) will be tested in continues microgravity within the Biolab hardware, designed by

  9. Characterization of a CLYC detector and validation of the Monte Carlo Simulation by measurement experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Smith, Martin B.; Koslowsky, Martin R. [Bubble Technology Industries Inc., Chalk River (Canada); Kwak, Sung Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim Gee Hyun [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays have become much more practicable, by taking advantage of good gamma-ray discrimination properties using pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique. Recently, we introduced a commercial CLYC system in Korea, and performed an initial characterization and simulation studies for the CLYC detector system to provide references for the future implementation of the dual-mode scintillator system in various studies and applications. We evaluated a CLYC detector with 95% 6Li enrichment using various gamma-ray sources and a 252Cf neutron source, with validation of our Monte Carlo simulation results via measurement experiments. Absolute full-energy peak efficiency values were calculated for gamma-ray sources and neutron source using MCNP6 and compared with measurement experiments of the calibration sources. In addition, behavioral characteristics of neutrons were validated by comparing simulations and experiments on neutron moderation with various polyethylene (PE) moderator thicknesses. Both results showed good agreements in overall characteristics of the gamma and neutron detection efficiencies, with consistent ⁓20% discrepancy. Furthermore, moderation of neutrons emitted from {sup 252}Cf showed similarities between the simulation and the experiment, in terms of their relative ratios depending on the thickness of the PE moderator. A CLYC detector system was characterized for its energy resolution and detection efficiency, and Monte Carlo simulations on the detector system was validated experimentally. Validation of the simulation results in overall trend of the CLYC detector behavior will provide the fundamental basis and validity of follow-up Monte Carlo simulation studies for the development of our dual-particle imager using a rotational modulation collimator.

  10. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

  11. Validation of satellite-based noontime UVI with NDACC ground-based instruments: influence of topography, environment and satellite overpass time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogniez, Colette; Auriol, Frédérique; Deroo, Christine; Arola, Antti; Kujanpää, Jukka; Sauvage, Béatrice; Kalakoski, Niilo; Riku Aleksi Pitkänen, Mikko; Catalfamo, Maxime; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Tournois, Guy; Da Conceicao, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Spectral solar UV radiation measurements are performed in France using three spectroradiometers located at very different sites. One is installed in Villeneuve d'Ascq, in the north of France (VDA). It is an urban site in a topographically flat region. Another instrument is installed in Observatoire de Haute-Provence, located in the southern French Alps (OHP). It is a rural mountainous site. The third instrument is installed in Saint-Denis, Réunion Island (SDR). It is a coastal urban site on a small mountainous island in the southern tropics. The three instruments are affiliated with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and carry out routine measurements to monitor the spectral solar UV radiation and enable derivation of UV index (UVI). The ground-based UVI values observed at solar noon are compared to similar quantities derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, onboard the Aura satellite) and the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2, onboard the Metop-A satellite) measurements for validation of these satellite-based products. The present study concerns the period 2009-September 2012, date of the implementation of a new OMI processing tool. The new version (v1.3) introduces a correction for absorbing aerosols that were not considered in the old version (v1.2). Both versions of the OMI UVI products were available before September 2012 and are used to assess the improvement of the new processing tool. On average, estimates from satellite instruments always overestimate surface UVI at solar noon. Under cloudless conditions, the satellite-derived estimates of UVI compare satisfactorily with ground-based data: the median relative bias is less than 8 % at VDA and 4 % at SDR for both OMI v1.3 and GOME-2, and about 6 % for OMI v1.3 and 2 % for GOME-2 at OHP. The correlation between satellite-based and ground-based data is better at VDA and OHP (about 0.99) than at SDR (0.96) for both space-borne instruments. For all

  12. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory performed air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). An isothermal stratified flow experiment was designed and set to understand stratified flow phenomena in the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and to provide experimental data for validating computer codes. The isothermal experiment focused on three flow characteristics unique in the VHTR air-ingress accident: stratified flow in the horizontal pipe, stratified flow expansion at the pipe and vessel junction, and stratified flow around supporting structures. Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids and water was used as light fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between heavy and light fluids is generated even for very small density differences. The code was validated by conducting blind CFD simulations and comparing the results to the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study was also performed based on the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for modeling confidence. As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  13. Validation of the Cooray-Rubinstein (C-R) formula for a rough ground surface by using three-dimensional (3-D) FDTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongshuai; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Zhenhui

    2013-11-01

    this paper, we have extended the Cooray-Rubinstein (C-R) approximate formula into the fractal rough ground surface and then validate its accuracy by using three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method at distances of 50 m and 100 m from the lightning channel. The results show that the extended C-R formula has an accepted accuracy for predicting the lightning-radiated horizontal electric field above the fractal rough and conducting ground, and its accuracy increases a little better with the higher of the earth conductivity. For instance, when the conductivity of the rough ground is 0.1 S/m, the error of the peak value predicted by the extended C-R formula is less than about 2.3%, while its error is less than about 6.7% for the conductivity of 0.01 S/m. The rough ground has much effect on the lightning horizontal field, and the initial peak value of the horizontal field obviously decreases with the increase of the root-mean-square height of the rough ground at early times (within several microseconds of the beginning of return stroke).

  14. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  15. Wind-induced ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  16. Validation of a numerical FSI simulation of an aortic BMHV by in vitro PIV experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerel, S; Claessens, T; Degroote, J; Segers, P; Vierendeels, J

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a validation of a recently developed fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling algorithm to simulate numerically the dynamics of an aortic bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) is performed. This validation is done by comparing the numerical simulation results with in vitro experiments. For the in vitro experiments, the leaflet kinematics and flow fields are obtained via the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Subsequently, the same case is numerically simulated by the coupling algorithm and the resulting leaflet kinematics and flow fields are obtained. Finally, the results are compared, revealing great similarity in leaflet motion and flow fields between the numerical simulation and the experimental test. Therefore, it is concluded that the developed algorithm is able to capture very accurately all the major leaflet kinematics and dynamics and can be used to study and optimize the design of BMHVs.

  17. Experiment of Laser Pointing Stability on Different Surfaces to validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)721924; Mainaud Durand, Helene; Piedigrossi, Didier; Sandomierski, Jacek; Sosin, Mateusz; Geiger, Alain; Guillaume, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    CLIC requires 10 μm precision and accuracy over 200m for the pre-alignment of beam related components. A solution based on laser beam as straight line reference is being studied at CERN. It involves camera/shutter assemblies as micrometric positioning sensors. To validate the sensors, it is necessary to determine an appropriate material for the shutter in terms of laser pointing stability. Experiments are carried out with paper, metal and ceramic surfaces. This paper presents the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates obtained on the different surfaces, as well as the measurement error. Our experiments validate the choice of paper and ceramic for the shutter of the micrometric positioning sensor. It also provides an estimate of the achievable precision and accuracy of the determination of the laser spot centre with respect to the shutter coordinate system defined by reference targets.

  18. Validation of spatial variability in downscaling results from the VALUE perfect predictor experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Martin; Bedia, Joaquin; Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; Maraun, Douglas; Huth, Radan; Fischer, Andreas; Keller, Denise; Hertig, Elke; Vrac, Mathieu; Wibig, Joanna; Pagé, Christian; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro MM; Bosshard, Thomas; Casado, Maria Jesus; Ramos, Petra

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research. Within VALUE a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods has been developed. In the first validation experiment the downscaling methods are validated in a setup with perfect predictors taken from the ERA-interim reanalysis for the period 1997 - 2008. This allows to investigate the isolated skill of downscaling methods without further error contributions from the large-scale predictors. One aspect of the validation is the representation of spatial variability. As part of the VALUE validation we have compared various properties of the spatial variability of downscaled daily temperature and precipitation with the corresponding properties in observations. We have used two test validation datasets, one European-wide set of 86 stations, and one higher-density network of 50 stations in Germany. Here we present results based on three approaches, namely the analysis of i.) correlation matrices, ii.) pairwise joint threshold exceedances, and iii.) regions of similar variability. We summarise the information contained in correlation matrices by calculating the dependence of the correlations on distance and deriving decorrelation lengths, as well as by determining the independent degrees of freedom. Probabilities for joint threshold exceedances and (where appropriate) non-exceedances are calculated for various user-relevant thresholds related for instance to extreme precipitation or frost and heat days. The dependence of these probabilities on distance is again characterised by calculating typical length scales that separate dependent from independent exceedances. Regionalisation is based on rotated Principal Component Analysis. The results indicate which downscaling methods are preferable if the dependency of variability at different locations is relevant for the user.

  19. Methodology and issues of integral experiments selection for nuclear data validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Ivanova; Ivanov, Evgeny; Hill, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear data validation involves a large suite of Integral Experiments (IEs) for criticality, reactor physics and dosimetry applications. [1] Often benchmarks are taken from international Handbooks. [2, 3] Depending on the application, IEs have different degrees of usefulness in validation, and usually the use of a single benchmark is not advised; indeed, it may lead to erroneous interpretation and results. [1] This work aims at quantifying the importance of benchmarks used in application dependent cross section validation. The approach is based on well-known General Linear Least Squared Method (GLLSM) extended to establish biases and uncertainties for given cross sections (within a given energy interval). The statistical treatment results in a vector of weighting factors for the integral benchmarks. These factors characterize the value added by a benchmark for nuclear data validation for the given application. The methodology is illustrated by one example, selecting benchmarks for 239Pu cross section validation. The studies were performed in the framework of Subgroup 39 (Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files) established at the Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD).

  20. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogi, Y., E-mail: kogi@fit.ac.jp; Higashi, T.; Matsukawa, S. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-0811 (Japan); Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5202 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  1. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Y; Higashi, T; Matsukawa, S; Mase, A; Kohagura, J; Nagayama, Y; Kawahata, K; Kuwahara, D; Yoshikawa, M

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  2. Sub-Saharan African ground water protection-building on international experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreamer, David K; Usher, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces significant challenges in dealing with ground water pollution. These countries can look to successes and missteps on other continents to help choose their own individual paths to ensuring reliable and clean supplies of ground water. In the large view, sub-Saharan Africa can define specific levels of acceptable risk in water quality that drive cleanup efforts and are amenable to acceptance across national and geographic boundaries. Ground water quality databases must be expanded, and data must be available in an electronic form that is flexible, expandable, and uniform, and that can be used over wide geographic areas. Guidance from other continents is available on well construction, sampling and monitoring, interim remediation, technical impracticability, monitored natural attenuation, and many specific issues such as how to deal with small waste generators and septic contamination of water supply wells. It is important to establish a common African view on the appropriateness of other nations' ground water quality guidance for African issues, economic conditions, and community circumstances. Establishing numerical, concentration-based, water quality action levels for pollutants in ground water, which many neighboring African nations could hold comparable, would set the stage for risk-based remediation of contaminated sites. Efforts to gain public, grass-roots understanding and support for stable and balanced enforcement of standards are also key. Finally, effective capacity building in the region could be an eventual solution to ground water quality problems; with increased numbers of trained environmental professionals, ground water throughout the region can be protected and contaminated sites cleaned up.

  3. Panamanian women׳s experience of vaginal examination in labour: A questionnaire validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Rojas-Mirquez, Johanna C; Ortega-Loubon, Christian

    2016-05-01

    to validate a tool that allows healthcare providers to obtain accurate information regarding Panamanian women׳s thoughts and feelings about vaginal examination during labour that can be used in other Latin-American countries. validation study based on a database from a cross-sectional study carried out in two tertiary care hospitals in Panama City, Panama. Women in the immediate postpartum period who had spontaneous labour onset and uncomplicated deliveries were included in the study from April to August 2008. Researchers used a survey designed by Lewin et al. that included 20 questions related to a patient׳s experience during a vaginal examination. five constructs (factors) related to a patient׳s experience of vaginal examination during labour were identified: Approval (Alpha Cronbach׳s 0.72), Perception (0.67), Rejection (0.40), Consent (0.51), and Stress (0.20). it was demonstrated the validity of the scale and its constructs used to obtain information related to vaginal examination during labour, including patients' experiences with examination and healthcare staff performance. utilisation of the scale will allow institutions to identify items that need improvement and address these areas in order to promote the best care for patients in labour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on integral experiment covariance data for critical safety validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, Maik (ed.)

    2016-04-15

    For some time, attempts to quantify the statistical dependencies of critical experiments and to account for them properly in validation procedures were discussed in the literature by various groups. Besides the development of suitable methods especially the quality and modeling issues of the freely available experimental data are in the focus of current discussions, carried out for example in the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) of the OECD-NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The same committee compiles and publishes also the freely available experimental data in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Most of these experiments were performed as series and might share parts of experimental setups leading to correlated results. The quality of the determination of these correlations and the underlying covariance data depend strongly on the quality of the documentation of experiments.

  5. Time-transfer experiments between satellite laser ranging ground stations via one-way laser ranging to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Skillman, D. R.; Mcgarry, J.; Hoffman, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has long been used to measure the distance from a ground station to an Earth-orbiting satellite in order to determine the spacecraft position in orbit, and to conduct other geodetic measurements such as plate motions. This technique can also be used to transfer time between the station and satellite, and between remote SLR sites, as recently demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, where two-way and one-way measurements were obtained at the same time. Here we report a new technique to transfer time between distant SLR stations via simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft at lunar distance. The major objectives are to establish accurate ground station times and to improve LRO orbit determination via these measurements. The results of these simultaneous LR measurements are used to compare the SLR station times or transfer time from one to the other using times-of-flight estimated from conventional radio frequency tracking of LRO. The accuracy of the time transfer depends only on the difference of the times-of-flight from each ground station to the spacecraft, and is expected to be at sub-nano second level. The technique has been validated by both a ground-based experiment and an experiment that utilized LRO. Here we present the results to show that sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy are achievable. Both experiments were carried out between the primary LRO-LR station, The Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) station, and its nearby station, Mobile Laser System (MOBLAS-7), both at Greenbelt, Maryland. The laser transmit time from both stations were recorded by the same event timer referenced to a Hydrogen maser. The results have been compared to data from a common All

  6. Retrieval and validation of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor for the Canary Islands IR-laser occultation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proschek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The first ground-based experiment to prove the concept of a novel space-based observation technique for microwave and infrared-laser occultation between Low Earth Orbit satellites (LMIO was performed in the Canary Islands between La Palma and Tenerife in July 2011. This experiment aimed to demonstrate the infrared-laser differential transmission principle for the measurement of greenhouse gases (GHGs in the free atmosphere. Such global and long-term stable measurements of GHGs, accompanied also by measurements of thermodynamic parameters and line-of-sight wind in a self-calibrating way, have become very important for climate change monitoring. The experiment delivered promising initial data for demonstrating the new observation concept by retrieving volume mixing ratios of GHGs along a ~ 144 km signal path at altitudes of ~ 2.4 km. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the measurements, following a recent publication that introduced the experiment's technical setup and first results for an example retrieval of CO2. We present the observational and validation datasets, the latter simultaneously measured at the transmitter and receiver sites, the measurement data handling, and the differential transmission retrieval procedure. We also determine the individual and combined uncertainties influencing the results and present the retrieval results for 12CO2, 13CO2, C18OO, H2O and CH4. The new method is found to have a reliable basis for monitoring of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2O in the free atmosphere.

  7. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  8. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  9. Validation of the Breastfeeding Experience Scale in a Sample of Iranian Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Mortazavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the breastfeeding experience scale (BES in a sample of Iranian mothers. Methods. After translation and back translation of the BES, an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing the content validity ratio (CVR and content validity index (CVI. 347 of mothers visiting health centers completed the Farsi version of the BES in the first month postpartum. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were performed to indicate the scale constructs. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results. CVR and CVI scores for the BES were 0.96 and 0.87, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the BES was 0.83. The results of the EFA revealed a new 5-factor model. The results of the CFA for the BES indicated a marginally acceptable fit for the proposed model and acceptable fit for the new model (RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.064, χ2/df = 2.4, and CFI = 0.95. Mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the first month postpartum had less breastfeeding difficulties score (30.3 ± 7.6 than mothers who were on partial breastfeeding (36.7 ± 11.3 (P<0.001. Conclusions. The Farsi version of the BES is a reliable and valid instrument to assess postpartum breastfeeding difficulties in Iranian mothers.

  10. Validation of the breastfeeding experience scale in a sample of Iranian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the breastfeeding experience scale (BES) in a sample of Iranian mothers. Methods. After translation and back translation of the BES, an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI). 347 of mothers visiting health centers completed the Farsi version of the BES in the first month postpartum. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to indicate the scale constructs. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results. CVR and CVI scores for the BES were 0.96 and 0.87, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the BES was 0.83. The results of the EFA revealed a new 5-factor model. The results of the CFA for the BES indicated a marginally acceptable fit for the proposed model and acceptable fit for the new model (RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.064, χ (2)/df = 2.4, and CFI = 0.95). Mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the first month postpartum had less breastfeeding difficulties score (30.3 ± 7.6) than mothers who were on partial breastfeeding (36.7 ± 11.3) (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The Farsi version of the BES is a reliable and valid instrument to assess postpartum breastfeeding difficulties in Iranian mothers.

  11. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  12. Validation of a ground motion synthesis and prediction methodology for the 1988, M=6.0, Saguenay Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; Foxall, W.

    1998-01-01

    We model the 1988, M=6.0, Saguenay earthquake. We utilize an approach that has been developed to predict strong ground motion. this approach involves developing a set of rupture scenarios based upon bounds on rupture parameters. rupture parameters include rupture geometry, hypocenter, rupture roughness, rupture velocity, healing velocity (rise times), slip distribution, asperity size and location, and slip vector. Scenario here refers to specific values of these parameters for an hypothesized earthquake. Synthetic strong ground motion are then generated for each rupture scenario. A sufficient number of scenarios are run to span the variability in strong ground motion due to the source uncertainties. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the one standard deviation value of engineering parameters we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, For this study we developed bounds on rupture scenarios from previous research on this earthquake. The time history closest to the observed ground motion was selected as a model for the Saguenay earthquake.

  13. Validation of the AGDISP model for predicting airborne atrazine spray drift: a South African ground application case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nsibande, SA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available monitoring data in order for them to be employed with confidence, especially when they are used to implement regulatory measures or to evaluate potential human exposure levels. In this case study, off-target pesticide drift was monitored during ground...

  14. Application of Bayesian Neural Networks to Energy Reconstruction in EAS Experiments for ground-based TeV Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ying; Lan, JieQin; Gao, WeiWei

    2016-01-01

    A toy detector array has been designed to simulate the detection of cosmic rays in Extended Air Shower(EAS) Experiments for ground-based TeV Astrophysics. The primary energies of protons from the Monte-Carlo simulation have been reconstructed by the algorithm of Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) and a standard method like the LHAASO experiment\\cite{lhaaso-ma}, respectively. The result of the energy reconstruction using BNNs has been compared with the one using the standard method. Compared to the standard method, the energy resolutions are significantly improved using BNNs. And the improvement is more obvious for the high energy protons than the low energy ones.

  15. 'Seeking authorization': a grounded theory exploration of mentors' experiences of assessing nursing students on the borderline of achievement of competence in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon; Coffey, Michael; Murphy, Fiona

    2017-09-01

    To develop a substantive theoretical explanation of how mentors make sense of their experiences where nursing students are on the borderline of achievement of competence in clinical practice. The reluctance of Registered Nurse mentors to fail nursing students in clinical practice despite concerns about competence remains a contemporary issue in international healthcare education. Mentors' assessment decisions have considerable impact for a variety of key stakeholders, not least for students in these circumstances. Grounded theory qualitative study. Phase one involved 20 individual semi-structured interviews with nurse mentors in one United Kingdom National Health Service Health Board (July-October 2009). Phase two included eight individual semi-structured interviews and seven focus groups with mentors and practice educators (n = 38) in four further Health Boards (June 2011-February 2012). Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding consistent with grounded theory method. Three categories 'the conundrum of practice competence,' 'the intensity of nurturing hopefulness,' and 'managing assessment impasse,' led to the study's substantive theoretical explanation - 'Seeking authorization: Establishing collective accountability for mentorship.' This demonstrates how mentors are dependent on key sources of support and feedback to validate their assessment decision-making, notwithstanding substantial personal, professional and organizational pressures. We conclude that management of borderline assessment situations is considerably developed by recognition of the authorizing effects of a wider community of assessors. Consequently, we identify the personal, professional and organizational implications involved in the preparation, support and regulation of mentors specifically during borderline assessment circumstances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Estimation of Land Surface Parameters by LDAS-UT: Model Development and Validation on Tanashi Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Koike, T.; Yang, K.; Li, X.; Graf, T.; Boussetta, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Kuria, D. N.

    2007-12-01

    The estimation of soil moisture and surface energy fluxes at various temporal and spatial scales remains to be an outstanding problem in hydrologic and meteorological researches. Remote sensed data retrieval algorithms, land surface models and data assimilation systems are highly expected to provide a solution to this problem. But the parameters required by those algorithms and systems, such as the soil texture, porosity, roughness parameters and so on, are highly variable or unavailable. In this study, a land data assimilation system (LDAS- UT) is employed to inversely estimate the optimal values of those land surface parameters with meteorological forcing data and remote sensed data. And a field experiment is designed to provide a well-controlled data set for the system validation. The Tanashi experiment has been in operation since November, 2006 in the farm of the University of Tokyo. Continuous ground measurements of meteorological variables, soil moisture and temperature profiles and vegetation status have been taken over a plot, in which winter wheat was planted. At the same time, the ground based microwave radiometers (GBMR) are employed to provide accurate field measurements of brightness temperature up-welling from the plot, at the frequencies of 6.925, 10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5 and 89 GHz. The LDAS_UT is then run with using data obtained from this experiment to retrieval parameters for two periods. One is the period from December 2006 to February 2007, the germination period of winter wheat, and during which the vegetation effects are small. The second period is from April to May 2007, during which the winter wheat was developing rapidly. The optimize parameters were compared with the in situ observed ¡®real' ones. It found that, for the first period, the retrieved parameters are close to the ¡®real' values, while for the second period, the gap between the retrieved parameters and the ¡®real' values are much bigger. The difference between the

  17. Validation of an instrument to measure patients' experiences of medicine use: the Living with Medicines Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Janet; Katusiime, Barbra; Corlett, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Medicine-related burden is an increasingly recognized concept, stemming from the rising tide of polypharmacy, which may impact on patient behaviors, including nonadherence. No instruments currently exist which specifically measure medicine-related burden. The Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) was developed for this purpose. This study validated the LMQ in a sample of adults using regular prescription medicines in the UK. Questionnaires were distributed in community pharmacies and public places in southeast England or online through UK health websites and social media. A total of 1,177 were returned: 507 (43.1%) from pharmacy distribution and 670 (56.9%) online. Construct validity was assessed by principal components analysis and item reduction undertaken on the original 60-item pool. Known-groups analysis assessed differences in mean total scores between participants using different numbers of medicines and between those who did or did not require assistance with medicine use. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Free-text comments were analyzed thematically to substantiate underlying dimensions. A 42-item, eight-factor structure comprising intercorrelated dimensions (patient-doctor relationships and communication about medicines, patient-pharmacist communication about medicines, interferences with daily life, practical difficulties, effectiveness, acceptance of medicine use, autonomy/control over medicines and concerns about medicine use) was derived, which explained 57.4% of the total variation. Six of the eight subscales had acceptable internal consistency (α>0.7). More positive experiences were observed among patients using eight or fewer medicines compared to nine or more, and those independent with managing/using their medicines versus those requiring assistance. Free-text comments, provided by almost a third of the respondents, supported the domains identified. The resultant LMQ-2 is a valid and reliable multidimensional measure of

  18. In-Situ Load System for Calibrating and Validating Aerodynamic Properties of Scaled Aircraft in Ground-Based Aerospace Testing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A. (Inventor); Lynn, Keith C. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor); Acheson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An In-Situ Load System for calibrating and validating aerodynamic properties of scaled aircraft in ground-based aerospace testing applications includes an assembly having upper and lower components that are pivotably interconnected. A test weight can be connected to the lower component to apply a known force to a force balance. The orientation of the force balance can be varied, and the measured forces from the force balance can be compared to applied loads at various orientations to thereby develop calibration factors.

  19. The Validation Activities of the APhoRISM EC 7FP Project, Aimed at Post Seismic Damage Mapping, Through a Combined Use of EOS and Ground Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanthery, N.; Luzi, G.; Stramondo, S.; Bignami, C.; Pierdicca, N.; Wegmuller, U.; Romaniello, V.; Anniballe, R.; Piscini, A.; Albano, M.; Moro, M.; Crosetto, M.

    2016-08-01

    The estimate of damage after an earthquake using spaceborne remote sensing data is one of the main application of the change detection methodologies widely discussed in literature. APhoRISM - Advanced PRocedures for volcanIc and Seismic Monitoring is a collaborative European Commission project (FP7-SP ACE- 2013-1) addressing the development of innovative methods, using space and ground sensors to support the management and mitigation of the seismic and the volcanic risk. In this paper a novel approach aimed at damage assessment based on the use of a priori information derived by different sources in a preparedness phase is described and a preliminary validation is shown.

