WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground truth sites

  1. Ground Truth Collections at the MTI Core Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) selected 13 sites across the continental US and one site in the western Pacific to serve as the primary or core site for collection of ground truth data for validation of MTI science algorithms. Imagery and ground truth data from several of these sites are presented in this paper. These sites are the Comanche Peak, Pilgrim and Turkey Point power plants, Ivanpah playas, Crater Lake, Stennis Space Center and the Tropical Western Pacific ARM site on the island of Nauru. Ground truth data includes water temperatures (bulk and skin), radiometric data, meteorological data and plant operating data. The organizations that manage these sites assist SRTC with its ground truth data collections and also give the MTI project a variety of ground truth measurements that they make for their own purposes. Collectively, the ground truth data from the 14 core sites constitute a comprehensive database for science algorithm validation

  2. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  3. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  4. SIR-C/X-SAR data calibration and ground truth campaign over the NASA-CB1 test-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notarnicola, C.; Posa, F.; Refice, A.; Sergi, R.; Smacchia, P.; Casarano, D.; De Carolis, G.; Mattia, F.; Schena, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Endeavour mission in October 1994, a remote-sensing campaign was carried out with the objectives of both radiometric and polarimetric calibration and ground truth data acquisition of bare soils. This paper presents the results obtained in the experiment. Polarimetric cross-talk and channel imbalance values, as well as radiometric calibration parameters, have been found to be within the science requirements for SAR images. Regarding ground truth measurements, a wide spread in the height rms values and correlation lengths has been observed, which was motivated a critical revisiting of surface parameters descriptors

  5. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  6. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    plan). Key parameters to be automatically determined are event origin time (within 0.1 sec), location (within 1 km) and size (within 0.3 magnitude units) without any human intervention. The key parameter ground truth information from explosions greater than magnitude 2.5 will be transmitted to a recording and transmitting site. Because we have identified a limited bandwidth, inexpensive two-way satellite communication (ORBCOMM), we have devised the concept of an accompanying Ground-Truth Processing Center that would enable calibration and ground-truth accuracy to improve over the duration of a deployment.

  7. Eliciting Perceptual Ground Truth for Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, Victoria Jane; Eakins, John; Austin, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate human visual perception and establish a body of ground truth data elicited from human visual studies. We aim to build on the formative work of Ren, Eakins and Briggs who produced an initial ground truth database. Human subjects were asked to draw and rank their perceptions of the parts of a series of figurative images. These rankings were then used to score the perceptions, identify the preferred human breakdowns and thus allow us to induce perceptual rules for h...

  8. On the ground truth problem of malicious DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    algorithms at their core. These methods require accurate ground truth of both malicious and benign DNS traffic for model training as well as for the performance evaluation. This paper elaborates on the problem of obtaining such a ground truth and evaluates practices employed by contemporary detection methods...

  9. Site remediation: The naked truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of any company faced with an environmental site remediation project is to perform the cleanup effectively at the lowest possible cost. Today, there are a variety of techniques being applied in the remediation of sites involving soils and sludges. The most popular include: stabilization, incineration, bioremediation and off-site treatment. Dewatering may also play an integral role in a number of these approaches. Selecting the most cost-effective technique for remediation of soils and sludges can be a formidable undertaking, namely because it is often difficult to quantify certain expenses in advance of the project. In addition to providing general cost guidelines for various aspects of soil and sludge remediation, this paper will show how some significant cost factors can be affected by conditions related to specific remediation projects and the cleanup technology being applied

  10. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  11. Is our Ground-Truth for Traffic Classification Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carela-Español, Valentín; Bujlow, Tomasz; Barlet-Ros, Pere

    2014-01-01

    . In order to evaluate these tools we have carefully built a labeled dataset of more than 500 000 flows, which contains traffic from popular applications. Our results present PACE, a commercial tool, as the most reliable solution for ground-truth generation. However, among the open-source tools available...

  12. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  13. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  14. Modified ground-truthing: an accurate and cost-effective food environment validation method for town and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Friebur, Robin

    2016-03-17

    A major concern in food environment research is the lack of accuracy in commercial business listings of food stores, which are convenient and commonly used. Accuracy concerns may be particularly pronounced in rural areas. Ground-truthing or on-site verification has been deemed the necessary standard to validate business listings, but researchers perceive this process to be costly and time-consuming. This study calculated the accuracy and cost of ground-truthing three town/rural areas in Minnesota, USA (an area of 564 miles, or 908 km), and simulated a modified validation process to increase efficiency without comprising accuracy. For traditional ground-truthing, all streets in the study area were driven, while the route and geographic coordinates of food stores were recorded. The process required 1510 miles (2430 km) of driving and 114 staff hours. The ground-truthed list of stores was compared with commercial business listings, which had an average positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.57 and sensitivity of 0.62 across the three sites. Using observations from the field, a modified process was proposed in which only the streets located within central commercial clusters (the 1/8 mile or 200 m buffer around any cluster of 2 stores) would be validated. Modified ground-truthing would have yielded an estimated PPV of 1.00 and sensitivity of 0.95, and would have resulted in a reduction in approximately 88 % of the mileage costs. We conclude that ground-truthing is necessary in town/rural settings. The modified ground-truthing process, with excellent accuracy at a fraction of the costs, suggests a new standard and warrants further evaluation.

  15. Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, T.K.; Smyre, J.L.; King, A.L.

    1997-06-01

    This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program's (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL's Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A

  16. Visualization of ground truth tracks for the video 'Tracking a "facer's" behavior in a public plaza'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager.......The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager....

  17. SEA ICE THICKNESS MEASUREMENT BY GROUND PENETRATING RADAR FOR GROUND TRUTH OF MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsumoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  18. Sea Ice Thickness Measurement by Ground Penetrating Radar for Ground Truth of Microwave Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Naoki, K.; Cho, K.; Wakabayashi, H.

    2018-04-01

    Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately) aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  19. Community detection algorithm evaluation with ground-truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebabli, Malek; Cherifi, Hocine; Cherifi, Chantal; Hamouda, Atef

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is of paramount importance for the understanding of complex networks. Consequently, there is a tremendous effort in order to develop efficient community detection algorithms. Unfortunately, the issue of a fair assessment of these algorithms is a thriving open question. If the ground-truth community structure is available, various clustering-based metrics are used in order to compare it versus the one discovered by these algorithms. However, these metrics defined at the node level are fairly insensitive to the variation of the overall community structure. To overcome these limitations, we propose to exploit the topological features of the 'community graphs' (where the nodes are the communities and the links represent their interactions) in order to evaluate the algorithms. To illustrate our methodology, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of overlapping community detection algorithms using a set of real-world networks with known a priori community structure. Results provide a better perception of their relative performance as compared to classical metrics. Moreover, they show that more emphasis should be put on the topology of the community structure. We also investigate the relationship between the topological properties of the community structure and the alternative evaluation measures (quality metrics and clustering metrics). It appears clearly that they present different views of the community structure and that they must be combined in order to evaluate the effectiveness of community detection algorithms.

  20. ON CONSTRUCTION OF A RELIABLE GROUND TRUTH FOR EVALUATION OF VISUAL SLAM ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we are concerning the problem of localization accuracy evaluation of visual-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM techniques. Quantitative evaluation of the SLAM algorithm performance is usually done using the established metrics of Relative pose error and Absolute trajectory error which require a precise and reliable ground truth. Such a ground truth is usually hard to obtain, while it requires an expensive external localization system. In this work we are proposing to use the SLAM algorithm itself to construct a reliable ground-truth by offline frame-by-frame processing. The generated ground-truth is suitable for evaluation of different SLAM systems, as well as for tuning the parametrization of the on-line SLAM. The presented practical experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  1. Fast and Accurate Ground Truth Generation for Skew-Tolerance Evaluation of Page Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okun Oleg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many image segmentation algorithms are known, but often there is an inherent obstacle in the unbiased evaluation of segmentation quality: the absence or lack of a common objective representation for segmentation results. Such a representation, known as the ground truth, is a description of what one should obtain as the result of ideal segmentation, independently of the segmentation algorithm used. The creation of ground truth is a laborious process and therefore any degree of automation is always welcome. Document image analysis is one of the areas where ground truths are employed. In this paper, we describe an automated tool called GROTTO intended to generate ground truths for skewed document images, which can be used for the performance evaluation of page segmentation algorithms. Some of these algorithms are claimed to be insensitive to skew (tilt of text lines. However, this fact is usually supported only by a visual comparison of what one obtains and what one should obtain since ground truths are mostly available for upright images, that is, those without skew. As a result, the evaluation is both subjective; that is, prone to errors, and tedious. Our tool allows users to quickly and easily produce many sufficiently accurate ground truths that can be employed in practice and therefore it facilitates automatic performance evaluation. The main idea is to utilize the ground truths available for upright images and the concept of the representative square [9] in order to produce the ground truths for skewed images. The usefulness of our tool is demonstrated through a number of experiments with real-document images of complex layout.

  2. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  3. Ground truth data collection on mining industrial explosions registered by the International Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehl'tekov, A.Yu.; Gordon, V.P.; Firsov, V.A.; Chervyakov, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation is dedicated to organizational and technical issues connected with the task of Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization timely notification on large chemical explosions including data on explosion location and time, on applied explosive substance quantity and type, and also on configuration and assumed purpose of explosion. Explosions registered by International Monitoring System are of special interest. Their data could be used for calibration of the monitoring system. Ground truth data collection and some explosions location results on Russia's mining enterprises were given. Ground truth data collection peculiarities according to mining industrial explosions were considered. (author)

  4. Satellite markers: a simple method for ground truth car pose on stereo video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gustavo; Savino, Giovanni; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco

    2018-04-01

    Artificial prediction of future location of other cars in the context of advanced safety systems is a must. The remote estimation of car pose and particularly its heading angle is key to predict its future location. Stereo vision systems allow to get the 3D information of a scene. Ground truth in this specific context is associated with referential information about the depth, shape and orientation of the objects present in the traffic scene. Creating 3D ground truth is a measurement and data fusion task associated with the combination of different kinds of sensors. The novelty of this paper is the method to generate ground truth car pose only from video data. When the method is applied to stereo video, it also provides the extrinsic camera parameters for each camera at frame level which are key to quantify the performance of a stereo vision system when it is moving because the system is subjected to undesired vibrations and/or leaning. We developed a video post-processing technique which employs a common camera calibration tool for the 3D ground truth generation. In our case study, we focus in accurate car heading angle estimation of a moving car under realistic imagery. As outcomes, our satellite marker method provides accurate car pose at frame level, and the instantaneous spatial orientation for each camera at frame level.

  5. Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.

    2010-03-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

  6. Go fly a kite : air truthing replaces ground truthing for environmental investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2008-05-15

    This article discussed the use of kite aerial photography (KAP) in oil and gas exploration activities. KAP exhibits a minimal environmental footprint while providing high resolution airborne data of the Earth's surface in infrared and a variety of other media. The cost-effective technology is being employed by Alberta's oil and gas operators as well as by the environmental consulting sector. The kites fly at lower elevations than other remote sensing tools, and yield better spatial resolution on the ground. KAP can map the Earth's surface at a scale of investigation on the order of 5 to 10 centimetres. The images are placed into a geo-referenced mosaic along with poorer resolution remote sensing tools. A KAP kit can be assembled for under $1000. By using infrared KAP images, operators are able to determine the health of muskeg and swamp areas and measure the rate of photosynthesis of plants. KAP is also used to evaluate troublesome wellsite by reclamation groups. The next generation of sensors will include radio-controlled drones and miniature aircraft. 6 figs.

  7. The evaluation of a population based diffusion tensor image atlas using a ground truth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; D'Agostino, Emiliano; De Backer, Steve; Vandervliet, Evert; Parizel, Paul M.; Sijbers, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is increasingly being used to detect diffusion tensor (DT) image abnormalities in patients for different pathologies. An important requisite for these VBM studies is the use of a high-dimensional, non-rigid coregistration technique, which is able to align both the spatial and the orientational information. Recent studies furthermore indicate that high-dimensional DT information should be included during coregistration for an optimal alignment. In this context, a population based DTI atlas is created that preserves the orientational DT information robustly and contains a minimal bias towards any specific individual data set. Methods: A ground truth evaluation method is developed using a single subject DT image that is deformed with 20 deformation fields. Thereafter, an atlas is constructed based on these 20 resulting images. Thereby, the non-rigid coregistration algorithm is based on a viscous fluid model and on mutual information. The fractional anisotropy (FA) maps as well as the DT elements are used as DT image information during the coregistration algorithm, in order to minimize the orientational alignment inaccuracies. Results: The population based DT atlas is compared with the ground truth image using accuracy and precision measures of spatial and orientational dependent metrics. Results indicate that the population based atlas preserves the orientational information in a robust way. Conclusion: A subject independent population based DT atlas is constructed and evaluated with a ground truth method. This atlas contains all available orientational information and can be used in future VBM studies as a reference system.

  8. Improving the Quality of Satellite Imagery Based on Ground-Truth Data from Rain Gauge Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Militino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal imagery is by and large geometrically and radiometrically accurate, but the residual noise arising from removal clouds and other atmospheric and electronic effects can produce outliers that must be mitigated to properly exploit the remote sensing information. In this study, we show how ground-truth data from rain gauge stations can improve the quality of satellite imagery. To this end, a simulation study is conducted wherein different sizes of outlier outbreaks are spread and randomly introduced in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the day and night land surface temperature (LST of composite images from Navarre (Spain between 2011 and 2015. To remove outliers, a new method called thin-plate splines with covariates (TpsWc is proposed. This method consists of smoothing the median anomalies with a thin-plate spline model, whereby transformed ground-truth data are the external covariates of the model. The performance of the proposed method is measured with the square root of the mean square error (RMSE, calculated as the root of the pixel-by-pixel mean square differences between the original data and the predicted data with the TpsWc model and with a state-space model with and without covariates. The study shows that the use of ground-truth data reduces the RMSE in both the TpsWc model and the state-space model used for comparison purposes. The new method successfully removes the abnormal data while preserving the phenology of the raw data. The RMSE reduction percentage varies according to the derived variables (NDVI or LST, but reductions of up to 20% are achieved with the new proposal.

  9. Reference-free ground truth metric for metal artifact evaluation in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, Baerbel; Ens, Svitlana; Mueller, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT), metal objects in the region of interest introduce data inconsistencies during acquisition. Reconstructing these data results in an image with star shaped artifacts induced by the metal inconsistencies. To enhance image quality, the influence of the metal objects can be reduced by different metal artifact reduction (MAR) strategies. For an adequate evaluation of new MAR approaches a ground truth reference data set is needed. In technical evaluations, where phantoms can be measured with and without metal inserts, ground truth data can easily be obtained by a second reference data acquisition. Obviously, this is not possible for clinical data. Here, an alternative evaluation method is presented without the need of an additionally acquired reference data set. Methods: The proposed metric is based on an inherent ground truth for metal artifacts as well as MAR methods comparison, where no reference information in terms of a second acquisition is needed. The method is based on the forward projection of a reconstructed image, which is compared to the actually measured projection data. Results: The new evaluation technique is performed on phantom and on clinical CT data with and without MAR. The metric results are then compared with methods using a reference data set as well as an expert-based classification. It is shown that the new approach is an adequate quantification technique for artifact strength in reconstructed metal or MAR CT images. Conclusions: The presented method works solely on the original projection data itself, which yields some advantages compared to distance measures in image domain using two data sets. Beside this, no parameters have to be manually chosen. The new metric is a useful evaluation alternative when no reference data are available.

  10. Field Ground Truthing Data Collector - a Mobile Toolkit for Image Analysis and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.

    2012-07-01

    Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1) Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use) and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2) Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3) Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  11. FIELD GROUND TRUTHING DATA COLLECTOR – A MOBILE TOOLKIT FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  12. Ground Truth Studies - A hands-on environmental science program for students, grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, John; Chappell, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the background and the objectives of the Ground Truth Studies (GTSs), an activity-based teaching program which integrates local environmental studies with global change topics, utilizing remotely sensed earth imagery. Special attention is given to the five key concepts around which the GTS programs are organized, the pilot program, the initial pilot study evaluation, and the GTS Handbook. The GTS Handbook contains a primer on global change and remote sensing, aerial and satellite images, student activities, glossary, and an appendix of reference material. Also described is a K-12 teacher training model. International participation in the program is to be initiated during the 1992-1993 school year.

  13. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-05-01

    The canopy height of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or lidar. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI). The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. It is found that for undisturbed forest and a variety of disturbed forests situations AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB=a·hb) with an r2~60% for a spatial resolution of 20 m×20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The regression is becoming significant better for the hectare wide analysis of the disturbed forest sites (r2=91%). There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2~60%) between AGB and the area fraction in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot data from the same region and with the large-scale forest inventory in Lambir. We conclude that the spaceborne remote sensing techniques have the potential to

  14. First- and third-party ground truth for key frame extraction from consumer video clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Kathleen; Luo, Jiebo

    2007-02-01

    Extracting key frames (KF) from video is of great interest in many applications, such as video summary, video organization, video compression, and prints from video. KF extraction is not a new problem. However, current literature has been focused mainly on sports or news video. In the consumer video space, the biggest challenges for key frame selection from consumer videos are the unconstrained content and lack of any preimposed structure. In this study, we conduct ground truth collection of key frames from video clips taken by digital cameras (as opposed to camcorders) using both first- and third-party judges. The goals of this study are: (1) to create a reference database of video clips reasonably representative of the consumer video space; (2) to identify associated key frames by which automated algorithms can be compared and judged for effectiveness; and (3) to uncover the criteria used by both first- and thirdparty human judges so these criteria can influence algorithm design. The findings from these ground truths will be discussed.

  15. Modeling multiple time series annotations as noisy distortions of the ground truth: An Expectation-Maximization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Audhkhasi, Kartik; Jacokes, Zach; Rozga, Agata; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2018-01-01

    Studies of time-continuous human behavioral phenomena often rely on ratings from multiple annotators. Since the ground truth of the target construct is often latent, the standard practice is to use ad-hoc metrics (such as averaging annotator ratings). Despite being easy to compute, such metrics may not provide accurate representations of the underlying construct. In this paper, we present a novel method for modeling multiple time series annotations over a continuous variable that computes the ground truth by modeling annotator specific distortions. We condition the ground truth on a set of features extracted from the data and further assume that the annotators provide their ratings as modification of the ground truth, with each annotator having specific distortion tendencies. We train the model using an Expectation-Maximization based algorithm and evaluate it on a study involving natural interaction between a child and a psychologist, to predict confidence ratings of the children's smiles. We compare and analyze the model against two baselines where: (i) the ground truth in considered to be framewise mean of ratings from various annotators and, (ii) each annotator is assumed to bear a distinct time delay in annotation and their annotations are aligned before computing the framewise mean.

  16. Ground truthing for methane hotspots at Railroad Valley, NV - application to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, A. M.; Kelley, C. A.; Bebout, B.; McKay, C. P.; DeMarines, J.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    .7%. Temperature and relative humidity sensors were placed in the playa at 5, 20, and 30 cm below the surface. Since the relative humidity neared 100% (down to 20 cm below the surface), high enough to support microbial life, the observed absence of methane production in the playa itself is likely due to the low POC content, compared to other methane-producing environments. The spatial distribution of methane in combination with the spectral reflectance at the RRV dry lakebed makes it a good Mars analog. The ground truthing and satellite calibration work accomplished at RRV is a good exercise in preparation to identifying the origins of methane observed in the atmosphere of Mars during the upcoming 2012 Mars Science Laboratory and 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter missions.

  17. A Method for Assessing Ground-Truth Accuracy of the 5DCT Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Tai H.; Thomas, David H.; O'Connell, Dylan P.; Lamb, James M.; Lee, Percy; Low, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique that assesses the accuracy of the breathing phase-specific volume image generation process by patient-specific breathing motion model using the original free-breathing computed tomographic (CT) scans as ground truths. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients underwent a previously published protocol in which 25 free-breathing fast helical CT scans were acquired with a simultaneous breathing surrogate. A patient-specific motion model was constructed based on the tissue displacements determined by a state-of-the-art deformable image registration. The first image was arbitrarily selected as the reference image. The motion model was used, along with the free-breathing phase information of the original 25 image datasets, to generate a set of deformation vector fields that mapped the reference image to the 24 nonreference images. The high-pitch helically acquired original scans served as ground truths because they captured the instantaneous tissue positions during free breathing. Image similarity between the simulated and the original scans was assessed using deformable registration that evaluated the pointwise discordance throughout the lungs. Results: Qualitative comparisons using image overlays showed excellent agreement between the simulated images and the original images. Even large 2-cm diaphragm displacements were very well modeled, as was sliding motion across the lung–chest wall boundary. The mean error across the patient cohort was 1.15 ± 0.37 mm, and the mean 95th percentile error was 2.47 ± 0.78 mm. Conclusion: The proposed ground truth–based technique provided voxel-by-voxel accuracy analysis that could identify organ-specific or tumor-specific motion modeling errors for treatment planning. Despite a large variety of breathing patterns and lung deformations during the free-breathing scanning session, the 5-dimensionl CT technique was able to accurately reproduce the original helical CT scans, suggesting its

  18. A Method for Assessing Ground-Truth Accuracy of the 5DCT Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Tai H., E-mail: tdou@mednet.ucla.edu; Thomas, David H.; O' Connell, Dylan P.; Lamb, James M.; Lee, Percy; Low, Daniel A.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique that assesses the accuracy of the breathing phase-specific volume image generation process by patient-specific breathing motion model using the original free-breathing computed tomographic (CT) scans as ground truths. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients underwent a previously published protocol in which 25 free-breathing fast helical CT scans were acquired with a simultaneous breathing surrogate. A patient-specific motion model was constructed based on the tissue displacements determined by a state-of-the-art deformable image registration. The first image was arbitrarily selected as the reference image. The motion model was used, along with the free-breathing phase information of the original 25 image datasets, to generate a set of deformation vector fields that mapped the reference image to the 24 nonreference images. The high-pitch helically acquired original scans served as ground truths because they captured the instantaneous tissue positions during free breathing. Image similarity between the simulated and the original scans was assessed using deformable registration that evaluated the pointwise discordance throughout the lungs. Results: Qualitative comparisons using image overlays showed excellent agreement between the simulated images and the original images. Even large 2-cm diaphragm displacements were very well modeled, as was sliding motion across the lung–chest wall boundary. The mean error across the patient cohort was 1.15 ± 0.37 mm, and the mean 95th percentile error was 2.47 ± 0.78 mm. Conclusion: The proposed ground truth–based technique provided voxel-by-voxel accuracy analysis that could identify organ-specific or tumor-specific motion modeling errors for treatment planning. Despite a large variety of breathing patterns and lung deformations during the free-breathing scanning session, the 5-dimensionl CT technique was able to accurately reproduce the original helical CT scans, suggesting its

  19. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  20. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  1. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  2. Combining Ground-Truthing and Technology to Improve Accuracy in Establishing Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Hannah Lee; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Hopkins, Laura; Braunstein, Nadine; Mui, Yeeli; Gittelsohn, Joel

    Developing nutrition-focused environmental interventions for youth requires accurate assessment of where they purchase food. We have developed an innovative, technology-based method to improve the accuracy of food source recall among children using a tablet PC and ground-truthing methodologies. As part of the B'more Healthy Communties for Kids study, we mapped and digitally photographed every food source within a half-mile radius of 14 Baltimore City recreation centers. This food source database was then used with children from the surrounding neighborhoods to search for and identify the food sources they frequent. This novel integration of traditional data collection and technology enables researchers to gather highly accurate information on food source usage among children in Baltimore City. Funding is provided by the NICHD U-54 Grant #1U54HD070725-02.