  20. Experiences using IAEA Code of practice for radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Validation and routine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)], E-mail: nazly@batan.go.id; Febrida, A.; Basril, A. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)

    2007-11-15

    Problems of tissue allografts in using International Standard (ISO) 11137 for validation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) are limited and low numbers of uniform samples per production batch, those are products obtained from one donor. Allograft is a graft transplanted between two different individuals of the same species. The minimum number of uniform samples needed for verification dose (VD) experiment at the selected sterility assurance level (SAL) per production batch according to the IAEA Code is 20, i.e., 10 for bio-burden determination and the remaining 10 for sterilization test. Three methods of the IAEA Code have been used for validation of RSD, i.e., method A1 that is a modification of method 1 of ISO 11137:1995, method B (ISO 13409:1996), and method C (AAMI TIR 27:2001). This paper describes VD experiments using uniform products obtained from one cadaver donor, i.e., cancellous bones, demineralized bone powders and amnion grafts from one life donor. Results of the verification dose experiments show that RSD is 15.4 kGy for cancellous and demineralized bone grafts and 19.2 kGy for amnion grafts according to method A1 and 25 kGy according to methods B and C.

  1. Experiments of Laser Pointing Stability in Air and in Vacuum to Validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, G; Piedigrossi, D; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M; Geiger, A; Guillaume, S

    2014-01-01

    Aligning accelerator components over 200m with 10 μm accuracy is a challenging task within the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study. A solution based on laser beam in vacuum as straight line reference is proposed. The positions of the accelerator’s components are measured with respect to the laser beam by sensors made of camera/shutter assemblies. To validate these sensors, laser pointing stability has to be studied over 200m. We perform experiments in air and in vacuum in order to know how laser pointing stability varies with the distance of propagation and with the environment. The experiments show that the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates increase with the distance of propagation. They also show that the standard deviations are much smaller in vacuum (8 μm at 35m) than in air (2000 μm at 200m). Our experiment validates the concept of laser beam in vacuum with camera/shutter assembly for micrometric positioning over 35m. It also gives an estimation of the achievable precision.

  2. Validation of an instrument to measure patients’ experiences of medicine use: the Living with Medicines Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krska J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Janet Krska, Barbra Katusiime, Sarah A Corlett Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Kent and Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, UK Background: Medicine-related burden is an increasingly recognized concept, stemming from the rising tide of polypharmacy, which may impact on patient behaviors, including nonadherence. No instruments currently exist which specifically measure medicine-related burden. The Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ was developed for this purpose. Objective: This study validated the LMQ in a sample of adults using regular prescription medicines in the UK. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed in community pharmacies and public places in southeast England or online through UK health websites and social media. A total of 1,177 were returned: 507 (43.1% from pharmacy distribution and 670 (56.9% online. Construct validity was assessed by principal components analysis and item reduction undertaken on the original 60-item pool. Known-groups analysis assessed differences in mean total scores between participants using different numbers of medicines and between those who did or did not require assistance with medicine use. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. Free-text comments were analyzed thematically to substantiate underlying dimensions. Results: A 42-item, eight-factor structure comprising intercorrelated dimensions (patient–doctor relationships and communication about medicines, patient–pharmacist communication about medicines, interferences with daily life, practical difficulties, effectiveness, acceptance of medicine use, autonomy/control over medicines and concerns about medicine use was derived, which explained 57.4% of the total variation. Six of the eight subscales had acceptable internal consistency (α>0.7. More positive experiences were observed among patients using eight or fewer medicines compared to nine or more, and those independent with managing/using their medicines versus

  3. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B; Haywood, J.; LONGO, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field ...

  4. Alabama Ground Operations during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Bain, Lamont; Rogers, Ryan; Kozlowski, Danielle; Sherrer, Adam; Saari, Matt; Bigelbach, Brandon; Scott, Mariana; Schultz, Elise; Schultz, Chris; Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Phillips, Dustin; Phillips, Chris; Peterson, Harold; Bailey, Jeff; Frederickson, Terryn; Hall, John; Bart, Nicole; Becker, Melissa; Pinkney, Kurtis; Rowe, Scott; Starzec, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign investigates the impact of deep, midlatitude convective clouds, including their dynamical, physical and lighting processes, on upper tropospheric composition and chemistry. DC3 science operations took place from 14 May to 30 June 2012. The DC3 field campaign utilized instrumented aircraft and ground ]based observations. The NCAR Gulfstream ]V (GV) observed a variety of gas ]phase species, radiation and cloud particle characteristics in the high ]altitude outflow of storms while the NASA DC ]8 characterized the convective inflow. Groundbased radar networks were used to document the kinematic and microphysical characteristics of storms. In order to study the impact of lightning on convective outflow composition, VHF ]based lightning mapping arrays (LMAs) provided detailed three ]dimensional measurements of flashes. Mobile soundings were utilized to characterize the meteorological environment of the convection. Radar, sounding and lightning observations were also used in real ]time to provide forecasting and mission guidance to the aircraft operations. Combined aircraft and ground ]based observations were conducted at three locations, 1) northeastern Colorado, 2) Oklahoma/Texas and 3) northern Alabama, to study different modes of deep convection in a variety of meteorological and chemical environments. The objective of this paper is to summarize the Alabama ground operations and provide a preliminary assessment of the ground ]based observations collected over northern Alabama during DC3. The multi ] Doppler, dual ]polarization radar network consisted of the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR), the UAHuntsville Mobile Alabama X ]band (MAX) radar and the Hytop (KHTX) Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler (WSR ]88D). Lightning frequency and structure were observed in near real ]time by the NASA MSFC Northern Alabama LMA (NALMA). Pre ]storm and inflow proximity

  5. The Potential Energy Surface for the Electronic Ground State of H 2Se Derived from Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P.; Kozin, I. N.

    1993-07-01

    The present paper reports a determination of the potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of the hydrogen selenide molecule through a direct least-squares fitting to experimental data using the MORBID (Morse oscillator rigid bender internal dynamics) approach developed by P. Jensen [ J. Mol. Spectrosc.128, 478-501 (1988); J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 284, 1315-1340 (1988)]. We have fitted a selection of 303 rotation-vibration energy spacings of H 280Se, D 280Se, and HD 80Se involving J ≤ 5 with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.0975 cm -1 for the rotational energy spacings and 0.268 cm -1 for the vibrational spacings. In the fitting, 14 parameters were varied. On the basis of the fitted potential surface we have studied the cluster effect in the vibrational ground state of H 2Se, i.e., the formation of nearly degenerate, four-member groups of rotational energy levels [see I. N. Kozin, S. Klee, P. Jensen, O. L. Polyansky, and I. M. Pavlichenkov. J. Mol. Spectrosc., 158, 409-422 (1993), and references therein]. The cluster formation becomes more pronounced with increasing J. For example, four-fold clusters formed in the vibrational ground state of H 280Se at J = 40 are degenerate to within a few MHz. Our predictions of the D 280Se energy spectrum show that for this molecule, the cluster formation is displaced towards higher J values than arc found for H 280Se. In the vibrational ground state, the qualitative deviation from the usual rigid rotor picture starts at J = 12 for H 280Se and at J = 18 for D 280Se, in full agreement with predictions from semiclassical theory. An interpretation of the cluster eigenstates is discussed.

  6. Generation of integral experiment covariance data and their impact on criticality safety validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, Maik; Peters, Elisabeth; Sommer, Fabian

    2016-11-15

    The quantification of statistical dependencies in data of critical experiments and how to account for them properly in validation procedures has been discussed in the literature by various groups. However, these subjects are still an active topic in the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) of the OECDNEA Nuclear Science Committee. The latter compiles and publishes the freely available experimental data collection, the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, ICSBEP. Most of the experiments were performed as series and share parts of experimental setups, consequently leading to correlation effects in the results. The correct consideration of correlated data seems to be inevitable if the experimental data in a validation procedure is limited or one cannot rely on a sufficient number of uncorrelated data sets, e.g. from different laboratories using different setups. The general determination of correlations and the underlying covariance data as well as the consideration of them in a validation procedure is the focus of the following work. We discuss and demonstrate possible effects on calculated k{sub eff}'s, their uncertainties, and the corresponding covariance matrices due to interpretation of evaluated experimental data and its translation into calculation models. The work shows effects of various modeling approaches, varying distribution functions of parameters and compares and discusses results from the applied Monte-Carlo sampling method with available data on correlations. Our findings indicate that for the reliable determination of integral experimental covariance matrices or the correlation coefficients a detailed study of the underlying experimental data, the modeling approach and assumptions made, and the resulting sensitivity analysis seems to be inevitable. Further, a Bayesian method is discussed to include integral experimental covariance data when estimating an

  7. A Complex-Geometry Validation Experiment for Advanced Neutron Transport Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Anthony W. LaPorta; Joseph W. Nielsen; James Parry; Mark D. DeHart; Samuel E. Bays; William F. Skerjanc

    2013-11-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a focused effort to upgrade legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols used for support of core fuel management and experiment management in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its companion critical facility (ATRC) at the INL.. This will be accomplished through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate new Verification and Validation (V&V) protocols, over the next 12-18 months. Stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and nuclear data packages that support this effort include MCNP5[1], SCALE/KENO6[2], HELIOS[3], SCALE/NEWT[2], and ATTILA[4]. Furthermore, a capability for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification based on the TSUNAMI[5] system has also been implemented. Finally, we are also evaluating the Serpent[6] and MC21[7] codes, as additional verification tools in the near term as well as for possible applications to full three-dimensional Monte Carlo based fuel management modeling in the longer term. On the experimental side, several new benchmark-quality code validation measurements based on neutron activation spectrometry have been conducted using the ATRC. Results for the first four experiments, focused on neutron spectrum measurements within the Northwest Large In-Pile Tube (NW LIPT) and in the core fuel elements surrounding the NW LIPT and the diametrically opposite Southeast IPT have been reported [8,9]. A fifth, very recent, experiment focused on detailed measurements of the element-to-element core power distribution is summarized here and examples of the use of the measured data for validation of corresponding MCNP5, HELIOS, NEWT, and Serpent computational models using modern least-square adjustment methods are provided.

  8. Social spaces, casual interactions, meaningful exchanges: 'information ground' characteristics based on the college student experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Fisher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the late 1990s Fisher (writing as Pettigrew proposed information grounds to describe social settings in which people share everyday information while attending to a focal activity. Method. This study was conducted at a major research university, home to 45,000 students. Data were collected by seventy-two Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS students as part of an information behaviour class. Trained in interviewing techniques, each MLIS student interviewed ten students in public places, including the campus and the university commercial district. The survey, comprising twenty-seven primarily open-ended questions, was conducted from October 14-21, 2004. Data were collected from 729 college students and entered, along with extensive field notes, into an in-house Web form. Analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were supplemented by mini-reports prepared by the student researchers along with full-team debriefings. Results. Using a 'people, place, information-related trichotomy', characteristics are discussed in terms of how they can be manipulated to optimize information flow in social settings. Conclusion. . By understanding better the characteristics of information grounds and the interactions among these characteristics, we may be able to develop social spaces in support of information flow and human interaction. Our college student and other studies suggest that information grounds play an intrinsic role in facilitating communication among people and that by building an in-depth typology, beginning with basic categorical characteristics, we may develop new methods for facilitating information exchange.

  9. Analysis of Fresh Fuel Critical Experiments Appropriate for Burnup Credit Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The ANS/ANS-8.1 standard requires that calculational methods used in determining criticality safety limits for applications outside reactors be validated by comparison with appropriate critical experiments. This report provides a detailed description of 34 fresh fuel critical experiments and their analyses using the SCALE-4.2 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. The 34 critical experiments were selected based on geometry, material, and neutron interaction characteristics that are applicable to a transportation cask loaded with pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel. These 34 experiments are a representative subset of a much larger data base of low-enriched uranium and mixed-oxide critical experiments. A statistical approach is described and used to obtain an estimate of the bias and uncertainty in the calculational methods and to predict a confidence limit for a calculated neutron multiplication factor. The SCALE-4.2 results for a superset of approximately 100 criticals are included in uncertainty analyses, but descriptions of the individual criticals are not included.

  10. Analysis of fresh fuel critical experiments appropriate for burnup credit validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.; Bowman, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    The ANS/ANS-8.1 standard requires that calculational methods used in determining criticality safety limits for applications outside reactors be validated by comparison with appropriate critical experiments. This report provides a detailed description of 34 fresh fuel critical experiments and their analyses using the SCALE-4.2 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. The 34 critical experiments were selected based on geometry, material, and neutron interaction characteristics that are applicable to a transportation cask loaded with pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel. These 34 experiments are a representative subset of a much larger data base of low-enriched uranium and mixed-oxide critical experiments. A statistical approach is described and used to obtain an estimate of the bias and uncertainty in the calculational methods and to predict a confidence limit for a calculated neutron multiplication factor. The SCALE-4.2 results for a superset of approximately 100 criticals are included in uncertainty analyses, but descriptions of the individual criticals are not included.

  11. Technical Note: Validation of Odin/SMR limb observations of ozone, comparisons with OSIRIS, POAM III, ground-based and balloon-borne instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jégou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Odin satellite carries two instruments capable of determining stratospheric ozone profiles by limb sounding: the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR and the UV-visible spectrograph of the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System instrument. A large number of ozone profiles measurements were performed during six years from November 2001 to present. This ozone dataset is here used to make quantitative comparisons with satellite measurements in order to assess the quality of the Odin/SMR ozone measurements. In a first step, we compare Swedish SMR retrievals version 2.1, French SMR ozone retrievals version 222 (both from the 501.8 GHz band, and the OSIRIS retrievals version 3.0, with the operational version 4.0 ozone product from POAM III (Polar Ozone Atmospheric Measurement. In a second step, we refine the Odin/SMR validation by comparisons with ground-based instruments and balloon-borne observations. We use observations carried out within the framework of the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and balloon flight missions conducted by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA, the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l'Environnement (LPCE, Orléans, France, and the Service d'Aéronomie (SA, Paris, France. Coincidence criteria were 5° in latitude x in 10° longitude, and 5 h in time in Odin/POAM III comparisons, 12 h in Odin/NDACC comparisons, and 72 h in Odin/balloons comparisons. An agreement is found with the POAM III experiment (10–60 km within −0.3±0.2 ppmv (bias±standard deviation for SMR (v222, v2.1 and within −0.5±0.2 ppmv for OSIRIS (v3.0. Odin ozone mixing ratio products are systematically slightly lower than the POAM III data and show an ozone maximum lower by 1–5 km in altitude. The comparisons with the NDACC data (10–34 km for ozonesonde, 10–50 km for lidar, 10–60 for microwave instruments yield a good agreement within −0.15±0.3 ppmv for the SMR data and −0.3±0.3 ppmv

  12. Development and validation of the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradies Yin C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades there has been increasing evidence of a relationship between self-reported racism and health. Although a plethora of instruments to measure racism have been developed, very few have been described conceptually or psychometrically Furthermore, this research field has been limited by a dearth of instruments that examine reactions/responses to racism and by a restricted focus on African American populations. Methods In response to these limitations, the 31-item Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE was developed to assess self-reported racism for Indigenous Australians. This paper describes the development of the MIRE together with an opportunistic examination of its content, construct and convergent validity in a population health study involving 312 Indigenous Australians. Results Focus group research supported the content validity of the MIRE, and inter-item/scale correlations suggested good construct validity. A good fit with a priori conceptual dimensions was demonstrated in factor analysis, and convergence with a separate item on discrimination was satisfactory. Conclusion The MIRE has considerable utility as an instrument that can assess multiple facets of racism together with responses/reactions to racism among indigenous populations and, potentially, among other ethnic/racial groups.

  13. Numerical studies and metric development for validation of magnetohydrodynamic models on the HIT-SI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C., E-mail: hansec@uw.edu [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Victor, B.; Morgan, K.; Hossack, A.; Sutherland, D. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Jarboe, T.; Nelson, B. A. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Marklin, G. [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present application of three scalar metrics derived from the Biorthogonal Decomposition (BD) technique to evaluate the level of agreement between macroscopic plasma dynamics in different data sets. BD decomposes large data sets, as produced by distributed diagnostic arrays, into principal mode structures without assumptions on spatial or temporal structure. These metrics have been applied to validation of the Hall-MHD model using experimental data from the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection experiment. Each metric provides a measure of correlation between mode structures extracted from experimental data and simulations for an array of 192 surface-mounted magnetic probes. Numerical validation studies have been performed using the NIMROD code, where the injectors are modeled as boundary conditions on the flux conserver, and the PSI-TET code, where the entire plasma volume is treated. Initial results from a comprehensive validation study of high performance operation with different injector frequencies are presented, illustrating application of the BD method. Using a simplified (constant, uniform density and temperature) Hall-MHD model, simulation results agree with experimental observation for two of the three defined metrics when the injectors are driven with a frequency of 14.5 kHz.

  14. 2-D Circulation Control Airfoil Benchmark Experiments Intended for CFD Code Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Robert J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Allan, Brian G.; Lin, Johb C.

    2009-01-01

    A current NASA Research Announcement (NRA) project being conducted by Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) personnel and NASA collaborators includes the development of Circulation Control (CC) blown airfoils to improve subsonic aircraft high-lift and cruise performance. The emphasis of this program is the development of CC active flow control concepts for both high-lift augmentation, drag control, and cruise efficiency. A collaboration in this project includes work by NASA research engineers, whereas CFD validation and flow physics experimental research are part of NASA s systematic approach to developing design and optimization tools for CC applications to fixed-wing aircraft. The design space for CESTOL type aircraft is focusing on geometries that depend on advanced flow control technologies that include Circulation Control aerodynamics. The ability to consistently predict advanced aircraft performance requires improvements in design tools to include these advanced concepts. Validation of these tools will be based on experimental methods applied to complex flows that go beyond conventional aircraft modeling techniques. This paper focuses on recent/ongoing benchmark high-lift experiments and CFD efforts intended to provide 2-D CFD validation data sets related to NASA s Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing (CESTOL) study. Both the experimental data and related CFD predictions are discussed.

  15. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  16. Optimal Design and Model Validation for Combustion Experiments in a Shock Tube

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate functions. The control parameters are the initial hydrogen concentration and the temperature. First, we build a polynomial based surrogate model for the observable related to the reactions in the shock tube. Second, we use a novel MAP based approach to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments and select the best experimental set-ups corresponding to the optimal expected information gains. Third, we use the synthetic data to carry out virtual validation of our methodology.

  17. The WATERMED field experiment: validation of the AATSR LST product with in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, E.; Soria, G.; Sobrino, J.; Remedios, J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Corlett, G.

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) onboard ESA's Envisat Satellite, is the third in a series of a precision radiometers designed to measure Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with accuracies of better than ± 0.3 K (within 1-sigma limit). Since its launch in March 2001, a prototype AATSR Land Surface Temperature (LST) product has been produced for validation purposes only, with the product becoming operational from mid-2004. The (A)ATSR instrument design is unique in that it has both a nadir- and a forward-view, allowing the Earth's surface to be viewed along two different atmospheric path lengths, thus enabling an improved atmospheric correction to be made when retrieving surface temperature. It also uses an innovative and exceptionally stable on-board calibration system for its infrared channels, which, together with actively cooled detectors, gives extremely high radiometric sensitivity and precision. In this presentation, results from a comparison of the prototype LST product with ground-based measurements obtained at the WATERMED (WATer use Efficiency in natural vegetation and agricultural areas by Remote sensing in the MEDiterranean basin) field site near Marrakech, Morocco, are presented. The comparison shows that the AATSR has a positive bias of + 1.5 K, with a standard deviation of 0.7 K, indicating that the product is operating within the target specification (± 2.5 K) over the WATERMED field site. However, several anomalous validation points were observed during the analysis and we will discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of these data, including their coincidence with the presence of an Envisat blanking pulse (indicating the presence of a radar pulse at the time of AATSR pixel integration). Further investigation into this matter is required as previous investigations have always indicated that the presence of a payload radar pulse does not have any effect on (A)ATSR data quality.

  18. A Large-Scale Multibody Manipulator Soft Sensor Model and Experiment Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress signal is difficult to obtain in the health monitoring of multibody manipulator. In order to solve this problem, a soft sensor method is presented. In the method, stress signal is considered as dominant variable and angle signal is regarded as auxiliary variable. By establishing the mathematical relationship between them, a soft sensor model is proposed. In the model, the stress information can be deduced by angle information which can be easily measured for such structures by experiments. Finally, test of ground and wall working conditions is done on a multibody manipulator test rig. The results show that the stress calculated by the proposed method is closed to the test one. Thus, the stress signal is easier to get than the traditional method. All of these prove that the model is correct and the method is feasible.

  19. A presentation of ATR processing chain validation procedure of IR terminal guidance version of the AASM modular air-to-ground weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, D.; Quinquis, N.; Broda, G.; Galmiche, F.; Oudyi, F.; Coulon, N.; Cordier, D.; Sonier, C.

    2009-05-01

    Developed by Sagem (SAFRAN Group), the AASM is a modular Air-To-Ground "Fire and Forget" weapon designed to be able to neutralise a large range of targets under all conditions. The AASM is composed of guidance and range enhancement kits that give bombs, already in service, new operational capabilities. AASM Guidance kit exists in two different versions. The IMU/GPS guidance version is able to achieve "ten-meter class" accuracy on target in all weather conditions. The IMU/GPS/IR guidance version is able to achieve "meter class" accuracy on target with poor precision geographic designation or in GPS-denied flight context, thanks to a IR sensor and a complex image processing chain. In this night/day IMU/GPS/IR version, the terminal guidance phase adjusts the missile navigation to the true target by matching the image viewed through the infrared sensor with a target model stored in the missile memory. This model will already have been drawn up on the ground using a mission planning system and, for example, a satellite image. This paper will present the main steps of the procedure applied to qualify the complete image processing chain of the AASM IMU/GPS/IR version, including open-loop validation of ATR algorithms on real and synthetic images, and closed-loop validation using AASM simulation reference model.

  20. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Baumgartner, L K; Miller, D N; Repert, D A; Böhlke, J K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 microM) and ammonium (19 to 625 microM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with (15)N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations.

  1. The influence of faulting on ground movement due to coalmining: the UK and European experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heltewell, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    It has been recognised from the time of the earliest investigations into coal mining subsidence that geological faults can play a significant role in determining the nature of ground movement resulting from coal extraction. However, the limited research undertaken on this aspect has been spasmodic yet wide ranging and has resulted in the findings being published in diverse sources. The paper summarises the evidence and conclusions of observers in the UK and Europe and therefore reveals the present state of knowledge in this aspect of coal mining subsidence. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  2. An overview of experiences of basin artificial recharge of ground water in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Noboru

    In this paper, the author reviews the present situation of basin artificial recharge of ground water (MAR: managed aquifer recharge) as of 2007 in Japan. Most of the artificial recharge of basin method is carried out using alluvial fans. The enhancing groundwater resources in the Rokugo alluvial aquifer has resulted in sustainability for the groundwater environment, especially in the distal fan. As a general judgment, the basin artificial recharge contributes to sustainable aquifer management in alluvium. As a result of this review, the basin artificial recharge will be utilized more in the future, not only in Japan, but in monsoon Asian countries as well.

  3. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  4. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) Manual v.1.2 The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that there is 95% confidence that the POD is greater than 90% (90/95 POD). Design of experiments for validating probability of detection capability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems (DOEPOD) is a methodology that is implemented via software to serve as a diagnostic tool providing detailed analysis of POD test data, guidance on establishing data distribution requirements, and resolving test issues. DOEPOD demands utilization of observance of occurrences. The DOEPOD capability has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields observed POD and confidence bounds for both Hit-Miss or signal amplitude testing. DOEPOD does not assume prescribed POD logarithmic or similar functions with assumed adequacy over a wide range of flaw sizes and inspection system technologies, so that multi-parameter curve fitting or model optimization approaches to generate a POD curve are not required. DOEPOD applications for supporting inspector qualifications is included.

  5. Measuring chronic care management experience of patients with diabetes: PACIC and PACIC+ validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Drewes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The patient assessment of chronic illness care (PACIC is a promising instrument to evaluate the chronic care experiences of patients, yet additional validation is needed to improve its usefulness.Methods: A total of 1941 patients with diabetes completed the questionnaire. Reliability coefficients and factor analyses were used to psychometrically test the PACIC and PACIC+ (i.e., PACIC extended with six additional multidisciplinary team functioning items to improve content validity. Intra-Class Correlations were computed to identify the extent to which variation in scores can be attributed to GP practices. Results: The PACIC and PACIC+ showed a good psychometric quality (Cronbach's alpha's > 0.9. Explorative factor analyses showed inconclusive results. Confirmative factor analysis showed that none of the factor structures had an acceptable fit (RMSEA > 0.10. In addition, 5.1 to 5.4 percent of the total variation was identified at the GP practice level. Conclusion: The PACIC and PACIC+ are reliable instruments to measure the chronic care management experiences of patients. The PACIC+ is preferred because it also includes multidisciplinary coordination and cooperation - one of the central pillars of chronic care management - with good psychometric quality. Previously identified subscales should be used with caution. Both PACIC instruments are useful in identifying GP practice variation.

  6. Decay heat experiment and validation of calculation code systems for fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Wada, Masayuki

    1999-10-01

    Although accurate estimation of decay heat value is essential for safety analyses of fusion reactors against loss of coolant accidents and so on, no experimental work has been devoted to validating the estimation. Hence, a decay heat measurement experiment was performed as a task (T-339) of ITER/EDA. A new detector, the Whole Energy Absorption Spectrometer (WEAS), was developed for accurate and efficient measurements of decay heat. Decay heat produced in the thirty-two sample materials which were irradiated by 14-MeV neutrons at FNS/JAERI were measured with WEAS for a wide cooling time period from 1 min to 400 days. The data presently obtained were the first experimental decay heat data in the field of fusion. Validity of decay heat calculation codes of ACT4 and CINAC-V4, activation cross section libraries of FENDL/A-2.0 and JENDL Activation File, and decay data was investigated through analyses of the experiment. As a result, several points that should be modified were found in the codes and data. After solving the problems, it was demonstrated that decay heat valued calculated for most of samples were in good agreement with the experimental data. Especially for stainless steel 316 and copper, which were important materials for ITER, decay heat could be predicted with accuracy of {+-}10%. (author)

  7. Assessing decentering: validation, psychometric properties, and clinical usefulness of the Experiences Questionnaire in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Franquesa, Alba; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Cebolla, Ausias; García-Campayo, Javier; Tejedor, Rosa; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Portella, Maria J

    2014-11-01

    Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings in a detached manner. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) is a self-report instrument that originally assessed decentering and rumination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of EQ-Decentering and to explore its clinical usefulness. The 11-item EQ-Decentering subscale was translated into Spanish and psychometric properties were examined in a sample of 921 adult individuals, 231 with psychiatric disorders and 690 without. The subsample of nonpsychiatric participants was also split according to their previous meditative experience (meditative participants, n=341; and nonmeditative participants, n=349). Additionally, differences among these three subgroups were explored to determine clinical validity of the scale. Finally, EQ-Decentering was administered twice in a group of borderline personality disorder, before and after a 10-week mindfulness intervention. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable model fit, sbχ(2)=243.8836 (p.46; and divergent validity: r<-.35). The scale detected changes in decentering after a 10-session intervention in mindfulness (t=-4.692, p<.00001). Differences among groups were significant (F=134.8, p<.000001), where psychiatric participants showed the lowest scores compared to nonpsychiatric meditative and nonmeditative participants. The Spanish version of the EQ-Decentering is a valid and reliable instrument to assess decentering either in clinical and nonclinical samples. In addition, the findings show that EQ-Decentering seems an adequate outcome instrument to detect changes after mindfulness-based interventions.

  8. DC-8 and ER-2 in Sweden for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 48 second video shows Dryden's Airborne Science aircraft in Kiruna Sweden in January 2000. The DC-8 and ER-2 conducted atmospheric studies for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE).

  9. Two decades of temperature-time monitoring experiment: air - ground surface - shallow subsurface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Dedecek, Petr; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan

    2014-05-01

    Long-term observations (1994-2013) of air and shallow ground temperatures at borehole Prague-Sporilov (50º02'28.5"E, 14º28'40.2"N, 274 m a.s.l.) have been thoroughly analyzed to understand the relationship between these quantities and to describe the mechanism of heat transport at the land-atmosphere boundary layer. Data provided a surprisingly small mean ground-air temperature offset of only 0.31 K with no clear annual course and with the offset value changing irregularly even on a daily scale. Such value is substantially lower than similar values (1-2 K and more) found elsewhere, but may well characterize a mild temperate zone, when all so far available information referred rather to southern locations. Borehole data were correlated with similar observations in a polygon-site under four types of surface conditions (grass, soil, sand and asphalt) completed with registration of meteorological variables (wind direction & velocity, air & soil humidity, direct & reflected solar radiation, precipitation and snow cover). The "thermal orbits" technique proved to be an effective tool for the fast qualitative diagnostics of the thermal regime in the subsurface (conductive versus non-conductive).

  10. Fascination and Isolation: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Unusual Sensory Experiences in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard S.; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant…

  11. Airborne field experiments and select radiance analysis focused on SNPP validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Tian, Jialin

    2017-02-01

    The Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite began a critical first step in building the next-generation Earth observing satellite system for the US, continuing key environmental data records that are essential for weather forecasting and climate change science. Since its launch in late 2011, two airborne field campaigns have been conducted with a primary focus on SNPP instrument and data product calibration / validation: 1) mid-latitude flights based out of Palmdale, CA during May 2013 (SNPP-1), and 2) flights over Greenland during March 2015 while based out of Keflavik, Iceland (SNPP-2). In addition to under-flying SNPP, aircraft flight profiles were defined to also obtain coincident observations with the NASA A-train (i.e. AQUA), MetOP-A, and MetOP-B advanced sounder satellites (i.e. AIRS, IASI, and CrIS), along with radiosonde and ground truth sites. The NASA LaRC National Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) was one of the key payload sensors aboard the ER-2 aircraft during these campaigns. This presentation gives an overview of the SNPP field campaigns and shows example infrared spectral radiance inter-comparisons involving NAST-I and other measurement assets.

  12. A Rasch scaling validation of a 'core' near-death experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rense; Greyson, Bruce; Houran, James

    2004-05-01

    For those with true near-death experiences (NDEs), Greyson's (1983, 1990) NDE Scale satisfactorily fits the Rasch rating scale model, thus yielding a unidimensional measure with interval-level scaling properties. With increasing intensity, NDEs reflect peace, joy and harmony, followed by insight and mystical or religious experiences, while the most intense NDEs involve an awareness of things occurring in a different place or time. The semantics of this variable are invariant across True-NDErs' gender, current age, age at time of NDE, and latency and intensity of the NDE, thus identifying NDEs as 'core' experiences whose meaning is unaffected by external variables, regardless of variations in NDEs' intensity. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were observed between True-NDErs and other respondent groups, mostly revolving around the differential emphasis on paranormal/mystical/religious experiences vs. standard reactions to threat. The findings further suggest that False-Positive respondents reinterpret other profound psychological states as NDEs. Accordingly, the Rasch validation of the typology proposed by Greyson (1983) also provides new insights into previous research, including the possibility of embellishment over time (as indicated by the finding of positive, as well as negative, latency effects) and the potential roles of religious affiliation and religiosity (as indicated by the qualitative differences surrounding paranormal/mystical/religious issues).

  13. Complementing the Australian Primary School Health and Physical Education (HPE) Curriculum: Exploring Children's HPE Learning Experiences within Varying School Ground Equipment Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon; Mahony, Linda; Te Ava, Aue; Smith, Sue; Nutton, Georgie

    2017-01-01

    This paper unearths how primary school children experience and can complement the Australian HPE curriculum within three unique school ground equipment scenarios that include an "empty", "loose parts" and a "traditional" school ground context. Using direct observation, 490 scans were undertaken of the school grounds…

  14. Engineering practice of reducing ground subsidence by grouting into overburden bed-separated and similar model experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan-fa; ZHONG Ya-ping; LI Jian-min; WANG Su-hua; ZHANG Qing-song

    2007-01-01

    The subsidence prediction theory under the condition of grouting into bedseparated was developed. Reducing ground subsidence by grouting was carried out on eight fully-mechanized top-coal caving faces, by using the continuous grouting in multiple-layer to obtain experiment results of reducing subsidence under fully mining. The similar material model that can be dismantled under the condition of constant temperature and constant humidity was developed. The model was used to simulate the evolution of overburden bed-separated under such constraints of temperature and humidity, at the same time, and to test the hardening process of similar materials.

  15. Ground based experiments on the growth and characterization of L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. M.; Cao, C.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.; Mookherji, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) is a new nonlinear optical material with higher efficiency for harmonic generation compared to KDP. Crystals of LAP were grown in the laboratory from supersaturated solutions by temperature lowering technique. Investigations revealed the presence of large dislocation densities inside the crystals which are observed to produce refractive index changes causing damage at high laser powers. This is a result of the convection during crystal growth from supersaturated solutions. It is proposed to grow these crystals in a diffusion controlled growth condition under microgravity environment and compare the crystals grown in space with those grown on ground. Physical properties of the solutions needed for modelling of crystal growth are also presented.

  16. The effect of randomly earthed ground wires on PLC transmission; A simulation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao Faria, J.A.; Borges da Silva, J.F. (Centro de Electrotecnia da Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, 1096 Lisboa Codex (PT))

    1990-10-01

    Power line ground wires are discretely bonded to earth along the line at each tower. When the spacing between towers is constant and approaches a multiple of one half wavelength at the operating frequency, abrupt variations in the propagation parameters occur, that would affect carrier transmission performance at the vicinity of certain critical frequencies. In practice the spacing between towers is not exactly constant and one may wish to know the result of taking this circumstance into account. The analysis and numerical results presented in this paper show that even slight random perturbations of line periodicity are sufficient to render unnoticeable any sharp variations in attenuation, velocity and surge impedance, one might be led to expect from the analysis of the strictly periodic case.

  17. Results of the second (1996) experiment to lead cranes on migration behind a motorized ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Clauss, B.; Watanabe, T.; Mykut, R.C.; Shawkey, M.; Mummert, D.P.; Sprague, D.T.; Ellis, Catherine H.; Trahan, F.B.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were trained to follow a specially-equipped truck and 12 were led along a ca 620-km route from Camp Navajo in northern Arizona to the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge near the Arizona/Mexico border. Ten survived the trek, 380 km of which were flown, although only a few cranes flew every stage of the route. Major problems during the migration were powerline collisions (ca 15, 2 fatal) and overheating (when air temperatures exceeded ca 25 C). The tenacity of the cranes in following both in 1995 and 1996 under unfavorable conditions (e.g., poor light, extreme dust, or heat) demonstrated that cranes could be led over long distances by motorized vehicles on the ground.

  18. Development and validation of ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from waste spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ponmurugan, Karuppiah; Maran Jeganathan, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    In this current work, Box-Behnken statistical experimental design (BBD) was adopted to evaluate and optimize USLE (ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction) of phytochemicals from spent coffee grounds. Factors employed in this study are ultrasonic power, temperature, time and solid-liquid (SL) ratio. Individual and interactive effect of independent variables over the extraction yield was depicted through mathematical models, which are generated from the experimental data. Determined optimum process conditions are 244W of ultrasonic power, 40°C of temperature, 34min of time and 1:17g/ml of SL ratio. The predicted values were in correlation with experimental values with 95% confidence level, under the determined optimal conditions. This indicates the significance of selected method for USLE of phytochemicals from SCG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Well-characterized open pool experiment data and analysis for model validation and development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, David W.; Brown, Alexander L.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2006-12-01

    Four Well-Characterized Open Pool fires were conducted by Fire Science and Technology Department. The focus of the Well-Characterized Open Pool fire series was to provide environmental information for open pool fires on a physics first principal basis. The experiments measured the burning rate of liquid fuel in an open pool and the resultant heat flux to a weapon-sized object and the surrounding environment with well-characterized boundary and initial conditions. Results presented in this report include a general description of test observation (pre- and post-test), wind measurements, fire plume topology, average fuel recession and heat release rates, and incident heat flux to the pool and to the calorimeters. As expected, results of the experiments show a strong correlation between wind conditions, fuel vaporization (mass loss) rate, and incident heat flux to the fuel and ground surface and calorimeters. Numerical fire simulations using both temporally- and spatially-dependant wind boundary conditions were performed using the Vulcan fire code. Comparisons of data to simulation predictions showed similar trends; however, simulation-predicted incident heat fluxes were lower than measured.

  20. A Blind Test Experiment in Volcano Geodesy: a Benchmark for Inverse Methods of Ground Deformation and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Luca; Fernandez, Jose; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Rivalta, Eleonora; Camacho, Antonio; Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Walter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The inversion of ground deformation and gravity data is affected by an intrinsic ambiguity because of the mathematical formulation of the inverse problem. Current methods for the inversion of geodetic data rely on both parametric (i.e. assuming a source geometry) and non-parametric approaches. The former are able to catch the fundamental features of the ground deformation source but, if the assumptions are wrong or oversimplified, they could provide misleading results. On the other hand, the latter class of methods, even if not relying on stringent assumptions, could suffer from artifacts, especially when dealing with poor datasets. In the framework of the EC-FP7 MED-SUV project we aim at comparing different inverse approaches to verify how they cope with basic goals of Volcano Geodesy: determining the source depth, the source shape (size and geometry), the nature of the source (magmatic/hydrothermal) and hinting the complexity of the source. Other aspects that are important in volcano monitoring are: volume/mass transfer toward shallow depths, propagation of dikes/sills, forecasting the opening of eruptive vents. On the basis of similar experiments already done in the fields of seismic tomography and geophysical imaging, we have devised a bind test experiment. Our group was divided into one model design team and several inversion teams. The model design team devised two physical models representing volcanic events at two distinct volcanoes (one stratovolcano and one caldera). They provided the inversion teams with: the topographic reliefs, the calculated deformation field (on a set of simulated GPS stations and as InSAR interferograms) and the gravity change (on a set of simulated campaign stations). The nature of the volcanic events remained unknown to the inversion teams until after the submission of the inversion results. Here we present the preliminary results of this comparison in order to determine which features of the ground deformation and gravity source

  1. A path of perpetual resilience: exploring the experience of a diabetes-related amputation through grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Wendy; Mortel, Thea F van de; Taylor, Beverly

    2011-08-01

    Little research has been done on the experience of diabetes-related amputation. The aim of this study was to allow amputees to describe their experiences of amputation and to generate grounded theory that will lead health professionals towards a more comprehensive understanding of the realities of post-amputation life. Unstructured interviews were conducted with five participants with a diabetes-related amputation living in a rural setting, and their respective carers. The interviews were analysed using Grounded Theory methods. Data analysis revealed three categories: 'imposed powerlessness', 'adaptive functionality' and 'endurance'. The impact of participant's amputations were influenced by continuing limb problems post-amputation and co-existing complications affecting their physical function. Medical errors and lack of awareness of the risks for diabetic amputations resulted in uncertainty and fear. The participants' sense of grief, loss and shock post operatively continued later as they came to terms with their awkwardness of movement, yet they moved forward developing their own sense of hope through a coping process that revealed remarkable ability to endure and exert control over lives that seemed to be at the whim of an ongoing disease process. The substantive theory resulting from this grounded theory study was conceptualised as 'A Path of Perpetual Resilience'. It is important that psychosocial and not just physical adjustment is considered an indicator for determining outcomes for these people, and that future care involves strategies to promote this. A greater sample size is required to determine if these findings are transferable to the general diabetes-related amputation population.

  2. Validating vignette and conjoint survey experiments against real-world behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Yamamoto, Teppei

    2015-02-24

    Survey experiments, like vignette and conjoint analyses, are widely used in the social sciences to elicit stated preferences and study how humans make multidimensional choices. However, there is a paucity of research on the external validity of these methods that examines whether the determinants that explain hypothetical choices made by survey respondents match the determinants that explain what subjects actually do when making similar choices in real-world situations. This study compares results from conjoint and vignette analyses on which immigrant attributes generate support for naturalization with closely corresponding behavioral data from a natural experiment in Switzerland, where some municipalities used referendums to decide on the citizenship applications of foreign residents. Using a representative sample from the same population and the official descriptions of applicant characteristics that voters received before each referendum as a behavioral benchmark, we find that the effects of the applicant attributes estimated from the survey experiments perform remarkably well in recovering the effects of the same attributes in the behavioral benchmark. We also find important differences in the relative performances of the different designs. Overall, the paired conjoint design, where respondents evaluate two immigrants side by side, comes closest to the behavioral benchmark; on average, its estimates are within 2% percentage points of the effects in the behavioral benchmark.

  3. The CU Airborne MAX-DOAS instrument: ground based validation, and vertical profiling of aerosol extinction and trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baidar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The University of Colorado Airborne Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS instrument uses solar stray light remote sensing to detect and quantify multiple trace gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2, glyoxal (CHOCHO, formaldehyde (HCHO, water vapor (H2O, nitrous acid (HONO, iodine monoxide (IO, bromine monoxide (BrO, and oxygen dimers (O4 at multiple wavelengths (360 nm, 477 nm, 577 nm and 632 nm simultaneously, and sensitively in the open atmosphere. The instrument is unique, in that it presents the first systematic implementation of MAX-DOAS on research aircraft, i.e. (1 includes measurements of solar stray light photons from nadir, zenith, and multiple elevation angles forward and below the plane by the same spectrometer/detector system, and (2 features a motion compensation system that decouples the telescope field of view (FOV from aircraft movements in real-time (< 0.35° accuracy. Sets of solar stray light spectra collected from nadir to zenith scans provide some vertical profile information within 2 km above and below the aircraft altitude, and the vertical column density (VCD below the aircraft is measured in nadir view. Maximum information about vertical profiles is derived simultaneously for trace gas concentrations and aerosol extinction coefficients over similar spatial scales and with a vertical resolution of typically 250 m during aircraft ascent/descent.

    The instrument is described, and data from flights over California during the CalNex and CARES air quality field campaigns is presented. Horizontal distributions of NO2 VCDs (below the aircraft maps are sampled with typically 1 km resolution, and show good agreement with two ground based CU MAX-DOAS instruments (slope 0.95 ± 0.09, R2 = 0.86. As a case study vertical profiles of NO2, CHOCHO, HCHO, and H2O mixing ratios and aerosol extinction coefficients

  4. The CU Airborne MAX-DOAS instrument: ground based validation, and vertical profiling of aerosol extinction and trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidar, S.; Oetjen, H.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2012-09-01

    The University of Colorado Airborne Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument uses solar stray light remote sensing to detect and quantify multiple trace gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), formaldehyde (HCHO), water vapor (H2O), nitrous acid (HONO), iodine monoxide (IO), bromine monoxide (BrO), and oxygen dimers (O4) at multiple wavelengths (360 nm, 477 nm, 577 nm and 632 nm) simultaneously, and sensitively in the open atmosphere. The instrument is unique, in that it presents the first systematic implementation of MAX-DOAS on research aircraft, i.e. (1) includes measurements of solar stray light photons from nadir, zenith, and multiple elevation angles forward and below the plane by the same spectrometer/detector system, and (2) features a motion compensation system that decouples the telescope field of view (FOV) from aircraft movements in real-time (CHOCHO, HCHO, and H2O mixing ratios and aerosol extinction coefficients, ɛ, at 477nm calculated from O4 measurements from a low approach at Brackett airfield inside the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) are presented. These profiles contain ~ 12 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 3.5 km altitude range, independent of signal-to-noise at which the trace gas is detected. The boundary layer NO2 concentration, and the integral aerosol extinction over height (aerosol optical depth, AOD) agrees well with nearby ground-based in-situ NO2 measurement, and AERONET station. The detection limits of NO2, CHOCHO, HCHO, ɛ360, ɛ477 from 30 s integration time spectra recorded forward of the plane are 5 ppt, 3 ppt, 100 ppt, 0.004 km-1, 0.002 km-1 in the free troposphere (FT), and 30 ppt, 16 ppt, 540 ppt, 0.012 km-1, 0.006 km-1 inside the boundary layer (BL), respectively. Mobile column observations of trace gases and aerosols are complimentary to in-situ observations, and help bridge the spatial scales probed by ground-based observations, satellites, and predicted by atmospheric

  5. Verification and Validation of Requirements on the CEV Parachute Assembly System Using Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Peter Z.; Moore, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project conducts computer simulations to verify that flight performance requirements on parachute loads and terminal rate of descent are met. Design of Experiments (DoE) provides a systematic method for variation of simulation input parameters. When implemented and interpreted correctly, a DoE study of parachute simulation tools indicates values and combinations of parameters that may cause requirement limits to be violated. This paper describes one implementation of DoE that is currently being developed by CPAS, explains how DoE results can be interpreted, and presents the results of several preliminary studies. The potential uses of DoE to validate parachute simulation models and verify requirements are also explored.

  6. The Validity of the Weizsacker-Williams Approximation and the Analysis of Beam Dump Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Miller, Gerald A

    2016-01-01

    Beam dump experiments have been aimed at searching for new particles or putting constraint limits on their existence by comparing null results with expectations based on the cross section calculated using the Weizsacker-Williams (WW) and other approximations to simplify the phase space integral and amplitude calculation. We examine the validity of the widely used WW approximation along with other popular assumptions. Using scalar boson production as an example, we perform the complete calculation to obtain the cross section and the resulting number of particles produced without such approximations, apply these results to exclusion plot and data fitting, and examine the error when using these commonly used approximations. We find that there could be more than 100\\% errors in cross sections and 20\\% errors in exclusion plot boundaries for certain parameters. In the event of a discovery, the mass and coupling of the new boson as determined by the approximate and exact calculations could differ at more than the $...

  7. NIMROD validation using 3-axis probe data from the TCSU experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Richard; Velas, Katherine

    2013-10-01

    Recent analysis the data from a 3-axis translatable magnetic probe on the TCSU experiment has revealed new details of the magnetic structure of rotating magnetic field (RMF) sustained FRCs. This data was acquired from TCSU just prior to its shutdown in 2011. This analysis which reveals the 3D structure of the magnetic field shows the field lines are opened and relatively short with even-parity current drive, but can be much longer with odd-parity current drive. A torque analysis has revealed new details about the flow of magnetic torque due to both the RMF field and the steady component of the field. This detailed magnetic data provides a good platform for the validation of numerical simulations, and will be compared with predictions from the NIMROD code, which has been adapted to simulate the formation and sustainment of FRCs using Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF).

  8. Development of a monitoring tool to validate trigger level analysis in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Artur

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes my thirteen week summer student project at CERN from June 30th until September 26th of 2014. My task was to contribute to a monitoring tool for the ATLAS experiment, comparing jets reconstructed by the trigger to fully offline reconstructed and saved events by creating a set of insightful histograms to be used during run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider, planned to start in early 2015. The motivation behind this project is to validate the use of data taken solely from the high level trigger for analysis purposes. Once the code generating the plots was completed, it was tested on data collected during run 1 up to the year 2012 and Monte Carlo simulated events with center-of-mass energies ps = 8TeV and ps = 14TeV.

  9. Continuously revised assurance cases with stakeholders’ cross-validation: a DEOS experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Kuramitsu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, assurance cases have received much attention in the field of software-based computer systems and IT services. However, software changes very often, and there are no strong regulations for software. These facts are two main challenges to be addressed in the development of software assurance cases. We propose a method of developing assurance cases by means of continuous revision at every stage of the system life cycle, including in operation and service recovery in failure cases. Instead of a regulator, dependability arguments are validated by multiple stakeholders competing with each other. This paper reported our experience with the proposed method in the case of Aspen education service. The case study demonstrates that continuous revisions enable stakeholders to share dependability problems across software life cycle stages, which will lead to the long-term improvement of service dependability.