  3. Validation of neural spike sorting algorithms without ground-truth information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alex H; Magland, Jeremy F; Greengard, Leslie F

    2016-05-01

    The throughput of electrophysiological recording is growing rapidly, allowing thousands of simultaneous channels, and there is a growing variety of spike sorting algorithms designed to extract neural firing events from such data. This creates an urgent need for standardized, automatic evaluation of the quality of neural units output by such algorithms. We introduce a suite of validation metrics that assess the credibility of a given automatic spike sorting algorithm applied to a given dataset. By rerunning the spike sorter two or more times, the metrics measure stability under various perturbations consistent with variations in the data itself, making no assumptions about the internal workings of the algorithm, and minimal assumptions about the noise. We illustrate the new metrics on standard sorting algorithms applied to both in vivo and ex vivo recordings, including a time series with overlapping spikes. We compare the metrics to existing quality measures, and to ground-truth accuracy in simulated time series. We provide a software implementation. Metrics have until now relied on ground-truth, simulated data, internal algorithm variables (e.g. cluster separation), or refractory violations. By contrast, by standardizing the interface, our metrics assess the reliability of any automatic algorithm without reference to internal variables (e.g. feature space) or physiological criteria. Stability is a prerequisite for reproducibility of results. Such metrics could reduce the significant human labor currently spent on validation, and should form an essential part of large-scale automated spike sorting and systematic benchmarking of algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A calibration system for measuring 3D ground truth for validation and error analysis of robot vision algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkin, R.; Greig, A.; Gilby, J.

    2006-10-01

    An important task in robot vision is that of determining the position, orientation and trajectory of a moving camera relative to an observed object or scene. Many such visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the computer vision, artificial intelligence and robotics literature over the past 30 years. However, it is seldom possible to explicitly measure the accuracy of these algorithms, since the ground-truth camera positions and orientations at each frame in a video sequence are not available for comparison with the outputs of the proposed vision systems. A method is presented for generating real visual test data with complete underlying ground truth. The method enables the production of long video sequences, filmed along complicated six-degree-of-freedom trajectories, featuring a variety of objects and scenes, for which complete ground-truth data are known including the camera position and orientation at every image frame, intrinsic camera calibration data, a lens distortion model and models of the viewed objects. This work encounters a fundamental measurement problem—how to evaluate the accuracy of measured ground truth data, which is itself intended for validation of other estimated data. Several approaches for reasoning about these accuracies are described.

  5. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  6. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.

    2015-12-01

    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (clouds. Within the area of interest, careful installation of surveyed ground control fiducial markers supplied necessary targets for field collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely ground-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect surface geologic and topographic signatures of interest. This work includes a preliminary comparison of surface signatures detected from varying

  7. Generation of Ground Truth Datasets for the Analysis of 3d Point Clouds in Urban Scenes Acquired via Different Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Sun, Z.; Boerner, R.; Koch, T.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report a novel way of generating ground truth dataset for analyzing point cloud from different sensors and the validation of algorithms. Instead of directly labeling large amount of 3D points requiring time consuming manual work, a multi-resolution 3D voxel grid for the testing site is generated. Then, with the help of a set of basic labeled points from the reference dataset, we can generate a 3D labeled space of the entire testing site with different resolutions. Specifically, an octree-based voxel structure is applied to voxelize the annotated reference point cloud, by which all the points are organized by 3D grids of multi-resolutions. When automatically annotating the new testing point clouds, a voting based approach is adopted to the labeled points within multiple resolution voxels, in order to assign a semantic label to the 3D space represented by the voxel. Lastly, robust line- and plane-based fast registration methods are developed for aligning point clouds obtained via various sensors. Benefiting from the labeled 3D spatial information, we can easily create new annotated 3D point clouds of different sensors of the same scene directly by considering the corresponding labels of 3D space the points located, which would be convenient for the validation and evaluation of algorithms related to point cloud interpretation and semantic segmentation.

  8. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.

    2007-04-01

    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  9. Automated Breast Ultrasound for Ductal Pattern Reconstruction: Ground Truth File Generation and CADe Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, D.; Panagiotopoulou, A.; Bizimi, V.; Haynes, M. S.; Love, S.; Kallergi, M.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the generation of ground truth files (GTFs) of the breast ducts from 3D images of the Invenia™ Automated Breast Ultrasound System (ABUS) system (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, UK) and the application of these GTFs for the optimization of the imaging protocol and the evaluation of a computer aided detection (CADe) algorithm developed for automated duct detection. Six lactating, nursing volunteers were scanned with the ABUS before and right after breastfeeding their infants. An expert in breast ultrasound generated rough outlines of the milk-filled ducts in the transaxial slices of all image volumes and the final GTFs were created by using thresholding and smoothing tools in ImageJ. In addition, a CADe algorithm automatically segmented duct like areas and its results were compared to the expert’s GTFs by estimating true positive fraction (TPF) or % overlap. The CADe output differed significantly from the expert’s but both detected a smaller than expected volume of the ducts due to insufficient contrast (ducts were partially filled with milk), discontinuities, and artifacts. GTFs were used to modify the imaging protocol and improve the CADe method. In conclusion, electronic GTFs provide a valuable tool in the optimization of a tomographic imaging system, the imaging protocol, and the CADe algorithms. Their generation, however, is an extremely time consuming, strenuous process, particularly for multi-slice examinations, and alternatives based on phantoms or simulations are highly desirable.

  10. An Empirical Study of Atmospheric Correction Procedures for Regional Infrasound Amplitudes with Ground Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on improving methods of accounting for atmospheric effects on infrasound amplitudes observed on arrays at regional distances in the southwestern United States. Recordings at ranges of 150 to nearly 300 km from a repeating ground truth source of small HE explosions are used. The explosions range in actual weight from approximately 2000-4000 lbs. and are detonated year-round which provides signals for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Three methods of correcting the observed amplitudes for atmospheric effects are investigated with the data set. The first corrects amplitudes for upper stratospheric wind as developed by Mutschlecner and Whitaker (1999) and uses the average wind speed between 45-55 km altitudes in the direction of propagation to derive an empirical correction formula. This approach was developed using large chemical and nuclear explosions and is tested with the smaller explosions for which shorter wavelengths cause the energy to be scattered by the smaller scale structure of the atmosphere. The second approach isa semi-empirical method using ray tracing to determine wind speed at ray turning heights where the wind estimates replace the wind values in the existing formula. Finally, parabolic equation (PE) modeling is used to predict the amplitudes at the arrays at 1 Hz. The PE amplitudes are compared to the observed amplitudes with a narrow band filter centered at 1 Hz. An analysis is performed of the conditions under which the empirical and semi-empirical methods fail and full wave methods must be used.

  11. Evaluation of digital image correlation techniques using realistic ground truth speckle images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofaru, C; Philips, W; Van Paepegem, W

    2010-01-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been acknowledged and widely used in recent years in the field of experimental mechanics as a contactless method for determining full field displacements and strains. Even though several sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms have been proposed in the literature, little is known about their accuracy and limitations in reproducing complex underlying motion fields occurring in real mechanical tests. This paper presents a new method for evaluating sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms using ground truth speckle images that are realistically warped using artificial motion fields that were obtained following two distinct approaches: in the first, the horizontal and vertical displacement fields are created according to theoretical formulas for the given type of experiment while the second approach constructs the displacements through radial basis function interpolation starting from real DIC results. The method is applied in the evaluation of five DIC algorithms with results indicating that the gradient-based DIC methods generally have a quality advantage when using small sized blocks and are a better choice for calculating very small displacements and strains. The Newton–Raphson is the overall best performing method with a notable quality advantage when large block sizes are employed and in experiments where large strain fields are of interest

  12. How Many Subjects are Needed for a Visual Field Normative Database? A Comparison of Ground Truth and Bootstrapped Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Jack; Bui, Bang V; Kalloniatis, Michael; Khuu, Sieu K

    2018-03-01

    The number of subjects needed to establish the normative limits for visual field (VF) testing is not known. Using bootstrap resampling, we determined whether the ground truth mean, distribution limits, and standard deviation (SD) could be approximated using different set size ( x ) levels, in order to provide guidance for the number of healthy subjects required to obtain robust VF normative data. We analyzed the 500 Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) SITA-Standard results of 116 healthy subjects and 100 HFA full threshold results of 100 psychophysically experienced healthy subjects. These VFs were resampled (bootstrapped) to determine mean sensitivity, distribution limits (5th and 95th percentiles), and SD for different ' x ' and numbers of resamples. We also used the VF results of 122 glaucoma patients to determine the performance of ground truth and bootstrapped results in identifying and quantifying VF defects. An x of 150 (for SITA-Standard) and 60 (for full threshold) produced bootstrapped descriptive statistics that were no longer different to the original distribution limits and SD. Removing outliers produced similar results. Differences between original and bootstrapped limits in detecting glaucomatous defects were minimized at x = 250. Ground truth statistics of VF sensitivities could be approximated using set sizes that are significantly smaller than the original cohort. Outlier removal facilitates the use of Gaussian statistics and does not significantly affect the distribution limits. We provide guidance for choosing the cohort size for different levels of error when performing normative comparisons with glaucoma patients.

  13. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  14. Ground-truthing the Foraminifera-bound Nitrogen Isotope Paleo-proxy in the Modern Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, S.; Ren, H. A.; Fawcett, S. E.; Conte, M. H.; Rafter, P. A.; Ellis, K. K.; Weigand, M. A.; Sigman, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    We present the nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of planktonic foraminifera, a type of calcifying zooplankton, collected from surface ocean net tows, moored sediment traps and core-top sediments at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site in the Sargasso Sea between 2009 and 2013. Consistent with previous measurements from low-latitude core-top sediments, the annually averaged δ15N of organic matter bound within the shells of euphotic zone-dwelling foraminifera approximates that of thermocline nitrate, the dominant source of new nitrogen to Sargasso Sea surface waters. Based on net tow collections in the upper 200 m of the water column, we observe no systematic difference between the biomass δ15N and shell-bound δ15N of a given foraminifera species. For multiple species, the δ15N of net tow-collected upper ocean shells is lower than shells from sediment traps (by 0.5-2.1‰) and lower than shells from seafloor sediments (by 0.5-1.4‰). We are currently investigating whether these differences reflect actual processes affecting shell-bound δ15N or instead relate to the different time periods over which the three sample types integrate. The foraminiferal biomass δ15N time-series from the surface Sargasso Sea exhibits significant seasonal variations, with the lowest values in fall and the highest values in spring. The roles of hydrography, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics in driving these seasonal variations will be discussed. These data from the modern subtropical ocean form part of a greater effort to ground-truth the use of foram-bound δ15N to reconstruct past nutrient conditions, not only as a recorder of the isotopic composition of nitrogen supply in oligotrophic environments but also as a recorder of the degree of nitrate consumption in high-latitude regions such as the Southern Ocean.

  15. Strategies for cloud-top phase determination: differentiation between thin cirrus clouds and snow in manual (ground truth) analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Etherton, Brian J.; Topping, Phillip C.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative assessments on the performance of automated cloud analysis algorithms require the creation of highly accurate, manual cloud, no cloud (CNC) images from multispectral meteorological satellite data. In general, the methodology to create ground truth analyses for the evaluation of cloud detection algorithms is relatively straightforward. However, when focus shifts toward quantifying the performance of automated cloud classification algorithms, the task of creating ground truth images becomes much more complicated since these CNC analyses must differentiate between water and ice cloud tops while ensuring that inaccuracies in automated cloud detection are not propagated into the results of the cloud classification algorithm. The process of creating these ground truth CNC analyses may become particularly difficult when little or no spectral signature is evident between a cloud and its background, as appears to be the case when thin cirrus is present over snow-covered surfaces. In this paper, procedures are described that enhance the researcher's ability to manually interpret and differentiate between thin cirrus clouds and snow-covered surfaces in daytime AVHRR imagery. The methodology uses data in up to six AVHRR spectral bands, including an additional band derived from the daytime 3.7 micron channel, which has proven invaluable for the manual discrimination between thin cirrus clouds and snow. It is concluded that while the 1.6 micron channel remains essential to differentiate between thin ice clouds and snow. However, this capability that may be lost if the 3.7 micron data switches to a nighttime-only transmission with the launch of future NOAA satellites.

  16. Ground-truth aerosol lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Upcoming multiyear satellite lidar aerosol observations need strong support by a worldwide ground-truth lidar network. In this context the question arises as to whether the ground stations can deliver the same results as obtained from space when the Klett formalism is applied to elastic backscatter lidar data for the same aerosol case. This question is investigated based on simulations of observed cases of simple and complex aerosol layering. The results show that the differences between spaceborne and ground-based observations can be as large as20% for the backscatter and extinction coefficients and the optimum estimates of the column lidar ratios. In cases with complex aerosol layering, the application of the two-layer approach can lead to similar results (space, ground) and accurate products provided that horizontally homogeneous aerosol conditions are given

  17. Assessment of infrasound signals recorded on seismic stations and infrasound arrays in the western United States using ground truth sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Hayward, Chris; Stump, Brian W.

    2018-06-01

    Ground truth sources in Utah during 2003-2013 are used to assess the contribution of temporal atmospheric conditions to infrasound detection and the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models. Ground truth sources consist of 28 long duration static rocket motor burn tests and 28 impulsive rocket body demolitions. Automated infrasound detections from a hybrid of regional seismometers and infrasound arrays use a combination of short-term time average/long-term time average ratios and spectral analyses. These detections are grouped into station triads using a Delaunay triangulation network and then associated to estimate phase velocity and azimuth to filter signals associated with a particular source location. The resulting range and azimuth distribution from sources to detecting stations varies seasonally and is consistent with predictions based on seasonal atmospheric models. Impulsive signals from rocket body detonations are observed at greater distances (>700 km) than the extended duration signals generated by the rocket burn test (up to 600 km). Infrasound energy attenuation associated with the two source types is quantified as a function of range and azimuth from infrasound amplitude measurements. Ray-tracing results using Ground-to-Space atmospheric specifications are compared to these observations and illustrate the degree to which the time variations in characteristics of the observations can be predicted over a multiple year time period.

  18. A procedure used for a ground truth study of a land use map of North Alabama generated from LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Sharma, G. C.; Bagwell, C.

    1977-01-01

    A land use map of a five county area in North Alabama was generated from LANDSAT data using a supervised classification algorithm. There was good overall agreement between the land use designated and known conditions, but there were also obvious discrepancies. In ground checking the map, two types of errors were encountered - shift and misclassification - and a method was developed to eliminate or greatly reduce the errors. Randomly selected study areas containing 2,525 pixels were analyzed. Overall, 76.3 percent of the pixels were correctly classified. A contingency coefficient of correlation was calculated to be 0.7 which is significant at the alpha = 0.01 level. The land use maps generated by computers from LANDSAT data are useful for overall land use by regional agencies. However, care must be used when making detailed analysis of small areas. The procedure used for conducting the ground truth study together with data from representative study areas is presented.

  19. Site Selection for Hvdc Ground Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems are composed of a bipole transmission line with a converter substation at each end. Each substation may be equipped with a HVDC ground electrode, which is a wide area (up to 1 km Ø) and deep (from 3 to 100m) electrical grounding. When in normal operation, the ground electrode will dissipate in the soil the unbalance of the bipole (~1.5% of the rated current). When in monopolar operation with ground return, the HVDC electrode will inject in the soil the nominal pole continuous current, of about 2000 to 3000 Amperes, continuously for a period up to a few hours. HVDC ground electrodes site selection is a work based on extensive geophysical and geological surveys, in order to attend the desired design requirements established for the electrodes, considering both its operational conditions (maximum soil temperature, working life, local soil voltage gradients etc.) and the interference effects on the installations located up to 50 km away. This poster presents the geophysical investigations conducted primarily for the electrodes site selection, and subsequently for the development of the crust resistivity model, which will be used for the interference studies. A preliminary site selection is conducted, based on general geographical and geological criteria. Subsequently, the geology of each chosen area is surveyed in detail, by means of electromagnetic/electrical geophysical techniques, such as magnetotelluric (deep), TDEM (near-surface) and electroresistivity (shallow). Other complementary geologic and geotechnical surveys are conducted, such as wells drilling (for geotechnical characterization, measurement of the water table depth and water flow, and electromagnetic profiling), and soil and water sampling (for measurement of thermal parameters and evaluation of electrosmosis risk). The site evaluation is a dynamic process along the surveys, and some sites will be discarded. For the two or three final sites, the

  20. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91% if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60% between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a

  1. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-08-01

    The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI) and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb) with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91%) if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60%) between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot (PSP) data from the same region and with the

  2. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Retrievals with Ground Truth from the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station Cooling Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at the Squaw Creek reservoir at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station near Granbury Texas. Temperatures calculated for thirty-four images covering the period May 2000 to March 2002 are compared with water temperatures measured at 10 instrumented buoy locations supplied by the Savannah River Technology Center. The data set was used to examine the effect of image quality on temperature retrieval as well as to document any bias between the sensor chip arrays (SCA's). A portion of the data set was used to evaluate the influence of proximity to shoreline on the water temperature retrievals. This study found errors in daytime water temperature retrievals of 1.8 C for SCA 2 and 4.0 C for SCA 1. The errors in nighttime water temperature retrievals were 3.8 C for SCA 1. Water temperature retrievals for nighttime appear to be related to image quality with the largest positive bias for the highest quality images and the largest negative bias for the lowest quality images. The daytime data show no apparent relationship between water temperature retrieval error and image quality. The average temperature retrieval error near open water buoys was less than corresponding values for the near-shore buoys. After subtraction of the estimated error in the ground truth data, the water temperature retrieval error was 1.2 C for the open-water buoys compared to 1.8 C for the near-shore buoys. The open-water error is comparable to that found at Nauru

  3. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  4. Truth, not truce: "common ground" on abortion, a movement within both movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J R

    1995-01-01

    This sociological study examines the "common ground" movement that arose among abortion activists in the US during the 1980s. The first application of the term "common ground" to joint efforts by abortion activists on both sides of the issue is traced, and its meaning to early organizers is described. Discussion continues on the complicated and elusive efforts on the part of grassroots organizations and conflict resolution groups to practice the common ground approach to abortion. The five characteristics of the seminal common ground group in St. Louis were that it resulted from a combined pro-life and pro-choice initiative, it involved activists who publicly distinguished common ground from moral compromise or political accommodation, the activists remained loyal to their abortion activities, the activists agreed to cooperate in efforts aimed at reducing the pressures on women to abort, and common ground involved identifying the overlaps in emerging social thinking. The conceptual difficulties involved with use of the term are included in the reasons given for its virtual disappearance from abortion reporting in the press, which was busy relaying incidents of violence at abortion clinics. The election of President Clinton also stole the momentum from the common ground movement. While the future of movements based on the concept of "common ground" as envisioned by the St. Louis group remains precarious, depending for success as it does on actually changing society, this use of the term bears witness that conflicting loyalties do not preclude the promotion of common good. This meaning of the term is worth pursuing in cultural controversies such as that posed by abortion.

  5. Formation of Ground Truth Databases and Related Studies and Regional Seismic Monitoring Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    experiments (1997-1999) in the former Semipalatinsk test site , Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoDLDOE Seismic Research Symposium, Vol. I, U. S. Department of...DefenselEnergy, 55-66. Kim, Won-Young (1998), Waveform Data Information Product: Calibration Explosions at Semipalatinsk Test Site , Kazakstan...from the aftershocks of a 100 ton chemical explosion at the Degelen, Kazakh Test Site on 22 August 1998 (Omega-1). Epicentral locations, based on P

  6. Ground Truthing Orbital Clay Mineral Observations with the APXS Onboard Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; VanBommel, S.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. S.; Yen, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring approximately 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since 2011. Its rim segments predate the Hesperian-age Burns formation and expose Noachian-age material, which is associated with orbital Fe3+-Mg-rich clay mineral observations [1,2]. Moving to an orders of magnitude smaller instrumental field of view on the ground, the clay minerals were challenging to pinpoint on the basis of geochemical data because they appear to be the result of near-isochemical weathering of the local bedrock [3,4]. However, the APXS revealed a more complex mineral story as fracture fills and so-called red zones appear to contain more Al-rich clay minerals [5,6], which had not been observed from orbit. These observations are important to constrain clay mineral formation processes. More detail will be added as Opportunity is heading into her 10th extended mission, during which she will investigate Noachian bedrock that predates Endeavour crater, study sedimentary rocks inside Endeavour crater, and explore a fluid-carved gully. ESA's ExoMars rover will land on Noachian-age Oxia Planum where abundant Fe3+-Mg-rich clay minerals have been observed from orbit, but the story will undoubtedly become more complex once seen from the ground.

  7. Ground-truthing predicted indoor radon concentrations by using soil-gas radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Predicting indoor radon potential has gained in importance even as the national radon programs began to wane. A cooperative study to produce radon potential maps was conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Energy (DOE), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) with the latter taking the lead role. A county-wide predictive model based dominantly on the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data and secondly on geology, both small-scale data bases was developed. However, that model breaks down in counties of complex geology and does not provide a means to evaluate the potential of an individual home or building site. Soil-gas radon measurements on a large scale are currently shown to provide information for estimating radon potential at individual sites sort out the complex geology so that the small-scale prediction index can be validated. An example from Frederick County, Maryland indicates a positive correlation between indoor measurements and soil-gas data. The method does not rely on a single measurement, but a series that incorporate seasonal and meteorological considerations. (author)

  8. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging,T2, to the relaxation parameter T2* measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T2data were transformed to pseudo-T2* data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T2* obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources.

  9. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  10. Ground-Truthing of Airborne LiDAR Using RTK-GPS Surveyed Data in Coastal Louisiana's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauve, R. M.; Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are used by engineers and scientists to create bare earth digital elevation models (DEM), which are essential to modeling complex coastal, ecological, and hydrological systems. However, acquiring accurate bare earth elevations in coastal wetlands is difficult due to the density of marsh grasses that prevent the sensors reflection off the true ground surface. Previous work by Medeiros et al. [2015] developed a technique to assess LiDAR error and adjust elevations according to marsh vegetation density and index. The aim of this study is the collection of ground truth points and the investigation on the range of potential errors found in existing LiDAR datasets within coastal Louisiana's wetlands. Survey grids were mapped out in an area dominated by Spartina alterniflora and a survey-grade Trimble Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS device was employed to measure bare earth ground elevations in the marsh system adjacent to Terrebonne Bay, LA. Elevations were obtained for 20 meter-spaced surveyed grid points and were used to generate a DEM. The comparison between LiDAR derived and surveyed data DEMs yield an average difference of 23 cm with a maximum difference of 68 cm. Considering the local tidal range of 45 cm, these differences can introduce substantial error when the DEM is used for ecological modeling [Alizad et al., 2016]. Results from this study will be further analyzed and implemented in order to adjust LiDAR-derived DEMs closer to their true elevation across Louisiana's coastal wetlands. ReferencesAlizad, K., S. C. Hagen, J. T. Morris, S. C. Medeiros, M. V. Bilskie, and J. F. Weishampel (2016), Coastal wetland response to sea-level rise in a fluvial estuarine system, Earth's Future, 4(11), 483-497, 10.1002/2016EF000385. Medeiros, S., S. Hagen, J. Weishampel, and J. Angelo (2015), Adjusting Lidar-Derived Digital Terrain Models in Coastal Marshes Based on Estimated Aboveground Biomass Density, Remote Sensing, 7

  11. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  12. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  13. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  14. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  15. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities

  16. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  17. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  18. Estimation of snowpack matching ground-truth data and MODIS satellite-based observations by using regression kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is essential for an appropriate assessment of the available water resources in Alpine catchment. The hydrologic regime in these areas is dominated by the storage of water in the snowpack, which is discharged to rivers throughout the melt season. An accurate estimation of the resources will be necessary for an appropriate analysis of the system operation alternatives using basin scale management models. In order to obtain an appropriate estimation of the SWE we need to know the spatial distribution snowpack and snow density within the Snow Cover Area (SCA). Data for these snow variables can be extracted from in-situ point measurements and air-borne/space-borne remote sensing observations. Different interpolation and simulation techniques have been employed for the estimation of the cited variables. In this paper we propose to estimate snowpack from a reduced number of ground-truth data (1 or 2 campaigns per year with 23 observation point from 2000-2014) and MODIS satellite-based observations in the Sierra Nevada Mountain (Southern Spain). Regression based methodologies has been used to study snowpack distribution using different kind of explicative variables: geographic, topographic, climatic. 40 explicative variables were considered: the longitude, latitude, altitude, slope, eastness, northness, radiation, maximum upwind slope and some mathematical transformation of each of them [Ln(v), (v)^-1; (v)^2; (v)^0.5). Eight different structure of regression models have been tested (combining 1, 2, 3 or 4 explicative variables). Y=B0+B1Xi (1); Y=B0+B1XiXj (2); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj (3); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2XjXl (4); Y=B0+B1XiXk+B2XjXl (5); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl (6); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3XlXk (7); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl+B4Xk (8). Where: Y is the snow depth; (Xi, Xj, Xl, Xk) are the prediction variables (any of the 40 variables); (B0, B1, B2, B3) are the coefficients to be estimated. The ground data are employed to calibrate the multiple regressions. In

  19. Archaeogeophysical data acquisition and analysis at Tel Burna, Israel: a valuable opportunity for ongoing ground-truth investigation and collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    , acquired in a zigzag east-west direction, proceeding south. The area extended from the present excavation border to the north and east. The following paper will discuss the method of data acquisition, post-processing, and analysis of the results. The final conclusions of the survey show a continuation of several key walls to the east, a valuable sub-surface tracing of the limestone bedrock, and the limit to which the archaeological material is present spatially in Area B to the north. These results play a major role in determining where to focus excavation efforts in the 2014 excavation season. This unique collaboration with the archaeological team and ongoing opportunity for archaeological ground-truthing will be documented and published as the site develops. As there is a limited presence of such data within the corpus of published archaeogeophysical research, we look forward to further investigations at the site in the coming years.