  10. ER-2 #809 on the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) with pilot Dee Porter prepari

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin pilot Dee Porter climbs up the ladder wearing a heavy tan pressure suit, preparing to board NASA ER-2 #809 at Kiruna, Sweden, for the third flight in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. Assisting him is Jim Sokolik, a Lockheed Martin life support technician. Number 809, one of Dryden's two high-flying ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft, a civilian variant of Lockheed's U-2, and another NASA flying laboratory, Dryden's DC-8, were based north of the Arctic Circle in Kiruna, Sweden during the winter of 2000 to study ozone depletion as part of the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). A large hangar built especially for research, 'Arena Arctica' housed the instrumented aircraft and the scientists. Scientists have observed unusually low levels of ozone over the Arctic during recent winters, raising concerns that ozone depletion there could become more widespread as in the Antarctic ozone hole. The NASA-sponsored international mission took place between November 1999 and March 2000 and was divided into three phases. The DC-8 was involved in all three phases returning to Dryden between each phase. The ER-2 flew sample collection flights between January and March, remaining in Sweden from Jan. 9 through March 16. 'The collaborative campaign will provide an immense new body of information about the Arctic stratosphere,' said program scientist Dr. Michael Kurylo, NASA Headquarters. 'Our understanding of the Earth's ozone will be greatly enhanced by this research.' ER-2s bearing tail numbers 806 and 809 are used as airborne science platforms by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main

  11. ER-2 #809 on the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) with pilot Dee Porter prepari

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin pilot Dee Porter climbs up the ladder wearing a heavy tan pressure suit, preparing to board NASA ER-2 #809 at Kiruna, Sweden, for the third flight in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. Assisting him is Jim Sokolik, a Lockheed Martin life support technician. Number 809, one of Dryden's two high-flying ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft, a civilian variant of Lockheed's U-2, and another NASA flying laboratory, Dryden's DC-8, were based north of the Arctic Circle in Kiruna, Sweden during the winter of 2000 to study ozone depletion as part of the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). A large hangar built especially for research, 'Arena Arctica' housed the instrumented aircraft and the scientists. Scientists have observed unusually low levels of ozone over the Arctic during recent winters, raising concerns that ozone depletion there could become more widespread as in the Antarctic ozone hole. The NASA-sponsored international mission took place between November 1999 and March 2000 and was divided into three phases. The DC-8 was involved in all three phases returning to Dryden between each phase. The ER-2 flew sample collection flights between January and March, remaining in Sweden from Jan. 9 through March 16. 'The collaborative campaign will provide an immense new body of information about the Arctic stratosphere,' said program scientist Dr. Michael Kurylo, NASA Headquarters. 'Our understanding of the Earth's ozone will be greatly enhanced by this research.' ER-2s bearing tail numbers 806 and 809 are used as airborne science platforms by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main

  12. Lung Motion Model Validation Experiments, Free-Breathing Tissue Densitometry, and Ventilation Mapping using Fast Helical CT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hsiang-Tai

    geometries, employed as ground truth data. Image similarity between the simulated and ground truth scans was evaluated. The model validation experiments were conducted in a patient cohort of seventeen patients to assess the model robustness and inter-patient variation. The model error averaged over multiple tracked positions from several breathing cycles was found to be on the order of one millimeter. In modeling the density change under free breathing condition, the determinant of Jacobian matrix from the registration-derived deformation vector field yielded volume change information of the lung tissues. Correlation of the Jacobian values to the corresponding voxel Housfield units (HU) reveals that the density variation for the majority of lung tissues can be very well described by mass conservation relationship. Different tissue types were identified and separately modeled. Large trials of validation experiments were performed. The averaged deviation between the modeled and the reference lung density was 30 HU, which was estimated to be the background CT noise level. In characterizing the lung ventilation function, a novel method was developed to determine the extent of lung tissue volume change. Information on volume change was derived from the deformable image registration of the fast helical CT images in terms of Jacobian values with respect to a reference image. Assuming the multiple volume change measurements are independently and identically distributed, statistical formulation was derived to model ventilation distribution of each lung voxels and empirical minimum and maximum probability distribution of the Jacobian values was computed. Ventilation characteristic was evaluated as the difference of the expectation value from these extremal distributions. The resulting ventilation map was compared with an independently obtained ventilation image derived directly from the lung intensities and good correlation was found using statistical test. In addition, dynamic

  13. Validating under-resolved turbulence intensities for PIV experiments in canonical wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Kevin; Monty, J. P.; Hutchins, N.

    2016-08-01

    The discrepancy between measured turbulence intensity obtained from experiments in wall-bounded turbulence and the fully resolved reference results (usually from DNS datasets) are often attributed to spatial resolution issues, especially in PIV measurements due to the presence of spatial averaging within the interrogation region/volume. In many cases, in particular at high Reynolds numbers (where there is a lack of DNS data), there is no attempt to verify that this is the case. There is a risk that attributing unexpected PIV statistics to spatial resolution, without careful checks, could mask wider problems with the experimental setup or test facility. Here, we propose a robust technique to validate the under-resolved PIV obtained turbulence intensity profiles for canonical wall-bounded turbulence. This validation scheme is independent of Reynolds number and does not rely on empirical functions. It is based on arguments that (1) the viscous-scaled small-scale turbulence energy is invariant with Reynolds number and that (2) the spatially under-resolved measurement is sufficient to capture the large-scale energy. This then suggests that we can estimate the missing energy from volume-filtered DNS data at much lower Reynolds numbers. Good agreement is found between the experimental results and estimation profiles for all three velocity components, demonstrating that the estimation tool successfully computes the missing energy for given spatial resolutions over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. A database for a canonical turbulent boundary layer and associated MATLAB function are provided that enable this missing energy to be calculated across a range of interrogation volume sizes, so that users do not require access to raw DNS data. This methodology and tool will provide PIV practitioners, investigating canonical wall-bounded turbulent flow with a convenient check of the effects of spatial resolution on a given experiment.

  14. Context, Experience, Expectation, and Action—Towards an Empirically Grounded, General Model for Analyzing Biographical Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Reiter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a general, empirically grounded model for analyzing biographical uncertainty. The model is based on findings from a qualitative-explorative study of transforming meanings of unemployment among young people in post-Soviet Lithuania. In a first step, the particular features of the uncertainty puzzle in post-communist youth transitions are briefly discussed. A historical event like the collapse of state socialism in Europe, similar to the recent financial and economic crisis, is a generator of uncertainty par excellence: it undermines the foundations of societies and the taken-for-grantedness of related expectations. Against this background, the case of a young woman and how she responds to the novel threat of unemployment in the transition to the world of work is introduced. Her uncertainty management in the specific time perspective of certainty production is then conceptually rephrased by distinguishing three types or levels of biographical uncertainty: knowledge, outcome, and recognition uncertainty. Biographical uncertainty, it is argued, is empirically observable through the analysis of acting and projecting at the biographical level. The final part synthesizes the empirical findings and the conceptual discussion into a stratification model of biographical uncertainty as a general tool for the biographical analysis of uncertainty phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100120

  15. Lifting off the Ground to Return Anew: Mediated Praxis, Transformative Learning, and Social Design Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Kris D.; Vossoughi, Shirin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines a praxis model of teacher education and advances a new method for engaging novice teachers in reflective practice and robust teacher learning. Social design experiments--cultural historical formations designed to promote transformative learning for adults and children--are organized around expansive notions of learning and…

  16. Growing a Professional Identity: A Grounded Theory of the Educational Experience of Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodolf, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experience high levels of stress while enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. Research has focused on the contributors of stress such as the responsibilities of patient care, the overwhelming amount of information, high stakes methods of evaluation, and rigorous course schedules. Little research has been found on the personal…

  17. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    Hydrochemical evaluation is a complex type of work that is carried out by specialists. The outcome of this work is generally presented as qualitative models and process descriptions of a site. To support and help to quantify the processes in an objective way, a multivariate mathematical tool entitled M3 (Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations) has been constructed. The computer code can be used to trace the origin of the groundwater, and to calculate the mixing proportions and mass balances from groundwater data. The M3 code is a groundwater response model, which means that changes in the groundwater chemistry in terms of sources and sinks are traced in relation to an ideal mixing model. The complexity of the measured groundwater data determines the configuration of the ideal mixing model. Deviations from the ideal mixing model are interpreted as being due to reactions. Assumptions concerning important mineral phases altering the groundwater or uncertainties associated with thermodynamic constants do not affect the modelling because the calculations are solely based on the measured groundwater composition. M3 uses the opposite approach to that of many standard hydrochemical models. In M3, mixing is evaluated and calculated first. The constituents that cannot be described by mixing are described by reactions. The M3 model consists of three steps: the first is a standard principal component analysis, followed by mixing and finally mass balance calculations. The measured groundwater composition can be described in terms of mixing proportions (%), while the sinks and sources of an element associated with reactions are reported in mg/L. This report contains a set of verification and validation exercises with the intention of building confidence in the use of the M3 methodology. At the same time, clear answers are given to questions related to the accuracy and the precision of the results, including the inherent uncertainties and the errors that can be made

  18. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    Hydrochemical evaluation is a complex type of work that is carried out by specialists. The outcome of this work is generally presented as qualitative models and process descriptions of a site. To support and help to quantify the processes in an objective way, a multivariate mathematical tool entitled M3 (Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations) has been constructed. The computer code can be used to trace the origin of the groundwater, and to calculate the mixing proportions and mass balances from groundwater data. The M3 code is a groundwater response model, which means that changes in the groundwater chemistry in terms of sources and sinks are traced in relation to an ideal mixing model. The complexity of the measured groundwater data determines the configuration of the ideal mixing model. Deviations from the ideal mixing model are interpreted as being due to reactions. Assumptions concerning important mineral phases altering the groundwater or uncertainties associated with thermodynamic constants do not affect the modelling because the calculations are solely based on the measured groundwater composition. M3 uses the opposite approach to that of many standard hydrochemical models. In M3, mixing is evaluated and calculated first. The constituents that cannot be described by mixing are described by reactions. The M3 model consists of three steps: the first is a standard principal component analysis, followed by mixing and finally mass balance calculations. The measured groundwater composition can be described in terms of mixing proportions (%), while the sinks and sources of an element associated with reactions are reported in mg/L. This report contains a set of verification and validation exercises with the intention of building confidence in the use of the M3 methodology. At the same time, clear answers are given to questions related to the accuracy and the precision of the results, including the inherent uncertainties and the errors that can be made

  19. Validation of SCIAMACHY NO2 Vertical Column Densities with Mt.Cimone and Stara Zagora Ground-Based Zenith Sky DOAS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, I.; Petritoli, A.; Werner, R.; Valev, D.; Atanasov, At.; Bortoli, D.; Markova, T.; Ravegnani, F.; Palazzi, E.; Giovanelli, G.

    2004-08-01

    Ground-based zenith sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements performed by means of GASCOD instruments at Mt. Cimone (44N 11E), Italy and Stara Zagora (42N, 25E), Bulgaria are used for validation of SCIAMACHY NO2 vertical column density (vcd) of ESA SCI_NL product retrieved with 5.01 processor version. The results presented in this work regard satellite data for the JulyDecember 2002 period. On this base it is concluded that during summer-autumn period the overall NO2 vcd above both stations is fairly well reproduced by the SCIAMACHY data, while towards the winter period they deviate from the seasonal behaviour of NO2 vcd derived at both stations

  20. In Pursuit of Improving Airburst and Ground Damage Predictions: Recent Advances in Multi-Body Aerodynamic Testing and Computational Tools Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gulhan, Ali; Aftosmis, Michael; Brock, Joseph; Mathias, Donovan; Need, Dominic; Rodriguez, David; Seltner, Patrick; Stern, Eric; Wiles, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    An airburst from a large asteroid during entry can cause significant ground damage. The damage depends on the energy and the altitude of airburst. Breakup of asteroids into fragments and their lateral spread have been observed. Modeling the underlying physics of fragmented bodies interacting at hypersonic speeds and the spread of fragments is needed for a true predictive capability. Current models use heuristic arguments and assumptions such as pancaking or point source explosive energy release at pre-determined altitude or an assumed fragmentation spread rate to predict airburst damage. A multi-year collaboration between German Aerospace Center (DLR) and NASA has been established to develop validated computational tools to address the above challenge.

  1. On the selection and validation of biological treatment processes. The GDF experience; Le choix et la validation des procedes de traitement biologique. L`experience de GDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druelle, V. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The biological treatment process was selected by Gaz de France (GDF), the French national gas utility, for the de-pollution of an old gas works where the main pollutants are coal tars containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Microorganism-based biological treatment techniques may involve bio-reactors, static ground knolls (where oxygen is brought through drains) and dynamic knolls (where oxygenation is carried out by turning up the soil). Issues on sampling, sorting, process testing, site preparation, process control, etc. are reviewed

  2. Study of two-phase flows in reduced gravity using ground based experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasavada, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sun, X. [Ohio State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbus, OH (United States); Duval, W. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Fluid Physics and Transport Branch, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Experimental studies have been carried out to support the development of a framework of the two-fluid model along with an interfacial area transport equation applicable to reduced gravity two-phase flows. The experimental study simulates the reduced gravity condition in ground based facilities by using two immiscible liquids of similar density namely, water as the continuous phase and Therminol 59 {sup registered} as the dispersed phase. We have acquired a total of eleven data sets in the bubbly flow and bubbly to slug flow transition regimes. These flow conditions have area-averaged void (volume) fractions ranging from 3 to 30% and channel Reynolds number for the continuous phase between 2,900 and 8,800. Flow visualization has been performed and a flow regime map developed which is compared with relevant bubbly to slug flow regime transition criteria. The comparison shows that the transition boundary is well predicted by the criterion based on critical void fraction. The value of the critical void fraction at transition was experimentally determined to be approximately 25%. In addition, important two-phase flow local parameters, including the void fraction, interfacial area concentration, droplet number frequency and droplet velocity, have been acquired at two axial locations using state-of-the-art multi-sensor conductivity probe. The radial profiles and axial development of the two-phase flow parameters show that the coalescence mechanism is enhanced by either increasing the continuous or dispersed phase Reynolds number. Evidence of turbulence induced particle interaction mechanism is highlighted. The data presented in this paper clearly show the marked differences in terms of bubble (droplet) size, phase distribution and phase interaction in two-phase flow between normal and reduced gravity conditions. (orig.)

  3. The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Phiona Martin; Antoni Barnard

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations.Research purpose: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in maledominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths.Motivation for the study: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more fe...

  4. Forward Modeling and validation of a new formulation to compute self-potential signals associated with ground water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolève

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical formulation of the coupled hydroelectrical flow in porous media is based on a linear formulation of two coupled constitutive equations for the electrical current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase and obeying Onsager's reciprocity. This formulation shows that the streaming current density is controlled by the gradient of the fluid pressure of the water phase and a streaming current coupling coefficient that depends on the so-called zeta potential. Recently a new formulation has been introduced in which the streaming current density is directly connected to the seepage velocity of the water phase and to the excess of electrical charge per unit pore volume in the porous material. The advantages of this formulation are numerous. First this new formulation is more intuitive not only in terms of establishing a constitutive equation for the generalized Ohm's law but also in specifying boundary conditions for the influence of the flow field upon the streaming potential. With the new formulation, the streaming potential coupling coefficient shows a decrease of its magnitude with permeability in agreement with published results. The new formulation has been extended in the inertial laminar flow regime and to unsaturated conditions with applications to the vadose zone. This formulation is suitable to model self-potential signals in the field. We investigate infiltration of water from an agricultural ditch, vertical infiltration of water into a sinkhole, and preferential horizontal flow of ground water in a paleochannel. For the three cases reported in the present study, a good match is obtained between finite element simulations performed and field observations. Thus, this formulation could be useful for the inverse mapping of the geometry of groundwater flow from self-potential field measurements.

  5. Towards a first ground-based validation of aerosol optical depths from Sentinel-2 over the complex topography of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Valerio; Cremonese, Edoardo; Diémoz, Henri; Siani, Anna Maria

    2017-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is spending notable effort to put in operation a new generation of advanced Earth-observation satellites, the Sentinel constellation. In particular, the Sentinel-2 host an instrumental payload mainly consisting in a MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) imaging sensor, capable of acquiring high-resolution imagery of the Earth surface and atmospheric reflectance at selected spectral bands, hence providing complementary measurements to ground-based radiometric stations. The latter can provide reference data for validating the estimates from spaceborne instruments such as Sentinel-2A (operating since October 2015), whose aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values, can be obtained from correcting SWIR (2190 nm) reflectance with an improved dense dark vegetation (DDV) algorithm. In the Northwestern European Alps (Saint-Christophe, 45.74°N, 7.36°E) a Prede POM-02 sun/sky aerosol photometer has been operating for several years within the EuroSkyRad network by the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta), gathering direct sun and diffuse sky radiance for retrieving columnar aerosol optical properties. This aerosol optical depth (AOD) dataset represents an optimal ground-truth for the corresponding Sentinel-2 estimates obtained with the Sen2cor processor in the challenging environment of the Alps (complex topography, snow-covered surfaces). We show the deviations between the two measurement series and propose some corrections to enhance the overall accuracy of satellite estimates.

  6. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam. BKC 44306 PMDI-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rao, Rekha Ranjana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shelden, Bion [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Hern, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Celina, Mathias Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russick, Edward Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hileman, Michael Bryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Kyle Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, David Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  7. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O' Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  8. Validating a dust production model by field experiment in Mu Us Desert, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Field experiments of dust production have been seldom performed in Chinese deserts that are identified as one of main dust sources in the world, and such an experiment to validate a dust production model (DPM) has not been made in China until now. Saltation flux, dust emission flux, surface features and meteorological parameters (U*, Z0, Ri, etc.) were investigated in Mu Us Desert of China to verify the DPM model and accumulate dust emission data during the spring of 2002. It indicates that observed saltation fluxes from 0.07 to 8.00 g·m-1·s-1 are in good agreement with the ones predicted by the DPM model when the constant of the saltation flux equation is tuned to about 2.61, which corresponds to wind friction velocities from 0.26 to 0.35 m·s-1. Unfortunately, during three local dust emission events, the observed dust fluxes are from 1 to 3μg· m-2· s-1, lower than the modeled ones, implying that the model needs to be improved further under lower wind velocity. In comparison with data from a sandy soil with physical crust and a loam soil, saltation fluxes of the loose sandy soil in Mu Us Desert are obviously higher, which suggests that deserts and sandy land with desertification are major dust sources in northern China.

  9. "Coercion Experience Scale" (CES - validation of a questionnaire on coercive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flammer Erich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the authors of a Cochrane Review on seclusion and mechanical restraint concluded that "there is a surprising and shocking lack of published trials" on coercive interventions in psychiatry, there are only few instruments that can be applied in trials. Furthermore, as main outcome variable safety, psychopathological symptoms, and duration of an intervention cannot meet the demand to indicate subjective suffering and impact relevant to posttraumatic stress syndromes. An instrument used in controlled trials should assess the patients' subjective experiences, needs to be applicable to more than one intervention in order to compare different coercive measures and has to account for the specific psychiatric context. Methods The primary version of the questionnaire comprised 44 items, nine items on restrictions to human rights, developed on a clinical basis, and 35 items on stressors, derived from patients' comments during the pilot phase of the study. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA using principal axis factoring (PAF was carried out. The resulting factors were orthogonally rotated via VARIMAX procedure. Items with factor loadings less than .50 were eliminated. The reliability of the subscales was assessed by calculating Cronbach. Results Data of 102 patients was analysed. The analysis yielded six factors which were entitled "Humiliation", "Physical adverse effects", "Separation", "Negative environment", "Fear" and "Coercion". These six factors explained 54.5% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha ranged from .67 to .93, which can be interpreted as a high internal consistency. Convergent and discriminant validity yielded both highly significant results (r = .79, p Conclusions The "Coercion Experience Scale" is an instrument to measure the psychological impact during psychiatric coercive interventions. Its psychometric properties showed satisfying reliability and validity. For purposes of research it can be used to

  10. Managing preconceived expectations: mental health service users experiences of going home from hospital: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, B; Callaghan, P; Higgins, A

    2015-11-01

    What is known on the subject? The time of discharge from a mental health hospital can be challenging for mental health service users, with high rates of readmission in the immediate months following discharge. Although some research exists that explores service users' perspectives of being discharged, little evidence exists that explores the processes influencing or used by service users' to adapt to the transition from in-patient acute mental health service. What this papers adds to existing knowledge? The findings of this grounded theory study demonstrates the strategies service users used to managed their own, as well as their social audiences, preconceived expectations arising from their new identity as 'psychiatric patients' following their discharge from hospital. While there is a move to develop recovery-orientated mental health services, key indicators of recovery-oriented practices were often absent from service users' experiences of service provision. What are the implications for practice? Nurses and other mental health professionals need to recognize their contribution to the architecture of stigma that transcends the physical structures of hospital or ward and are entrenched within attitudes, interactions and practices. The findings of this study can provide guidance to those working with service users and help them to understand the complexities of their experiences when using mental health services, which go far beyond the management of their symptoms. Following a period of hospitalization, the transition to home can result in increased vulnerability and a source of stress for mental health service users. Readmission rates have been suggested as one indicator of the success of the transition from hospital to community care. Despite knowledge of some of the factors that impact on service users following discharge, no coherent model or theoretical framework could be located in the literature, which explains or aides an in-depth understanding of the

  11. Validation of Cross Sections with Criticality Experiment and Reaction Rates: the Neptunium Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Le Naour, C.; Stéphan, C.; Paradela, C.; Tarrío, D.; Duran, I.

    2014-04-01

    The 237Np neutron-induced fission cross section has been recently measured in a large energy range (from eV to GeV) at the n_TOF facility at CERN. When compared to previous measurements the n_TOF fission cross section appears to be higher by 5-7% beyond the fission threshold. To check the relevance of the n_TOF data, we considered a criticality experiment performed at Los Alamos with a 6 kg sphere of 237Np, surrounded by uranium highly enriched in 235U so as to approach criticality with fast neutrons. The multiplication factor keff of the calculation is in better agreement with the experiment when we replace the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation of the 237Np fission cross section by the n_TOF data. We also explored the hypothesis of deficiencies of the inelastic cross section in 235U which has been invoked by some authors to explain the deviation of 750 pcm. The large modification needed to reduce the deviation seems to be incompatible with existing inelastic cross section measurements. Also we show that the νbar of 237Np can hardly be incriminated because of the high accuracy of the existing data. Fission rate ratios or averaged fission cross sections measured in several fast neutron fields seem to give contradictory results on the validation of the 237Np cross section but at least one of the benchmark experiments, where the active deposits have been well calibrated for the number of atoms, favors the n_TOF data set. These outcomes support the hypothesis of a higher fission cross section of 237Np.

  12. Proof-of-Concept of a Networked Validation Environment for Distributed Air/Ground NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, James; Larson, Natalie; Nelson, Justin; Reed, Joshua; Suggs, Marvin; Underwood, Matthew; Papelis, Yiannis; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) must be improved to increase capacity, reduce flight delays, and minimize environmental impacts of air travel. NASA has been tasked with aiding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in NAS modernization. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology that is fundamental to realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Despite the 2020 FAA mandate requiring ADS-B Out equipage, airspace users are lacking incentives to equip with the requisite ADS-B avionics. A need exists to validate in flight tests advanced concepts of operation (ConOps) that rely on ADS-B and other data links without requiring costly equipage. A potential solution is presented in this paper. It is possible to emulate future data link capabilities using the existing in-flight Internet and reduced-cost test equipment. To establish proof-of-concept, a high-fidelity traffic operations simulation was modified to include a module that simulated Internet transmission of ADS-B messages. An advanced NASA ConOp, Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), was used to evaluate technical feasibility. A preliminary assessment of the effects of latency and dropout rate on FIM was performed. Flight hardware that would be used by proposed test environment was connected to the simulation so that data transfer from aircraft systems to test equipment could be verified. The results indicate that the FIM ConOp, and therefore, many other advanced ConOps with equal or lesser response characteristics and data requirements, can be evaluated in flight using the proposed concept.

  13. Validation and Application of Skeletochronology for Age Determination of the Ryukyu Ground Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata:Eublepharidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takaki KURITA; Mamoru TODA

    2013-01-01

    Skeletochronology is a method commonly used for estimating the age of amphibians and reptiles in the wild. However, the number of lines of arrested growth (LAGs) does not necessarily relfect age in some species. We validated the applicability of this method to an endangered eublepharid gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae, then inferred its longevity and age structures in wild populations. We classiifed young geckos into three groups using previously published data for early growth:Group 1 contained hatchlings before the ifrst winter, Group 2 contained hatchlings after the ifrst win-ter, and Group 3 included yearlings after the second winter. LAG numbers in these groups were then compared. All individuals in Group 1 possessed a single LAG, which was considered as a hatching line. Most individuals in Groups 2 and 3 possessed one and two additional LAGs, respectively (LAG1 and LAG2), corroborating the notion that LAGs are formed annually. A few geckos exhibited fewer LAGs than expected. Analysis of variations in LAG and marrow cavity diameter demonstrated that in animals with fewer LAGs, endosteal resorption or fusion of hatching line and LAG1 had occurred. LAG2 was never lost by endosteal resorption and was identiifable by its diameter. Thus, the age of adult geckos could be determined by counting LAGs outward from LAG2. Application of this method to wild populations re-vealed that the longevity of this species is not less than 83 months, but that almost all individuals in fragmented habitats die before 50 months, suggesting lower population sustainability in such habitats.

  14. Validation of the Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Variability: Can Manual Segmentations Be Trusted as Ground Truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburger, Kristen M; Molinari, Filippo; Wong, Justin; Aguilar, Luis; Gallo, Diego; Steinman, David A; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    The common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is widely accepted and used as an indicator of atherosclerosis. Recent studies, however, have found that the irregularity of the IMT along the carotid artery wall has a stronger correlation with atherosclerosis than the IMT itself. We set out to validate IMT variability (IMTV), a parameter defined to assess IMT irregularities along the wall. In particular, we analyzed whether or not manual segmentations of the lumen-intima and media-adventitia can be considered reliable in calculation of the IMTV parameter. To do this, we used a total of 60 simulated ultrasound images with a priori IMT and IMTV values. The images, simulated using the Fast And Mechanistic Ultrasound Simulation software, presented five different morphologies, four nominal IMT values and three different levels of variability along the carotid artery wall (no variability, small variability and large variability). Three experts traced the lumen-intima (LI) and media-adventitia (MA) profiles, and two automated algorithms were employed to obtain the LI and MA profiles. One expert also re-traced the LI and MA profiles to test intra-reader variability. The average IMTV measurements of the profiles used to simulate the longitudinal B-mode images were 0.002 ± 0.002, 0.149 ± 0.035 and 0.286 ± 0.068 mm for the cases of no variability, small variability and large variability, respectively. The IMTV measurements of one of the automated algorithms were statistically similar (p > 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank) when considering small and large variability, but non-significant when considering no variability (p truth. On the other hand, our automated algorithm was found to be more reliable, indicating how automated techniques could therefore foster analysis of the carotid artery intima-media thickness irregularity.