  20. Biometric correspondence between reface computerized facial approximations and CT-derived ground truth skin surface models objectively examined using an automated facial recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Connie L; Monson, Keith L

    2018-05-01

    This study employed an automated facial recognition system as a means of objectively evaluating biometric correspondence between a ReFace facial approximation and the computed tomography (CT) derived ground truth skin surface of the same individual. High rates of biometric correspondence were observed, irrespective of rank class (R k ) or demographic cohort examined. Overall, 48% of the test subjects' ReFace approximation probes (n=96) were matched to his or her corresponding ground truth skin surface image at R 1 , a rank indicating a high degree of biometric correspondence and a potential positive identification. Identification rates improved with each successively broader rank class (R 10 =85%, R 25 =96%, and R 50 =99%), with 100% identification by R 57 . A sharp increase (39% mean increase) in identification rates was observed between R 1 and R 10 across most rank classes and demographic cohorts. In contrast, significantly lower (p0.05) performance differences were observed across demographic cohorts or CT scan protocols. Performance measures observed in this research suggest that ReFace approximations are biometrically similar to the actual faces of the approximated individuals and, therefore, may have potential operational utility in contexts in which computerized approximations are utilized as probes in automated facial recognition systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  2. Study on Quaternary ground siting of nuclear power plant, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokusho, Takaji; Nishi, Koichi; Honsho, Shizumitsu

    1991-01-01

    A seismic stability evaluation method for a nuclear power plant to be located on a Quaternary sandy/gravelly ground is discussed herein in terms of the geological and geotechnical survey, design earthquake motion evaluation and geotechnical seismic stability analyses. The geological and geotechnical exploration tunnel in the rock-foundation siting will be difficult in the Quaternary ground siting. Boring, geophysical surveys and soil samplings will play a major role in this case. The design earthquake input spectrum for this siting is proposed so as to take account the significant effect of longer period motion on the ground stability. Equivalent and non-linear analyses demonstrate the seismic stability of the foundation ground so long as the soil density is high. (author)

  3. Quaternary ground siting technology of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, K.; Kokusho, T.; Iwatate, Y.; Ishida, K.; Honsho, S.; Okamoto, T.; Tohma, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Kanatani, M.

    1992-01-01

    A seismic stability evaluation method for a nuclear power plant to be located on Quaternary sandy/gravelly ground is discussed herein in terms of a geological and geotechnical survey, a design earthquake motion evaluation and geotechnical seismic stability analyses. The geological and geotechnical exploration tunnel in the rock foundation siting will be difficult in the Quaternary ground siting. Boring, geophysical surveys and soil sampling will play a major role in this case. A design earthquake input spectrum for this siting is proposed to take in account the significant effect of longer period motion on ground stability. Equivalent and non-linear analyses demonstrate the seismic stability of the foundation ground so long as the soil density is high. (author)

  4. Evaluation of vibratory ground motion at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.; Greeves, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The evaluation of vibratory ground motion at nuclear power plant sites requires the cooperative effort of scientists and engineers in several disciplines. These include seismology, geology, geotechnical engineering and structural engineering. The Geosciences Branch of the NRC Division of Site Safety and Environmental Analysis includes two sections, the Geology/Seismology Section and the Geotechnical Engineering Section

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  6. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behara Satyanarayana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%, followed by Sundar (27% and Limbang (15%. The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%. The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  7. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present. PMID:29479500

  8. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Behara; M Muslim, Aidy; Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite-ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method-PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans , Rhizophora apiculata , Sonneratia caseolaris , S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok-suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  9. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  10. Site Specific Ground Response Analysis for Quantifying Site Amplification at A Regolith Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.159-167A numerical model has demonstrated that it can simulate reasonably well earthquake motions at the ground level during a seismic event. The most widely used model is an equivalent linear approach. The equivalent linear model was used to compute the free-field response of Adelaide regolith during the 1997 Burra earthquake. The aim of this study is to quantify the amplification at the investigated site. The model computed the ground response of horizontally layered soil deposits subjected to transient and vertically propagating shear waves through a one-dimensional-soil column. Each soil layer was assumed to be homogeneous, visco-elastic, and infinite in the horizontal extent. The results of this study were compared to other studies and forward computation of the geotechnical dynamic parameters of the investigated site. The amplification triggered by the 1997 Burra seismic event was deduced. This study reveals the amplification factor up to 3.6 at the studied site.

  11. EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters – multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of...

  12. Valuation of potential hazards to ground water from abandoned sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerndorff, H.; Schleyer, R.; Dieter, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    With a view to obtaining, for the large number of abandoned sites suspected of pollution, necessary information regarding the type and extent of possible ground water contamination with a minimum of effort and cost, a hierarchical investigation strategy was developed and successfully tested in more than 100 cases in Germany. As a decisive advantage, already the well-defined and simple investigation steps ''preliminary prospecting'' and ''screening'' permit to recognize polluted sites posing a hazard to ground water. The more specific and demanding investigation steps ''pollutant analysis'' and ''detailed investigations'' may be carried through if necessary. (orig./BBR). 27 figs., 36 tabs [de

  13. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  14. Southwest U.S. Seismo-Acoustic Network: An Autonomous Data Aggregation, Detection, Localization and Ground-Truth Bulletin for the Infrasound Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Southwest U.S. Seismo-Acoustic Network (SUSSAN) is a collaborative project designed to produce infrasound event detection bulletins for the infrasound community for research purposes. We are aggregating a large, unique, near real-time data set with available ground truth information from seismo-acoustic arrays across New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, Texas and Hawaii. The data are processed in near real-time (~ every 20 minutes) with detections being made on individual arrays and locations determined for networks of arrays. The detection and location data are then combined with any available ground truth information and compiled into a bulletin that will be released to the general public directly and eventually through the IRIS infrasound event bulletin. We use the open source Earthworm seismic data aggregation software to acquire waveform data either directly from the station operator or via the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center (IRIS DMC), if available. The data are processed using InfraMonitor, a powerful infrasound event detection and localization software program developed by Stephen Arrowsmith at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our goal with this program is to provide the infrasound community with an event database that can be used collaboratively to study various natural and man-made sources. We encourage participation in this program directly or by making infrasound array data available through the IRIS DMC or other means. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. R&A 5317326

  15. Effect of site conditions on ground motion and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.; Glassmoyer, G.; Andrews, M.; Cranswick, E.

    1989-01-01

    Results of seismologic studies conducted by the U.S. reconnaissance team in conjunction with Soviet colleagues following the tragic earthquakes of December 7, 1988, suggest that site conditions may have been a major factor in contributing to increased damage levels in Leninakan. As the potential severity of these effects in Leninakan had not been previously identified, this chapter presents results intended to provide a preliminary quantification of these effects on both damage and levels of ground motion observed in Leninakan. The article describes the damage distribution geologic setting, ground motion amplification in Leninakan, including analog amplifications and spectral amplifications. Preliminary model estimates for site response are presented. It is concluded that ground motion amplification in the 0.5-2.5-second period range was a major contributing factor to increased damage in Leninakan as compared with Kirovakan. Leninakan is located on thick water saturated alluvial deposits.

  16. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  17. A spike sorting toolbox for up to thousands of electrodes validated with ground truth recordings in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Baptiste; Deny, Stéphane; Gardella, Christophe; Stimberg, Marcel; Jetter, Florian; Zeck, Guenther; Picaud, Serge; Duebel, Jens

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, multielectrode arrays and large silicon probes have been developed to record simultaneously between hundreds and thousands of electrodes packed with a high density. However, they require novel methods to extract the spiking activity of large ensembles of neurons. Here, we developed a new toolbox to sort spikes from these large-scale extracellular data. To validate our method, we performed simultaneous extracellular and loose patch recordings in rodents to obtain ‘ground truth’ data, where the solution to this sorting problem is known for one cell. The performance of our algorithm was always close to the best expected performance, over a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios, in vitro and in vivo. The algorithm is entirely parallelized and has been successfully tested on recordings with up to 4225 electrodes. Our toolbox thus offers a generic solution to sort accurately spikes for up to thousands of electrodes. PMID:29557782

  18. Estimating Daily Maximum and Minimum Land Air Surface Temperature Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and Ground Truth Data in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thanh Noi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate quantitatively the land surface temperature (LST derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD11A1 and MYD11A1 Collection 5 products for daily land air surface temperature (Ta estimation over a mountainous region in northern Vietnam. The main objective is to estimate maximum and minimum Ta (Ta-max and Ta-min using both TERRA and AQUA MODIS LST products (daytime and nighttime and auxiliary data, solving the discontinuity problem of ground measurements. There exist no studies about Vietnam that have integrated both TERRA and AQUA LST of daytime and nighttime for Ta estimation (using four MODIS LST datasets. In addition, to find out which variables are the most effective to describe the differences between LST and Ta, we have tested several popular methods, such as: the Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise, Bayesian information criterion (BIC, adjusted R-squared and the principal component analysis (PCA of 14 variables (including: LST products (four variables, NDVI, elevation, latitude, longitude, day length in hours, Julian day and four variables of the view zenith angle, and then, we applied nine models for Ta-max estimation and nine models for Ta-min estimation. The results showed that the differences between MODIS LST and ground truth temperature derived from 15 climate stations are time and regional topography dependent. The best results for Ta-max and Ta-min estimation were achieved when we combined both LST daytime and nighttime of TERRA and AQUA and data from the topography analysis.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  1. Addressing the social dimensions of citizen observatories: The Ground Truth 2.0 socio-technical approach for sustainable implementation of citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehn, Uta; Joshi, Somya; Pfeiffer, Ellen; Anema, Kim; Gharesifard, Mohammad; Momani, Abeer

    2017-04-01

    Owing to ICT-enabled citizen observatories, citizens can take on new roles in environmental monitoring, decision making and co-operative planning, and environmental stewardship. And yet implementing advanced citizen observatories for data collection, knowledge exchange and interactions to support policy objectives is neither always easy nor successful, given the required commitment, trust, and data reliability concerns. Many efforts are facing problems with the uptake and sustained engagement by citizens, limited scalability, unclear long-term sustainability and limited actual impact on governance processes. Similarly, to sustain the engagement of decision makers in citizen observatories, mechanisms are required from the start of the initiative in order to have them invest in and, hence, commit to and own the entire process. In order to implement sustainable citizen observatories, these social dimensions therefore need to be soundly managed. We provide empirical evidence of how the social dimensions of citizen observatories are being addressed in the Ground Truth 2.0 project, drawing on a range of relevant social science approaches. This project combines the social dimensions of citizen observatories with enabling technologies - via a socio-technical approach - so that their customisation and deployment is tailored to the envisaged societal and economic impacts of the observatories. The projects consists of the demonstration and validation of six scaled up citizen observatories in real operational conditions both in the EU and in Africa, with a specific focus on flora and fauna as well as water availability and water quality for land and natural resources management. The demonstration cases (4 EU and 2 African) cover the full 'spectrum' of citizen-sensed data usage and citizen engagement, and therefore allow testing and validation of the socio-technical concept for citizen observatories under a range of conditions.

  2. Computer aided detection in prostate cancer diagnostics: A promising alternative to biopsy? A retrospective study from 104 lesions with histological ground truth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Thon

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis by means of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI is a current challenge for the development of computer-aided detection (CAD tools. An innovative CAD-software (Watson Elementary™ was proposed to achieve high sensitivity and specificity, as well as to allege a correlate to Gleason grade.To assess the performance of Watson Elementary™ in automated PCa diagnosis in our hospital´s database of MRI-guided prostate biopsies.The evaluation was retrospective for 104 lesions (47 PCa, 57 benign from 79, 64.61±6.64 year old patients using 3T T2-weighted imaging, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC maps and dynamic contrast enhancement series. Watson Elementary™ utilizes signal intensity, diffusion properties and kinetic profile to compute a proportional Gleason grade predictor, termed Malignancy Attention Index (MAI. The analysis focused on (i the CAD sensitivity and specificity to classify suspect lesions and (ii the MAI correlation with the histopathological ground truth.The software revealed a sensitivity of 46.80% for PCa classification. The specificity for PCa was found to be 75.43% with a positive predictive value of 61.11%, a negative predictive value of 63.23% and a false discovery rate of 38.89%. CAD classified PCa and benign lesions with equal probability (P 0.06, χ2 test. Accordingly, receiver operating characteristic analysis suggests a poor predictive value for MAI with an area under curve of 0.65 (P 0.02, which is not superior to the performance of board certified observers. Moreover, MAI revealed no significant correlation with Gleason grade (P 0.60, Pearson´s correlation.The tested CAD software for mpMRI analysis was a weak PCa biomarker in this dataset. Targeted prostate biopsy and histology remains the gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis.

  3. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Ground Characterization Studies in Canakkale Pilot Site of LIQUEFACT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, F.; Oztoprak, S.; Aysal, N.; Bozbey, I.; Tezel, O.; Ozer, C.; Sargin, S.; Bekin, E.; Almasraf, M.; Cengiz Cinku, M.; Ozdemir, K.

    2017-12-01

    The our aim is to outline the ground characterisation studies in Canakkale test site. Study is based on the EU H2020 LIQUEFACT project entitled "Liquefact: Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: a holistic approach to protect structures / infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake-induced liquefaction disasters". Objectives and extent of ground characterization for Canakkale test site includes pre-existing soil investigation studies and complementary field studies. There were several SPT and geophysical tests carried out in the study area. Within the context of the complementary tests, six (6) study areas in the test site were chosen and complementary tests were carried out in these areas. In these areas, additional boreholes were opened and SPT tests were performed. It was decided that additional CPT (CPTU and SCPT) and Marchetti Dilatometer (DMT) tests should be carried out within the scope of the complementary testing. Seismic refraction, MASW and micro tremor measurements had been carried out in pre-existing studies. Shear wave velocities obtained from MASW measurements were evaluated to the most rigorous level. These tests were downhole seismic, PS-logging, seismic refraction, 2D-ReMi, MASW, micro tremor (H/V Nakamura method), 2D resistivity and resonance acoustic profiling (RAP). RAP is a new technique which will be explained briefly in the relevant section. Dynamic soil properties had not been measured in pre-existing studies, therefore these properties were investigated within the scope of the complementary tests. Selection of specific experimental tests of the complementary campaign was based on cost-benefit considerations Within the context of complementary field studies, dynamic soil properties were measured using resonant column and cyclic direct shear tests. Several sieve analyses and Atterberg Limits tests which were documented in the pre-existing studies were evaluated. In the complementary study carried out

  5. Prediction of site specific ground motion for large earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro; Irikura, Kojiro; Fukuchi, Yasunaga.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the semi-empirical synthesis method by IRIKURA (1983, 1986) to the estimation of site specific ground motion using accelerograms observed at Kumatori in Osaka prefecture. Target earthquakes used here are a comparatively distant earthquake (Δ=95 km, M=5.6) caused by the YAMASAKI fault and a near earthquake (Δ=27 km, M=5.6). The results obtained are as follows. 1) The accelerograms from the distant earthquake (M=5.6) are synthesized using the aftershock records (M=4.3) for 1983 YAMASAKI fault earthquake whose source parameters have been obtained by other authors from the hypocentral distribution of the aftershocks. The resultant synthetic motions show a good agreement with the observed ones. 2) The synthesis for a near earthquake (M=5.6, we call this target earthquake) are made using a small earthquake which occurred in the neighborhood of the target earthquake. Here, we apply two methods for giving the parameters for synthesis. One method is to use the parameters of YAMASAKI fault earthquake which has the same magnitude as the target earthquake, and the other is to use the parameters obtained from several existing empirical formulas. The resultant synthetic motion with the former parameters shows a good agreement with the observed one, but that with the latter does not. 3) We estimate the source parameters from the source spectra of several earthquakes which have been observed in this site. Consequently we find that the small earthquakes (M<4) as Green's functions should be carefully used because the stress drops are not constant. 4) We propose that we should designate not only the magnitudes but also seismic moments of the target earthquake and the small earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  6. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met

  7. Truth in Reporting: How Data Capture Methods Obfuscate Actual Surgical Site Infection Rates within a Health Care Network System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeianou, Liliana; Cauley, Christy E; Antonelli, Donna; Bird, Sarah; Rattner, David; Hutter, Matthew; Mahmood, Sadiqa; Schnipper, Deborah; Rubin, Marc; Bleday, Ronald; Kenney, Pardon; Berger, David

    2017-01-01

    Two systems measure surgical site infection rates following colorectal surgeries: the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pay-for-performance initiatives use National Healthcare Safety Network data for hospital comparisons. This study aimed to compare database concordance. This is a multi-institution cohort study of systemwide Colorectal Surgery Collaborative. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program requires rigorous, standardized data capture techniques; National Healthcare Safety Network allows 5 data capture techniques. Standardized surgical site infection rates were compared between databases. The Cohen κ-coefficient was calculated. This study was conducted at Boston-area hospitals. National Healthcare Safety Network or National Surgical Quality Improvement Program patients undergoing colorectal surgery were included. Standardized surgical site infection rates were the primary outcomes of interest. Thirty-day surgical site infection rates of 3547 (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) vs 5179 (National Healthcare Safety Network) colorectal procedures (2012-2014). Discrepancies appeared: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database of hospital 1 (N = 1480 patients) routinely found surgical site infection rates of approximately 10%, routinely deemed rate "exemplary" or "as expected" (100%). National Healthcare Safety Network data from the same hospital and time period (N = 1881) revealed a similar overall surgical site infection rate (10%), but standardized rates were deemed "worse than national average" 80% of the time. Overall, hospitals using less rigorous capture methods had improved surgical site infection rates for National Healthcare Safety Network compared with standardized National Surgical Quality Improvement Program reports. The correlation coefficient

  8. Effects of Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground on the Seismic Response of Transportation Infrastructure Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This interdisciplinary project combined seismic data recorded at bridge sites with computer models to identify how highway bridges built on permanently and seasonally frozen ground behave during an earthquake. Two sites one in Anchorage and one in...

  9. Ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is a former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in ground water beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define ground water contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Solving this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  10. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper

  11. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper.

  12. History of ground motion programs at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Some measurements were made in the atmospheric testing era, but the study of ground motion from nuclear tests became of wider interest after the instigation of underground testing. The ground motion generated by underground nuclear test has been investigated for a number of reasons including understanding basic phenomena, operational and safety concerns, yield determination, stimulation of earthquake concerns, and developing methods to aid in treaty verifications. This history of ground motion programs will include discussing early studies, high yield programs, Peaceful Nuclear Explosions tests, and some more recent developments. 6 references, 10 figures

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  15. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records

  16. Ground motion measurements at the LBL Light Source site, the Bevatron and at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Majer, E.I.; More, V.D.; O'Connell, D.R.; Shilling, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the technique for measuring ground motion at the site of the 1.0 to 2.0 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Facility which was known as the Advanced Light Source (in 1983 when the measurements were taken). The results of ground motion measurements at the Light Source site at Building 6 at LBL are presented. As comparison, ground motion measurements were made at the Byerly Tunnel, the Bevatron, Blackberry Canyon, and SLAC at the Spear Ring. Ground Motion at the Light Source site was measured in a band from 4 to 100 Hz. The measured noise is primarily local in origin and is not easily transported through LBL soils. The background ground motion is for the most part less than 0.1 microns. Localized truck traffic near Building 6 and the operation of the cranes in the building can result in local ground motions of a micron or more for short periods of time. The background motion at Building 6 is between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude higher than ground motion in a quiet seismic tunnel, which is representative of quiet sites worldwide. The magnitude of the ground motions at SLAC and the Bevatron are comparable to ground motions measured at the Building 6 Light Source site. However, the frequency signature of each site is very different

  17. High Resolution Geological Site Characterization Utilizing Ground Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-26

    rough near a service road, in low velocity, unsaturated, unconsolidated 7 sands. Other than native grass, there was no significant vegetation . Surface...literature, demonstrate slll kale field tests. Similar degrees of spatial variability in ground that these stochastic geologic effects pose a potentially

  18. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  19. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  4. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Rieger, J.T.; Webber, W.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Gillespie, B.M.; Luttrell, S.P.; Wurstner, S.K.; Liikala, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Groundwater Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1995 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that impacted groundwater quality on the site. Monitoring of water levels and groundwater chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination, to note trends in contaminant concentrations,a nd to identify emerging groundwater quality problems. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of onsite groundwater quality. A three- dimensional, numerical, groundwater model is being developed to improve predictions of contaminant transport. The existing two- dimensional model was applied to predict contaminant flow paths and the impact of changes on site conditions. These activities were supported by limited hydrogeologic characterization. Water level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Radiological monitoring results indicated that many radioactive contaminants were above US Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington drinking water standards at the Hanford Site. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, cyanide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their US EPA or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels

  6. Preliminary site design for the SP-100 ground engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Miller, W.C.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1986-04-01

    In November, 1985, Hanford was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the preferred site for a full-scale test of the integrated nuclear subsystem for SP-100. The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, was assigned as the lead contractor for the Test Site. The nuclear subsystem, which includes the reactor and its primary heat transport system, will be provided by the System Developer, another contractor to be selected by DOE in late FY-1986. In addition to reactor operations, test site responsibilities include preparation of the facility plus design, procurement and installation of a vacuum chamber to house the reactor, a secondary heat transport system to dispose of the reactor heat, a facility control system, and postirradiation examination. At the conclusion of the test program, waste disposal and facility decommissioning are required. The test site must also prepare appropriate environmental and safety evaluations. This paper summarizes the preliminary design requirements, the status of design, and plans to achieve full power operation of the test reactor in September, 1990

  7. Natural radioactivity in ground water near the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V. Jr.; Michel, J.

    1990-08-01

    A study of natural radioactivity in groundwater on and adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken (SC) was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal variations in the concentration of specific radionuclides. All available measurements for gross alpha particle activity, gross beta activity, uranium, Ra-226, Ra-228, and radon were collated. Relatively few radionuclide-specific results were found. Twenty samples from drinking water supplies in the area were collected in October 1987 and analyzed for U-238, U-234, Ra-226, Ra-228, and Rn-222. The aquifer type for each public water supply system was determined, and statistical analyses were conducted to detect differences among aquifer types and geographic areas defined at the country level. For samples from the public water wells and distribution systems on and adjacent to the site, most of the gross alpha particle activity could be attributed to Ra-226. Aquifer type was an important factor in determining the level of radioactivity in groundwater. The distribution and geochemical factors affecting the distribution of each radionuclide for the different aquifer types are discussed in detail. Statistical analyses were also run to test for aerial differences, among counties and the site. For all types of measurements, there were no differences in the distribution of radioactivity among the ten counties in the vicinity of the site or the site itself. The mean value for the plant was the lowest of all geographic areas for gross alpha particle activity and radon, intermediate for gross beta activity, and in the upper ranks for Ra-226 and Ra-228. It is concluded that the drinking water quality onsite is comparable with that in the vicinity. 19 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  8. The Truth of Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Tkacz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to assert that Wikipedia has a relation to truth? That there is, despite regular claims to the contrary, an entire apparatus of truth in Wikipedia? In this article, I show that Wikipedia has in fact two distinct relations to truth: one which is well known and forms the basis of existing popular and scholarly commentaries, and another which refers to equally well-known aspects of Wikipedia, but has not been understood in terms of truth. I demonstrate Wikipedia's dual relation to truth through a close analysis of the Neutral Point of View core content policy (and one of the project's 'Five Pillars'. I conclude by indicating what is at stake in the assertion that Wikipedia has a regime of truth and what bearing this has on existing commentaries.