  15. Development and validity of the questionnaire of patients' experiences in postacute outpatient physical therapy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena; Martínez-Payá, Jacinto Javier; Lillo-Navarro, María Carmen; Escolar-Reina, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    Patient feedback surveys are increasingly seen as a key component of health care quality monitoring and improvement. The study objective was to describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a fixed-length questionnaire about the experiences of patients receiving physical therapist treatment in postacute outpatient settings. This was an instrument development study with validity and reliability testing. A total of 465 participants attending 3 rehabilitation centers for musculoskeletal conditions completed the questionnaire. A cognitive pretest was applied to the draft version (n=94), and a revised version was evaluated for test-retest reliability (n=90). Analyses to evaluate variance and nonresponse rates for items, the factor structure of the questionnaire, and the metric properties of multi-item scales were conducted. Exploratory factor analyses yielded evidence for a 7-factor structure of the questionnaire, with 3 factors that may be conceptually viewed as professionals' attitudes and behavior (providing information and education, sensitivity to patients' changes, and emotional support) and 4 factors that conceptually reflect organizational environment (duration of attendance, interruptions during care delivery, waiting times, and patient safety). Item-scale correlations ranged from .70 to .93. The percentage of scaling success was 100% for all of the scales. Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from .70 to .87. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from .57 to .80 (median=.68). Generalization to other patients is not known. The questionnaire has test-retest reliability, and the scales have internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. All of the scales are distinct and unidimensional. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  16. Discrete and continuum simulations of near-field ground motion from Source Physics Experiments (SPE) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    This work is focused on analysis of near-field measurements (up to 100 m from the source) recorded during Source Physics Experiments in a granitic formation. One of the main goals of these experiments is to investigate the possible mechanisms of shear wave generation in the nonlinear source region. SPE experiments revealed significant tangential motion (up to 30 % of the magnitude in the radial direction) at many locations. Furthermore, azimuthal variations in radial velocities were also observed which cannot be generated by a spherical source in isotropic materials. Understanding the nature of this non-radial motion is important for discriminating between the natural seismicity and underground explosions signatures. Possible mechanisms leading to such motion include, but not limited to, heterogeneities in the rock such as joints, faults and geologic layers as well as surface topography and vertical motion at the surface caused by material spall and gravity. We have performed a three dimensional computational studies considering all these effects. Both discrete and continuum methods have been employed to model heterogeneities. In the discrete method, the joints and faults were represented by cohesive contact elements. This enables us to examine various friction laws at the joints which include softening, dilatancy, water saturation and rate-dependent friction. Yet this approach requires the mesh to be aligned with joints, which may present technical difficulties in three dimensions when multiple non-persistent joints are present. In addition, the discrete method is more computationally expensive. The continuum approach assumes that the joints are stiff and the dilatancy and shear softening can be neglected. In this approach, the joints are modeled as weakness planes within the material, which are imbedded into and pass through many finite elements. The advantage of this approach is that it requires neither sophisticated meshing algorithms nor contact detection

  17. Validation of ASTECV2.1 based on the QUENCH-08 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-García-Toraño, Ignacio, E-mail: ignacio.torano@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sánchez-Espinoza, Víctor-Hugo; Stieglitz, Robert [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stuckert, Juri [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials-Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Laborde, Laurent; Belon, Sébastien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Nuclear Safety Division/Safety Research/Severe Accident Department, Saint Paul Lez Durance 13115 (France)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • ASTECV2.1 can reproduce QUENCH-08 experimental trends e.g. hydrogen generation. • Radial temperature gradient and heat transfer through argon gap are underestimated. • Mesh sizes lower than 55 mm needed to capture the strong axial temperature gradient. • Minor variations of external electrical resistance strongly affect bundle heat-up. • Modelling of a bypass and inclusion of currents partially overcome discrepancies. - Abstract: The Fukushima accidents have shown that further improvements of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) are still necessary. Hence, the enhancement of severe accident codes and their validation based on integral experiments is pursued worldwide. In particular, the capabilities of the European integral severe accident ASTECV2.1 code are being extended within the CESAM project through the improvement of physical models, code numerics and an extensive code validation. Among the different strategies encompassed in the plant SAMGs, one of the most important ones to prevent core damage is the injection of water into the overheated core (reflooding). However, under certain conditions, reflooding may trigger a sharp hydrogen generation that may jeopardize the containment. Within this work, ASTECV2.1 models describing the early in-vessel phase of the severe accident and its termination by core reflooding are validated against data from the QUENCH test facility. The QUENCH-08, involving the injection of 15 g/s (about 0.6 g/s/rod) of saturated steam at a bundle temperature of 2073 K, has been selected for this comparison. Results show that ASTECV2.1 is able to reproduce the experimental temperatures and oxide thicknesses at representative bundle locations. The predicted total hydrogen generation (76 g) is similar to the experimental one (84 g). In addition, the choices of an axial mesh size lower than 55 mm and of an external electrical resistance of a 7 mΩ/rod have been justified with parametric analyses. Finally, new

  18. ACE-2 HILLCLOUD. An overview of the ACE-2 ground-based cloud experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, B.K.N.; Choularton, T.W.; Gallagher, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The ACE-2 HILLCLOUD experiment was carried out on the island of Tenerife in June-July 1997 to investigate the interaction of the boundary layer aerosol with a hill cap cloud forming over a ridge to the north-east of the island. The cloud was used as a natural flow through reactor to investigate......, (nocturnally for seven of the eight runs) and were carried out in a wide range of airmass conditions from clean maritime to polluted continental. Polluted air was characterised by higher than average concentrations of ozone (> 50 ppbv), fine and accumulation mode aerosols (>3000 and >1500 cm-3, respectively...... and hydrochloric acids were present as a result of outgassing from aerosol, the HNO3 from nitrate rich aerosol transported into the region from upwind of Tenerife, and HCl from sea salt aerosol newly formed at the sea surface. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and ozone were abundant (i.e., were well in excess over...

  19. PIBID in the constitution of teaching the Portuguese Language teacher: experiences in ground of the school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Oliveira da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at discussing the initial training of Portuguese language teachers through the experiences acquired in the Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência – PIBID. The goal is to understand the way to formation of Portuguese teacher in the different training temporality built along the performance in PIBID. It is analyzed as the PIBID create opportunities in order to focus training in educational school through daily practices. This work is the result of a research-training developed with students of Literature Course from University of the Bahia - UNEB. The theoretical and methodological foundation was based on the approach (self biographical, understanding the formation as a process of knowledge building lifelong, since the narrator establishes temporal relations during their training.

  20. Francesco Bonatelli: A Critical (Experience-grounded Approach to Consciousness and Human Subject between Spiritualism and Positivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Poggi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of nineteenth-century philosophical reflection, Francesco Bonatelli (1830-1911 set himself the following goal: to defend the pillars of Spiritualism (the existence of a human subject with intellectual or supra-sensitive cognitive functions and ontology (the notions of esse and substantia through an careful examination of psychic contents and consciousness, while closely contesting both the psychology and the psychophysiology of Positivism (without rejecting its results in toto and Spiritualism itself (with all its uncritical assumptions and unnecessary metaphysical speculations. In works such as Pensiero e conoscenza (1864, La coscienza e il meccanesimo interiore (1872 and Percezione e pensiero (1892-1895 Bonatelli puts forward his “critical experience-grounded philosophy” and proposes an original solution to the problem of the nature of the subject, (self-consciousness and its unity, using an analysis of “sentiments” to reveal the inseparable tangle of the cognitive and ontological dimensions of the self.

  1. The transition experience of rural older persons with advanced cancer and their families: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Patricia H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transitions often occur suddenly and can be traumatic to both patients with advanced disease and their families. The purpose of this study was to explore the transition experience of older rural persons with advanced cancer and their families from the perspective of palliative home care patients, bereaved family caregivers, and health care professionals. The specific aims were to: (1 describe the experience of significant transitions experienced by older rural persons who were receiving palliative home care and their families and (2 develop a substantive theory of transitions in this population. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 open-ended individual audio-taped interviews were conducted with six older rural persons with advanced cancer and 10 bereaved family caregivers. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 12 palliative care health care professionals. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory approach. Results Within a rural context of isolation, lack of information and limited accessibility to services, and values of individuality and community connectedness, older rural palliative patients and their families experienced multiple complex transitions in environment, roles/relationships, activities of daily living, and physical and mental health. Transitions disrupted the lives of palliative patients and their caregivers, resulting in distress and uncertainty. Rural palliative patients and their families adapted to transitions through the processes of "Navigating Unknown Waters". This tentative theory includes processes of coming to terms with their situation, connecting, and redefining normal. Timely communication, provision of information and support networks facilitated the processes. Conclusion The emerging theory provides a foundation for future research. Significant transitions identified in this study may serve as a focus for

  2. Validation of scaffold design optimization in bone tissue engineering: finite element modeling versus designed experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uth, Nicholas; Mueller, Jens; Smucker, Byran; Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra

    2017-02-21

    This study reports the development of biological/synthetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (TE) via 3D bioplotting. These scaffolds were composed of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), type I collagen, and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) in an attempt to mimic the extracellular matrix of bone. The solvent used for processing the scaffolds was 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The produced scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microcomputed tomography, thermogravimetric analysis, and unconfined compression test. This study also sought to validate the use of finite-element optimization in COMSOL Multiphysics for scaffold design. Scaffold topology was simplified to three factors: nHA content, strand diameter, and strand spacing. These factors affect the ability of the scaffold to bear mechanical loads and how porous the structure can be. Twenty four scaffolds were constructed according to an I-optimal, split-plot designed experiment (DE) in order to generate experimental models of the factor-response relationships. Within the design region, the DE and COMSOL models agreed in their recommended optimal nHA (30%) and strand diameter (460 μm). However, the two methods disagreed by more than 30% in strand spacing (908 μm for DE; 601 μm for COMSOL). Seven scaffolds were 3D-bioplotted to validate the predictions of DE and COMSOL models (4.5-9.9 MPa measured moduli). The predictions for these scaffolds showed relative agreement for scaffold porosity (mean absolute percentage error of 4% for DE and 13% for COMSOL), but were substantially poorer for scaffold modulus (51% for DE; 21% for COMSOL), partly due to some simplifying assumptions made by the models. Expanding the design region in future experiments (e.g., higher nHA content and strand diameter), developing an efficient solvent evaporation method, and exerting a greater control over layer overlap could allow developing PLGA-nHA-collagen scaffolds to meet the mechanical requirements for

  3. Simulations of direct and reflected wave trajectories for ground-based GNSS-R experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, N.; Frappart, F.; Ramillien, G.; Darrozes, J.; Desjardins, C.; Gegout, P.; Pérosanz, F.; Biancale, R.

    2014-10-01

    , satellite positions and ground paths, wave trajectories, first Fresnel zones, etc.) are provided either as text or KML files for visualization with Google Earth.

  4. An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for water- quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, T.L.; Stullken, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining a sample of groundwater that accurately represents the concentration of a chemical constituent in an aquifer is an important aspect of groundwater-quality studies. Varying aquifer and constituent properties may cause chemical constituents to move within selectively separate parts of the aquifer. An experiment was conducted in an agricultural region in south-central Kansas to address questions related to representative sample collection. Concentrations of selected constituents in samples taken from observation wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer were compared to concentrations in samples taken from irrigation wells to determine if there was a significant difference. Water in all wells sampled was a calcium bicarbonate type with more than 200 mg/L hardness and about 200 mg/L alkalinity. Sodium concentrations were also quite large (about 40 mg/L). There was a significant difference in the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations between samples from observation and irrigation wells. The median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from observation wells was 5.7 mg/L compared to 3.4 mg/L in water from irrigation wells. The differences in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (larger in water from irrigation wells) were significant at the 78% confidence level but not at the 97% confidence level. Concentrations of the herbicide, atrazine, were less than the detection limit of 0.1 micrograms/L in all but one well. (USGS)

  5. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging,T2, to the relaxation parameter T2* measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T2data were transformed to pseudo-T2* data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T2* obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources.

  6. Insect gravitational biology: ground-based and shuttle flight experiments using the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. L.; Abbott, M. K.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Many of the traditional experimental advantages of insects recommend their use in studies of gravitational and space biology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an obvious choice for studies of the developmental significance of gravity vectors because of the unparalleled description of regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryogenesis. However, we demonstrate that Drosophila could not survive the conditions mandated for particular flight opportunities on the Space Shuttle. With the exception of Drosophila, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is the insect best characterized with respect to molecular embryology and most frequently utilized for past space flights. We show that Tribolium is dramatically more resistant to confinement in small sealed volumes. In preparation for flight experiments we characterize the course and timing of the onset of oogenesis in newly eclosed adult females. Finally, we present results from two shuttle flights which indicate that a number of aspects of the development and function of the female reproductive system are not demonstrably sensitive to microgravity. Available information supports the utility of this insect for future studies of gravitational biology.

  7. Copper benchmark experiment at the Frascati Neutron Generator for nuclear data validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M., E-mail: maurizio.angelone@enea.it; Flammini, D.; Loreti, S.; Moro, F.; Pillon, M.; Villari, R.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A benchmark experiment was performed using pure copper with 14 MeV neutrons. • The experiment was performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). • Activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters and scintillators were used to measure reactions rates (RR), nuclear heating and neutron spectra. • The paper presents the RR measurements and the post analysis using MCNP5 and JEFF-3.1.1, JEFF-3.2 and FENDL-3.1 libraries. • C/Es are presented showing the need for deep revision of Cu cross sections. - Abstract: A neutronics benchmark experiment on a pure Copper block (dimensions 60 × 70 × 60 cm{sup 3}), aimed at testing and validating the recent nuclear data libraries for fusion applications, was performed at the 14-MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) as part of a F4E specific grant (F4E-FPA-395-01) assigned to the European Consortium on Nuclear Data and Experimental Techniques. The relevant neutronics quantities (e.g., reaction rates, neutron flux spectra, doses, etc.) were measured using different experimental techniques and the results were compared to the calculated quantities using fusion relevant nuclear data libraries. This paper focuses on the analyses carried-out by ENEA through the activation foils techniques. {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au, {sup 186}W(n,γ){sup 187}W, {sup 115}In(n,n′){sup 115}In, {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co, {sup 27}Al(n,α){sup 24}Na, {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} activation reactions were used. The foils were placed at eight different positions along the Cu block and irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons. Activation measurements were performed by means of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Detailed simulation of the experiment was carried-out using MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the European JEFF-3.1.1 and 3.2 nuclear cross-sections data files for neutron transport and IRDFF-v1.05 library for the reaction rates in activation foils. The calculated reaction rates (C) were compared to the experimental quantities (E) and

  8. Quantification of Vapor Intrusion Pathways into a Slab-on-Ground Building: an Integration of Mathematical Modeling and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Akbariyeh, S.; Patterson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds into buildings can be a significant source of human exposure to hazardous materials. Field assessment is essential to evaluate the vapor intrusion pathways, which has been recognized to be challenging due to the heterogeneity of sites and uncontrolled site environments. Modeling of vapor intrusion processes can predict subsurface vapor and oxygen concentrations and indoor air concentration under various environmental site conditions. However, detailed experimental quantification for model validation is typically unavailable. In this work, we report our efforts to quantifying vapor intrusion pathways into a slab-on-ground building by integrating mathematical modeling with well-controlled field measurements under three different pressure and ventilation site conditions. Comparisons between modeling and field measurements include indoor air concentration, contaminant and oxygen distribution profile beneath and inside the building, diffusive and advective flux under different pressure and air vitalization conditions. In addition to typically identified key factors influencing vapor intrusion (e.g. the building construction, the properties of compounds, and depth to the source), we found several additional parameters, such as anisotropic property of surface soil, locations of crack, and dependency of reaction rates on oxygen concentration, are critical to evaluate vapor intrusion pathways.

  9. Parallel labeling experiments validate Clostridium acetobutylicum metabolic network model for (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Jennifer; Choi, Jungik; Jones, Shawn W; Venkataramanan, Keerthi P; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we provide new insights into the metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 obtained using a systematic approach for quantifying fluxes based on parallel labeling experiments and (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA). Here, cells were grown in parallel cultures with [1-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]glucose as tracers and (13)C-MFA was used to quantify intracellular metabolic fluxes. Several metabolic network models were compared: an initial model based on current knowledge, and extended network models that included additional reactions that improved the fits of experimental data. While the initial network model did not produce a statistically acceptable fit of (13)C-labeling data, an extended network model with five additional reactions was able to fit all data with 292 redundant measurements. The model was subsequently trimmed to produce a minimal network model of C. acetobutylicum for (13)C-MFA, which could still reproduce all of the experimental data. The flux results provided valuable new insights into the metabolism of C. acetobutylicum. First, we found that TCA cycle was effectively incomplete, as there was no measurable flux between α-ketoglutarate and succinyl-CoA, succinate and fumarate, and malate and oxaloacetate. Second, an active pathway was identified from pyruvate to fumarate via aspartate. Third, we found that isoleucine was produced exclusively through the citramalate synthase pathway in C. acetobutylicum and that CAC3174 was likely responsible for citramalate synthase activity. These model predictions were confirmed in several follow-up tracer experiments. The validated metabolic network model established in this study can be used in future investigations for unbiased (13)C-flux measurements in C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of VHTRC calculation benchmark of critical experiment using the MCB code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisz Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation benchmark problem Very High Temperature Reactor Critical (VHTR a pin-in-block type core critical assembly has been investigated with the Monte Carlo Burnup (MCB code in order to validate the latest version of Nuclear Data Library based on ENDF format. Executed benchmark has been made on the basis of VHTR benchmark available from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. This benchmark is useful for verifying the discrepancies in keff values between various libraries and experimental values. This allows to improve accuracy of the neutron transport calculations that may help in designing the high performance commercial VHTRs. Almost all safety parameters depend on the accuracy of neutron transport calculation results that, in turn depend on the accuracy of nuclear data libraries. Thus, evaluation of the libraries applicability to VHTR modelling is one of the important subjects. We compared the numerical experiment results with experimental measurements using two versions of available nuclear data (ENDF-B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 prepared for required temperatures. Calculations have been performed with the MCB code which allows to obtain very precise representation of complex VHTR geometry, including the double heterogeneity of a fuel element. In this paper, together with impact of nuclear data, we discuss also the impact of different lattice modelling inside the fuel pins. The discrepancies of keff have been successfully observed and show good agreement with each other and with the experimental data within the 1 σ range of the experimental uncertainty. Because some propagated discrepancies observed, we proposed appropriate corrections in experimental constants which can improve the reactivity coefficient dependency. Obtained results confirm the accuracy of the new Nuclear Data Libraries.

  11. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Park, R. J.; Hong, S. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H

    2007-04-15

    nuclear power plants, a technical basis report and computational aid tools were developed in parallel with the experimental and analytical works for the resolution of the uncertain safety issues. ELIAS experiments were carried out to quantify the boiling heat removal rate at the upper surface of a metallic layer for precise evaluations on the effect of a late in-vessel coolant injection. T-HERMES experiments were performed to examine the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulator in the APR1400. Detailed analyses on the hydrogen control in the APR1400 containment were performed focused on the effect of spray system actuation on the hydrogen burning and the evaluation of the hydrogen behavior in the IRWST. To develop the technical basis report for the severe accident management, analyses using SCDAP/RELAP5 code were performed for the accident sequences of the OPR1000. Based on the experimental and analytical results performed in this study, the computational aids for the evaluations of hydrogen flammability in the containment, criteria of the in-vessel corium cooling, criteria of the external reactor vessel cooling were developed. An ASSA code was developed to validate the signal from the instrumentations during the severe accidents and to process the abnormal signal. Since ASSA can perform the signal processing from the direct input of the nuclear power plant during the severe accident, it can be platform of the computational aids. In this study, the ASSA was linked with the computaional aids for the hydrogen flammability.

  12. Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS, and an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation. In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY, stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS, limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS, nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY, balloon measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR. Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS NO2 VMRs agree with the satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about extminus10%. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is fair agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.

  13. Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and (for NO2 an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation. In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY, stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS, limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS, nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY, balloon-borne measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR. Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS and MAESTRO NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles agree with the profiles from other satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, with the exception of MIPAS ESA (for ACE-FTS and SAGE II (for ACE-FTS (sunrise and MAESTRO and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about 10%. MAESTRO reports larger VMR values than the ACE-FTS. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically (on average agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km, with maxima of 21% and 36%, respectively. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is quite good agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.

  14. Validation of the new filters configuration for the RPC gas systems at LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are widely employed as muon trigger systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Their large detector volume and the use of a relatively expensive gas mixture make a closed-loop gas circulation unavoidable. The return gas of RPCs operated in conditions similar to the experimental background foreseen at LHC contains large amount of impurities potentially dangerous for long-term operation. Several gas-cleaning agents, characterized during the past years, are currently in use. New test allowed understanding of the properties and performance of a large number of purifiers. On that basis, an optimal combination of different filters consisting of Molecular Sieve (MS) 5Å and 4Å, and a Cu catalyst R11 has been chosen and validated irradiating a set of RPCs at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) for several years. A very important feature of this new configuration is the increase of the cycle duration for each purifier, which results in better system stabilit...

  15. Process Control of Pink Guava Puree Pasteurization Process: Simulation and Validation by Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. F. Wan Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, process control has been applied extensively in many food processes include pasteurization process. The purpose is to control and maintain the product temperature at desired value. In order to be able to control the process properly, the model of the process needs to be obtained. This research aims to obtain the empirical model and to determine the best control strategy in pasteurization process of pink guava puree. The PID controller tuned by different tuning methods was simulated using Simulink and closed loop responses were observed. Simulation results revealed that PID controller tuned by minimizing of integral absolute error (IAE method were satisfactory adaptable in this process in term of faster settling time, less overshoot, smallest values of IAE and ISE that less than 1. Then, experiment was performed using this method in order to validate simulation results. In general, a good agreement was achieved between experimental data and dynamic simulation result in control of pasteurization temperature process with  R2=0.83. As the conclusion, the results obtained can be used as the recommendation for a suitable control strategy for the pasteurization process of pink guava puree in the industry.

  16. Validation Study of Unnotched Charpy and Taylor-Anvil Impact Experiments using Kayenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamojjala, Krishna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lacy, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chu, Henry S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brannon, Rebecca [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Validation of a single computational model with multiple available strain-to-failure fracture theories is presented through experimental tests and numerical simulations of the standardized unnotched Charpy and Taylor-anvil impact tests, both run using the same material model (Kayenta). Unnotched Charpy tests are performed on rolled homogeneous armor steel. The fracture patterns using Kayenta’s various failure options that include aleatory uncertainty and scale effects are compared against the experiments. Other quantities of interest include the average value of the absorbed energy and bend angle of the specimen. Taylor-anvil impact tests are performed on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The impact speeds of the specimen are 321 m/s and 393 m/s. The goal of the numerical work is to reproduce the damage patterns observed in the laboratory. For the numerical study, the Johnson-Cook failure model is used as the ductile fracture criterion, and aleatory uncertainty is applied to rate-dependence parameters to explore its effect on the fracture patterns.

  17. Validation of RNAi Silencing Efficiency Using Gene Array Data shows 18.5% Failure Rate across 429 Independent Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyi Munkácsy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No independent cross-validation of success rate for studies utilizing small interfering RNA (siRNA for gene silencing has been completed before. To assess the influence of experimental parameters like cell line, transfection technique, validation method, and type of control, we have to validate these in a large set of studies. We utilized gene chip data published for siRNA experiments to assess success rate and to compare methods used in these experiments. We searched NCBI GEO for samples with whole transcriptome analysis before and after gene silencing and evaluated the efficiency for the target and off-target genes using the array-based expression data. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess silencing efficacy and Kruskal–Wallis tests and Spearman rank correlation were used to evaluate study parameters. All together 1,643 samples representing 429 experiments published in 207 studies were evaluated. The fold change (FC of down-regulation of the target gene was above 0.7 in 18.5% and was above 0.5 in 38.7% of experiments. Silencing efficiency was lowest in MCF7 and highest in SW480 cells (FC = 0.59 and FC = 0.30, respectively, P = 9.3E−06. Studies utilizing Western blot for validation performed better than those with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR or microarray (FC = 0.43, FC = 0.47, and FC = 0.55, respectively, P = 2.8E−04. There was no correlation between type of control, transfection method, publication year, and silencing efficiency. Although gene silencing is a robust feature successfully cross-validated in the majority of experiments, efficiency remained insufficient in a significant proportion of studies. Selection of cell line model and validation method had the highest influence on silencing proficiency.