  9. Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A

    2008-01-16

    In this report we describe the data sets used to evaluate ground motion hazards in Las Vegas from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. This analysis is presented in Rodgers et al. (2005, 2006) and includes 13 nuclear explosions recorded at the John Blume and Associates network, the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and a temporary deployment of broadband station in Las Vegas. The data are available in SAC format on CD-ROM as an appendix to this report.

  10. Frege on Truths, Truth and the True

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Künne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The founder of modern logic and grandfather of analytic philosophy was 70 years old when he published his paper 'Der Gedanke' (The Thought in 1918. This essay contains some of Gottlob Frege's deepest and most provocative reflections on the concept of truth, and it will play a prominent role in my lectures. The plan for my lectures is as follows. What is it that is (primarily true or false? 'Thoughts', is Frege's answer. In §1, I shall explain and defend this answer. In §2, I shall briefly consider his enthymematic argument for the conclusion that the word 'true' resists any attempt at defining it. In §3, I shall discuss his thesis that the thought that things are thus and so is identical with the thought that it is true that things are thus and so. The reasons we are offered for this thesis will be found wanting. In §4, I shall comment extensively on Frege's claim that, in a non-formal language like the one I am currently trying to speak, we can say whatever we want to say without ever using the word 'true' or any of its synonyms. I will reject the propositional-redundancy claim, endorse the assertive-redundancy claim and deny the connection Frege ascribes to them. In his classic 1892 paper 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (On Sense and Signification Frege argues that truth-values are objects. In §5, I shall scrutinize his argument. In §6, I will show that in Frege's ideography (Begriffsschrift truth, far from being redundant, is omnipresent. The final §7 is again on truth-bearers, this time as a topic in the theory of intentionality and in metaphysics. In the course of discussing Frege's views on the objecthood, the objectivity of thoughts and the timelessness of truth(s, I will plead for a somewhat mitigated Platonism.

  11. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of selecting a ground water compliance strategy for the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) discusses two alternatives and the effects associated with each. The two alternatives are (1) natural flushing coupled with institutional controls and continued monitoring and (2) no action. The compliance strategy must meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards defined in Title 40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' Part 192, Subpart B, in areas where ground water beneath and around the site is contaminated as a result of past milling operations. It has been determined that contamination in the ground water at the Gunnison site consists of soluble residual radioactive material (RRM) as defined in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA)

  12. Modelling of the ground motion at Russe site (NE Bulgaria) due to the Vrancea earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouteva, Mihaela; Panza, Giuliano F.; Paskaleva, Ivanka; Romanelli, Fabio

    2001-11-01

    An approach, capable of synthesising strong ground motion from a basic understanding of fault mechanism and of seismic wave propagation in the Earth, is applied to model the seismic input at a set of 25 sites along a chosen profile at Russe, NE Bulgaria, due to two intermediate-depth Vrancea events (August 30, 1986, Mw=7.2, and May 30, 1990, Mw=6.9). According to our results, once a strong ground motion parameter has been selected to characterise the ground motion, it is necessary to investigate the relationships between its values and the features of the earthquake source, the path to the site and the nature of the site. Therefore, a proper seismic hazard assessment requires an appropriate parametric study to define the different ground shaking scenarios corresponding to the relevant seismogenic zones affecting the given site. Site response assessment is provided simultaneously in frequency and space domains, and thus the applied procedure differs from the traditional engineering approach that discusses the site as a single point. The applied procedure can be efficiently used to estimate the ground motion for different purposes like microzonation, urban planning, retrofitting or insurance of the built environment. (author)

  13. Truth and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary…

  14. Withholding truth from patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-31

    The issue of whether patients should always be told the truth regarding their diagnosis and prognosis has afforded much debate in healthcare literature. This article examines telling the truth from an ethical perspective. It puts forward arguments for and against being honest with patients, using a clinical example to illustrate each point.

  15. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  16. Bioremediation of ground water contaminants at a uranium mill tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, L.L.; Nuttall, H.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Lutze, W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water contaminated with uranium from milling operations must be remediated to reduce the migration of soluble toxic compounds. At the mill tailings site near Tuba City, Arizona (USA) the approach is to employ bioremediation for in situ immobilization of uranium by bacterial reduction of uranyl, U(VI), compounds to uraninite, U(IV). In this initial phase of remediation, details are provided to indicate the magnitude of the contamination problem and to present preliminary evidence supporting the proposition that bacterial immobilization of uranium is possible. Additionally, consideration is given to contaminating cations and anions that may be at toxic levels in ground water at this uranium mill tailing site and detoxification strategies using bacteria are addressed. A model concept is employed so that results obtained at the Tuba City site could contribute to bioremediation of ground water at other uranium mill tailings sites

  17. Modeling Nonlinear Site Response Uncertainty in Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimaki, D.; Li, W.; Steidl, J. M.; Schmedes, J.

    2007-12-01

    The assessment of strong motion site response is of great significance, both for mitigating seismic hazard and for performing detailed analyses of earthquake source characteristics. There currently exists, however, large degree of uncertainty concerning the mathematical model to be employed for the computationally efficient evaluation of local site effects, and the site investigation program necessary to evaluate the nonlinear input model parameters and ensure cost-effective predictions; and while site response observations may provide critical constraints on interpretation methods, the lack of a statistically significant number of in-situ strong motion records prohibits statistical analyses to be conducted and uncertainties to be quantified based entirely on field data. In this paper, we combine downhole observations and broadband ground motion synthetics for characteristic site conditions the Los Angeles Basin, and investigate the variability in ground motion estimation introduced by the site response assessment methodology. In particular, site-specific regional velocity and attenuation structures are initially compiled using near-surface geotechnical data collected at downhole geotechnical arrays, inverse low-strain velocity and attenuation profiles at these sites obtained by inversion of weak motion records and the crustal velocity structure at the corresponding locations obtained from the Southern California Earthquake Centre Community Velocity Model. Successively, broadband ground motions are simulated by means of a hybrid low/high-frequency finite source model with correlated random parameters for rupture scenaria of weak, medium and large magnitude events (M =3.5-7.5). Observed estimates of site response at the stations of interest are first compared to the ensemble of approximate and incremental nonlinear site response models. Parametric studies are next conducted for each fixed magnitude (fault geometry) scenario by varying the source-to-site distance and

  18. Visibility Analysis of Domestic Satellites on Proposed Ground Sites for Optical Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo1

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to analyze the satellite visibility at the randomly established ground sites, to determine the five optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking of domestic satellites, and to verify the acquisition of the optical observation time sufficient to maintain the precise ephemeris at optimal ground sites that have been already determined. In order to accomplish these objectives, we analyzed the visibility for sun-synchronous orbit satellites, low earth orbit satellites, middle earth orbit satellites and domestic satellites as well as the continuous visibility along with the fictitious satellite ground track, and calculate the effective visibility. For the analysis, we carried out a series of repetitive process using the satellite tool kit simulation software developed by Analytical Graphics Incorporated. The lighting states of the penumbra and direct sun were set as the key constraints of the optical observation. The minimum of the observation satellite elevation angle was set to be 20 degree, whereas the maximum of the sun elevation angle was set to be -10 degree which is within the range of the nautical twilight. To select the candidates for the optimal optical observation, the entire globe was divided into 84 sectors in a constant interval, the visibility characteristics of the individual sectors were analyzed, and 17 ground sites were arbitrarily selected and analyzed further. Finally, five optimal ground sites (Khurel Togoot Observatory, Assy-Turgen Observatory, Tubitak National Observatory, Bisdee Tier Optical Astronomy Observatory, and South Africa Astronomical Observatory were determined. The total observation period was decided as one year. To examine the seasonal variation, the simulation was performed for the period of three days or less with respect to spring, summer, fall and winter. In conclusion, we decided the optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking

  19. Analysis of ground response data at Lotung large-scale soil- structure interaction experiment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.; Mok, C.M.; Power, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4-scale and 1/2-scale) of a nuclear plant containment structure at a site in Lotung (Tang, 1987), a seismically active region in northeast Taiwan. The models were constructed to gather data for the evaluation and validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methodologies. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses at the site during earthquakes. The experiment is generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST). As part of the LSST, two downhole arrays were installed at the site to record ground motions at depths as well as at the ground surface. Structural response and ground response have been recorded for a number of earthquakes (i.e. a total of 18 earthquakes in the period of October 1985 through November 1986) at the LSST site since the completion of the installation of the downhole instruments in October 1985. These data include those from earthquakes having magnitudes ranging from M L 4.5 to M L 7.0 and epicentral distances range from 4.7 km to 77.7 km. Peak ground surface accelerations range from 0.03 g to 0.21 g for the horizontal component and from 0.01 g to 0.20 g for the vertical component. The objectives of the study were: (1) to obtain empirical data on variations of earthquake ground motion with depth; (2) to examine field evidence of nonlinear soil response due to earthquake shaking and to determine the degree of soil nonlinearity; (3) to assess the ability of ground response analysis techniques including techniques to approximate nonlinear soil response to estimate ground motions due to earthquake shaking; and (4) to analyze earth pressures recorded beneath the basemat and on the side wall of the 1/4 scale model structure during selected earthquakes

  20. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Adhikari, M. D.; Nayak, Avinash; Devaraj, N.; Ghosh, Soumalya K.; Mahajan, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  7. Initial site characterization and evaluation of radionuclide contaminated soil waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Sandness, G.A.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of historical records and literature containing information on the contents of 300 Area and North Burial Grounds was completed. Existing records of radioactive waste location, type, and quantity within each burial ground facility were obtained and distributed to cooperating investigators. A study was then initiated to evaluate geophysical exploration techniques for mapping buried waste materials, waste containers, and trench boundaries. Results indicate that a combination of ground penetrating radar, magnetometer, metal detector, and acoustic measurements will be effective but will require further study, hardware development, and field testing. Drilling techniques for recovering radionuclide-contaminated materials and sediment cores were developed and tested. Laboratory sediment characterization and fluid transport and monitoring analyses were begun by installation of in situ transducers at the 300 North Burial Ground site. Biological transport mechanisms that control radionuclide movement at contaminated sites were also studied. Flora and fauna presently inhabiting specific burial ground areas were identified and analyzed. Future monitoring of specific mammal populations will permit determination of dose rate and pathways of contaminated materials contained in and adjacent to burial ground sites

  8. Evaluating the truth brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Price, Simani; Blahut, Steven

    2005-03-01

    The American Legacy Foundation developed the truth campaign, an aspirational antismoking brand for adolescents. This study tested whether a multidimensional scale, brand equity in truth, mediates the relationship between campaign exposure and youth smoking. We collected brand equity responses from 2,306 youth on a nationally representative telephone survey. Factor analysis indicates that the scale has excellent psychometric properties and effectively measures brand equity. We developed a structural equation model to test the mediation hypothesis. Results show that brand equity mediates the relationship between truth and smoking. Analyses of potential cofounders show this relationship is robust. Behavioral branding (brands about a behavior or a lifestyle) is an important public health strategy.

  9. The end of truth?

    OpenAIRE

    C. W. du Toit

    1997-01-01

    As we are approaching the end of the century, many ideas, systems, and certainties, previously taken for granted, seem to be questioned, altered and rejected. One of these is the notion of truth, which pervades the very fibre of Western thinking. Rejecting the relevant critique as simply a postmodem fad, this article proceeds to give attention to the questions regarding the end of religious, scientific, and metaphysical truth. Truth and power are dealt with, as well as the narrative nature of...

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1990 by the US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine what remedial actions are necessary for contaminated ground water at the site

  12. Analysis Methodology for Optimal Selection of Ground Station Site in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, J.; Farjas, M.; Martínez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of ground station sites is especially important in complex missions that include several small satellites (clusters or constellations) such as the QB50 project, where one ground station would be able to track several spatial vehicles, even simultaneously. In this regard the design of the communication system has to carefully take into account the ground station site and relevant signal phenomena, depending on the frequency band. To propose the optimal location of the ground station, these aspects become even more relevant to establish a trusted communication link due to the ground segment site in urban areas and/or selection of low orbits for the space segment. In addition, updated cartography with high resolution data of the location and its surroundings help to develop recommendations in the design of its location for spatial vehicles tracking and hence to improve effectiveness. The objectives of this analysis methodology are: completion of cartographic information, modelling the obstacles that hinder communication between the ground and space segment and representation in the generated 3D scene of the degree of impairment in the signal/noise of the phenomena that interferes with communication. The integration of new technologies of geographic data capture, such as 3D Laser Scan, determine that increased optimization of the antenna elevation mask, in its AOS and LOS azimuths along the horizon visible, maximizes visibility time with spatial vehicles. Furthermore, from the three-dimensional cloud of points captured, specific information is selected and, using 3D modeling techniques, the 3D scene of the antenna location site and surroundings is generated. The resulting 3D model evidences nearby obstacles related to the cartographic conditions such as mountain formations and buildings, and any additional obstacles that interfere with the operational quality of the antenna (other antennas and electronic devices that emit or receive in the same bandwidth

  13. Goedel, truth and proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    The usual way of interpreting Goedel's (1931) incompleteness result is as showing that there is a gap between truth and provability, i.e. that we can never prove everything that is true. Moreover, this result is supposed to show that there are unprovable truths which we can know to be true. This, so the story goes, shows that we are more than machines that are restricted to acting as proof systems. Hence our minds are 'not mechanical'

  14. Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of CGLSS II and U.S. NLDN Using Ground-Truth Dalta from Launch Complex 398, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Mata, A. G.; Rakov, V. A.; Nag, A.; Saul, J.

    2012-01-01

    A new comprehensive lightning instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes seven synchronized high-speed video cameras, current sensors installed on the nine downconductors of the new lightning protection system (LPS) for LC39B; four dH/dt, 3-axis measurement stations; and five dE/dt stations composed of two antennas each. The LPS received 8 direct lightning strikes (a total of 19 strokes) from March 31 through December 31 2011. The measured peak currents and locations are compared to those reported by the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS II) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Results of comparison are presented and analyzed in this paper.

  15. Dissolved oxygen mapping: A powerful tool for site assessments and ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, W.A.; Kimball, G.

    1992-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles often provide an excellent indication of the natural biological activity of microorganisms in ground water. The analysis of dissolved oxygen in ground water also provides a rapid, inexpensive method for determining the areal extent of contaminant plumes containing aerobically degraded compounds such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Indigenous hydrocarbon degrading organisms are present at most petroleum product spills giving this technique an almost universal application for dissolved hydrocarbons in ground water. Data from several sites will be presented to demonstrate the relationship between oxygen and dissolved contaminant concentrations. The inverse relationship between oxygen concentrations and dissolved contaminants can be used in many ways. During the initial site assessment, rapid on-site testing of ground water can provide real time data to direct drilling by identification of potentially contaminated locations. Several analytical techniques are available that allow field analysis to be performed in less than five minutes. Dissolved oxygen testing also provides an inexpensive way to monitor hydrocarbon migration without expensive gas chromatography. Often a plume of oxygen depleted ground water extends farther downgradient than the dissolved hydrocarbon plume. The depletion of oxygen in a well can provide an early warning system that detects upgradient contamination before the well is impacted by detectable levels of contaminants. Another application is the measurement of the natural degradation potential for aerobic remediation. If an aerobic in-situ remediation is used, dissolved oxygen monitoring provides an inexpensive method to monitor the progress of the remediation

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site's contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination

  17. Compositional Variations in Sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater, Mars, from Visible-Shortwave Infrared Spectroscopy and Comparison to Ground-Truth from the Curiosity Rover

    OpenAIRE

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, S. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-01-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single-scattering albedo spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity ...

  18. Evaluation of dynamic properties, local site effects and design ground motions: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitharam, T.G.; Vipin, K.S.; James, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Evidences from past earthquakes clearly shows that the damages due to an earthquake and its severity at a site are controlled mainly by three factors i.e., earthquake source and path characteristics, local geological and geotechnical characteristics, structural design and quality of the construction. Seismic ground response at a site is strongly influenced by local geological and soil conditions. The exact information of the geological, geomorphological and geotechnical data along with seismotectonic details are necessary to evaluate the ground response. The geometry of the subsoil structure, the soil type, the lateral discontinuities and the surface topography will also influence the site response at a particular location. In the case of a nuclear power plant, the details obtained from the site investigation will have multiple objectives: (i) for the effective design of the foundation (ii) assessment of site amplification (iii) for liquefaction potential evaluation. Since the seismic effects on the structure depend fully on the site conditions and assessment of site amplification. The first input required in evaluation of geotechnical aspect of seismic hazard is the rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) values. The surface level acceleration values need to be calculated based on the site conditions and site amplification values. This paper discusses various methods for evaluating the site amplification values, dynamic soil properties, different field and laboratory tests required and various site classification schemes. In addition to these aspects, the evaluation of liquefaction potential of the site is also presented. The paper highlights on the latest testing methods to evaluate dynamic properties (shear modulus and damping ratio) of soils and techniques for estimating local site effects. (author)

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  1. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake's ground motion is a function of the earthquake's magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical ampersand Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties

  2. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical & Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties.

  3. THE USE OF UAS FOR ASSESSING AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS IN AN WETLAND IN TANZANIA IN THE DRY- AND WET-SEASON FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND PROVIDING GROUND TRUTH FOR TERRA-SAR X DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Thamm

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the assessment of the vegetation and the land use systems of the Malinda Wetland in the Usambara Mountains in Tanzania with the parachute UAS (unmanned aerial system SUSI 62. The area of investigation was around 8 km2. In two campaigns, one in the wet season and one in the dry season, approximately 2600 aerial photos of the wetland were taken using the parachute UAS SUSI 62; of these images, ortho-photos with a spatial resolution of 20 cm x 20 cm, were computed with an advanced block bundle approach. The block bundles were geo-referenced using control points taken with differential GPS. As well a digital surface model (DSM of the wetland was created out of the UAS photos. Using the ortho-photos it is possible to assess the different land use systems; the differences in the phenology of the vegetation between wet and dry season can be investigated. In addition, the regionalisation of bio mass samples on smaller test plots was possible. The ortho-photos and the DSM derived from the UAS proved to be a valuable ground truth for the interpretation of Terra-SAR X images. The campaigns demonstrated that SUSI 62 was a suitable, robust tool to obtain the valuable information under harsh conditions.

  4. Ground-dwelling ant fauna of sites with high levels of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, E; Sanhudo, C E; Diehl-Fleig, Ed

    2004-02-01

    Richness and diversity of ant species are related to environmental factors such as vegetation, soil, presence of heavy metals, and insecticides, which allow the use of the assemblage members as terrestrial indicators of environmental conservation status. This study presents the results of ground ants surveyed in Minas do Camaquã in the municipality of Cacapava do Sul (Camaquã Basin), State of Rio Grande do Sul. Collections were performed in four sites, which high levels of copper in the soil, three of which--a mine, a liquid reject, and a solid reject-, had sparse or no plant cover, and one site where Pinus has been used for rehabilitation. Parque das Guaritas was the control site, since it presented normal levels of copper and a dense savanna cover. For each site, three transect lines extending 100 m were draw, and at each 10 m sardine baits were distributed; after two hours the ants present were collected. Hand collections in all five sites were performed during one hour (capture effort). A total of 51 species belonging to 17 genera were collected. The control site was the richest in ant species (r = 45). Sites with high level of copper and poor plant cover presented the lowest richness: mine (r = 14), solid reject (r = 15), and liquid reject (r = 16). In contrast, the site planted with Pinus presented an increment in richness (r = 24) of ground-dwelling ants, suggesting a reahabilitation process.

  5. Ground-dwelling ant fauna of sites with high levels of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Diehl

    Full Text Available Richness and diversity of ant species are related to environmental factors such as vegetation, soil, presence of heavy metals, and insecticides, which allow the use of the assemblage members as terrestrial indicators of environmental conservation status. This study presents the results of ground ants surveyed in Minas do Camaquã in the municipality of Caçapava do Sul (Camaquã Basin, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Collections were performed in four sites, with high levels of copper in the soil, three of which - a mine, a liquid reject, and a solid reject -, had sparse or no plant cover, and one site where Pinus has been used for rehabilitation. Parque das Guaritas was the control site, since it presented normal levels of copper and a dense savanna cover. For each site, three transect lines extending 100 m were draw, and at each 10 m sardine baits were distributed; after two hours the ants present were collected. Hand collections in all five sites were performed during one hour (capture effort. A total of 51 species belonging to 17 genera were collected. The control site was the richest in ant species (r = 45. Sites with high level of copper and poor plant cover presented the lowest richness: mine (r = 14, solid reject (r = 15, and liquid reject (r = 16. In contrast, the site planted with Pinus presented an increment in richness (r = 24 of ground-dwelling ants, suggesting a reahabilitation process.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  10. A new ground-penetrating radar system for remote site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.C.; Sandness, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    The cleanup of waste burial sites and military bombing ranges involves the risk of exposing field personnel to toxic chemicals, radioactive materials, or unexploded munitions. Time-consuming and costly measures are required to provide protection from those hazards. Therefore, there is a growing interest in developing remotely controlled sensors and sensor platforms that can be employed in site characterization surveys. A specialized ground-penetrating radar has been developed to operate on a remotely controlled vehicle for the non-intrusive subsurface characterization of buried waste sites. Improved radar circuits provide enhanced performance, and an embedded microprocessor dynamically optimizes operation. The radar unit is packaged to survive chemical contamination and decontamination

  11. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake's ground motion is a function of the earthquake's magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. Therefore, empirically based approaches that are used for other regions, such as Western North America, are not appropriate for Eastern North America. Moreover, recent advances in science and technology have now made it possible to combine theoretical and empirical methods to develop new procedures and models for estimating ground motion. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. Specifically considered are magnitudes M from 5 to 8, distances from 0 to 500 km, and frequencies from 1 to 35 Hz. This document, Volume IV, provides Appendix 8.B, Laboratory Investigations of Dynamic Properties of Reference Sites

  12. Ground-water hydrology and radioactive waste disposal at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1979-02-01

    This paper is a summary of the hydrologic activities conducted at the Hanford Site as a part of the environmental protection effort. The Site encompasses 1,480 square kilometers in the arid, southeastern part of Washington State. Precipitation averages about 160 millimeters per year with a negligible amount, if any, recharging the water table, which is from 50 to 100 meters below the ground surface. An unconfined aquifer occurs in the upper and middle Ringold Formations. The lower Ringold Formation along with interbed and interflow zones in the Saddle Mountain and Wanapum basalts forms a confined aquifer system. A potential exists for the interconnection of the unconfined and confined aquifer systems, especially near Gable Mountain where the anticlinal ridge was eroded by the catastrophic floods of the ancestral Columbia River system. Liquid wastes from chemical processing operations have resulted in large quantities of processing and cooling water disposed to ground via ponds, cribs, and ditches. The ground-water hydrology program at Hanford is designed: (1) to define and quantify the ground-water flow systems, (2) to evaluate the impact of the liquid waste discharges on these flow systems, and (3) to predict the impact on the ground-water systems of changes in system inputs. This work is conducted through a drilling, sampling, testing, and modeling program

  13. Status of the ground water flow model for the UMTRA Project, Shiprock, New Mexico, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model was constructed for the alluvial aquifer in the area of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Shiprock, New Mexico, site. This model was used to investigate the effects of various hydrologic parameters on the evolution of the ground water flow field. Results of the model are useful for defining uncertainties in the site conceptual model and suggesting data collection efforts to reduce these uncertainties. The computer code MODFLOW was used to simulate the two-dimensional flow of ground water in the alluvium. The escarpment was represented as a no-flow boundary. The San Juan River was represented with the MODFLOW river package. A uniform hydraulic conductivity distribution with the value estimated by the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and a uniform recharge distribution was used. Infiltration from the flowing artesian well was represented using the well package. The ground water flow model was calibrated to ground water levels observed in April 1993. Inspection of hydrographs shows that these levels are representative of typical conditions at the site

  14. Current plans to characterize the design basis ground motion at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecka, W.B.; Grant, T.A.; Voegele, M.D.; Cline, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A site at Yucca Mountain Nevada is currently being studied to assess its suitability as a potential host site for the nation's first commercial high level waste repository. The DOE has proposed a new methodology for determining design-basis ground motions that uses both deterministic and probabilistic methods. The role of the deterministic approach is primary. It provides the level of detail needed by design engineers in the characterization of ground motions. The probabilistic approach provides a logical structured procedure for integrating the range of possible earthquakes that contribute to the ground motion hazard at the site. In addition, probabilistic methods will be used as needed to provide input for the assessment of long-term repository performance. This paper discusses the local tectonic environment, potential seismic sources and their associated displacements and ground motions. It also discusses the approach to assessing the design basis earthquake for the surface and underground facilities, as well as selected examples of the use of this type of information in design activities

  15. Evaluation of ground deformations induced by the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake (Turkey) at selected sites on shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydan, Ömer; Ulusay, Reşat; Atak, Veysel Okan

    2008-03-01

    The Kocaeli earthquake ( M w = 7.4) of 17 August 1999 occurred in the Eastern Marmara Region of Turkey along the North Anadolu Fault and resulted in a very serious loss of life and property. One of the most important geotechnical issues of this event was the permanent ground deformations because of both liquefaction and faulting. These deformations occurred particularly along the southern shores of İzmit Bay and Sapanca Lake between the cities of Yalova and Adapazarı in the west and east, respectively. In this study, three sites founded on delta fans, namely Değirmendere Nose, Yeniköy tea garden at Seymen on the coast of İzmit Bay, and Vakıf Hotel site on the coast of Sapanca Lake were selected as typical cases. The main causes of the ground deformations at these sites were then investigated. Geotechnical characterization of the ground, derivation of displacement vectors from the pre- and post-earthquake aerial photographs, liquefaction assessments based on field performance data, and analyses carried out using the sliding body method have been fundamental in this study. The displacement vectors determined from photogrammetric evaluations conducted at Değirmendere and Seymen showed a combined movement of faulting and liquefaction. But except the movements in the close vicinity of shorelines, the dominant factor in this movement was faulting. The results obtained from the analyses suggested that the ground failure at Değirmendere was a submarine landslide mainly because of earthquake shaking rather than liquefaction. On the other hand, the ground failures at the Yeniköy tea garden on the coast of Seymen and the hotel area in Sapanca town resulted from liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. It was also obtained that the ground deformations estimated from the sliding body method were quite close to those measured by aerial photogrammetry technique.

  16. Management of Ground and Groundwater Contamination on a Compact Site Constrained by Ongoing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilbeck, K.E.; Reeve, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sellafield Site is a compact and complex site which since the 1940's has been home to a range of facilities associated with the production and reprocessing of fissile material. The site contains the UK equivalent of the Chicago Pile-1 reactor, Hanford B Reactor, Rocky Flats Buildings 771 and 774, West Valley Main Process Plant Building, Savannah River Vitrification Plant, Savannah River MOX Plant, Savannah River F Canyon, Hanford 222 Analytical Laboratory, Savannah River K-, L-, and P-Basins, and the Fort St. Vrain Reactor all in an area of approximately 1000 acres. Spent fuel reprocessing is still undertaken on site; however waste management and decommissioning activities are of increasing importance. These include the emptying and removal of fragile ponds and silos containing significant radioactive inventories, the decommissioning of reactors (including the world's first commercial reactor for power generation and the Windscale Piles, the site of a reactor fire in the late 1950's) and the construction of a new generation of vitrification and encapsulation plants. Leaks, spills and on-site disposals during the site's industrial lifetime have resulted in a legacy of fission products and other radionuclides in the ground and groundwater. Volumes of contaminated ground have been estimated as being as much as 18 million m 3 and an estimated below ground inventory of approximately 1.8 E16 Bq. These have all occurred within close proximity to a range of receptors including farm land and the sea. The cramped nature of the facilities on site, overlapping source terms and ongoing decommissioning, waste management and operating activities all raise significant challenges in the management and remediation of contaminated land and groundwater. The strategy to address these challenges includes: 1. Data collection, management and interpretation. The congested nature of the site and the age of some of the monitoring facilities has resulted in particular difficulties. For

  17. Moball-Buoy Network: A Near-Real-Time Ground-Truth Distributed Monitoring System to Map Ice, Weather, Chemical Species, and Radiations, in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, F.; Shahabi, C.; Burdick, J.; Rais-Zadeh, M.; Menemenlis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The work had been funded by NASA HQ's office of Cryospheric Sciences Program. Recent observations of the Arctic have shown that sea ice has diminished drastically, consequently impacting the environment in the Arctic and beyond. Certain factors such as atmospheric anomalies, wind forces, temperature increase, and change in the distribution of cold and warm waters contribute to the sea ice reduction. However current measurement capabilities lack the accuracy, temporal sampling, and spatial coverage required to effectively quantify each contributing factor and to identify other missing factors. Addressing the need for new measurement capabilities for the new Arctic regime, we propose a game-changing in-situ Arctic-wide Distributed Mobile Monitoring system called Moball-buoy Network. Moball-buoy Network consists of a number of wind-propelled self-powered inflatable spheres referred to as Moball-buoys. The Moball-buoys are self-powered. They use their novel mechanical control and energy harvesting system to use the abundance of wind in the Arctic for their controlled mobility and energy harvesting. They are equipped with an array of low-power low-mass sensors and micro devices able to measure a wide range of environmental factors such as the ice conditions, chemical species wind vector patterns, cloud coverage, air temperature and pressure, electromagnetic fields, surface and subsurface water conditions, short- and long-wave radiations, bathymetry, and anthropogenic factors such as pollutions. The stop-and-go motion capability, using their novel mechanics, and the heads up cooperation control strategy at the core of the proposed distributed system enable the sensor network to be reconfigured dynamically according to the priority of the parameters to be monitored. The large number of Moball-buoys with their ground-based, sea-based, satellite and peer-to-peer communication capabilities would constitute a wireless mesh network that provides an interface for a global

  18. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-23

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  19. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  20. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository

  1. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository.

  2. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G.A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, Sarah E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-01-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single scattering albedo spectra and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that XRD-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are non-unique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains during aeolian saltation. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances (~20 wt%) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability induced by wind sorting may be enhanced by local mixing with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within martian aeolian sandstones.

  3. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, S. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single-scattering albedo spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that X-ray diffraction-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are nonunique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold Dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative aeolian-transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances ( 20 wt %) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability may be enhanced by local mixing of well-sorted sand with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within Martian aeolian sandstones.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people's health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  8. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  9. Site Effect Assessment of Earthquake Ground Motion Based on Advanced Data Processing of Microtremor Array Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; He, K.; Mehl, R.; Wang, W.; Chen, Q.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution near-surface geologic information is essential for earthquake ground motion prediction. The near-surface geology forms the critical constituent to influence seismic wave propagation, which is known as the local site effects. We have collected microtremor data over 1000 sites in Beijing area for extracting the much needed earthquake engineering parameters (primarily sediment thickness, with the shear wave velocity profiling at a few important control points) in this heavily populated urban area. Advanced data processing algorithms are employed in various stages in assessing the local site effect on earthquake ground motion. First, we used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), also known as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), to enhance the microtremor data analysis by excluding the local transients and continuous monochromic industrial noises. With this enhancement we have significantly increased the number of data points to be useful in delineating sediment thickness in this area. Second, we have used the cross-correlation of microtremor data acquired for the pairs of two adjacent sites to generate a 'pseudo-reflection' record, which can be treated as the Green function of the 1D layered earth model at the site. The sediment thickness information obtained this way is also consistent with the results obtained by the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method (HVSR). For most sites in this area, we can achieve 'self consistent' results among different processing skechems regarding to the sediment thickness - the fundamental information to be used in assessing the local site effect. Finally, the pseudo-spectral time domain method was used to simulate the seismic wave propagation caused by a scenario earthquake in this area - the 1679 M8 Sanhe-pinggu earthquake. The characteristics of the simulated earthquake ground motion have found a general correlation with the thickness of the sediments in this area. And more importantly, it is also in agreement

  10. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Truth, body and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl-Thure Eriksson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the words of welcome to the symposium on Religion and the Body on 16 June 2010. In a religious context ‘truth’ is like a mantra, a certain imperative to believe in sacred things. The concept of truth and falseness arises, when we as humans compare reality, as we experience it through our senses, with the representation we have in our memory, a comparison of new information with stored information. If we look for the truth, we have to search in the human mind. There we will also find religion.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people's health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site

  18. Source, propagation and site effects: impact on mapping strong ground motion in Bucharest area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulian, R.; Kuznetsov, I.; Panza, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Achievements in the framework of the NATO SfP project 972266 focused on the impact of Vrancea earthquakes on the security of Bucharest urban area are presented. The problem of Bucharest city security to Vrancea earthquakes is discussed in terms of numerical modelling of seismic motion and intermediate term earthquake prediction. A hybrid numerical scheme developed by Faeh et al. (1990; 1993) for frequencies up to 1 Hz is applied for the realistic modelling of the seismic ground motion in Bucharest. The method combines the modal summation for the 1D bedrock model and the finite differences for the 2D local structure model. All the factors controlling the ground motion at the site are considered: source, propagation and site effects, respectively. The input data includes the recent records provided by the digital accelerometer network developed within the Romanian-German CRC461 cooperation programme and CALIXTO'99, VRANCEA'99, VRANCEA2001 experiments. The numerical simulation proves to be a powerful tool in mapping the strong ground motion for realistic structures, reproducing acceptably from engineering point of view the observations. A new model of the Vrancea earthquake scaling is obtained and implications for the determination of the seismic motion parameters are analyzed. The role of the focal mechanism and attenuation properties upon the amplitude and spectral content of the ground motion are outlined. CN algorithm is applied for predicting Vrancea earthquakes. Finally, implications for the disaster management strategy are discussed. (authors)

  19. Site Classification using Multichannel Channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method on Soft and Hard Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Yusoh, R.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Site classification utilizing average shear wave velocity (Vs(30) up to 30 meters depth is a typical parameter. Numerous geophysical methods have been proposed for estimation of shear wave velocity by utilizing assortment of testing configuration, processing method, and inversion algorithm. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method is been rehearsed by numerous specialist and professional to geotechnical engineering for local site characterization and classification. This study aims to determine the site classification on soft and hard ground using MASW method. The subsurface classification was made utilizing National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NERHP) and international Building Code (IBC) classification. Two sites are chosen to acquire the shear wave velocity which is in the state of Pulau Pinang for soft soil and Perlis for hard rock. Results recommend that MASW technique can be utilized to spatially calculate the distribution of shear wave velocity (Vs(30)) in soil and rock to characterize areas.

  20. Ground-penetrating radar in characterizing and monitoring waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Kimball, C.S.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental hazards are associated with buried chemical and nuclear wastes because of the possibilities of inadvertent excavation or migration of toxic chemicals or radionuclides into groundwater or surface water bodies. Concern is often related to the fact that many existing waste burial sites have been found to be inadequately designed and/or poorly documented. New technology and innovative applications of current technology are needed to locate, characterize, and monitor the wastes contained in such sites. The work described in this paper is focused on the use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for those purposes

  1. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  2. Truth in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor R. Machan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Can there be truth in philosophy? A problem: it is philosophy, its various schools, that advances what counts as true versus false, how to go about making the distinction. This is what I wish to focus on here and see if some coherent, sensible position could be reached on the topic.

  3. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    the computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money...

  4. Experience, Poetry and Truth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    of philosophical thinking. Specifically, I show that, beneath a highly poetic and obscure prose, Jünger posits how subjective experience and poetry allow individuals to realize truth. I relate parts of Jünger’s insights to contributions by Husserl, Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, arguing that Jünger offers a unique...

  5. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake's ground motion is a function of the earthquake's magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. Therefore, empirically based approaches that are used for other regions, such as Western North America, are not appropriate for Eastern North America. Moreover, recent advances in science and technology have now made it possible to combine theoretical and empirical methods to develop new procedures and models for estimating ground motion. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. Specifically considered are magnitudes M from 5 to 8, distances from 0 to 500 km, and frequencies from 1 to 35 Hz

  6. Variations in radon-222 in soil and ground water at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Straume, T.; Smith, A.; King, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To help evaluate the applicability of variations of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas as a possible earthquake predictor, measurements were conducted in conjunction with underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radon fluctuations in ground water have been observed during a sequence of aftershocks following the Oroville, California earthquake of 1 August 1975. The NTS measurements were designed to show if these fluctuations were in response to ground shaking; if not, they could be attributed to changes in earth strain prior to the aftershocks. Well waters were periodically sampled and soil-gas 222 Rn monitored prior to and following seven underground explosions of varying strength and distance from sampling and detector locations. Soil-gas 222 Rn contents were measured by the alpha-track method; well water 222 Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearly identifiable correlation between well-water radon fluctuations and individual underground tests. One prominent variation in soil-gas radon corresponded to ground shaking from a pair of underground tests in alluvium; otherwise, there was no apparent correlation between radon emanation and other explosions. Markedly lower soil-gas radon contents following the tests were probably caused by consolidation of alluvium in response to ground shaking

  7. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, P.A.; Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents, which have reached the unconfined ground water, contain low levels of radioactive and chemical substances. The movement of these constituents in the unconfined ground water is monitored as part of the Ground-Water Surveillance Program. During 1982, 324 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Tritium are the primary ones used to monitor the movement of the ground water. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium and nitrate plumes. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. The general plume configuration is much the same as in 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from an evaporation facility

  8. Ground state properties of a spin chain within Heisenberg model with a single lacking spin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebrouki, M.

    2011-01-01

    The ground state and first excited state energies of an antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain with and without a single lacking spin site are computed using exact diagonalization method, within the Heisenberg model. In order to keep both parts of a spin chain with a lacking site connected, next nearest neighbors interactions are then introduced. Also, the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) method is used, to investigate ground state energies of large system sizes; which permits us to inquire about the effect of large system sizes on energies. Other quantum quantities such as fidelity and correlation functions are also studied and compared in both cases. - Research highlights: → In this paper we compute ground state and first excited state energies of a spin chain with and without a lacking spin site. The next nearest neighbors are introduced with the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-half. → Exact diagonalization is used for small systems, where DMRG method is used to compute energies for large systems. Other quantities like quantum fidelity and correlation are also computed. → Results are presented in figures with comments. → E 0 /N is computed in a function of N for several values of J 2 and for both systems. First excited energies are also investigated.

  9. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.; Voss, C.I.

    1999-09-01

    The present report analyzes the geochemical data in order to evaluate collection and interpretation techniques that will be used to site the repository and to assess its safety. Ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) may be grouped into five chemically and isotopically distinct water types, on the basis of their deuterium and chloride contents: 1) recent waters, 2) 5 g/L chloride waters, 3) deep waters, 4) seawater imprint waters, and 5) glacial melt waters. The sampled ground waters show a progressive change from a predominantly NaHCO 3 composition at shallow depth to a CaCl 2 -rich composition at depth. Despite the proximity of the Baltic, relatively few of the sampled ground waters contain any evidence of a seawater component. This finding, together with the rather shallow depths at which saline waters were found, indicates that Aespoe island is presently in a regional ground-water discharge area. The chemical and isotopic composition of the sampled waters also indicates that local recharge of dilute recent waters occurs only down to shallow depths (generally less than 100 in). The Aespoe ground waters are sulfidic and do not presently contain any dissolved oxygen. Measured E H values are generally near -300 mV, and on average are only about 50 mV lower than E H values calculated from the sulfide/sulfate couple. Maintenance of reducing conditions, such as presently found at the Aespoe HRL, is an important consideration in assessing the performance of nuclear waste disposal sites. Measurements of dissolved radon and of uranium concentrations in fracture-fill materials were used to calculate an average effective flow-wetted surface area of 3.1 m 2 per liter of water for the Aespoe site. Estimation of flow-wetted surface areas is essential in determining the importance of matrix diffusion and surface sorption processes for radionuclide release calculations. The Rn calculation technique shows promise in helping narrow the possible range of values

  10. An existential theoiy of truth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers ... gical) indeterminateness of meaning and truth, apart from one's .... dual human perspective and the unavoidable existential tasks of deciphering for oneself what is ...

  11. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the potential for impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site caused by the burning of coal containing uranium to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities and not for those constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Because background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking, any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background. The incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination and disposing of the contaminated soils in an engineered disposal cell. The UMTRA Ground Water Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under the UMTRA Ground Water Project, results of this risk assessment will help determine what ground water compliance strategy may be applied at the site

  13. Truth as a Mathematical Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Béziau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss in which sense truth is considered as a mathematical object in propositional logic. After clarifying how this concept is used in classical logic, through the notions of truth-table, truth-function and bivaluation, we examine some generalizations of it in non-classical logics: many-valued matrix semantics with three and four values, non-truth-functional bivalent semantics, Kripke possible world semantics.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  16. Ground Truth in Building Human Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    structured. This allows for the creation of one master matrix where the assessment results are collected for each AO and then weighted ... weighted criteria for a geographic region’s value to overall policy aims, aids in decision- making where to best allocate resources when, as in this...Snow Leopards and Cadastres: Rare Sightings in Afghanistan,” in Land and Post-Conflict Peacebuild- ing, Jon Unruh and Rhodri Williams, Eds

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  19. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-04

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (52 FR 36000 (1987)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, 42 USC {section}7901 et seq., the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. The following site characterization activities are discussed in this attachment: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment, including hydrostratigraphy, ground water occurrence, aquifer parameters, and areas of recharge and discharge. Characterization of existing ground water quality by comparison with background water quality and the maximum concentration limits (MCL) of the proposed EPA ground water protection standards. Definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source, including concentration and leachability of the source in relation to migration in ground water and hydraulically connected surface water. Description of local water resources, including current and future use, availability, and alternative supplies.

  20. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

  5. Ground-water travel time calculations for the potential nuclear repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, J.L.; Wilson, W.E.; Sinnock, S.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, ground-water travel times were calculated for flow paths in both the saturated and unsaturated zones at Yucca Mountain, a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada. The calculations were made through a combined effort by Science Applications International Corporation, Sandia National Laboratories, and the US Geological Survey. Travel times in the unsaturated zone were estimated by dividing the flow path length by the ground-water velocity, where velocities were obtained by dividing the vertical flux by the effective porosity of the rock types along assumed vertical flow paths. Saturated zone velocities were obtained by dividing the product of the bulk hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient by the effective porosity. Total travel time over an EPA-established 5-km flow path was then calculated to be the sum of the travel times in the two parts of the flow path. Estimates of ground water fluxes and travel times are critical for evaluating the favorability of the Yucca Mountain site because they provide the basis for estimating the potential for radionuclides to reach the accessible environment within certain time limits

  6. Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM's after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide's scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary

  7. A Robust Bayesian Truth Serum for Small Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, David C.; Witkowski, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Peer prediction mechanisms allow the truthful elicitation of private signals (e.g., experiences, or opinions) in regard to a true world state when this ground truth is unobservable. The original peer prediction method is incentive compatible for any number of agents n >= 2, but relies on a common prior, shared by all agents and the mechanism. The Bayesian Truth Serum (BTS) relaxes this assumption. While BTS still assumes that agents share a common prior, this prior need not be known to the me...

  8. An inconvenient truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al, Gore

    2007-01-01

    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  10. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The five projects discussed herein are: 300 Area Process Trenches; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins; 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds; Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill; Solid Waste Landfill. For each of the projects, there are included, as applicable, discussions of monitoring well installations, water-table measurements, background and/or downgradient water quality and results of chemical analysis, and extent and rate of movement of contaminant plumes. 14 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) for low-level waste disposal facilities. In fulfillment of these requirements, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area burial grounds and the 200 West Area burial grounds. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area low-level burial grounds be written and approved by the Richland Operations Office. As a result of a record of decision for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Program and acceptance of the Hanford Site Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement, the use of the low-level burial ground (LLBG) as a disposal facility for low-level and mixed low-level wastes has been restricted to lined trenches and the Navy reactor-compartment trench only. Hence, as of July 2004, only the two lined trenches in burial ground 218-W-5 (trenches 31 and 34, see Appendix A) and the Navy reactor-compartment trench in burial ground 218 E 12B (trench 94) are allowed to receive waste. When the two lined trenches are filled, the LLBG will cease to operate except for reactor compartment disposal at trench 94. Remaining operational lifetime of the LLBG is dependent on waste volume disposal rates. Existing programs for air sampling and analyses and subsidence monitoring are currently adequate for performance assessment at the LLBG. The waste disposal authorization for the Hanford Site is based (in part) on the post-closure performance assessments for the LLBG. In order to maintain a useful link between operational monitoring (e.g., Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA], Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, and State Waste Discharge Permits), constituents, monitoring frequencies, and boundaries require

  12. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Tlogorejo Site Karangawen District, Demak Regency, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Subiantoro; Priyo Sularto; Slamet Sudarto

    2009-01-01

    Demak is one of regency are placed at north beach central Java. Some part of this area especially Tlogorejo site Karangawen have the problem of fresh water availability. Conditions of insufficient Standard Water have been recognized in some part of the region, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District. The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process, so the trapped ground water character is brine or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of the prospect area for exploiting of ground water. Referring to those problems Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location which has problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, hydrogeology and sub surface geophysical characteristic, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain those targets, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo-electrical 2-D image measurement Base on observation, analysis, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential confined aquifer that happened at the layer sand that is trapped in the in impermeable layer of clay, which is potential for confined aquifer. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement is ''Sand Aquifer Layer-1'' are located at RB 1 (TLG-5), RB 2 (TLG-4) and RB 3 (TLG-22). Physical characterized of aquifer: resistivity 22-46 Ωm, the depth of surface water 110 to 146 meter. (author)

  13. Seismic-reflection and ground penetrating radar for environmental site characterization. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, R.; Steeples, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    'The project''s goals are threefold: (1) to examine the complementary site-characterization capabilities of modern, three-component shallow-seismic techniques and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods at depths ranging from 2 to 8 m at an existing test site; (2) to demonstrate the usefulness of the two methods when used in concert to characterize, in three-dimensions, the cone of depression of a pumping well, which will serve as a proxy site for fluid-flow at an actual, polluted site; and (3) to use the site as an outdoor mesoscale laboratory to validate existing three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar and seismic-reflection computer models developed at the Univ. of Kansas. To do this, useful seismic and GPR data are being collected along the same line(s) and within the same depth range. The principal investigators selected a site in central Kansas as a primary location and, although the site itself is not environmentally sensitive, the location chosen offers particularly useful attributes for this research and will serve as a proxy site for areas that are contaminated. As part of an effort to evaluate the strengths of each method, the authors will repeat the seismic and GPR surveys on a seasonal basis to establish how the complementary information obtained varies over time. Because the water table fluctuates at this site on a seasonal basis, variations in the two types of data over time also can be observed. Such noninvasive in-situ methods of identifying and characterizing the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies in the near future. As of the end of May 1998, the project is on schedule. The first field work was conducted using both of the geophysical survey methods in October of 1997, and the second field survey employed both methods in March of 1998. One of the stated tasks is to reoccupy the same survey line on a quarterly basis for two years to examine change in both

  14. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  15. Tornado damage at the Grand Gulf, Mississippi nuclear power plant site: aerial and ground surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.T.; McDonald, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    A tornado struck the Grand Gulf nuclear power generating station, Port Gibson, Mississippi, about 11:30 p.m. on April 17, 1978. Storm damage investigators from the University of Chicago and Texas Tech University were dispatched to survey the damage. The meteorological situation that spawned the Grand Gulf tornado and seven others in the area is discussed. Aerial surveys of the entire damage path and detailed surveys of the plant site are presented. An engineering evaluation of the damage is also presented based primarily on information gained from detailed ground surveys

  16. Ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic surveys at the Monroe Crossroads battlefield site, Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Richard; Strain, R.E.; Marlowe, J. I.; Currin, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar survey was conducted at the Monroe Crossroads Battlefield site at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, to determine possible locations of subsurface archaeological features. An electromagnetic survey also was conducted at the site to verify and augment the ground-penetrating radar data. The surveys were conducted over a 67,200-square-foot grid with a grid point spacing of 20 feet. During the ground-penetrating radar survey, 87 subsurface anomalies were detected based on visual inspection of the field records. These anomalies were flagged in the field as they appeared on the ground-penetrating radar records and were located by a land survey. The electromagnetic survey produced two significant readings at ground-penetrating radar anomaly locations. The National Park Service excavated 44 of the 87 anomaly locations at the Civil War battlefield site. Four of these excavations produced significant archaeological features, including one at an abandoned well.