  18. Assessment of the stress response in Columbian ground squirrels: laboratory and field validation of an enzyme immunoassay for fecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Curtis O; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses play a critical role in the ecology and demography of wild animals, and the analysis of fecal hormone metabolites is a powerful noninvasive method to assess the role of stress. We characterized the metabolites of injected radiolabeled cortisol in the urine and feces of Columbian ground squirrels and validated an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) with a 5 alpha-3beta,11 beta-diol structure by stimulation and suppression of adrenocortical activity and by evaluation of the circadian pattern of FCM excretion. In addition, we also evaluated the impact of capture, handling, and acclimation to the laboratory on FCM. Cortisol is highly metabolized, with virtually none being excreted, and of the radiolabeled cortisol injected, 31% was recovered in urine and 6.5% in feces. The lag time between cortisol injection and its appearance in urine and feces was 4.5 +/- 0.82 (SE) h and 7.0 +/- 0.53 (SE) h, respectively. FCM levels varied over the day, reflecting circadian variation in endogenous cortisol. Dexamethasone decreased FCM levels by 33%, and ACTH increased them by 255%. Trapping and housing initially increased FCM levels and decreased body mass, but these reversed within 3-7 d, indicating acclimation. Finally, FCM levels were modestly repeatable over time (r=0.57) in wild, live trapped, nonbreeding animals, indicating that FCMs provide a measure of the squirrel's stress-axis state. This assay provides a robust noninvasive assessment of the stress response of the Columbian ground squirrel and will facilitate an integration of its life history and physiology.

  19. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Lacour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI flying on-board MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change sites Kiruna and Izana, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because of similar sensitivities. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (−3‰ between IASI retrieved δD with the TES one, which are bias corrected, but an important with the ground-based FTIR reaching −47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observations comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high spatial and temporal sampling.

  20. Ground-Based Measurement Experiment and First Results with Geosynchronous-Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer Engineering Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Bingham, Gail E.; Huppi, Ronald J.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Zollinger, Lori J.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Tansock, Joseph J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Hooker, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 x 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57 cm(exp -1) with a scan duration of approximately 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.

  1. Do Ground-Dwelling Vertebrates Promote Diversity in a Neotropical Forest? Results from a Long-Term Exclosure Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurten, Erin L.; Carson, Walter P.

    2015-01-01

    Using a decade-long exclosure experiment in Panama, we tested the hypothesis that ground-dwelling vertebrate herbivores and seed predators are crucial determinants of tropical tree diversity and abundance within the understory. Our exclosure experiment is a community-level test of the Janzen–Connell hypothesis. Therefore, we predicted that vertebrate exclusion would (a) increase plant densities and (b) lower richness, diversity, and evenness. Excluding vertebrates caused a 38%–46% increase in plant densities, which, in contrast to our predictions, caused species richness to increase by 12%–15%. Because vertebrate exclusion causes plant species richness to increase, not decrease, vertebrates are unlikely to be causal agents of Janzen–Connell effects. We synthesized this and previous studies to explore why plant richness responds differently to defaunation and exclosures in tropical forests worldwide. Likely because of their contrasting effects on mesoconsumers, defaunation and exclosures cause decreases and increases in plant density respectively, which in turn cause corresponding changes in richness. PMID:26955084

  2. Ground measurements of the hemispherical-directional reflectance of Arctic snow covered tundra for the validation of satellite remote sensing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C. P.; Marks, A. A.; Green, P.; Mac Arthur, A.; Fox, N.; King, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface albedo is the hemispherical and wavelength integrated reflectance over the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared regions of the solar spectrum. The albedo of Arctic snow can be in excess of 0.8 and it is a critical component in the global radiation budget because it determines the proportion of solar radiation absorbed, and reflected, over a large part of the Earth's surface. We present here our first results of the angularly resolved surface reflectance of Arctic snow at high solar zenith angles (~80°) suitable for the validation of satellite remote sensing products. The hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) of Arctic snow covered tundra was measured using the GonioRAdiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS) during a three-week field campaign in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in March/April 2013. The measurements provide one of few existing HDRF datasets at high solar zenith angles for wind-blown Arctic snow covered tundra (conditions typical of the Arctic region), and the first ground-based measure of HDRF at Ny-Ålesund. The HDRF was recorded under clear sky conditions with 10° intervals in view zenith, and 30° intervals in view azimuth, for several typical sites over a wavelength range of 400-1500 nm at 1 nm resolution. Satellite sensors such as MODIS, AVHRR and VIIRS offer a method to monitor the surface albedo with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, snow reflectance is anisotropic and is dependent on view and illumination angle and the wavelength of the incident light. Spaceborne sensors subtend a discrete angle to the target surface and measure radiance over a limited number of narrow spectral bands. Therefore, the derivation of the surface albedo requires accurate knowledge of the surfaces bidirectional reflectance as a function of wavelength. The ultimate accuracy to which satellite sensors are able to measure snow surface properties such as albedo is dependant on the accuracy of the BRDF model, which can only be assessed

  3. PBMR radionuclide source term analysis validation based on AVR operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, C.C. [PBMR, Lake Buena Vista Building, 1267 Gordon Hood Avenue, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Olivier, L.D. [Independent Nuclear Consultants, Grahamstown (South Africa); Stassen, E.; Reitsma, F. [PBMR, Lake Buena Vista Building, 1267 Gordon Hood Avenue, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Merwe, J.J. van der, E-mail: hanno.vdmerwe@pbmr.co.z [PBMR, Lake Buena Vista Building, 1267 Gordon Hood Avenue, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2010-10-15

    The determination of radionuclide source terms is vital for any reactor design and licensing safety evaluation. This paper provides an overview of the PBMR analysis tools with specific focus on the modelling of mobile and deposited radionuclide source terms within the pressure boundary of a typical pebble-bed high temperature reactor (HTR). The main focus is on the Dust and Activity Migration and Distribution (DAMD) software code system that models the activation, migration and time-dependent distribution of dust and atomic particles in an HTR such as the AVR and PBMR. Since DAMD provides a time-dependent systems integrated model of HTR designs, most of the obvious physical phenomena relevant to source terms are at play. These include the neutron flux, activation cross-sections, radioactive decay, dust production rates, dust impurity levels, dust filter capabilities, dust particle size distributions, thermal-hydraulic parameters influencing the migration and distribution of particles throughout the main power system and subsystems, and helium coolant leakage and make-up rates. At this stage the DAMD calibration and validation is mainly based on the operational data, experiments and measurements made during 21 years of operating life of the AVR. The comparisons of the DAMD results with various AVR measurements provide confidence in the use of DAMD for the PBMR design and safety evaluations. In addition, sensitivity analyses are performed with DAMD to determine the bounding system parameters that drive the migration and distribution of radionuclides. The use of DAMD to evaluate design configurations, e.g. the effect of the introduction and placement of filters on the radionuclide distribution, is also shown. In conclusion, the importance of a systems modelling approach for radionuclide transport and distribution within the pressure boundary of a typical HTR system, is demonstrated. Since the DAMD code system is calibrated and validated against the AVR measurements it

  4. A systematic review of the reliability and validity of discrete choice experiments in valuing non-market environmental goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonarivo, O Sarobidy; Schaafsma, Marije; Hockley, Neal

    2016-12-01

    While discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used in the field of environmental valuation, they remain controversial because of their hypothetical nature and the contested reliability and validity of their results. We systematically reviewed evidence on the validity and reliability of environmental DCEs from the past thirteen years (Jan 2003-February 2016). 107 articles met our inclusion criteria. These studies provide limited and mixed evidence of the reliability and validity of DCE. Valuation results were susceptible to small changes in survey design in 45% of outcomes reporting reliability measures. DCE results were generally consistent with those of other stated preference techniques (convergent validity), but hypothetical bias was common. Evidence supporting theoretical validity (consistency with assumptions of rational choice theory) was limited. In content validity tests, 2-90% of respondents protested against a feature of the survey, and a considerable proportion found DCEs to be incomprehensible or inconsequential (17-40% and 10-62% respectively). DCE remains useful for non-market valuation, but its results should be used with caution. Given the sparse and inconclusive evidence base, we recommend that tests of reliability and validity are more routinely integrated into DCE studies and suggest how this might be achieved. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Taiwanese women's experiences of becoming a mother to a very-low-birth-weight preterm infant: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Nu Chang; Long, Ann; Boore, Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    Significant improvements have occurred in the survival rates of small preterm infants. As more infants survive their preterm birth, the number of parents associated with this experience has also increased. Clearly, the birth of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants poses considerable challenges for all mothers. These challenges are further compounded in Taiwan, where women are traditionally required to practise the cultural ritual (Zuo Yue Zi) which includes confinement to the house with a special balanced diet for the first month postnatally. Moreover, there is a deficit of information on mothers' experiences when their preterm infants are in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this study was to explore Taiwanese mothers' (n=26) parenting experiences when their preterm infants were in NICUs. A qualitative research approach, grounded theory, was used to explore the mothers' lived reality of these experiences. In-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted to gain insight into the experience of parenting. A theoretical model was formulated from the findings delineating Taiwanese mothers' parenting experiences during their preterm infants stay in hospital. The findings indicated that the preterm birth, together with the admission of their infants to a NICU, presented mothers with an unexpected crisis. The particular cultural postnatal ritual posed this group of Taiwanese mothers with an additional difficulty in establishing physical interactions. However, the Taiwanese mothers created alternative channels of contact with their hospitalised infants using emotional connections, while the physical interactions were certainly limited. Despite all the difficulties this group of Taiwanese mothers faced and resolved, they all gradually captured and embraced the parenting role. The finding of this study further indicated that the support the mothers received from the healthcare professionals and the social networks the mothers made

  6. A design of experiments approach to validation sampling for logistic regression modeling with error-prone medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liwen; Apley, Daniel W; Mehrotra, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) databases offer significant potential for developing clinical hypotheses and identifying disease risk associations by fitting statistical models that capture the relationship between a binary response variable and a set of predictor variables that represent clinical, phenotypical, and demographic data for the patient. However, EMR response data may be error prone for a variety of reasons. Performing a manual chart review to validate data accuracy is time consuming, which limits the number of chart reviews in a large database. The authors' objective is to develop a new design-of-experiments-based systematic chart validation and review (DSCVR) approach that is more powerful than the random validation sampling used in existing approaches. The DSCVR approach judiciously and efficiently selects the cases to validate (i.e., validate whether the response values are correct for those cases) for maximum information content, based only on their predictor variable values. The final predictive model will be fit using only the validation sample, ignoring the remainder of the unvalidated and unreliable error-prone data. A Fisher information based D-optimality criterion is used, and an algorithm for optimizing it is developed. The authors' method is tested in a simulation comparison that is based on a sudden cardiac arrest case study with 23 041 patients' records. This DSCVR approach, using the Fisher information based D-optimality criterion, results in a fitted model with much better predictive performance, as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve and the accuracy in predicting whether a patient will experience the event, than a model fitted using a random validation sample. The simulation comparisons demonstrate that this DSCVR approach can produce predictive models that are significantly better than those produced from random validation sampling, especially when the event rate is low. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  7. Estimates of evapotranspiration for riparian sites (Eucalyptus) in the Lower Murray -Darling Basin using ground validated sap flow and vegetation index scaling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Water accounting is becoming critical globally, and balancing consumptive water demands with environmental water requirements is especially difficult in in arid and semi-arid regions. Within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia, riparian water use has not been assessed across broad scales. This study therefore aimed to apply and validate an existing U.S. riparian ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) algorithm for the MDB river systems to assist water resource managers to quantify environmental water needs over wide ranges of niche conditions. Ground-based sap flow ET was correlated with remotely sensed predictions of ET, to provide a method to scale annual rates of water consumption by riparian vegetation over entire irrigation districts. Sap flux was measured at nine locations on the Murrumbidgee River between July 2011 and June 2012. Remotely sensed ET was calculated using a combination of local meteorological estimates of potential ET (ETo) and rainfall and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from selected 250 m resolution pixels. The sap flow data correlated well with MODIS EVI. Sap flow ranged from 0.81 mm/day to 3.60 mm/day and corresponded to a MODIS-based ET range of 1.43 mm/day to 2.42 mm/day. We found that mean ET across sites could be predicted by EVI-ETo methods with a standard error of about 20% across sites, but that ET at any given site could vary much more due to differences in aquifer and soil properties among sites. Water use was within range of that expected. We conclude that our algorithm developed for US arid land crops and riparian plants is applicable to this region of Australia. Future work includes the development of an adjusted algorithm using these sap flow validated results.

  8. Concurrent validity and reliability of using ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters in the determination of leg movement initiation during single leg lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, Daniela; de Castro, Marcelo Peduzzi; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie Dawn

    2016-09-01

    Postural adjustment evaluations during single leg lift requires the initiation of heel lift (T1) identification. T1 measured by means of motion analyses system is the most reliable approach. However, this method involves considerable workspace, expensive cameras, and time processing data and setting up laboratory. The use of ground reaction forces (GRF) and centre of pressure (COP) data is an alternative method as its data processing and setting up is less time consuming. Further, kinetic data is normally collected using frequency samples higher than 1000Hz whereas kinematic data are commonly captured using 50-200Hz. This study describes the concurrent-validity and reliability of GRF and COP measurements in determining T1, using a motion analysis system as reference standard. Kinematic and kinetic data during single leg lift were collected from ten participants. GRF and COP data were collected using one and two force plates. Displacement of a single heel marker was captured by means of ten Vicon(©) cameras. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a sample frequency of 1000Hz. Data were analysed in two stages: identification of key events in the kinetic data, and assessing concurrent validity of T1 based on the chosen key events with T1 provided by the kinematic data. The key event presenting the least systematic bias, along with a narrow 95% CI and limits of agreement against the reference standard T1, was the Baseline COPy event. Baseline COPy event was obtained using one force plate and presented excellent between-tester reliability.

  9. Families' experiences of intensive care unit quality of care : Development and validation of a European questionnaire (euroQ2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T.; Koopmans, Matty; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Curtis, Jared Randall; Ording, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature a

  10. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment zone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, A.T.J.de; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A comparison of GOME O3 profi

  11. Measuring Educators' Attitudes and Beliefs about Evaluation: Construct Validity and Reliability of the Teacher Evaluation Experience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Kurz, Alexander; Peters, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the reliability and validity of the Teacher Evaluation Experience Scale--Teacher Form (TEES-T), a multidimensional measure of educators' attitudes and beliefs about teacher evaluation. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 583 teachers were conducted on the TEES-T hypothesized five-factor model, as well as on alternative…

  12. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  13. LIF LiDAR high resolution ground truth data, suitable to validate medium-resolution bands of MODIS/Terra radiometer in case of inner waterbody ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelevin, Vadim; Zavialov, Peter; Zlinszky, Andras; Khimchenko, Elizaveta; Toth, Viktor; Kremenetskiy, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    The report is based on field measurements on the lake Balaton (Hungary) in September 2008 as obtained by Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) portable LiDAR UFL-8. It was tested in natural lake waters and validated by contact conventional measurements. We had opportunity to compare our results with the MODIS/Terra spectroradiometer satellite images received at the satellite monitoring station of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) to make an attempt of lidar calibration of satellite medium-resolution bands data. Water quality parameters were surveyed with the help of UFL-8 in a time interval very close to the satellite overpass. High resolution maps of the chlorophyll-a, chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total suspended sediments spatial distributions were obtained. Our results show that the resolution provided by laboratory measurements on a few water samples does not resemble actual conditions in the lake, and it would be more efficient to measure these parameters less accurately but in a better spatial distribution with the LiDAR. The UFL instrument has a great potential for being used for collecting ground truth data for satellite remote sensing of these parameters. Its measurement accuracy is comparable to classic water sample measurements, the measurement speed is high and large areas can be surveyed in a time interval very close to the satellite overpass.

  14. Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1995-08-01

    Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  15. NEPR Ground Validation Points 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  16. Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (MOHAVE-2009: overview of campaign operations and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Leblanc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiment (MOHAVE 2009 campaign took place on 11–27 October 2009 at the JPL Table Mountain Facility in California (TMF. The main objectives of the campaign were to (1 validate the water vapor measurements of several instruments, including, three Raman lidars, two microwave radiometers, two Fourier-Transform spectrometers, and two GPS receivers (column water, (2 cover water vapor measurements from the ground to the mesopause without gaps, and (3 study upper tropospheric humidity variability at timescales varying from a few minutes to several days.

    A total of 58 radiosondes and 20 Frost-Point hygrometer sondes were launched. Two types of radiosondes were used during the campaign. Non negligible differences in the readings between the two radiosonde types used (Vaisala RS92 and InterMet iMet-1 made a small, but measurable impact on the derivation of water vapor mixing ratio by the Frost-Point hygrometers. As observed in previous campaigns, the RS92 humidity measurements remained within 5 % of the Frost-point in the lower and mid-troposphere, but were too dry in the upper troposphere.

    Over 270 h of water vapor measurements from three Raman lidars (JPL and GSFC were compared to RS92, CFH, and NOAA-FPH. The JPL lidar profiles reached 20 km when integrated all night, and 15 km when integrated for 1 h. Excellent agreement between this lidar and the frost-point hygrometers was found throughout the measurement range, with only a 3 % (0.3 ppmv mean wet bias for the lidar in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. The other two lidars provided satisfactory results in the lower and mid-troposphere (2–5 % wet bias over the range 3–10 km, but suffered from contamination by fluorescence (wet bias ranging from 5 to 50 % between 10 km and 15 km, preventing their use as an independent measurement in the UTLS.

    The comparison between all available

  17. Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (MOHAVE-2009: overview of campaign operations and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Leblanc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiment (MOHAVE 2009 campaign took place on 11–27 October 2009 at the JPL Table Mountain Facility in California (TMF. The main objectives of the campaign were to (1 validate the water vapor measurements of several instruments, including, three Raman lidars, two microwave radiometers, two Fourier-Transform spectrometers, and two GPS receivers (column water, (2 cover water vapor measurements from the ground to the mesopause without gaps, and (3 study upper tropospheric humidity variability at timescales varying from a few minutes to several days.

    A total of 58 radiosondes and 20 Frost-Point hygrometer sondes were launched. Two types of radiosondes were used during the campaign. Non negligible differences in the readings between the two radiosonde types used (Vaisala RS92 and InterMet iMet-1 made a small, but measurable impact on the derivation of water vapor mixing ratio by the Frost-Point hygrometers. As observed in previous campaigns, the RS92 humidity measurements remained within 5% of the Frost-point in the lower and mid-troposphere, but were too dry in the upper troposphere.

    Over 270 h of water vapor measurements from three Raman lidars (JPL and GSFC were compared to RS92, CFH, and NOAA-FPH. The JPL lidar profiles reached 20 km when integrated all night, and 15 km when integrated for 1 h. Excellent agreement between this lidar and the frost-point hygrometers was found throughout the measurement range, with only a 3% (0.3 ppmv mean wet bias for the lidar in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. The other two lidars provided satisfactory results in the lower and mid-troposphere (2–5% wet bias over the range 3–10 km, but suffered from contamination by fluorescence (wet bias ranging from 5 to 50% between 10 km and 15 km, preventing their use as an independent measurement in the UTLS.

    The comparison between all available stratospheric

  18. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscano Sharyl E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.

  19. Adolescent girls' experiences of underlying social processes triggering stress in their everyday life: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, Katarina; Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Mattsson, Bengt; Fridlund, Bengt; Marklund, Bertil

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model of underlying social processes that trigger stress in adolescent girls' everyday life. In-depth interviews regarding the experiences of stress at home, school and during leisure time were conducted with 14 17-year-old schoolgirls. Data were analysed by means of the grounded theory method. Stress was triggered in the interaction between responsibility and the way in which the girls were encountered. Triggered emotional reactions took the form of four dimensions of stress included ambivalence, frustration, despair and downheartedness. These reactions were dependent on whether the girls voluntary assumed responsibility for various situations or whether they were forced, or felt they were being forced, to assume responsibility in interaction with an encounter characterized by closeness or distance. These forms of stress reactions could appear in one dimension and subsequently shift to another. From the public health perspective, the generated stress model can be used in the planning and implementation of future actions to prevent stress and promote well-being related to stress in adolescent girls.

  20. Complementing the ground-based CMB-S4 experiment on large scales with the PIXIE satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Alonso, David; Dunkley, Jo

    2017-03-01

    We present forecasts for cosmological parameters from future cosmic microwave background (CMB) data measured by the stage-4 (S4) generation of ground-based experiments in combination with large-scale anisotropy data from the PIXIE satellite. We demonstrate the complementarity of the two experiments and focus on science targets that benefit from their combination. We show that a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization provided by PIXIE, with error σ (τ )=0.002 , is vital for enabling a 5 σ detection of the sum of the neutrino masses when combined with a CMB-S4 lensing measurement and with lower-redshift constraints on the growth of structure and the distance-redshift relation. Parameters characterizing the epoch of reionization will also be tightly constrained; PIXIE's τ constraint converts into σ (zre)=0.2 for the mean time of reionization, and a kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurement from S4 gives σ (Δ zre)=0.03 for the duration of reionization. Both PIXIE and S4 will put strong constraints on primordial tensor fluctuations, vital for testing early-Universe models, and will do so at distinct angular scales. We forecast σ (r )≈5 ×10-4 for a signal with a tensor-to-scalar ratio r =10-3, after accounting for diffuse foreground removal and delensing. The wide and dense frequency coverage of PIXIE results in an expected foreground-degradation factor on r of only ≈25 %. By measuring large and small scales PIXIE and S4 will together better limit the energy injection at recombination from dark matter annihilation, with pannmeasured from the damping tail with S4 will be best constrained by polarization, which has the advantage of minimal contamination from extragalactic emission.

  1. Radiometric Modeling and Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)Ground Based Measurement Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere s thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  2. Validation of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning radiometer data inversion procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Natividad D.; Smith, G. L.; Green, Richard N.; Avis, Lee M.; Suttles, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Validation techniques were implemented in the inversion of scanner radiometer data to assess the accuracy of the top of atmosphere radiant fluxes. An evaluation of SW radiant flux standard deviations for the same scene type shows that they contribute about 6.0 W/sq m for viewing zenith angles less than 55 deg and can reach values of up to 17.6 W/sq m for larger zenith angles in the backward scanning position. Three-channel intercomparison results, presented as color graphic displays and histograms, effectively validate the radiance measurements and the spectral factors. Along-track data were used to validate limb-darkening models and showed good agreement with current ERBE models. These validation techniques were found to be very effective in assessing the quality of the radiant fluxes generated by the ERBE inversion algorithm.

  3. Pre-Shot Simulations of Far-Field Ground Motions for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A J; Wagoner, J; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2010-11-07

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) will involve a series of explosions in various geologic and emplacement conditions to validate numerical simulation methods to predict behavior of seismic wave excitation and propagation for nuclear test monitoring. The first SPE's currently underway involve explosions in the Climax Stock (granitic geology) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Detailed geologic data and published material properties for the major lithologic units of the NNSS and surrounding region were used to build three-dimensional models for seismic wave propagation simulations. The geologic structure near the SPE shot point is quite varied including granitic, carbonate, tuff and alluvium lithologies. We performed preliminary ground motion simulations for a near-source domain covering 8 km x 8 km at the surface centered on the shot point to investigate various source and propagation effects using WPP, LLNL's anelastic seismic wave finite difference code. Simulations indicate that variations in wave propagation properties of the sub-surface will generate strongly path-dependent response once the energy has left the relatively small granitic geology of the near-surface Climax Stock near the SPE shot point. Rough topography to the north and west of SPE shot point causes additional complexity in the signals including energy on the transverse components. Waves propagate much faster through the granitic and carbonate formations and slower through the tuff and alluvium. Synthetic seismograms for a pure explosion source in a 3D geologic structure show large amplitudes on transverse component. For paths to the south sampling the granite, tuff and alluvium lithologies transverse component amplitudes are as high as 50% of that on the vertical and radial components.

  4. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X

  5. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J.-L.; Clarisse, L.; Worden, J.; Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; Risi, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2015-03-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying onboard MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD) in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio-temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Izaña, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows one to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because the sensitivity profiles of the two observing systems do not allow to take into account their differences of sensitivity. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3‰) between IASI retrieved δD with the TES, which are bias corrected, but important with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observation comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high

  6. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for 24 different algae strains. Twelve different C. reinhardtii strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space, among them, some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls. We analysed the hourly changes and the daily light/dark trend in the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry as well as some physiological parameters that characterize the post-flight effect on algae viability and photosynthetic performance. The ground control experiments were performed following the same protocol for the sample preparation and the temperature recorded during the pre-flight, flight and post-flight phases. The space flight results in comparison to the ground simulations are discussed.