  17. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, P D; Voss, C I [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The present report analyzes the geochemical data in order to evaluate collection and interpretation techniques that will be used to site the repository and to assess its safety. Ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) may be grouped into five chemically and isotopically distinct water types, on the basis of their deuterium and chloride contents: 1) recent waters, 2) 5 g/L chloride waters, 3) deep waters, 4) seawater imprint waters, and 5) glacial melt waters. The sampled ground waters show a progressive change from a predominantly NaHCO{sub 3} composition at shallow depth to a CaCl{sub 2}-rich composition at depth. Despite the proximity of the Baltic, relatively few of the sampled ground waters contain any evidence of a seawater component. This finding, together with the rather shallow depths at which saline waters were found, indicates that Aespoe island is presently in a regional ground-water discharge area. The chemical and isotopic composition of the sampled waters also indicates that local recharge of dilute recent waters occurs only down to shallow depths (generally less than 100 in). The Aespoe ground waters are sulfidic and do not presently contain any dissolved oxygen. Measured E{sub H} values are generally near -300 mV, and on average are only about 50 mV lower than E{sub H} values calculated from the sulfide/sulfate couple. Maintenance of reducing conditions, such as presently found at the Aespoe HRL, is an important consideration in assessing the performance of nuclear waste disposal sites. Measurements of dissolved radon and of uranium concentrations in fracture-fill materials were used to calculate an average effective flow-wetted surface area of 3.1 m{sup 2} per liter of water for the Aespoe site. Estimation of flow-wetted surface areas is essential in determining the importance of matrix diffusion and surface sorption processes for radionuclide release calculations. The Rn calculation technique shows promise in helping narrow the

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  20. Ground-penetrating radar investigations conducted in the 100 areas, Hanford Site: Fiscal Year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During Fiscal Year 1992, the Geophysics Group conducted forty- five Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys in the 100 Areas (Figure 1) - Objectives for the investigations varied, from locating cribs, trenches and septic systems to helping site boreholes. The results of each investigation were delivered to clients in the form of a map that summarized the interpretation of a given site. No formal reports were prepared. The purpose of this document is to show where and why each of the surveys was conducted. The data and interpretation of each survey are available by contacting the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Geophysics Group. A map showing the location and basic parameters of each survey can be found in the Appendices of this report

  1. Construction management at the SP-100 ground engineering system test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, G.P.; Wilson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Contractors under the U.S. Department of Energy management have implemented a comprehensive approach to the management of design and construction of the complex facility modifications at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site on the Hanford Reservation. The SP-100 Test Site employs a multi-organizational integrated management approach with clearly defined responsibilities to assure success. This approach allows for thorough planning and analysis before the project kick off, thus minimizing the number and magnitude of problems which arise during the course of the project. When combined with a comprehensive cost and schedule/project management reporting system the problems which do occur are recognized early enough to assure timely intervention and resolution

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water

  5. Microzonation and site-specific ground motion modelling for Delhi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-11-01

    Delhi - the capital of India - lies on a severe earthquake hazard threats not only from the local earthquakes but also from Himalayan events just 200-250 km apart. The seismic ground motion in a part of Delhi City is computed with a hybrid technique based (on the based) on the modal summation and the finite difference scheme for site-specific strong ground motion modelling. Complete realistic SH and P-SV wave seismograms are computed along two geological cross-sections, (1) North-South, from Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) to Sewanagar and (2) East- West, from Tilak Bridge to Punjabi Bagh. Two real earthquake sources of July 15, 1720 (MMI=IX, M=7.4) and August 27, 1960 (M=6.0) have been used in the modelling. The response spectra ratio (RSR), i.e. the response spectra computed from the signals synthesized along the laterally varying section normalized by the response spectra computed from the corresponding signals, synthesized for the bedrock reference regional model, have been determined. As expected, the sedimentary cover causes an increase of the signal amplitude particularly in the radial and transverse components. To further check the site-effects, we reversed the source location to the other side of the cross-section and re-computed the site amplifications. There are only a few sites where a large amplification is invariant with respect to the two source locations considered. The RSR ranges between 5 to 10 in the frequency range from 2.8 to 3.7 Hz, for the radial and transverse components of motion along the NS cross-section. Along the EW cross-section RSR varies between 3.5 to 7.5 in the frequency range from 3.5 to 4.1 Hz. The amplification of the vertical component is large at high frequency (>4 Hz) whereas it is negligible in lower frequency range. (author)

  6. Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Scenario at the 2008 Olympic Games Sites, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Rohrbach, E. A.; Chen, Q.; Chen, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Historic earthquake record indicates mediate to strong earthquakes have been frequently hit greater Beijing metropolitan area where is going to host the 2008 summer Olympic Games. For the readiness preparation of emergency response to the earthquake shaking for a mega event in a mega city like Beijing in summer 2008, this paper tries to construct the strong ground motion scenario at a number of gymnasium sites for the 2008 Olympic Games. During the last 500 years (the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in which the historic earthquake record are thorough and complete, there are at least 12 earthquake events with the maximum intensity of VI or greater occurred within 100 km radius centered at the Tiananmen Square, the center of Beijing City. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation and surface strong ground motion is carried out by the pseudospectral time domain methods with viscoelastic material properties. To improve the modeling efficiency and accuracy, a multi-scale approach is adapted: the seismic wave propagation originated from an earthquake rupture source is first simulated by a model with larger physical domain with coarser grids. Then the wavefield at a given plane is taken as the source input for the small-scale, fine grid model for the strong ground motion study at the sites. The earthquake source rupture scenario is based on two particular historic earthquake events: One is the Great 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu Earthquake (M~8, Maximum Intensity XI at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center)) whose epicenter is about 60 km ENE of the city center. The other one is the 1730 Haidian Earthquake (M~6, Maximum Intensity IX at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center) with the epicentral distance less than 20 km away from the city center in the NW Haidian District. The exist of the thick Tertiary-Quaternary sediments (maximum thickness ~ 2 km) in Beijing area plays a critical role on estimating the surface ground motion at the Olympic Games sites, which

  7. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  9. External quality control in ground-water sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Juracich, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, external Quality Control (QC) for ground-water monitoring is extensive and has included routine submittal of intra- and interlaboratory duplicate samples, blind samples, and several kinds of blank samples. Examination of the resulting QC data for nine of the constituents found in ground water at the Hanford Site shows that the quality of analysis has generally been within the expectations of precision and accuracy that have been established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The constituents subjected to review were nitrate, chromium, sodium, fluoride, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, ammonium, trichloroethylene, and cyanide. Of these, the fluoride measurements were notable exceptions and were poor by EPA standards. The review has shown that interlaboratory analysis of duplicate samples yields the most useful QC data for evaluating laboratory performance in determining commonly encountered constituents. For rarely encountered constituents, interlaboratory comparisons may be augmented with blind samples (synthetic samples of known composition). Intralaboratory comparisons, blanks, and spikes should be generally restricted to studies of suspected or known sample contamination and to studies of the adequacy of sampling and analytical procedures

  10. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations in the archeological site of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Paglia, Luca; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; De Nigris, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The "Major Project Pompeii" (MPP) is a great collective commitment of different institututions and people to set about solving the serious problem of conservation of the largest archeological sites in the world. The ancient city of Pompeii with its 66 hectares, 44 of which are excaveted, is divided into 9 regiones (district), subdivided in 118 insulae (blocks) and almost 1500 domus (houses), and is Unesco site since 1996. The Italian Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and Finmeccanica Group have sealed an agreement whereby the Finmeccanica Group will donate innovative technologies and services for monitoring and protecting the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the Italian Institute for Environment Protection and Research (ISPRA) - Geological Survey of Italy, was also involved to support the ground based analysis and interpretation of the measurements provided by the industrial team, in order to promote an interdisciplinary approach. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on their interpretation. The satellite monitoring service is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-Geos proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry method characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artifacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses showed that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. By means of the COSMO-SkyMed PSP SAR interferometry processing, a historical analysis of the ground and structure deformations occurred over the entire archaeological site of Pompeii in the

  11. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  16. Ground motion for the design basis earthquake at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina based on a deterministic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Silva, W.J.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ground motion assessments are presented for evaluation of the seismic safety of K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Two earthquake sources were identified as the most significant to seismic hazard at the site, a M 7.5 earthquake occurring at Charleston, South Carolina, and a M 5 event occurring in the site vicinity. These events control the low frequency and high frequency portions of the spectrum, respectively. Three major issues were identified in the assessment of ground motions for the Savannah River site; specification of the appropriate stress drop for the Charleston source earthquake, specification of the appropriate levels of soil damping at large depths for site response analyses, and the appropriateness of western US recordings for specification of ground motions in the eastern US

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  19. Assessment of acid mine drainage remediation schemes on ground water flow regimes at a reclaimed mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabr, M.A.; Bowders, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water modeling and a field monitoring program were conducted for a 35-acre reclaimed surface mine site that continues to produce acid mine drainage (AMD). The modeling effort was focused on predicting the effectiveness of various remedial measures implemented at the site for the abatement of AMD on predicting the effectiveness of various remedial measures implemented at the site for the abatement of AMD production. The field work included surface surveys and monitoring of ground water levels with time, seepage areas, and sedimentation ponds located on the site. The surveys provided the physical and topographic characteristics of the site. Pump tests conducted at the site provided general hydraulic conductivities (k) for two major areas of the site; undisturbed area (k ≅ 2.9 x 10 -5 ft/s) and disturbed area (k ≅ 3.3 x 10 -4 ft/s to 2.0 x 10 -3 ft/s). The monitored ground water data indicated rapid change in ground water levels during recharge events. Such behavior is indicative of flow regime that is dominated by fracture flow. Modeling of an approximately 700 ft by 1,500 ft area of the site was achieved using the US GS code MODFLOW, and ground water field measurements were used to calibrate the model. A hydraulic conductivity of about 1.15 x 10 -3 ft/s was estimated for the undisturbed area and 1.15 x 10 -2 ft/s for the reclaimed area. Remedial measures for diverting the ground water away from the areas of spoil included the use of a subsurface seepage cutoff wall and discrete sealing techniques. Modeling results indicated that the most effective remedial technique for this site is the use of a subsurface seepage cutoff wall installed at the interface (highwall) between the disturbed and undisturbed zones. Using this scheme caused a dewatering effect in the reclaimed area and therefore reduction in the volume of the AMD generated at the site

  20. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps

  1. On Truth and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hjort Bundgaard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article has two main currents. First, it argues that an affinity or similarity can be identified between the philosophy of Gianni Vattimo (the so-called “Weak Thinking” and the “Discourse Theory” of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The two theorizations are engaged with related problems, but have conceptualized them differently; they share central insights, but understand them with different vocabularies. The article furthermore illuminates as regards what this affinity consists in, and it discusses the differences and similarities between the two theoretical positions. The second current of the article takes the ‘postmodern’ philosophical problems of anti-foundationalism and nihilism as its point of departure. It raises the questions of: 1 how it is possible at the same time to take the critique of universality and objectivity seriously and still believe in the value of ethics and science; and, 2 how we are to understand emancipation if there is no necessary relationship between truth and freedom. The article investigates the status, meaning and interconnection of the categories of truth, knowledge, ethics, politics and emancipation in the light of the absence of metaphysical first principles. The article concludes that: A faith can constitute a “weak foundation” of knowledge and ethics; and, B nihilism can be combined with the political and ethical ambitions of universal human emancipation and radical democracy.

  2. A system to test the ground surface conditions of construction sites--for safe and efficient work without physical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningsveld, Ernst; van der Grinten, Maarten; van der Molen, Henk; Krause, Frank

    2005-07-01

    Ground surface conditions on construction sites have an important influence on the health and safety of workers and their productivity. The development of an expert-based "working conditions evaluation" system is described, intended to assist site managers in recognising unsatisfactory ground conditions and remedying these. The system was evaluated in the period 2002-2003. The evaluation shows that companies recognize poor soil/ground conditions as problematic, but are not aware of the specific physical workload hazards. The developed methods allow assessment of the ground surface quality and selection of appropriate measures for improvement. However, barriers exist at present to wide implementation of the system across the industry. Most significant of these is that responsibility for a site's condition is not clearly located within contracting arrangements, nor is it a topic of serious negotiation.

  3. Simulation of ground water contamination by tritium: Application to a Moroccan Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassoud, D.; Soufi, I.; Nacir, B.; Ziagos, J.; Demir, Z.; Hajjani, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive element. Its movement in the environment depends on the chemical forms that it takes. Tritiated water is one of this forms. The infiltration of tritiated water can causes contamination of the environment and the underground water. In this context, we have taken into account a waste contaminated by Tritium and stored in the surface of the soil. We studied the impact of an infiltration of a unit activity of this radioelement in the Moroccan site of Maamora localized in the Rharb region. The principal objective of the work presented in this paper is to give necessary information for the site environmental surveillance program establishment. The assessment is based on the characteristics of the site considered. It is carried out using the methodology taken into account in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the pollutant transport simulation in the unsaturated zone (between the soil and underground water). This methodology is based on the mathematical model called NUFT[1,2] witch is a unified suite of multiphase, multicomponent models for numerical solution of non-isothermal flow and transport in porous media with application to subsurface contaminant transport problems. NUFT have been developed in LLNL (Livermore-USA). Considering a quantity of one Curie of Tritium and considering the assumptions of impact assessments of the radioactivity on the Maamora ground water, the concentration of this radionuclide in water, will be lower than 0,4% of the acceptable Tritium limit in water. Taking in to account the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of the site studied and in the basis of the site radiological baseline, the environmental impact of the tritium infiltration into the underground water is negligible for the case studied

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  6. Ground-Penetrating Radar Prospecting in the Peinan Archaeological Site, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Peinan archaeological site is the largest prehistoric village in Taiwan. Only small-scale pits are allowed for research purposes because the Peinan site is protected by the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act. Careful selection of the pit locations is crucial for future archaeological research at this site. In this study, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR survey was applied near the stone pillar to understand the GPR signatures of the subsurface remains. Seven GPR signatures were categorized based on the radar characters shown on the GPR image. A detailed GPR survey with dense parallel survey lines was subsequently conducted in the area of northern extent of the onsite exhibition to map the subsurface ancient buildings. The results were verified by two test pits, which indicate that the distribution of the subsurface building structures can be well recognized from GPR depth slices. It will be very helpful for setting proper pits priorities for future archaeological research, and for making proper design of the new onsite exhibition.

  7. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report

  8. RATES OF IRON OXIDATION AND ARSENIC SORPTION DURING GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER MIXING AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a pond at a hazardous waste site is controlled, in part, by the rate of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact...

  9. Acoustic-Seismic Coupling in Porous Ground - Measurements and Analysis for On-Site-Inspection Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Gorschlüter, Felix; Altmann, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    During on-site inspections (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) a local seismic network can be installed to measure seismic aftershock signals of an assumed underground nuclear explosion. These signals are caused by relaxation processes in and near the cavity created by the explosion and when detected can lead to a localisation of the cavity. This localisation is necessary to take gas samples from the ground which are analysed for radioactive noble gas isotopes to confirm or dismiss the suspicion of a nuclear test. The aftershock signals are of very low magnitude so they can be masked by different sources, in particular periodic disturbances caused by vehicles and aircraft in the inspection area. Vehicles and aircraft (mainly helicopters) will be used for the inspection activities themselves, e.g. for overhead imagery or magnetic-anomaly sensing. While vehicles in contact with the ground can excite soil vibrations directly, aircraft and vehicles alike emit acoustic waves which excite soil vibrations when hitting the ground. These disturbing signals are of periodic nature while the seismic aftershock signals are pulse-shaped, so their separation is possible. The understanding of the coupling of acoustic waves to the ground is yet incomplete, a better understanding is necessary to improve the performance of an OSI, e.g. to address potential consequences for the sensor placement, the helicopter trajectories etc. In a project funded by the Young Scientist Research Award of the CTBTO to one of us (ML), we investigated the acoustic-seismic coupling of airborne signals of jet aircraft and artificially induced ones by a speaker. During a measurement campaign several acoustic and seismic sensors were placed below the take-off trajectory of an airport at 4 km distance. Therefore taking off and landing jet aircraft passed nearly straightly above the setup. Microphones were placed close to the ground to record the sound pressure of incident

  10. Aerosol Optical Properties at the Ground Sites during the 2010 CARES Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Harworth, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary results from the ground sites at the 2010 CARES field campaign (T0 near Sacramento, CA and T1 near Cool, CA) will be presented. A number of aerosol optical properties were measured at high time resolution for the four week study period using custom instruments. The aerosol extinction coefficient was measured at T0 using a cavity ring-down transmissometer (CRDT) at two wavelengths (532 and 1064 nm) and the aerosol scattering coefficient was measured at 532 nm using a Radiance Research M903 nephelometer. At T1, a new CRDT instrument was deployed that measured the extinction coefficient at three wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm) for sub-10 μm (nominal) and sub-2.5 μm aerosols at ambient, elevated, and reduced relative humidity. A new type of custom nephelometer that measures the aerosol scattering coefficient at 532 nm using an array detector was also deployed at T1.

  11. The significance of natural ground-water recharge in site selection for mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Milling operations throughout the world have created vast amounts of waste by-products, or tailings, which are often disposed on the land surface. The wastes may be disposed behind dams, on untreated ground, or on compacted clay or synthetic liners of impoundments and trenches. Often one of the principle concerns of environmental regulatory agencies is whether seepage from the waste pile could move through the vadose zone to the water table and possibly contaminate an aquifer. The seepage may be generated by the drainage of liquids initially deposited along with the tailings or by infiltrating meteoric water which leaches soluted from the tailings. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the commonly held assumptions regarding storage of seepage wastes in the unsaturated zone. The significance of recent studies of water movement in dry climates which pertain to tailings site selection are presented

  12. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  13. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area

  14. Comparison of equivalent linear and non linear methods on ground response analysis: case study at West Bangka site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Rudi Iswanto; Eric Yee

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of identifying NPP sites, site surveys are performed in West Bangka (WB), Bangka-Belitung Island Province. Ground response analysis of a potential site has been carried out using peak strain profiles and peak ground acceleration. The objective of this research is to compare Equivalent Linear (EQL) and Non Linear (NL) methods of ground response analysis on the selected NPP site (West Bangka) using Deep Soil software. Equivalent linear method is widely used because requires soil data in simple way and short time of computational process. On the other hand, non linear method is capable of representing the actual soil behaviour by considering non linear soil parameter. The results showed that EQL method has similar trends to NL method. At surface layer, the acceleration values for EQL and NL methods are resulted as 0.425 g and 0.375 g respectively. NL method is more reliable in capturing higher frequencies of spectral acceleration compared to EQL method. (author)

  15. Ground penetrating radar and direct current resistivity evaluation of the desiccation test cap, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a variety of waste units that may be temporarily or permanently stabilized by closure using an impermeable cover to prevent groundwater infiltration. The placement of an engineered kaolin clay layer over a waste unit is an accepted and economical technique for providing an impermeable cover but the long term stability and integrity of the clay in non-arid conditions is unknown. A simulated kaolin cap has been constructed at the SRA adjacent to the Burial Ground Complex. The cap is designed to evaluate the effects of desiccation on clay integrity, therefore half of the cap is covered with native soil to prevent drying, while the remainder of the cap is exposed. Measurements of the continuing impermeability of a clay cap are difficult because intrusive techniques may locally compromise the structure. Point measurements made to evaluate clay integrity, such as those from grid sampling or coring and made through a soil cover, may miss cracks, joints or fissures, and may not allow for mapping of the lateral extent of elongate features. Because of these problems, a non-invasive technique is needed to map clay integrity, below a soil or vegetation cover, which is capable of moderate to rapid investigation speeds. Two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, direct current resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been successful at the SRS in geologically mapping shallow subsurface clay layers. The applicability of each technique in detecting the clay layer in the desiccation test cap and associated anomalies was investigated

  16. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  17. Site-specific strong ground motion prediction using 2.5-D modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, J. P.

    2001-08-01

    An algorithm was developed using the 2.5-D elastodynamic wave equation, based on the displacement-stress relation. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5-D simulation is that the 3-D radiation pattern can be generated using double-couple point shear-dislocation sources in the 2-D numerical grid. A parsimonious staggered grid scheme was adopted instead of the standard staggered grid scheme, since this is the only scheme suitable for computing the dislocation. This new 2.5-D numerical modelling avoids the extensive computational cost of 3-D modelling. The significance of this exercise is that it makes it possible to simulate the strong ground motion (SGM), taking into account the energy released, 3-D radiation pattern, path effects and local site conditions at any location around the epicentre. The slowness vector (py) was used in the supersonic region for each layer, so that all the components of the inertia coefficient are positive. The double-couple point shear-dislocation source was implemented in the numerical grid using the moment tensor components as the body-force couples. The moment per unit volume was used in both the 3-D and 2.5-D modelling. A good agreement in the 3-D and 2.5-D responses for different grid sizes was obtained when the moment per unit volume was further reduced by a factor equal to the finite-difference grid size in the case of the 2.5-D modelling. The components of the radiation pattern were computed in the xz-plane using 3-D and 2.5-D algorithms for various focal mechanisms, and the results were in good agreement. A comparative study of the amplitude behaviour of the 3-D and 2.5-D wavefronts in a layered medium reveals the spatial and temporal damped nature of the 2.5-D elastodynamic wave equation. 3-D and 2.5-D simulated responses at a site using a different strike direction reveal that strong ground motion (SGM) can be predicted just by rotating the strike of the fault counter-clockwise by the same amount as the azimuth of

  18. Seismic ground motion characteristics in the Bucharest area: source and site effects contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecu, B.; Popa, M.; Radulian, M.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of source vs. site effects on the seismic ground motion in Bucharest is controversial as the previous studies showed. The fundamental period of resonance for the sedimentary cover is emphasized by ambient noise and earthquake measurements, if the spectral ratio method (Nakamura, 1989) is applied (Bonjer et al., 1989). On the other hand, the numerical simulations (Moldoveanu et al., 2000.) and acceleration spectra analysis (Sandi et al., 2001) brought into the light the determinant role of the source effects. We considered all the available instrumental data related to Vrancea earthquakes recorded in Bucharest area to find how the source and site properties control the peak ground motion peculiarities. Our main results are summarized as follows: 1. The resonant period of oscillation, related to the shallow sediment layer, is practically present in all the H/V spectral ratios, no matter we consider ambient noise or earthquakes of any size. This argues in favor of the crucial role played by the sedimentary cover and proves that the ratio method is reasonably removing the source effects. However, the absolute spectra are completely different for earthquakes below and above magnitude 7, namely amplitudes in the range of 1-2 s periods are negligible in the first case, and predominant in the second one. It looks like the resonant amplification by the sedimentary cover becomes effective only for the largest earthquakes (M > 7), when the source radiation coincides with the fundamental resonance range. We conclude that the damage in Bucharest is dramatically amplified when the earthquake size is above a critical value (M ≅ 7); 2. Our analysis shows a rather weak variability of the peak motion values and spectral amplitudes over the study area, in agreement with the relatively small variability of the shallow structure topography. (authors)

  19. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  20. Twardowski On Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Simons

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Of those students of Franz Brentano who went on to become professional philosophers, Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938 is much less well-known than his older contemporaries Edmund Husserl and Alexius Meinong. Yet in terms of the importance of his contribution to the history of philosophy, he ranks among Brentano’s students behind at most those two, possibly only behind Husserl. The chief contribution of Twardowski to global philosophy came indirectly, through the influence of his theory of truth on his students, and they on their students, and so on. The most important of these grandstudents is one whom Twardowski presumably knew but never taught, and whose adopted name is obtained by deleting four letters from his own: Tarski.