  7. Preliminary Results of the Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration Experiment between Table Mountain and teh ETS-V1 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.; Araki, K.; Arimoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration (GOLD) is an optical communications demonstration between the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-V1) and an optical ground transmitting and receiving station at the Table Mountain FAcility in Wrightwood California. Laser transmissions to the satellite are performed approximately four hours every third night when the satellite is at apogee above Table Mountain.

  8. Preliminary Results of the Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration Experiment between Table Mountain and teh ETS-V1 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.; Araki, K.; Arimoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration (GOLD) is an optical communications demonstration between the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-V1) and an optical ground transmitting and receiving station at the Table Mountain FAcility in Wrightwood California. Laser transmissions to the satellite are performed approximately four hours every third night when the satellite is at apogee above Table Mountain.

  9. The Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ: initial psychometric validation of a measure of the “Sensed Presence” experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Barnby

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The experience of ‘sensed presence’—a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence—is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date. Methods Based on phenomenological description in the literature, we created the 16-item Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ. We recruited participants from (i a general population sample, and; (ii a sample including specific selection for religious affiliation, to complete the SenPQ and additional measures of well-being, schizotypy, social anxiety, social imagery, and spiritual experience. We completed an analysis to test internal reliability, the ability of the SenPQ to distinguish between religious and non-religious participants, and whether the SenPQ was specifically related to positive schizotypical experiences and social imagery. A factor analysis was also conducted to examine underlying latent variables. Results The SenPQ was found to be reliable and valid, with religious participants significantly endorsing more items than non-religious participants, and the scale showing a selective relationship with construct relevant measures. Principal components analysis indicates two potential underlying factors interpreted as reflecting ‘benign’ and ‘malign’ sensed presence experiences. Discussion The SenPQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensed presence experience although further validation in neurological and psychiatric conditions is warranted.

  10. The Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ): initial psychometric validation of a measure of the "Sensed Presence" experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnby, Joseph M; Bell, Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    The experience of 'sensed presence'-a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence-is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date. Based on phenomenological description in the literature, we created the 16-item Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ). We recruited participants from (i) a general population sample, and; (ii) a sample including specific selection for religious affiliation, to complete the SenPQ and additional measures of well-being, schizotypy, social anxiety, social imagery, and spiritual experience. We completed an analysis to test internal reliability, the ability of the SenPQ to distinguish between religious and non-religious participants, and whether the SenPQ was specifically related to positive schizotypical experiences and social imagery. A factor analysis was also conducted to examine underlying latent variables. The SenPQ was found to be reliable and valid, with religious participants significantly endorsing more items than non-religious participants, and the scale showing a selective relationship with construct relevant measures. Principal components analysis indicates two potential underlying factors interpreted as reflecting 'benign' and 'malign' sensed presence experiences. The SenPQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensed presence experience although further validation in neurological and psychiatric conditions is warranted.

  11. Analysis of global and regional CO burdens measured from space between 2000 and 2009 and validated by ground-based solar tracking spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yurganov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variations in AIRS and MOPITT retrieved CO burdens are validated, corrected, and compared with CO emissions from wild fires from the Global Fire Emission Dataset (GFED2 inventory. Validation of daily mean CO total column (TC retrievals from MOPITT version 3 and AIRS version 5 is performed through comparisons with archived TC data from the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS between March 2000 and December 2007. MOPITT V3 retrievals exhibit an increasing temporal bias with a rate of 1.4–1.8% per year; thus far, AIRS retrievals appear to be more stable. For the lowest CO values in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, AIRS TC retrievals overestimate FTS TC by 20%. MOPITT's bias and standard deviation do not depend on CO TC absolute values. Empirical corrections are derived for AIRS and MOPITT retrievals based on the observed annually averaged bias versus the FTS TC. Recently published MOPITT V4 is found to be in a good agreement with MOPITT V3 corrected by us (with exception of 2000–2001 period. With these corrections, CO burdens from AIRS V5 and MOPITT V3 (as well as MOPITT V4 come into good agreement in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (NH and in the tropical belt. In the SH, agreement between AIRS and MOPITT CO burdens is better for the larger CO TC in austral winter and worse in austral summer when CO TC are smaller. Before July 2008, all variations in retrieved CO burden can be explained by changes in fire emissions. After July 2008, global and tropical CO burdens decreased until October before recovering by the beginning of 2009. The NH CO burden also decreased but reached a minimum in January 2009 before starting to recover. The decrease in tropical CO burdens is explained by lower than usual fire emissions in South America and Indonesia. This decrease in tropical emissions also accounts for most of the change in the global CO burden. However, no

  12. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Joseph [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lantz, Kathy [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is preparing for the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) satellite in 2015. This satellite will feature higher time (5-minute versus 30-minute sampling) and spatial resolution (0.5 km vs 1 km in the visible channel) than current GOES instruments provide. NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service has funded the Global Monitoring Division at the Earth System Research Laboratory to provide ground-based validation data for many of the new and old products the new GOES instruments will retrieve specifically related to radiation at the surface and aerosol and its extensive and intensive properties in the column. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) had an emphasis on aerosol; therefore, we asked to be involved in this campaign to de-bug our new instrumentation and to provide a new capability that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facilities (AMF) did not possess, namely surface albedo measurement out to 1625 nm. This gave us a chance to test remote operation of our new multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer/multi-filter radiometer (MFRSR/MFR) combination. We did not deploy standard broadband shortwave and longwave radiation instrumentation because ARM does this as part of every AMF deployment. As it turned out, the ARM standard MFRSR had issues, and we were able to provide the aerosol column data for the first 2 months of the campaign covering the summer flight phase of the deployment. Using these data, we were able to work with personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to retrieve not only aerosol optical depth (AOD), but single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, as well.

  13. Validation of middle-atmospheric campaign-based water vapour measured by the ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tschanz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Middle atmospheric water vapour can be used as a tracer for dynamical processes. It is mainly measured by satellite instruments and ground-based microwave radiometers. Ground-based instruments capable of measuring middle-atmospheric water vapour are sparse but valuable as they complement satellite measurements, are relatively easy to maintain and have a long lifetime. MIAWARA-C is a ground-based microwave radiometer for middle-atmospheric water vapour designed for use on measurement campaigns for both atmospheric case studies and instrument intercomparisons. MIAWARA-C's retrieval version 1.1 (v1.1 is set up in a such way as to provide a consistent data set even if the instrument is operated from different locations on a campaign basis. The sensitive altitude range for v1.1 extends from 4 hPa (37 km to 0.017 hPa (75 km. For v1.1 the estimated systematic error is approximately 10% for all altitudes. At lower altitudes it is dominated by uncertainties in the calibration, with altitude the influence of spectroscopic and temperature uncertainties increases. The estimated random error increases with altitude from 5 to 25%. MIAWARA-C measures two polarisations of the incident radiation in separate receiver channels, and can therefore provide two measurements of the same air mass with independent instrumental noise. The standard deviation of the difference between the profiles obtained from the two polarisations is in excellent agreement with the estimated random measurement error of v1.1. In this paper, the quality of v1.1 data is assessed for measurements obtained at two different locations: (1 a total of 25 months of measurements in the Arctic (Sodankylä, 67.37° N, 26.63° E and (2 nine months of measurements at mid-latitudes (Zimmerwald, 46.88° N, 7.46° E. For both locations MIAWARA-C's profiles are compared to measurements from the satellite experiments Aura MLS and MIPAS. In addition, comparisons to ACE-FTS and SOFIE are presented for the

  14. Validation of spectral gas radiation models under oxyfuel conditions. Part A: Gas cell experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Valentin; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander;

    2011-01-01

    AbstractCombustion of hydrocarbon fuels with pure oxygen results in a different flue gas composition as combustion with air. Standard CFD spectral gas radiation models for air combustion are out of their validity range. The series of three articles provides a common spectral basis for the validat......AbstractCombustion of hydrocarbon fuels with pure oxygen results in a different flue gas composition as combustion with air. Standard CFD spectral gas radiation models for air combustion are out of their validity range. The series of three articles provides a common spectral basis...

  15. The experience of acupuncture care from the perspective of people with chronic low back pain: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomski, N J; Mackintosh, S F; Stanley, M

    2014-08-01

    To explore the experience of acupuncture care from the perspective of people with chronic low back pain. A grounded theory, qualitative study using indepth interviews was undertaken with 11 people who had received acupuncture care for chronic low back pain. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial, focused and theoretical coding were used to identify a core category and several other categories. The core category, Reclaiming Control, was related to the sense of well-being experienced by most of the participants as a result of undergoing acupuncture care. The other categories were Gaining Sanctuary, Gaining Trust and Working Together. These categories reflected the processes of participants entering an aesthetically appealing, calm and relaxing space; developing confidence in the acupuncturists' ability to care for them; and negotiating strategies and sharing decision-making with acupuncturists about their care. Clinicians using acupuncture as a management strategy for low back pain may elicit an immediate sense of calmness in patients with subsequent well-being benefits. A sense of calmness may also be enhanced through providing a relaxing physical environment. The transactional and interpersonal processes of establishing trust and rapport, and shared decision-making are important for clients. Shared decision-making can be improved by clinicians carefully considering the explanation of issues and plans to a particular patient, especially by developing an understanding of each patient's worldview and using language that the suits each individual's healthcare orientation. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously as the results may be generalisable only to private practice in affluent countries, and whether the findings are representative beyond this setting remains unclear. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Experiences of using information and communication technology within the first year after stroke - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Martha; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Nabsen Marwaa, Mille; Tham, Kerstin; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify how people 6-12 months after stroke were using and integrating information and communication technology (ICT) in their everyday lives. To capture the participants' experiences, one focus group and 14 individual interviews were carried out in Sweden and Denmark regarding the use of ICT in everyday life. The participants comprised 11 men and seven women aged 41-79 years. A grounded theory approach was used throughout the study and a constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Five categories were identified from the analysis of the interviews with the participants: 1) Using the mobile phone to feel safe, 2) Staying connected with others, 3) Recreating everyday life, 4) A tool for managing everyday life, and 5) Overcoming obstacles for using ICT. From these categories one core category emerged: The drive to integrate ICT in everyday life after stroke. People with stroke had a strong drive to integrate ICT in order to manage and bring meaning to their everyday lives, although sometimes they needed support and adaptations. It is not only possible but also necessary to start using ICT in rehabilitation in order to support people's recovery and promote participation in everyday life after stroke. Implications for rehabilitation People with stroke have a strong drive for using information and communication technology in their everyday lives, although support and adaptations are needed. The recovery process of people with stroke could benefit from the use of ICT in the rehabilitation and ICT could possibly contribute to independence and promote participation in everyday life. Knowledge from this study can be used in the development of an ICT-based stroke rehabilitation model.

  17. Reactivity worth measurements on fast burst reactor Caliban - description and interpretation of integral experiments for the validation of nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, VALDUC, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2012-07-01

    Reactivity perturbation experiments using various materials are being performed on the HEU fast core CALIBAN, an experimental device operated by the CEA VALDUC Criticality and Neutron Transport Research Laboratory. These experiments provide valuable information to contribute to the validation of nuclear data for the materials used in such measurements. This paper presents the results obtained in a first series of measurements performed with Au-197 samples. Experiments which have been conducted in order to improve the characterization of the core are also described and discussed. The experimental results have been compared to numerical calculation using both deterministic and Monte Carlo neutron transport codes with a simplified model of the reactor. This early work led to a methodology which will be applied to the future experiments which will concern other materials of interest. (authors)

  18. Patient-centeredness in PD care: Development and validation of a patient experience questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, M. van der; Faber, M.J.; Ummels, I.; Aarts, J.W.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patient-centeredness is increasingly recognized as a crucial element of quality of care. A suitable instrument to assess the level of patient-centeredness for Parkinson's disease (PD) care is lacking. Here we describe the development and validation of the Patient-Centered Questionnaire

  19. The Impact of Cultural Validation on the College Experiences of Southeast Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Palmer, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the critical role of culture on the success of Southeast Asian American (SEAA) college students. Specifically, we examined the saliency of cultural validation and how it shaped the educational trajectories of SEAAs. A national sample of 34 participants was analyzed across 5 public, 4-year colleges and…

  20. Validation of the IASI operational CH4 and N2O products using ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer: preliminary results at the Izaña Observatory (28ºN, 17ºW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaira García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the project VALIASI (VALidation of IASI level 2 products the validation of the IASI operational atmospheric trace gas products (total column amounts of H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, CO2 and CO as well H2O and O3 profiles will be carried out. Ground-based FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer trace gas measurements made in the framework of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change serve as the validation reference. In this work, we will present the validation methodology developed for this project and show the first intercomparison results obtained for the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory between 2008 and 2012. As example, we will focus on two of the most important greenhouse gases, CH4 and N2O.

  1. Validity and Reliability of a New Measure of Nursing Experience With Unintended Consequences of Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Sheila M; Bristol, Alycia A; Dye, Judy L; Finley, Brooke A; Carrington, Jane M

    2016-10-01

    Unintended consequences of electronic health records represent undesired effects on individuals or systems, which may contradict initial goals and impact patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a new quantitative measure called the Carrington-Gephart Unintended Consequences of Electronic Health Record Questionnaire (CG-UCE-Q) was valid and reliable. Then, it was used to describe acute care nurses' experience with unintended consequences of electronic health records and relate them to the professional practice environment. Acceptable content validity was achieved for two rounds of surveys with nursing informatics experts (n = 5). Then, acute care nurses (n = 144) were recruited locally and nationally to complete the survey and describe the frequency with which they encounter unintended consequences in daily work. Principal component analysis with oblique rotation was applied to evaluate construct validity. Correlational analysis with measures of the professional practice environment and workarounds was used to evaluate convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was measured in the local sample (N = 68). Explanation for 63% of the variance across six subscales (patient safety, system design, workload issues, workarounds, technology barriers, and sociotechnical impact) supported construct validity. Relationships were significant between subscales for electronic health record-related threats to patient safety and low autonomy/leadership (P < .01), poor communication about patients (P < .01), and low control over practice (P < .01). The most frequent sources of unintended consequences were increased workload, interruptions that shifted tasks from the computer, altered workflow, and the need to duplicate data entry. Convergent validity of the CG-UCE-Q was moderately supported with both the context and processes of workarounds with strong relationships identified for when nurses perceived a block and altered process to work around it

  2. VALIDATION OF COOKING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR THERMAL INACTIVATION OF YERSINIA PESTIS STRAINS KIM5 AND CDC-A1112 IN GROUND BEEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of Yersinia pestis inoculated into retail ground beef (25 per cent fat) and heated in a temperature-controlled water bath or cooked on commercial grills was evaluated. Irradiated ground beef (3-g portions) was inoculated with ca. 6.7 log10 CFU/g of Y. pestis strain KIM5 and hea...

  3. RCCS Experiments and Validation for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Cliff Davis; Goon C. Park

    2007-09-01

    A reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS), an air-cooled helical coil RCCS unit immersed in the water pool, was proposed to overcome the disadvantages of the weak cooling ability of air-cooled RCCS and the complex structure of water-cooled RCCS for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). An experimental apparatus was constructed to investigate the various heat transfer phenomena in the water pool type RCCS, such as the natural convection of air inside the cavity, radiation in the cavity, the natural convection of water in the water pool and the forced convection of air in the cooling pipe. The RCCS experimental results were compared with published correlations. The CFX code was validated using data from the air-cooled portion of the RCCS. The RELAP5 code was validated using measured temperatures from the reactor vessel and cavity walls.

  4. WEC-SIM Phase 1 Validation Testing -- Numerical Modeling of Experiments: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, Kelley; Michelen, Carlos; Bosma, Bret; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    The Wave Energy Converter Simulator (WEC-Sim) is an open-source code jointly developed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It is used to model wave energy converters subjected to operational and extreme waves. In order for the WEC-Sim code to be beneficial to the wave energy community, code verification and physical model validation is necessary. This paper describes numerical modeling of the wave tank testing for the 1:33-scale experimental testing of the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter. The comparison between WEC-Sim and the Phase 1 experimental data set serves as code validation. This paper is a follow-up to the WEC-Sim paper on experimental testing, and describes the WEC-Sim numerical simulations for the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter.

  5. Darkness-enhanced startle responses in ecologically valid environments: a virtual tunnel driving experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Using the startle reflex methodology, researchers have shown that darkness, a phylogenetically relevant aversive context for humans, elicits fear responses. The present study replicated these findings in an ecologically valid situation, a virtual tunnel drive. Furthermore, the study focused on the question whether the darkness-enhanced startle response is modulated by an additional task involvement of the participants. Startle responses were assessed during virtual tunnel drives with darker and brighter sections. Participants once actively drove the virtual car and once passively sat in the car as a passenger. We found more negative feelings during darker parts of the virtual tunnel and during active driving. However, facilitated startle reactions in darkness were restricted to passive drives. Furthermore, correlation analyses revealed that darkness-enhanced startle modulation was more pronounced in participants with lower state anxiety. These results extend earlier findings in an experimental paradigm using ecologically valid virtual environments. Further research should use virtual reality paradigms to address context-dependent research questions.

  6. WEC-Sim Phase 1 Validation Testing: Numerical Modeling of Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, Kelley; Michelen, Carlos; Bosma, Bret; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-06-24

    The Wave Energy Converter Simulator (WEC-Sim) is an open-source code jointly developed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It is used to model wave energy converters subjected to operational and extreme waves. In order for the WEC-Sim code to be beneficial to the wave energy community, code verification and physical model validation is necessary. This paper describes numerical modeling of the wave tank testing for the 1:33-scale experimental testing of the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter. The comparison between WEC-Sim and the Phase 1 experimental data set serves as code validation. This paper is a follow-up to the WEC-Sim paper on experimental testing, and describes the WEC-Sim numerical simulations for the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter.

  7. Hadronic Shower Validation Experience for the ATLAS End-Cap Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryunin, A. E.; Salihagić, D.

    2007-03-01

    Validation of GEANT4 hadronic physics models is carried out by comparing experimental data from beam tests of modules of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters with GEANT4 based simulations. Two physics lists (LHEP and QGSP) for the simulation of hadronic showers are evaluated. Calorimeter performance parameters like the energy resolution and response for charged pions and shapes of showers are studied. Comparison with GEANT3 predictions is done as well.

  8. The family experiences of in-hospital care questionnaire in severe traumatic brain injury (FECQ-TBI): a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke, Audny; Manskow, Unn Sollid; Friborg, Oddgeir; Røe, Cecilie; Arntzen, Cathrine

    2016-11-28

    Family members are important for support and care of their close relative after severe traumas, and their experiences are vital health care quality indicators. The objective was to describe the development of the Family Experiences of in-hospital Care Questionnaire for family members of patients with severe Traumatic Brain Injury (FECQ-TBI), and to evaluate its psychometric properties and validity. The design of the study is a Norwegian multicentre study inviting 171 family members. The questionnaire developmental process included a literature review, use of an existing instrument (the parent experience of paediatric care questionnaire), focus group with close family members, as well as expert group judgments. Items asking for family care experiences related to acute wards and rehabilitation were included. Several items of the paediatric care questionnaire were removed or the wording of the items was changed to comply with the present purpose. Questions covering experiences with the inpatient rehabilitation period, the discharge phase, the family experiences with hospital facilities, the transfer between departments and the economic needs of the family were added. The developed questionnaire was mailed to the participants. Exploratory factor analyses were used to examine scale structure, in addition to screening for data quality, and analyses of internal consistency and validity. The questionnaire was returned by 122 (71%) of family members. Principal component analysis extracted six dimensions (eigenvalues > 1.0): acute organization and information (10 items), rehabilitation organization (13 items), rehabilitation information (6 items), discharge (4 items), hospital facilities-patients (4 items) and hospital facilities-family (2 items). Items related to the acute phase were comparable to items in the two dimensions of rehabilitation: organization and information. All six subscales had high Cronbach's alpha coefficients >0.80. The construct validity was

  9. Estimation of Carbon Budgets for Croplands by Combining High Resolution Remote Sensing Data with a Crop Model and Validation Ground Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Veloso, A.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Dejoux, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Croplands occupy large areas of Earth's land surface playing a key role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence, it is essential to quantify and analyze the carbon fluxes from those agro-ecosystems, since they contribute to climate change and are impacted by the environmental conditions. In this study we propose a regional modeling approach that combines high spatial and temporal resolutions (HSTR) optical remote sensing data with a crop model and a large set of in-situ measurements for model calibration and validation. The study area is located in southwest France and the model that we evaluate, called SAFY-CO2, is a semi-empirical one based on the Monteith's light-use efficiency theory and adapted for simulating the components of the net ecosystem CO2 fluxes (NEE) and of the annual net ecosystem carbon budgets (NECB) at a daily time step. The approach is based on the assimilation of satellite-derived green area index (GAI) maps for calibrating a number of the SAFY-CO2 parameters linked to crop phenology. HSTR data from the Formosat-2 and SPOT satellites were used to produce the GAI maps. The experimental data set includes eddy covariance measurements of net CO2 fluxes from two experimental sites and partitioned into gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). It also includes measurements of GAI, biomass and yield between 2005 and 2011, focusing on the winter wheat crop. The results showed that the SAFY-CO2 model correctly reproduced the biomass production, its dynamic and the yield (relative errors about 24%) in contrasted climatic, environmental and management conditions. The net CO2 flux components estimated with the model were overall in agreement with the ground data, presenting good correlations (R² about 0.93 for GPP, 0.77 for Reco and 0.86 for NEE). The evaluation of the modelled NECB for the different site-years highlighted the importance of having accurate estimates of each component of the NECB. Future works aim at considering

  10. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B. K.; Althof, J. A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations.

  11. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Experiments in the Validity of Preservice Teacher Stage Scoring of Moral Thought Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the ability of preservice teachers to score moral thought statements using Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Results indicate that teachers, in general, are not able to rate the statements with consistency. (JKS)

  13. Measuring patient experiences with diabetes care in The Netherlands: the validity of a new survey instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbroek, G. ten; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Arah, O.A.; Sixma, H.; Koning, J.S. de; Rupp, I.; Poll, A.; Stam, P.J.A.; Schmidt, P.; Vriens, B.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The introduction of market mechanisms in Dutch healthcare engages insurance companies in competition. Patient experience surveys are increasingly applied to generate performance information guiding consumers and insurers to choose and contract high performers, as well as holding them acc

  14. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T. A.; Anjos, J. C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J. A.; Dornelas, T. I.; Farias, P. C. M. A.; Guedes, G. P.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H. P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R. A.; Pepe, I. M.; Ribeiro, D. B. S.; Simas Filho, E. F.; Valdiviesso, G. A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  15. Measuring Black men's police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J

    2017-04-01

    Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. On the growth of Penaeus indicus experimented in cages at different densities in a selected nursery ground

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N; Paulinose, V.T.; Balasubramanian, T.; Menon, P.G.; Kutty, M.K.

    Effect of different densities on the growth of Penaeus indicus was studied in a higly productive nursery ground located at Ramanthuruth Island (lat. 9~'58'50"N, long. 76~'15'40"E) using cages. Eight cages of the same size were placed with prawns...

  17. Experiences of using information and communication technology within the first year after stroke – a grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marwaa, Mille Nabsen; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    in Sweden and Denmark regarding the use of ICT in everyday life. The participants comprised 11 men and seven women aged 41–79 years. A grounded theory approach was used throughout the study and a constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Results: Five categories were identified from the analysis...

  18. Psychological and Biological Validation of a Novel Digital Social Peer Evaluation Experiment (digi-SPEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Decoster, Jeroen; van Winkel, Ruud; Collip, Dina; Rutten, Bart P F; Delespaul, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2017-03-01

    Negative social evaluation is associated with psychopathology. Given the frequency of evaluation through increasingly prevalent virtual social networks, increased understanding of the effects of this social evaluation is urgently required. A new digital social peer evaluation experiment (digi-SPEE) was developed to mimic everyday online social interactions between peers. Participants received mildly negative feedback on their appearance, intelligence, and congeniality. Two hundred and forty-one young people [58.9% female, aged 18.9 years (15 to 34)] from an ongoing novel general population twin study participated in this study. Positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), implicit self-esteem, and cortisol were assessed before and after exposure to the social evaluation experiment. The social evaluation experiment decreased PA (B=-5.25, pdigi-SPEE represents a social evaluation stressor that elicits biological and implicit and explicit mental changes that are relevant to mechanisms of psychopathology.