  1. Climate: 15 inconvenient truths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, Istvan E.; Furfari, Samuel; Masson, Henri; Preat, Alain; Debeil, Anne; Delory, Ludovic; Godefridi, Drieu; Myren, Lars; Ripa di Meana, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Proposed by professionals of various disciplines, this book is considered as the bible of climate sceptics. It proposes a synthesis of arguments which deny prevailing views in the domain of climate. The authors show how, since fifteen years, reality has systematically denied projections made by the IPCC and its numerous political relays and media coverage. A first objective is therefore to unlatch the debate on the climate issue in front of a systematic practice of monopolization of truth at the expense of an authentic scientific approach, and to restore a democratic debate. A second objective is to put into question again the IPCC scientific character, scientific views which are at the heart of the last report published by the IPCC, and the political, media and economic reception of IPCC reports

  2. Davidson, Dualism, and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Happy accidents happen even in philosophy. Sometimes our arguments yield insights despite missing their target, though when they do others can often spot it more easily. Consider the work of Donald Davidson. Few did more to explore connections among mind, language, and world. Now that we have critical distance from his views, however, we can see that Davidson’s accomplishments are not quite what they seem. First, while Davidson attacked the dualism of conceptual scheme and empirical content, he in fact illustrated a way to hold it. Second, while Davidson used the principle of charity to argue against the dualism, his argument in effect treats the principle as constitutive of a conceptual scheme. And third, while Davidson asserted that he cannot define what truth ultimately is—and while I do not disagree—his work nonetheless allows us to saymore about truth than Davidson himself does. I aim to establish these three claims. Doing so enriches our understanding of issues central to the history of philosophy concerning how, if at all, to divvy up the mental or linguistic contribution, and the worldly contribution, to knowledge. As we see below, Davidson was right in taking his work to be one stage of a dialectic begun by Immanuel Kant.1 He was just wrong about what that stage is. Reconsidering Davidson’s views also moves the current debate forward, as they reveal a previously unrecognized yet intuitive notion of truth—even if Davidson himself remained largely unaware of it. We begin however with scheme/content dualism and Davidson’s argument against it.

  3. An existential theory of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Cannon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to present a simplified account of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers - namely, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers, and Marcel. It is designed to serve as a supplement to conventional textbook treatments of the nature of truth, which typically ignore the contributions that existentialists have made to the topic. An existential theory of truth stresses the epistemological (not ontological indeterminateness of meaning and truth, apart from one’s personal participation in determining them. Contrary to superficial interpretations, this theory does not do away either with a transcendent reality or with objectivity. What is rejected is anything that would circumvent the necessary task of participating, oneself, in the epistemological determination of truth.

  4. An Iterative Approach to Ground Penetrating Radar at the Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Skaggs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR surveys provide distinct advantages for archaeological prospection in ancient, complex, urban Maya sites, particularly where dense foliage or modern debris may preclude other remote sensing or geophysical techniques. Unidirectional GPR surveys using a 500 MHz shielded antenna were performed at the Middle Preclassic Maya site of Pacbitun, Belize. The survey in 2012 identified numerous linear and circular anomalies between 1 m and 2 m deep. Based on these anomalies, one 1 m × 4 m unit and three smaller units were excavated in 2013. These test units revealed a curved plaster surface not previously found at Pacbitun. Post-excavation, GPR data were reprocessed to best match the true nature of excavated features. Additional GPR surveys oriented perpendicular to the original survey confirmed previously detected anomalies and identified new anomalies. The excavations provided information on the sediment layers in the survey area, which allowed better identification of weak radar reflections of the surfaces of a burnt, Middle Preclassic temple in the northern end of the survey area. Additional excavations of the area in 2014 and 2015 revealed it to be a large square structure, which was named El Quemado.

  5. Interpretation of Ground Penetrating Radar data at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Mitchell, T.H.; Kunk, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is being used extensively during characterization and remediation of chemical and radioactive waste sites at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Time and money for GPR investigations are often not included during the planning and budgeting phase. Therefore GPR investigations must be inexpensive and quick to minimize impact on already established budgets and schedules. An approach to survey design, data collection, and interpretation has been developed which emphasizes speed and budget with minimal impact on the integrity of the interpretation or quality of the data. The following simple rules of thumb can be applied: (1) Assemble as much pre-survey information as possible, (2) Clearly define survey objectives prior to designing the survey and determine which combination of geophysical methods will best meet the objectives, (3) Continuously communicate with the client, before, during and after the investigation, (4) Only experienced GPR interpreters should acquire the field data, (5) Use real-time monitoring of the data to determine where and how much data to collect and assist in the interpretation, (6) Always ``error`` in favor of collecting too much data, (7) Surveys should have closely spaced (preferably 5 feet, no more than 10 feet), orthogonal profiles, (8) When possible, pull the antenna by hand.

  6. Interpretation of Ground Penetrating Radar data at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Mitchell, T.H.; Kunk, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is being used extensively during characterization and remediation of chemical and radioactive waste sites at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Time and money for GPR investigations are often not included during the planning and budgeting phase. Therefore GPR investigations must be inexpensive and quick to minimize impact on already established budgets and schedules. An approach to survey design, data collection, and interpretation has been developed which emphasizes speed and budget with minimal impact on the integrity of the interpretation or quality of the data. The following simple rules of thumb can be applied: (1) Assemble as much pre-survey information as possible, (2) Clearly define survey objectives prior to designing the survey and determine which combination of geophysical methods will best meet the objectives, (3) Continuously communicate with the client, before, during and after the investigation, (4) Only experienced GPR interpreters should acquire the field data, (5) Use real-time monitoring of the data to determine where and how much data to collect and assist in the interpretation, (6) Always ''error'' in favor of collecting too much data, (7) Surveys should have closely spaced (preferably 5 feet, no more than 10 feet), orthogonal profiles, (8) When possible, pull the antenna by hand

  7. About condition of soil ground at locations of the former Azgir nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.; Ermatov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Soil condition after underground nuclear explosions at locations of the test sites is considered. The region is situated in the zone of northern deserts and characterized by prevalence of greyish-brown soils in conditions of sharply continental climate and presence of salt in soil-formative complex including tertiary clays, loess-like loam, loam sands and sands. There are small quantity of humus in such soil. During investigation of soil characteristics and ability of soil particles to form conglomerates, possessing of different properties, it is necessary to know both element and phase composition, determining, in the most extent, such physical and mechanical macro-characteristics as: density, stickiness, air and water penetrability, solubility, chemical resistance, granulometric set and others. Phase composition of soil samples can be, to a sufficient extent, determined by the X-ray diffractometry methods using ordinary X-ray experimental facilities. Phase composition of soil includes gypsum, quartz, calcium, potash feldspar hematite, kaolin, peach and mica in different quantities. Data on element composition of soil samples were obtained from the territory of technological locations of test site using the method of X-ray-fluorescent analysis. Granulometric composition of soil ground has been investigated using the methods of dry sieving and wet sieving for determination of radionuclide distribution in different fractions of soil particles. By the method of the dry sieving of soil ground samples there are taken place a sticking the small together of fine fractions and an adhesion of stuck-together particles to more large ones. Therefore, fine fractions cannot be separate completely at dry sieving. As distinct from the dry sieving an use of water jet in the sieving allows to overcome defects of the dry method and, by a sufficiently effective separation of granulometric fractions, to obtain more precise results of investigations of granulometric

  8. Evaluation of site effects on ground motions based on equivalent linear site response analysis and liquefaction potential in Chennai, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampally, Subhadra; Padhy, Simanchal; Trupti, S.; Prabhakar Prasad, P.; Seshunarayana, T.

    2018-05-01

    We study local site effects with detailed geotechnical and geophysical site characterization to evaluate the site-specific seismic hazard for the seismic microzonation of the Chennai city in South India. A Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) of magnitude 6.0 is considered based on the available seismotectonic and geological information of the study area. We synthesized strong ground motion records for this target event using stochastic finite-fault technique, based on a dynamic corner frequency approach, at different sites in the city, with the model parameters for the source, site, and path (attenuation) most appropriately selected for this region. We tested the influence of several model parameters on the characteristics of ground motion through simulations and found that stress drop largely influences both the amplitude and frequency of ground motion. To minimize its influence, we estimated stress drop after finite bandwidth correction, as expected from an M6 earthquake in Indian peninsula shield for accurately predicting the level of ground motion. Estimates of shear wave velocity averaged over the top 30 m of soil (V S30) are obtained from multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) at 210 sites at depths of 30 to 60 m below the ground surface. Using these V S30 values, along with the available geotechnical information and synthetic ground motion database obtained, equivalent linear one-dimensional site response analysis that approximates the nonlinear soil behavior within the linear analysis framework was performed using the computer program SHAKE2000. Fundamental natural frequency, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at surface and rock levels, response spectrum at surface level for different damping coefficients, and amplification factors are presented at different sites of the city. Liquefaction study was done based on the V S30 and PGA values obtained. The major findings suggest show that the northeast part of the city is characterized by (i) low V S30 values

  9. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at the New Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  11. V S30, slope, H 800 and f 0: performance of various site-condition proxies in reducing ground-motion aleatory variability and predicting nonlinear site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras, Boumédiène; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Cotton, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ability of various site-condition proxies (SCPs) to reduce ground-motion aleatory variability and evaluate how SCPs capture nonlinearity site effects. The SCPs used here are time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the top 30 m ( V S30), the topographical slope (slope), the fundamental resonance frequency ( f 0) and the depth beyond which V s exceeds 800 m/s ( H 800). We considered first the performance of each SCP taken alone and then the combined performance of the 6 SCP pairs [ V S30- f 0], [ V S30- H 800], [ f 0-slope], [ H 800-slope], [ V S30-slope] and [ f 0- H 800]. This analysis is performed using a neural network approach including a random effect applied on a KiK-net subset for derivation of ground-motion prediction equations setting the relationship between various ground-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and pseudo-spectral acceleration PSA ( T), and M w, R JB, focal depth and SCPs. While the choice of SCP is found to have almost no impact on the median ground-motion prediction, it does impact the level of aleatory uncertainty. V S30 is found to perform the best of single proxies at short periods ( T < 0.6 s), while f 0 and H 800 perform better at longer periods; considering SCP pairs leads to significant improvements, with particular emphasis on [ V S30- H 800] and [ f 0-slope] pairs. The results also indicate significant nonlinearity on the site terms for soft sites and that the most relevant loading parameter for characterising nonlinear site response is the "stiff" spectral ordinate at the considered period.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Shy and Ticklish Truths as Species of Scientific and Artistic Perception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recognize a 'gay science' (Nietzsche) not as an eccentric construction of merely poetic insights and expressions, but as a necessary part of the fundamentals of knowledge. It is a truth of the human condition that its truths are grounded in a personal embodiment of individuality, ontogeny, momentariness and situationality.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  15. Combining ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction for industrial site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Saey, Timothy; De Smedt, Philippe; Delefortrie, Samuël; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    Industrial sites pose specific challenges to the conventional way of characterizing soil and groundwater properties through borehole drilling and well monitoring. The subsurface of old industrial sites typically exhibits a large heterogeneity resulting from various anthropogenic interventions, such as the dumping of construction and demolition debris and industrial waste. Also larger buried structures such as foundations, utility infrastructure and underground storage tanks are frequently present. Spills and leaks from industrial activities and leaching of buried waste may have caused additional soil and groundwater contamination. Trying to characterize such a spatially heterogeneous medium with a limited number of localized observations is often problematic. The deployment of mobile proximal soil sensors may be a useful tool to fill up the gaps in between the conventional observations, as these enable measuring soil properties in a non-destructive way. However, because the output of most soil sensors is affected by more than one soil property, the application of only one sensor is generally insufficient to discriminate between all contributing factors. To test a multi-sensor approach, we selected a study area which was part of a former manufactured gas plant site located in one of the seaport areas of Belgium. It has a surface area of 3400 m² and was the location of a phosphate production unit that was demolished at the end of the 1980s. Considering the long and complex history of the site we expected to find a typical "industrial" soil. Furthermore, the studied area was located between buildings of the present industry, entailing additional practical challenges such as the presence of active utilities and aboveground obstacles. The area was surveyed using two proximal soil sensors based on two different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR), to image contrasts in dielectric permittivity, and electromagnetic induction (EMI), to measure the apparent

  16. Behavioral pragmatism: No place for reality and truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2000-01-01

    The current article begins by reviewing L. J. Hayes's claim that pragmatism relies on a correspondence-based truth criterion. To evaluate her claim, the concept of the observation sentence, proposed by the pragmatist philosopher W. V. Quine, is examined. The observation sentence appears to remove the issue of correspondence from Quine's pragmatist philosophy. Nevertheless, the issue of correspondence reemerges, as the problem of homology, when Quine appeals to agreement between or among observation sentences as the basis for truth. Quine also argues, however, that the problem of homology (i.e., correspondence) should be ignored on pragmatic grounds. Because the problem is simply ignored, but not resolved, there appears to be some substance to Hayes's claim that pragmatism relies ultimately on correspondence as a truth criterion. Behavioral pragmatism is then introduced to circumvent both Hayes's claim and Quine's implicit appeal to correspondence. Behavioral pragmatism avoids correspondence by appealing to the personal goals (i.e., the behavior) of the scientist or philosopher as the basis for establishing truth. One consequence of this approach, however, is that science and philosophy are robbed of any final or absolute objectives and thus may not be a satisfactory solution to philosophers. On balance, behavioral pragmatism avoids any appeal to correspondence-based truth, and thus it cannot be criticized for generating the same philosophical problems that have come to be associated with this truth criterion. PMID:22478346

  17. Characterization of Site for Installing Open Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. W.; Park, Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Yi, M. J.; Cha, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to understand hydrogeological properties of site where open loop ground source heat pump system will be installed and operated. Groundwater level and water temperature were hourly measured at the well developed for usage of open loop ground source heat pump system from 11 October 2013 to 8 January 2014. Groundwater was sampled in January and August 2013 and its chemical and isotopic compositions were analyzed. The bedrock of study area is the Jurassic granodiorite that mainly consists of quartz (27.9 to 46.8%), plagioclase (26.0 to 45.5%), and alkali feldspar (9.5 to 18.7%). The groundwater level ranged from 68.30 to 68.94 m (above mean sea level). Recharge rate was estimated using modified watertable fluctuation method and the recharge ratios was 9.1%. The water temperature ranged from 14.8 to 15.0oC. The vertical Increase rates of water temperature were 1.91 to 1.94/100 m. The water temperature showed the significant seasonal variation above 50 m depth, but had constant value below 50 m depth. Therefore, heat energy of the groundwater can be used securely in open loop ground source heat pump system. Electrical conductivity ranged from 120 to 320 µS/cm in dry season and from 133 to 310 µS/cm in wet season. The electrical conductivity gradually decreased with depth. In particular, electrical conductivity in approximately 30 m depth decreased dramatically (287 to 249 µS/cm) in wet season. The groundwater was Ca-HCO3 type. The concentrations of dissolved components did not show the vertically significant variations from 0 to 250 m depth. The δ18O and δD ranged from -9.5 to -9.4‰ and from -69 to -68‰. This work is supported by the New and Renewable Energy of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  18. Ground Motions Simulations and Site Effects in the Quito Basin (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courboulex, F.; Castro-Cruz, D.; Laurendeau, A.; Bonilla, L. F.; Bertrand, E.; Mercerat, D.; Alvarado, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The city of Quito (3M inhabitants), capital of Ecuador has been damaged several times in the past by large earthquakes. It is built on the hanging-wall of an active reverse fault, constituting a piggy-back basin. The deep structure of this basin and its seismic response remains badly known. We first use the recordings of 170 events on 18 accelerometers from the Quito permanent network and perform spectral ratio analysis. We find that the southern part of Quito shows strong site amplification at low frequency ( 0.35 Hz). Yet, high frequency ( 5 Hz) amplifications also exist, but exhibit a complex spatial variability. We then propose a new calibrated method based on empirical Green's functions (EGF) to simulate the ground motions due to a future earthquake in Quito. The idea is to use the results of a global database of source time functions (i.e., the SCARDEC database, Vallée and Douet, 2016; Courboulex et al., 2016) to define the average values and the variability of the stress-drop ratio parameter, which strongly affects the resulting simulations. We test the method on a Mw 7.8 event, similar in location and focal mechanism to the Pedernales earthquake that occurred on April 16th 2016 on the subduction zone. For this aim, we use the recordings of 6 aftershocks of magnitude 5.6 to 6.2 as EGF's. The predicted Fourier spectra, peak values and response spectra we obtain are in good agreement with real data from the 2016 event recorded on the Quito network. With the constraints we impose on stress-drop ratios, we expect that the simulated ground motions be representative of the variability of other Pedernales-type events that could occur in the future. Our results also well reproduce the low frequency site effects amplification in the south of the basin. This amplification could be particularly dangerous in the case of a mega subduction earthquake, like the one that struck Ecuador in 1906.

  19. Redefining Religious Truth as a Challenge for Philosophy of Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, P.H.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important features of contemporary Western societies is the rise of (religious) pluralism. Whereas (philosophical) theism used to serve as a common ground to discuss the truth-claims of religion, this approach seems to have lost much of its plausibility. What I want to argue in this

  20. Implications of next generation attenuation ground motion prediction equations for site coefficients used in earthquake resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Proposals are developed to update Tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published as American Society of Civil Engineers Structural Engineering Institute standard 7-10 (ASCE/SEI 7–10). The updates are mean next generation attenuation (NGA) site coefficients inferred directly from the four NGA ground motion prediction equations used to derive the maximum considered earthquake response maps adopted in ASCE/SEI 7–10. Proposals include the recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of (average shear velocity to 30-m depth). The NGA coefficients are shown to agree well with adopted site coefficients at low levels of input motion (0.1 g) and those observed from the Loma Prieta earthquake. For higher levels of input motion, the majority of the adopted values are within the 95% epistemic-uncertainty limits implied by the NGA estimates with the exceptions being the mid-period site coefficient, Fv, for site class D and the short-period coefficient, Fa, for site class C, both of which are slightly less than the corresponding 95% limit. The NGA data base shows that the median value  of 913 m/s for site class B is more typical than 760 m/s as a value to characterize firm to hard rock sites as the uniform ground condition for future maximum considered earthquake response ground motion estimates. Future updates of NGA ground motion prediction equations can be incorporated easily into future adjustments of adopted site coefficients using procedures presented herein. 

  1. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository

  2. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion

  3. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  4. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  5. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables

  6. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  7. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described

  8. Preparatory research to develop an operational method to calibrate airborne sensor data using a network of ground calibration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, E.J.; Smith, G.M.; Lawless, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an operational method to convert airborne spectral radiance data to reflectance using a number of well-characterized ground calibration sites located around the UK. The study is in three phases. First, a pilot study has been conducted at a disused airfield in southern England to test the feasibility of the open-quote empirical line close-quote method of sensor calibration. The second phase is developing methods to predict temporal changes in the bidirectional reflectance of ground calibration sites. The final phase of the project will look at methods to extend such calibrations spatially. This paper presents some results from the first phase of this study. The viability of the empirical line method of correction is shown to depend upon the use of ground targets whose in-band reflectance encompasses that of the targets of interest in the spectral band(s) concerned. The experimental design for the second phase of the study, in which methods to predict temporal trends in the bidirectional reflectance of these sites will be developed, is discussed. Finally, it is planned to develop an automated method of searching through Landsat TM data for the UK to identify a number of candidate ground calibration sites for which the model can be tested. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Characteristics of Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Observed by CALIOP and Ground Based Lidar at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Makoto; Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the relation between major tropical volcanic eruptions in the equatorial region and the stratospheric aerosol data, which have been collected by the ground based lidar observations at at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar site between 2004 and 2015 and the CALIOP observations in low latitude between 2006 and 2015. We found characteristic dynamic behavior of volcanic stratospheric aerosol layers over equatorial region.

  10. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V s30 , etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  11. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations applied to archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Trillo, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological sites and cultural heritage are considered as critical assets for the society, representing not only the history of region or a culture, but also contributing to create a common identity of people living in a certain region. In this view, it is becoming more and more urgent to preserve them from climate changes effect and in general from their degradation. These structures are usually just as precious as fragile: remote sensing technology can be useful to monitor these treasures. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on the methodology adopted and implemented in order to use the results operatively for conservation policies in a Italian archaeological site. The analysis is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-GEOS proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry technology characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artefacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses [Costantini et al. 2015] settled that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. Considering the limitations of all the interferometric techniques, in particular the fact that the measurement are along the line of sight (LOS) and the geometric distortions, in order to obtain the maximum information from interferometric analysis, both ascending and descending geometry have been used. The ascending analysis allows selecting measurements points over the top and, approximately, South-West part of the structures, while the descending one over the top and the South-East part of the structures. The interferometric techniques needs

  12. Peculiarities and opportunities of restoration of vegetation of experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plisak, R.P.; Plisak, S. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Geo-botanical researches at experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000. 26 ground and 87 air nuclear tests were conducted out at the territory in 1949-1962. It is found that for deluvial-proluvial plain: High level of radiation pollution of soils in the epicentre of nuclear explosions is limiting factor for vegetation rehabilitation. Under level of PED of γ-irradiation 14,000-16,000 μR/h vegetation restoration has not begun until now. Only single individuals of Artemisia frigida appear under PED of γ-irradiation 10,000-13,000 μR/h. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by annual-biennial weed species appear under PED of γ-irradiation 3,600-8,000 μR/h. Natural rehabilitation of vegetation occurs more intensively under PED of γ-irradiation of 60-200 μR/h. Vegetation aggregations close to initial zonal coenosis develop in these conditions. It is found that for tumulose: Vegetation restoration on the tops of hills starts with invasion of weed species. Plant aggregations with predominance of Caragana pumila, tyhedra distachya develop on accumulations of fine earth in cracks of mountain rocks. Lichens and mosses assimilate outcrops of mountain rocks. 2. Plant aggregations with predominance of Spiraea hypericifoia, Caragana pumila, Artemisia frigida develop on the upper parts of slopes of hills. Craters of nuclear explosions have not been assimilated by higher plants yet. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by Psathyrostachys juncea, Artemisia frigida appear in the lower parts of slopes of hills. Single individuals of Medicago falcata, Galium ruthenicum, Melilotus dentatus are found on sides of explosion craters. Vegetation rehabilitates slowly trenches on gentle slopes of hills. Following measures are necessary for intensification of the process of restoration of vegetation destroyed and damaged by nuclear explosions: To clean slopes of hills from numerous fragment of metallic and plastic

  13. Environmental status of algal mat sites located at the east coast of Saudi Arabia following the Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Thukair, A.