  19. Validating An Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Li, Jie; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    The Kepler Mission is developing an Analytic Completeness Model (ACM) to estimate detection completeness contours as a function of exoplanet radius and period for each target star. Accurate completeness contours are necessary for robust estimation of exoplanet occurrence rates.The main components of the ACM for a target star are: detection efficiency as a function of SNR, the window function (WF) and the one-sigma depth function (OSDF). (Ref. Burke et al. 2015). The WF captures the falloff in transit detection probability at long periods that is determined by the observation window (the duration over which the target star has been observed). The OSDF is the transit depth (in parts per million) that yields SNR of unity for the full transit train. It is a function of period, and accounts for the time-varying properties of the noise and for missing or deweighted data.We are performing flux-level transit injection (FLTI) experiments on selected Kepler target stars with the goal of refining and validating the ACM. “Flux-level” injection machinery inserts exoplanet transit signatures directly into the flux time series, as opposed to “pixel-level” injection, which inserts transit signatures into the individual pixels using the pixel response function. See Jie Li's poster: ID #2493668, "Flux-level transit injection experiments with the NASA Pleiades Supercomputer" for details, including performance statistics.Since FLTI is affordable for only a small subset of the Kepler targets, the ACM is designed to apply to most Kepler target stars. We validate this model using “deep” FLTI experiments, with ~500,000 injection realizations on each of a small number of targets and “shallow” FLTI experiments with ~2000 injection realizations on each of many targets. From the results of these experiments, we identify anomalous targets, model their behavior and refine the ACM accordingly.In this presentation, we discuss progress in validating and refining the ACM, and we

  20. Droplet evaporation from porous surfaces; model validation from field and wind tunnel experiments for sand and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R. F.; Roberts, I. D.

    The evaporation model of Roberts and Griffiths (1995 Atmospheric Environment 29, 1307-1317) has been subjected to an extensive validation exercise based on a major campaign of field experiments on evaporation from surfaces composed of sand and of concrete. This complements the previous validation which was limited to wind tunnel experiments on sand surfaces. Additionally, the validation using wind tunnel data has been extended to include concrete surfaces. The model describes the constant-rate and falling-rate periods that characterise evaporation from porous media. During the constant-rate period, the evaporation is solely determined by the vapour transport rate into the air. During the falling-rate period, the process in the porous medium is modelled as a receding evaporation front, the overall evaporation rate being determined by the combined effects of vapour transport through the pore network and subsequently into the air. The field trials programme was conducted at sites in the USA and the UK, and examined the evaporation of diethyl malonate droplets from sand and concrete surfaces. Vapour concentrations at several heights in the plume were measured at the centre of a 1 m radius annular source (of width 10 cm) contaminated by uniformly sized droplets (2.4 or 4.1 mm in diameter), key meteorological data being measured at the same time. The evaporation was quantified by coupling concentration and wind speed data. In all, 22 trials were performed on sand and concrete; a further 8 were performed on non-porous surfaces (aluminium foil and slate) as references. The model performance was evaluated against the experimental data in terms of two quantities, the initial evaporation rate of the embedded droplets, and the mass-fraction remaining in the substrate at intervals over the evaporation episode. Overall, the model performance was best in the case of the field experiments for concrete, and the wind tunnel experiments for sand; the performance for wind tunnel

  1. Validation of Wall Friction Model in SPACE-3D Module with Two-Phase Cross Flow Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chi-Jin; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cher [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, SPACE-3D was used to simulate the Yang's experiment, and obtained the local variables. Then, the wall friction model used in SPACE-3D was validated by comparing the two-phase cross flow experimental results with the calculated local variables. In this study, the two-phase cross flow experiment was modeled by SPACE-3D to validate the wall friction model in multi-dimensional module. Considering the realistic phenomena in the reactor, however, recent trends in safety analysis codes have tended to adopt multi-dimensional module to simulate the complex flow more accurately. Even though the module was applied to deal the multi-dimensional phenomena, implemented models in that are one-dimensional empirical models. Therefore, prior to applying the multi-dimensional module, the constitutive models implemented in the codes need to be validated. In the downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) which has direct vessel injection (DVI) lines as an emergency core cooling system, multi-dimensional two-phase flow may occur due to the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). The accurate prediction about that is high relevance to evaluation of the integrity of the reactor core. For this reason, Yang performed an experiment that was to investigate the two-dimensional film flow which simulated the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer, and obtained the local liquid film velocity and thickness data. From these data, it could be possible to validate the friction models in multi-dimensional module of system analysis codes. Compared with the experiment, SPACE-3D underestimated the liquid film velocity and overestimated the liquid film thickness. From these results, it was clarified that the Wallis correlation which is used as a wall friction model in SPACE-3D overestimates the wall friction. On the other hand, H.T.F.S. correlation which is used as the wall friction in MARS-multiD underestimates the wall friction.

  2. Village sanitation and child health: Effects and external validity in a randomized field experiment in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jeffrey; Spears, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Over a billion people worldwide defecate in the open, with important consequences for early-life health and human capital accumulation in developing countries. We report a cluster randomized controlled trial of a village sanitation intervention conducted in rural Maharashtra, India designed to identify an effect of village sanitation on average child height, an outcome of increasing importance to economists. We find an effect of approximately 0.3 height-for-age standard deviations, which is consistent with observations and hypotheses in economic and health literatures. We further exploit details of the planning and implementation of the experiment to study treatment heterogeneity and external validity.

  3. Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) and Storm Peak Lab Validation Experiment (StormVEx) Science Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Gerald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) campaign took place from January through June, 2011 and the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) took place from November, 2011 through April, 2012. The PI of this project, Dr. Gerald Mace, had the privilege to be the lead on both of these campaigns. The essence of the project that we report on here was to conduct preliminary work that was necessary to bring the field data sets to a point where they could be used for their intended science purposes

  4. Talking or Keeping Silent About Parental Mental Health Problems-A Grounded Theory of Parents' Decision Making and Experiences with Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Lizette; Wren, Bernadette

    2016-10-01

    This grounded theory study explored parents' experiences of responding to their children's need for understanding parental mental health concerns. Fifteen parents with severe and enduring mental health difficulties participated in the study. The findings suggest four main social processes that influence parents' talk with their children about parental mental health issues, namely "Protecting and being protected," "Responding to children's search for understanding," "Prioritizing family life," and "Relating to others." Implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are considered. In particular, the need for more family-orientated services where parents experience parental mental health problems is highlighted.

  5. Review: Ina-Maria Greverus, Sharon MacDonald, Regina Romhild, Gisela Welz & Helena Wullf (Eds. (2002. Stability Upon Shifting Ground: Review Note of Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Boylorn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is written in response to "Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethno­graphy," a volume of the Anthropological Journal on European Cultures. This review cites the history and implications of ethnography as a methodology within various academic disciplines while praising the authors within this text for their contributions to various ways of "doing ethnography." By investi­gating and considering the body as an ethno­graphic site where life and stories are performed and em­bodied, this article considers the varying ways the authors respond to experimental and performative ethnography while applying it to relevant and current issues within anthropology. By engaging both the anthropological and historical turn of ethnography, this book thematically discusses the mobility of fieldwork, time, space, multi-locality, tour­ism, and tradition/culture. Shifting Grounds does not only offer experiments in doing ethnography, it also offers alternatives for doing ethnography. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503175

  6. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  7. Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical simulations using in vitro experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Chouly, Franz; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Pelorson, Xavier; Payan, Yohan; 10.1007/s11517-008-0412-1

    2008-01-01

    In the presented study, a numerical model which predicts the flow-induced collapse within the pharyngeal airway is validated using in vitro measurements. Theoretical simplifications were considered to limit the computation time. Systematic comparisons between simulations and measurements were performed on an in vitro replica, which reflects asymmetries of the geometry and of the tissue properties at the base of the tongue and in pathological conditions (strong initial obstruction). First, partial obstruction is observed and predicted. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of the numerical model is of 4.2% concerning the deformation (mean quadratic error on the constriction area). It shows the ability of the assumptions and method to predict accurately and quickly a fluid-structure interaction.

  8. ELECTRO-THERMAL AND MECHANICAL VALIDATION EXPERIMENT ON THE LHC MAIN BUSBAR SPLICE CONSOLIDATION

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, GP; Bourcey, N; Bottura, L; Charrondiere, M; Cerqueira Bastos, M; Deferne, G; Dib, G; Giloux, Chr; Grand-Clement, L; Heck, S; Hudson, G; Kudryavtsev, D; Perret, P; Pozzobon, M; Prin, H; Scheuerlein, Chr; Rijllart, A; Triquet, S; Verweij, AP

    2012-01-01

    To eliminate the risk of thermal runaways in LHC interconnections a consolidation by placing shunts on the main bus bar interconnections is proposed by the Task Force Splices Consolidation. To validate the design two special SSS magnet spares are placed on a test bench in SM-18 to measure the interconnection in between with conditions as close as possible to the LHC conditions. Two dipole interconnections are instrumented and prepared with worst-case-conditions to study the thermo-electric stability limits. Two quadrupole interconnections are instrumented and prepared for studying the effect of current cycling on the mechanical stability of the consolidation design. All 4 shunted interconnections showed very stable behaviour, well beyond the LHC design current cycle.

  9. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  10. DSMC Simulations of Hypersonic Flows With Shock Interactions and Validation With Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, James N.; Bird, Graeme A.

    2004-01-01

    The capabilities of a relatively new direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code are examined for the problem of hypersonic laminar shock/shock and shock/boundary layer interactions, where boundary layer separation is an important feature of the flow. Flow about two model configurations is considered, where both configurations (a biconic and a hollow cylinder-flare) have recent published experimental measurements. The computations are made by using the DS2V code of Bird, a general two-dimensional/axisymmetric time accurate code that incorporates many of the advances in DSMC over the past decade. The current focus is on flows produced in ground-based facilities at Mach 12 and 16 test conditions with nitrogen as the test gas and the test models at zero incidence. Results presented highlight the sensitivity of the calculations to grid resolutions, sensitivity to physical modeling parameters, and comparison with experimental measurements. Information is provided concerning the flow structure and surface results for the extent of separation, heating, pressure, and skin friction.

  11. Validation of the Flourishing Scale and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Junca; Caetano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The Flourishing Scale (FS) and the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) created by Diener et al. ("Soc Indic Res" 97:143-156, 2010) are instruments that assess psychological flourishing and feelings (positive and negative, and the difference between the two). In this study, the psychometric properties of both scales were…

  12. Development and Validation of E-Portfolios: The UAE Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forawi, Sufian A.; Almekhlafi, Abdurrahman G.; Al-Mekhlafy, Mohamed H.

    2012-01-01

    Research has indicated the importance of evaluating the experiences related to developing e-portfolios (electronic portfolio) to contribute to the overall excellence in teaching and learning. Researchers (instructors) of the present study used an exit e-portfolios, a questionnaire and follow up interviews to describe development and evaluation of…

  13. Analysis of sample and fuel pin irradiation experiments in Phenix for basic nuclear data validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Angelo, A.; Cleri, F. (ENEA, Casaccia Nuclear Research Centre, Dipartimento Reattori Veloci, 0060 Casaccia (IT)); Marimbeau, P.; Salvatores, M.; Grouiller, J.P. (Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, Service de Physique des Reacteurs et du Cycle, Dept. de Recherche Physique, 13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (FR))

    1990-07-01

    This paper presents comparisons between calculations and experimental data from fuel irradiation experiments performed in Phenix. Both the French CARNAVAL-IV system and the recently developed JEF-1 basic data file are used. The global consistency of the results is excellent and the compared values are, in general, very satisfactory. In some cases, indications for evaluated data modifications are obtained.

  14. Plans and Specifications for a Full-Scale Towing Model Validation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    extreme tension statistics of towing hawsers. Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Ocean Engineering, Cambridge...ship’s speed, as read from the installed speed log, every ten minutes 135 TESI PLAN - NAVSEA TWO BODY TOWING EXPERIMENT 3. Environmental Data a. Log wind

  15. Mid-infrared picosecond pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments to resolve a ground-state intermediate in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; van Thor, Jasper J

    2009-12-24

    Multipulse picosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study photochemical reactions of the cyanobacterial phytochrome photoreceptor Cph1. Different photophysical schemes have been discussed in the literature to describe the pathways after photoexcitation, particularly, to identify reaction phases that are linked to photoisomerisation and electronic decay in the 1566-1772 cm(-1) region that probes C=C and C=O stretching modes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, multipulse spectroscopy is employed, where, compared to conventional visible pump-mid-infrared probe spectroscopy, an additional visible pulse is incorporated that interacts with populations that are evolving on the excited- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. The time delays between the pump and the dump pulse are chosen such that the dump pulse interacts with different phases in the reaction process. The pump and dump pulses are at the same wavelength, 640 nm, and are resonant with the Pr ground state as well as with the excited state and intermediates. Because the dump pulse additionally pumps the remaining, partially recovered, and partially oriented ground-state population, theory is developed for estimating the fraction of excited-state molecules. The calculations take into account the model-dependent ground-state recovery fraction, the angular dependence of the population transfer resulting from the finite bleach that occurs with linearly polarized intense femtosecond optical excitation, and the partially oriented population for the dump field. Distinct differences between the results from the experiments that use a 1 or a 14 ps dump time favor a branching evolution from S1 to an excited state or reconfigured chromophore and to a newly identified ground-state intermediate (GSI). Optical dumping at 1 ps shows the instantaneous induced absorption of a delocalized C=C stretching mode at 1608 cm(-1), where the increased cross section is associated with the electronic ground

  16. The Development and Validation of the Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire: A Measure of Adolescent Cyberbullying and Its Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed.

  17. Validation of SSiB Model over Grassland with CHeRES Field Experiment Data in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岚; 薛永康

    2004-01-01

    The Simplified Simple Biosphere model (SSiB) is validated in off-line simulations against field measurements in the summer of 2001 from the China Heavy Rainfall Experiment and Study (CHeRES) over a grassland site located in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. When initialized and driven by the observed atmospheric forcing, the model reproduced the observed surface heat fluxes and surface skin temperature realistically. The model was also able to well simulate the variation of soil water content. The sensitivity experiments found that the leaf reflectance was the most significant parameter in improving the estimation of surface albedo during both wet and dry periods. This study suggests that the model is capable of simulating the physical processes and of assessing the impact of biophysical parameters that relate to land-atmosphere interactions over the eastern Asian monsoon regions, which is crucial for mesoscale atmospheric models.

  18. How human resource organization can enhance space information acquisition and processing: the experience of the VENESAT-1 ground segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Romina; Orihuela, Nuris; Blanco, Rafael; Varela, Francisco; Camacho, Enrique; Urbina, Marianela; Aponte, Luis Gabriel; Vallenilla, Leopoldo; Acuña, Liana; Becerra, Roberto; Tabare, Terepaima; Recaredo, Erica

    2009-12-01

    Built in cooperation with the P.R of China, in October 29th of 2008, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela launched its first Telecommunication Satellite, the so called VENESAT-1 (Simón Bolívar Satellite), which operates in C (covering Center America, The Caribbean Region and most of South America), Ku (Bolivia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela) and Ka bands (Venezuela). The launch of VENESAT-1 represents the starting point for Venezuela as an active player in the field of space science and technology. In order to fulfill mission requirements and to guarantee the satellite's health, local professionals must provide continuous monitoring, orbit calculation, maneuvers preparation and execution, data preparation and processing, as well as data base management at the VENESAT-1 Ground Segment, which includes both a primary and backup site. In summary, data processing and real time data management are part of the daily activities performed by the personnel at the ground segment. Using published and unpublished information, this paper presents how human resource organization can enhance space information acquisition and processing, by analyzing the proposed organizational structure for the VENESAT-1 Ground Segment. We have found that the proposed units within the organizational structure reflect 3 key issues for mission management: Satellite Operations, Ground Operations, and Site Maintenance. The proposed organization is simple (3 hierarchical levels and 7 units), and communication channels seem efficient in terms of facilitating information acquisition, processing, storage, flow and exchange. Furthermore, the proposal includes a manual containing the full description of personnel responsibilities and profile, which efficiently allocates the management and operation of key software for satellite operation such as the Real-time Data Transaction Software (RDTS), Data Management Software (DMS), and Carrier Spectrum Monitoring Software (CSM

  19. Two-phase CFD PTS validation in an extended range of thermohydraulics conditions covered by the COSI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, P., E-mail: pierre.coste@cea.fr [CEA, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SMTF/LMSF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ortolan, A. [CEA, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SMTF/LMSF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); ENSICA Engineering School, Toulouse (France)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Models for large interfaces in two-phase CFD were developed for PTS. • The COSI experiment is used for NEPTUNE{sub C}FD integral validation. • COSI is a PWR cold leg scaled 1/100 for volume. • Fifty runs are calculated, covering a large range of flow configurations. • The CFD predicting capability is analysed using global and local measurements. - Abstract: In the context of the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) life duration safety studies, some models were developed to address the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) from the two-phase CFD angle, dealing with interfaces much larger than cells size and with direct contact condensation. Such models were implemented in NEPTUNE{sub C}FD, a 3D transient Eulerian two-fluid model. The COSI experiment is used for its integral validation. It represents a cold leg scaled 1/100 for volume and power from a 900 MW PWR under a large range of LOCA PTS conditions. In this study, the CFD is evaluated in the whole range of parameters and flow configurations covered by the experiment. In a first step, a single choice of mesh and CFD models parameters is fixed and justified. In a second step, fifty runs are calculated. The CFD predicting capability is analysed, comparing the liquid temperature and the total condensation rate with the experiment, discussing their dependency on the inlet cold liquid rate, on the liquid level in the cold leg and on the difference between co-current and counter-current runs. It is shown that NEPTUNE{sub C}FD 1.0.8 calculates with a fair agreement a large range of flow configurations related to ECCS injection and steam condensation.

  20. Validation of extremes within the Perfect-Predictor Experiment of the COST Action VALUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertig, Elke; Maraun, Douglas; Wibig, Joanna; Vrac, Mathieu; Soares, Pedro; Bartholy, Judith; Pongracz, Rita; Mares, Ileana; Gutierrez, Jose Manuel; Casanueva, Ana; Alzbutas, Robertas

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events are of widespread concern due to their damaging consequences on natural and anthropogenic systems. From science to applications the statistical attributes of rare and infrequent occurrence and low probability become connected with the socio-economic aspect of strong impact. Specific end-user needs regarding information about extreme events depend on the type of application, but as a joining element there is always the request for easily accessible climate change information with a clear description of their uncertainties and limitations. Within the Perfect-Predictor Experiment of the COST Action VALUE extreme indices modelled from a wide range of downscaling methods are compared to reference indices calculated from observational data. The experiment uses reference data from a selection of 86 weather stations representative of the different climates in Europe. Results are presented for temperature and precipitation extremes and include aspects of the marginal distribution as well as spell-length related aspects.

  1. Validating Bayesian truth serum in large-scale online human experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Cebrian, Manuel; Pickard, Galen; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian truth serum (BTS) is an exciting new method for improving honesty and information quality in multiple-choice survey, but, despite the method's mathematical reliance on large sample sizes, existing literature about BTS only focuses on small experiments. Combined with the prevalence of online survey platforms, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk, which facilitate surveys with hundreds or thousands of participants, BTS must be effective in large-scale experiments for BTS to become a readily accepted tool in real-world applications. We demonstrate that BTS quantifiably improves honesty in large-scale online surveys where the "honest" distribution of answers is known in expectation on aggregate. Furthermore, we explore a marketing application where "honest" answers cannot be known, but find that BTS treatment impacts the resulting distributions of answers.

  2. Measuring barriers to adherence: validation of the problematic experiences of therapy scale

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present the psychometric properties of the Problematic Experiences of Therapy Scale (the PETS), a brief measure to assess self-reported perceived barriers to adherence to physical rehabilitative therapy.\\ud \\ud Methods: Participants (study 1: n?=?128, study 2: n?=?227) taking part in trials of rehabilitative exercises completed the PETS and adherence questions at 12 weeks. Participants in study 2 were also asked about maintained adherence at 6-month follow-up.\\ud \\ud Results: Prin...

  3. Validity of extrapolating field CO[sub 2] experiments to predict carbon sequestration in natural ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. (Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States). Biological Sciences Center); Reynolds, J.F. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany)

    1999-07-01

    One of the ultimate goals of ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) experiments is to infer the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester carbon (C) in a CO[sub 2]-enriched world. This modeling study examines C sequestration (C[sub seq]) in natural ecosystems based on CO[sub 2] experiments. Most experiments are conducted by a step increase in CO[sub 2] concentration, whereas natural ecosystems are experiencing a gradual increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] (C[sub a]). To examine the effects of a step vs. gradual CO[sub 2] increase on ecosystem responses, the authors have developed a terrestrial C sequestration (TCS) model that focuses on C and nitrogen (N) interactions in regulating C[sub seq]. They used the model to: (1) compare C[sub seq] and N demand in response to the step vs. gradual increase in CO[sub 2]; (2) identify mechanisms underlying different ecosystem responses to the step vs. gradual CO[sub 2] forcing; (3) examine key parameters in controlling C[sub seq]; and (4) explore three hypothesized N supply mechanisms in regulating photosynthetic acclimation and C[sub seq].

  4. Validation of Geant4 Physics Using the CMS HCAL Test Beam 2002 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Elvira, Victor Daniel

    2004-01-01

    High energy physics measurements relay to a great extent on the accuracy of physics generators and detector simulations. The size of systematic uncertainties associated with particle discoveries, mass, or cross section measurements is tightly associated with how accurately the simulations describe the actual performance of the detector in measuring physics objects. Physics validation studies of Geant4 using physics lists LHEP-3.6 and QGSP-2.7, and based on HCAL test beam taken in 2002, are presented in this note. The pion energy resolution and response linearity as a function of incident energy derived from the simulations are in good agreement with the data measurement within the large systematics uncertainties in the latter. Below 30GeV, the uncertaintiesin the data are too large to provide information about deviationsof the Monte Carlo model with respect to the data measurements. Tr ansverse and longitudinal shower profiles are also studied in the Monte Carlo, but no data were analyzed. In particular, long...

  5. Compatible validated spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin by factorial design experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    2015-04-01

    Simple, selective and reproducible spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first proposed spectrofluorimetric method is based on the dansylation reaction of the amino group of vildagliptin with dansyl chloride to form a highly fluorescent product. The formed product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 455 nm after excitation at 345 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-600 μg ml-1. The second proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the charge transfer complex of saxagliptin with tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (p-chloranil). The formed charge transfer complex was measured spectrophotometrically at 530 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-850 μg ml-1. The third proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the condensation reaction of the primary amino group of saxagliptin with formaldehyde and acetyl acetone to form a yellow colored product known as Hantzsch reaction, measured at 342.5 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 50-300 μg ml-1. All the variables were studied to optimize the reactions' conditions using factorial design. The developed methods were validated and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  6. ICESat Calibration and Validation Experiments at White Sands, New Mexico, 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Urban, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) at the University of Texas at Austin has operated a primary site for ICESat cal/val activities near the White Sands Space Harbor (WSSH) area of the White Sands Missile Range, NM. This site was chosen for both geophysical (flat, reflective) and logistical (domestic, secure site) reasons. Before launch in 2003, a several-hundred-meter-scale grid comprised of hundreds of numbered PVC base-plates was installed at the chosen site to permanently mark the locations of various pieces of experiment hardware. In summary, CSR has supported four primary types of experiments at the cal/val site: (1) a permanent grid of laser retro-reflectors (corner cube reflectors) placed on top of poles of various known heights and collocated with 25 of the base plates, in use for the duration of the mission, (2) a set of computer-monitored position and timing detectors utilized for cal/val during the first three years of the project, (3) several camera-equipped aircraft flyovers of the area designed to capture images of the green and infrared footprints on the surface at the precise time of ICESat overflights, (4) elevation comparisons between the ICESat data and a high-resolution (1 m) DEM derived via small-footprint airborne lidar collections in 2003 and 2007. The experiments at WSSH were targeted by the ICESat spacecraft approximately four times per campaign, making this cal/val site one of the most sampled locations in the world. This presentation will chronicle the extensive collection of ICESat and experimental data collected at WSSH from 2003 to 2010.

  7. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Celina, Mathias C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Giron, Nicholas Henry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russick, Edward M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150°C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  8. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  9. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Flight Hardware, Operations and Science Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL/6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNA later at less than or equal to -80 C (n=2/group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls, housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC), housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. FLT mice appeared more physically active on-orbit than GC, and behavior analysis are in progress. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between FLT and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. RNA was of high quality (RIN greater than 8.5). Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were optimally processed in the laboratory. Liver samples collected from the intact frozen FLT carcasses had RNA RIN of 7.27 +/- 0.52, which was lower than that of the samples processed on-orbit, but similar to those obtained from the control group intact carcasses. Nonetheless, the RNA samples from the intact carcasses were acceptable for the most demanding transcriptomic analyses. Adrenal glands, thymus and spleen (organs associated with stress response) showed no significant difference in weights between FLT and GC. Enzymatic activity was also not significantly different. Over 3,000 tissues collected from the four groups of mice have become available for the Biospecimen Sharing

  10. Nuclear electromagnetic moments of the ground states of /sup 148/Pm and /sup 210/Bi calculated with phenomenological wave functions derived from analyses of. beta. -decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, O.A.; Szybisz, L.

    1983-12-01

    The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the ground states of /sup 148/Pm and /sup 210/Bi are evaluated with phenomenological wave functions derived from ..beta..-decay studies published in previous works. It is found that these wave functions account