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques and ground truth verification were used to provide information on algal mat locations and damage intensity caused by the oil spill. Pre and post oil spill satellite images, ground truth assessment were compared for damage evaluation. Locations and sites status (heavily oiled, recovering, and no algal mats) were conveyed in maps. Recovered sites are found in Abu Ali and Tanajib areas. However, recovery seems to be slower in Abu Ali area as compared to Tanajib. Different types and formations of algal mats were found in both areas. This differentiation is more likely to be attributable to coastal topography and tide regimes

  14. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails

  15. A review and assessment of variable density ground water flow effects on plume formation at UMTRA project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A standard assumption when evaluating the migration of plumes in ground water is that the impacted ground water has the same density as the native ground water. Thus density is assumed to be constant, and does not influence plume migration. This assumption is valid only for water with relatively low total dissolved solids (TDS) or a low difference in TDS between water introduced from milling processes and native ground water. Analyses in the literature suggest that relatively minor density differences can significantly affect plume migration. Density differences as small as 0.3 percent are known to cause noticeable effects on the plume migration path. The primary effect of density on plume migration is deeper migration than would be expected in the arid environments typically present at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, where little or no natural recharge is available to drive the plume into the aquifer. It is also possible that at some UMTRA Project sites, a synergistic affect occurred during milling operations, where the mounding created by tailings drainage (which created a downward vertical gradient) and the density contrast between the process water and native ground water acted together, driving constituents deeper into the aquifer than either process would alone. Numerical experiments were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey saturated unsaturated transport (SUTRA) model. This is a finite-element model capable of simulating the effects of variable fluid density on ground water flow and solute transport. The simulated aquifer parameters generally are representative of the Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site where some of the highest TDS water from processing has been observed

  16. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-06-01

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  17. Large scale seismic test research at Hualien site in Taiwan. Results of site investigation and characterization of the foundation ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Toshiro; Kokusho, Takeharu; Nishi, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    An international joint research program called ''HLSST'' is under way. Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) is to be conducted to investigate Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) during large earthquakes in the field in Hualien, a high seismic region in Taiwan. A 1/4-scale model building was constructed on the excavated gravelly ground, and the backfill material of crushed stones was placed around the model plant. The model building and the foundation ground were extensively instrumented to monitor structure and ground response. To accurately evaluate SSI during earthquakes, geotechnical investigation and forced vibration test were performed during construction process namely before/after the base excavation, after the structure construction and after the backfilling. Main results are as follows. (1) The distribution of the mechanical properties of the gravelly soil are measured by various techniques including penetration tests and PS-logging and it found that the shear wave velocities (Vs) change clearly and it depends on changing overburden pressures during the construction process. (2) Measuring Vs in the surrounding soils, it found that the Vs is smaller than that at almost same depth in the farther location. Discussion is made further on the numerical soil model for SSI analysis. (author)

  18. Generation of Earthquake Ground Motion Considering Local Site Effects and Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Ancient Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Lee, J. S.; Yang, T. S.; Cho, J. R.; R, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    In order to establish a correct correlation between them, mechanical characteristics of the ancient structures need to be investigated. Since sedimentary basins are preferred dwelling sites in ancient times, it is necessary to perform SSI analysis to derive correct correlation between the damage and ground motion intensity. Contents of Project are as follows: (1) Generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. (2) Analysis of seismic response of sedimentary basin. (3) Soil-structure interaction analysis of ancient structures (4) Investigation of dynamic response characteristics of ancient structure considering soil-structure interaction effects. A procedure is presented for generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. The simulation method proposed by Boore is used to generate the outcropping rock motion. The free field motion at the soil site is obtained by a convolution analysis. And for the study of wood structures, a nonlinear SDOF model is developed. The effects of soil-structure interaction on the behavior of the wood structures are found to be very minor. But the response can be significantly affected due to the intensity and frequency contents of the input motion. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 31 figs. (author)

  19. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  20. Further development of the methodical instruments to calculate ground water movements at repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Clauser, C.; Fein, E.; Karpinski, P.; Storck, R.

    1990-06-01

    In addition to the subsequent requirements concerning the Konrad plan approval procedure, other ground water and propagation calculations were also made. All available programs were used. Simple one- and two-dimensional models were considered for which an analytical solution exists. In some cases such analytical solutions are only approximate under certain conditions. By calculating such simple problems, the programs used were tested and verified, and the use of those programs was reviewed and documented. In addition to the finite-difference program SWIFT and the finite-element program CFEST, two other ground water and propagation programs were applied: 1) Finite-difference program MOL, two-dimensional propagation program for ground water flow; 2) SUTRA, two-dimensional hybrid finite-element and integrated finite-difference model for ground water flow and radionuclide migration. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration

  2. The Truth of Sacred Scripture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jelonek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the history of contradiction between science and the Bible and how it was solved in Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Dei Verbum of the II Vatican Council. Since biblical truth was given to us “for the sake of our salvation,” and not in order to teach us natural science or history for their own sake, Sacred Scripture cannot be fairly judged to be in error when it sometimes presents historical or scientific truth in a less complete, less detailed, more popular, or more imprecise (i.e. merely approximate fashion than would be acceptable in modern texts dedicated formally to those disciplines.

  3. Electromagnetic survey of the K1070A burial ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Emery, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The K1070A burial ground, located at the K-25 Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, received chemical and radioactive wastes from the late 1940s until 1975. Analysis of water samples collected from nearby monitoring wells indicates that contamination is migrating offsite. In November 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) personnel collected high-resolution electrical terrain conductivity data at the K1070A burial ground. A Model EM31 terrain conductivity meter manufactured by Geonics Limited was used in conjunction with the ORNL-developed Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) to perform the survey. The purposeof the survey was to provide Environmental Restoration (ER) staff with a detailed map of the spatial variation of the apparent electrical conductivity of the shallow subsurface (upper 3 m) to assist them in siting future monitoring wells closer to the waste area without drilling into the buried waste

  4. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs

  5. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

  6. Monitoring ground deformation of cultural heritage sites using UAVs and geodetic techniques: the case study of Choirokoitia, JPI PROTHEGO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Danezis, Chris; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Lymperopoulou, Efstathia

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the integrated methods using UAVs and geodetic techniques to monitor ground deformation within the Choirokoitia UNESCO World Heritage Site in Cyprus. The Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia, occupied from the 7th to the 4th millennium B.C., is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the eastern Mediterranean. The study is conducted under the PROTHEGO (PROTection of European Cultural HEritage from GeO-hazards) project, which is a collaborative research project funded in the framework of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPICH) - Heritage Plus in 2015-2018 (www.prothego.eu) and through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. PROTHEGO aims to make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geo-hazards in areas of cultural heritage, and uses novel space technology based on radar interferometry to retrieve information on ground stability and motion in the 400+ UNESCO's World Heritage List monuments and sites of Europe. The field measurements collected at the Choirokoitia site will be later compared with SAR data to verify micro-movements in the area to monitor potential geo-hazards. The site is located on a steep hill, which makes it vulnerable to rock falls and landslides.

  7. Sensitivity of ground motion parameters to local site effects for areas characterised by a thick buried low-velocity layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Daniela; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Paolucci, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that earthquake damage at a particular site depends on the source, the path that the waves travel through and the local geology. The latter is capable of amplifying and changing the frequency content of the incoming seismic waves. In regions of sparse or no strong ground motion records, like Malta (Central Mediterranean), ground motion simulations are used to obtain parameters for purposes of seismic design and analysis. As an input to ground motion simulations, amplification functions related to the shallow subsurface are required. Shear-wave velocity profiles of several sites on the Maltese islands were obtained using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (H/V), the Extended Spatial Auto-Correlation (ESAC) technique and the Genetic Algorithm. The sites chosen were all characterised by a layer of Blue Clay, which can be up to 75 m thick, underlying the Upper Coralline Limestone, a fossiliferous coarse grained limestone. This situation gives rise to a velocity inversion. Available borehole data generally extends down till the top of the Blue Clay layer therefore the only way to check the validity of the modelled shear-wave velocity profile is through the thickness of the topmost layer. Surface wave methods are characterised by uncertainties related to the measurements and the model used for interpretation. Moreover the inversion procedure is also highly non-unique. Such uncertainties are not commonly included in site response analysis. Yet, the propagation of uncertainties from the extracted dispersion curves to inversion solutions can lead to significant differences in the simulations (Boaga et al., 2011). In this study, a series of sensitivity analyses will be presented with the aim of better identifying those stratigraphic properties which can perturb the ground motion simulation results. The stochastic one-dimensional site response analysis algorithm, Extended Source Simulation (EXSIM; Motazedian and Atkinson, 2005), was used to perform

  8. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  9. Soil Physical and Environmental Conditions Controlling Patterned-Ground Variability at a Continuous Permafrost Site, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    properties and principal component analysis indicate that the distribution of patterned ground depends primarily on soil texture, soil moisture and the winter ground thermal regime associated with snow cover. Mudboils and composite patterns (mudboils surrounded by small polygons) occupy well-drained areas...... composed of clay-rich aeolian sediments. Compared to mudboils, composite patterns show a sharper contrast in soil texture between barren centres and vegetated rims. Hummocks filled with organic materials develop on poorly drained lowlands associated with a shallow water table. Ice-wedge polygons...

  10. TRUTH AS DETERMINANT OF RELIGIOUS FAITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    engendered by either the myths of the religion or the historical personages. The truth we intend to .... personage and source of Islamic religion was an orphan boy Muhammad, born ... The Fundamental Truth about Some Religions of the World.

  11. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  12. Truths, lies, and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S; Walker, Skyler; Lindsey, Jenna

    2017-10-01

    Distribution of valuable research discoveries are needed for the continual advancement of patient care. Publication and subsequent reliance of false study results would be detrimental for patient care. Unfortunately, research misconduct may originate from many sources. While there is evidence of ongoing research misconduct in all it's forms, it is challenging to identify the actual occurrence of research misconduct, which is especially true for misconduct in clinical trials. Research misconduct is challenging to measure and there are few studies reporting the prevalence or underlying causes of research misconduct among biomedical researchers. Reported prevalence estimates of misconduct are probably underestimates, and range from 0.3% to 4.9%. There have been efforts to measure the prevalence of research misconduct; however, the relatively few published studies are not freely comparable because of varying characterizations of research misconduct and the methods used for data collection. There are some signs which may point to an increased possibility of research misconduct, however there is a need for continued self-policing by biomedical researchers. There are existing resources to assist in ensuring appropriate statistical methods and preventing other types of research fraud. These included the "Statistical Analyses and Methods in the Published Literature", also known as the SAMPL guidelines, which help scientists determine the appropriate method of reporting various statistical methods; the "Strengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies", or the STRATOS, which emphases on execution and interpretation of results; and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), which was created in 1997 to deliver guidance about publication ethics. COPE has a sequence of views and strategies grounded in the values of honesty and accuracy.

  13. Development of a three-dimensional ground-water model of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1995 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow was developed for the uppermost unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Development of the model is supported by the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is responsible for monitoring the sitewide movement of contaminants in ground water beneath the Hanford Site. Two objectives of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project are to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, and (2) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the Hanford Site through the ground-water pathway. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system are important tools for estimating future aquifer conditions and predicting the movement of contaminants through ground water. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project has supported development and maintenance of a two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer. This report describes upgrade of the two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional model. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional conceptual model that will be continually refined and updated as additional information becomes available. This report presents a description of the three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system and then discusses the cur-rent state of the three-dimensional numerical model

  14. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Karangrowo Site, Undaan District, Kudus Sub Province Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Subiantoro; Priyo Sularto; Slamet Sudarto

    2009-01-01

    Kudus is one of sub province in central Java with have the fresh water availability problem Condition of insufficiency 'Standard Water has been recognized in some part of regional area, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process; due the ground water trapped character is briny or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of prospect area fur exploiting of ground water. Referring to that problem ''Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN'' means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, geohydrology and sub surface geophysical characterize, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain that target, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo electrical 2-D image measurement Base on the result of analyze, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential aquifer that happened at layer of sand sedimentary, in form of lens trapped in impermeable layer of clay sediment The layer of aquifer pattern follows of Old River in North-South and East-West direction. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement GF. A 4-14, AB 4-11 and B4. Physical characterized of aquifer, resistivity 9-19 Ωm with charge ability 13-53 milliseconds. (author)

  15. Risk-based screening analysis of ground water contaminated by radionuclides introduced at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Andricevic, R.; Jacobson, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in the southwestern part of Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. Underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962 and ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. This concern prompted this examination of the potential health risk to these individuals from drinking the contaminated ground water either at a location on the NTS (assuming loss of institutional control after 100 y) or at one offsite (considering groundwater migration). For the purpose of this assessment, a representative mix of the radionuclides of importance and their concentrations in ground water beneath the NTS were identified from measurements of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater samples-of-opportunity collected at the NTS. Transport of radionuclide-contaminated ground water offsite was evaluated using a travel-time-transport approach. At both locations of interest, potential human-health risk was calculated for an individual ingesting radionuclide-contaminated ground water over the course of a 70-y lifetime. Uncertainties about human physiological attributes, as well as about estimates of physical detriment per unit of radioactive material, were quantified and incorporated into the estimates of risk. The maximum potential excess lifetime risk of cancer mortality estimated for an individual at the offsite location ranges from 7 x 10 -7 to 1 x 10 -5 , and at the onsite location ranges from 3 x 10 -3 to 2 x 10 -2 . Both the offsite and the onsite estimates of risk are dominated by the lifetime doses from tritium. For the assessment of radionuclides in ground water, the critical uncertainty is their concentration today under the entire NTS

  16. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  17. "#Factsmustfall"?--Education in a Post-Truth, Post-Truthful World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Taking its inspiration from the name of the recent "#FeesMustFall" movement on South African university campuses, this paper takes stock of the apparent disrepute into which truth, facts and also rationality have fallen in recent times. In the post-truth world, the blurring of borders between truth and deception, truthfulness and…

  18. Truth and the Capability of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines learning as a capability, taking as its starting point the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The paper is concerned to highlight the relation between learning and truth, and it does so by examining the idea of a genealogy of truth and also Donald Davidson's coherence theory. Thus the notion of truth is understood to be…

  19. Normativity and deflationary theories of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mölder

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that deflationary theories of truth stumble over the normativity of truth. This paper maintains that the normativity objection does not pose problems to at least one version of deflationism, minimalism. The rest of the paper discusses truth-related norms, showing that either they do not hold or they are not troublesome for deflationism.

  20. TRUTH AS DETERMINANT OF RELIGIOUS FAITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of values like any other institution”. Our concern here is how religious truth that ought to be absolute has become relative thus producing many different religions in the world. Relativity of Religious Truths As Determinant. Of Religious Faith. Truth has been defined as that which conforms to essential reality, but is it absolute?

  1. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options

  2. Using a Full Complex Site Transfer Function to Estimate Strong Ground Motion in Port-au-Prince (Haiti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ST Fleur, S.; Courboulex, F.; Bertrand, E.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Hough, S. E.; Boisson, D.; Momplaisir, R.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the possible impact of a future earthquake in the urban area of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), we have implemented a simulation approach for complex ground motions produced by an earthquake. To this end, we have integrated local site effect in the prediction of strong ground motions in Port-au-Prince using the complex transfer functions method, which takes into account amplitude changes as well as phase changes. This technique is particularly suitable for basins where a conventional 1D digital approach proves inadequate, as is the case in Port-au-Prince. To do this, we use the results of the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) approach of St Fleur et al. (2016) to estimate the amplitude of the response of the site to a nearby rock site. Then, we determine the phase difference between sites, interpreted as changes in the phase of the signal related to local site conditions, using the signals of the 2010 earthquake aftershocks records. Finally, the accelerogram of the simulated earthquake is obtain using the technique of the inverse Fourier transform. The results of this study showed that the strongest soil motions are expected in neighborhoods of downtown Port-au-Prince and adjacent hills. In addition, this simulation method by complex transfer functions was validated by comparison with recorded actual data. Our simulated response spectra reproduce very well both the amplitude and the shape of the response spectra of recorded earthquakes. This new approach allowed to reproduce the lengthening of the signal that could be generated by surface waves at certain stations in the city of Port-au-Prince. However, two points of vigilance must be considered: (1) a good signal-to-noise ratio is necessary to obtain a robust estimate of the site-reference phase shift (ratio at least equal to 10); (2) unless the amplitude and phase changes are measured on strong motion records, this technique does not take non-linear effects into account.

  3. Searching for the IRA "disappeared": ground-penetrating radar investigation of a churchyard burial site, Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2005-11-01

    A search for the body of a victim of terrorist abduction and murder was made in a graveyard on the periphery of a major conurbation in Northern Ireland. The area is politically sensitive and the case of high profile. This required non-invasive, completely non-destructive and rapid assessment of the scene. A MALA RAMAC ground-penetrating radar system was used to achieve these objectives. Unprocessed and processed 400 MHz data show the presence of a collapse feature above and around a known 1970s burial with no similar collapse above the suspect location. In the saturated, clay-rich sediments of the site, 200 MHz data offered no advantage over 400 MHz data. Unprocessed 100 MHz data shows a series of multiples in the known burial with no similar features in the suspect location. Processed 100 MHz lines defined the shape of the collapse around the known burial to 2 m depth, together with the geometry of the platform (1 m depth) the gravedigger used in the 1970s to construct the site. In addition, processed 100 MHz data showed both the dielectric contrast in and internal reflection geometry of the soil imported above the known grave. Thus the sequence, geometry, difference in infill and infill direction of the grave was reconstructed 30 years after burial. The suspect site showed no evidence of shallow or deep inhumation. Subsequently, the missing person's body was found some distance from this site, vindicating the results and interpretation from ground-penetrating radar. The acquisition, processing, collapse feature and sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the known burial and empty (suspect) burial site may be useful proxies for other, similar investigations. GPR was used to evaluate this site within 3 h of the survey commencing, using unprocessed data. An additional day of processing established that the suspect body did not reside here, which was counter to police and community intelligence.

  4. Assessment of trace ground-water contaminants release from south Texas in-situ uranium solution-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Humenick, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The future of uranium solution mining in south Texas depends heavily on the industry's ability to restore production zone ground water to acceptable standards. This study investigated the extent of trace contaminant solubilization during mining and subsequent restoration attempts, first through a literature search centered on uranium control mechanisms, and then by laboratory experiments simulating the mining process. The literature search indicated the complexity of the situation. The number of possible interactions between indigenous elements and materials pointed on the site specificity of the problem. The column studies evaluated three different production area ores. Uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, vanadium, and selenium were analyzed in column effluents. After simulated mining operations were completed, uranium was found to be the most persistent trace element. However, subsequent ground water flushing of the columns could restore in-situ water to EPA recommended drinking water concentrations. Limited data indicated that ground water flowing through mined areas may solubilize molybdenum present in down gradient areas adjacent to the production zone due to increased oxidation potential of ground water if adequate restoration procedures are not followed.

  5. A cooperative NRC/CEA research project on earthquake ground motion on soil sites: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.J.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1989-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a multi-phase experiment being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The objective of the experiment is to collect a comprehensive set of data on the propagation of earthquake ground motions vertically through a shallow soil column (on the order of several tens of meters). The data will be used to validate several of the available engineering computer codes for modeling earthquake ground motion. The data set will also be used to develop an improved understanding of the earthquake source function and the potential for non-linear effects controlling the propagation through the shallow soil column

  6. Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground Water at Hazardous Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this issue paper is to provide a concise discussion of the processes associated with the use of phytoremediation as a cleanup or containment technique for remediation of hazardous waste sites. Introductory material on plant processes is ...

  7. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  8. The Inconvenient Truth. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanasiou, T.

    2007-01-01

    Essay-type of publication on what should happen next after Al Gore's presentations on the Inconvenient Truth about the impacts of climate change. The essay states in the first lines: 'We've seen the movie, so we know the first part - we're in trouble deep. And it's time, past time, for at least some of us to go beyond warning to planning, to start talking seriously about a global crash program to stabilize the climate

  9. Visual truths of citizen reportage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Stuart; Peters, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In striving to better understand issues associated with citizen contributions to newsmaking in crisis situations, this article identifies and elaborates four specific research problematics – bearing witness, technologies of truth-telling, mediating visualities and affectivities of othering...... – in order to recast more familiar modes of enquiry. Specifically, it provides an alternative heuristic to theorize the journalistic mediation of citizen imagery, and the myriad ways this process of negotiation maintains, repairs and at times disrupts the interstices of professional–amateur boundaries...

  10. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  11. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND GROUND WATER AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this issue paper is to provide a concise discussion of the processes associated with the use of phytoremediation as a cleanup or containment technique for remediation of hazardous waste sites. Introductory material on plant processes is provided. The different fo...

  12. Classification of matrix-product ground states corresponding to one-dimensional chains of two-state sites of nearest neighbor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatollahi, Amir H.; Khorrami, Mohammad; Shariati, Ahmad; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    A complete classification is given for one-dimensional chains with nearest-neighbor interactions having two states in each site, for which a matrix product ground state exists. The Hamiltonians and their corresponding matrix product ground states are explicitly obtained.

  13. Numerical modeling of ground-water flow systems in the vicinity of the reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.; Beyeler, W.; Logsdon, M.; Coleman, N.; Brinster, K.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents south-central Washington State's Pasco Basin ground-water modeling studies. This work was done to support the NRC's review of hydrogeologic studies under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The report provides a brief overview of the geology, hydrology, and hydrochemistry of the Pasco Basin as a basis for the evaluation of previous conceptual and numerical ground-water flow models of the region. Numerical models were developed to test new conceptual models of the site and to provide a means of evaluating the Department of Energy's performance assessments and proposed hydrologic testing. Regional ground-water flow modeling of an area larger than the Pasco Basin revealed that current concepts on the existence and behavior of a hydrologic barrier west of the proposed repository location are inconsistent with available data. This modeling also demonstrated that the measured pattern of hydraulic heads cannot be produced with a model that (1) has uniform layer properties over the entire domain; (2) has zones of large conductivity associated with anticlinal structures; or (3) includes recharge from the industrial disposal ponds. Adequate representation of the measured hydraulic heads was obtained with a model that contained regions of larger hydraulic conductivity that corresponded to the presence of sedimentary interbeds. In addition, a detailed model of a region smaller than the Pasco Basin was constructed to provide the NRC staff with the ability to analyze proposed Department of Energy hydrologic tests. 62 refs., 145 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the U.S. Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts supported through the U.S. Department of Energy program will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Test-generated contaminants have been introduced over large areas and at variable depths above and below the water table throughout NTS. Evaluating the risks associated with these byproducts of underground testing presupposes a knowledge of the source, transport, and potential receptors of these contaminants. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. Any assessment of the risk must rely in part on the current understanding of ground-water flow, and the assessment will be only as good as the understanding

  15. Monitoring of active layer dynamics at a permafrost site on Svalbard using multi-channel ground-penetrating radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Westermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar is used to investigate the late-summer evolution of the thaw depth and the average soil water content of the thawed active layer at a high-arctic continuous permafrost site on Svalbard, Norway. Between mid of August and mid of September 2008, five surveys have been conducted in gravelly soil over transect lengths of 130 and 175 m each. The maximum thaw depths range from 1.6 m to 2.0 m, so that they are among the deepest thaw depths recorded in sediments on Svalbard so far. The thaw depths increase by approximately 0.2 m between mid of August and beginning of September and subsequently remain constant until mid of September. The thaw rates are approximately constant over the entire length of the transects within the measurement accuracy of about 5 to 10 cm. The average volumetric soil water content of the thawed soil varies between 0.18 and 0.27 along the investigated transects. While the measurements do not show significant changes in soil water content over the first four weeks of the study, strong precipitation causes an increase in average soil water content of up to 0.04 during the last week. These values are in good agreement with evapotranspiration and precipitation rates measured in the vicinity of the the study site. While we cannot provide conclusive reasons for the detected spatial variability of the thaw depth at the study site, our measurements show that thaw depth and average soil water content are not directly correlated.

    The study demonstrates the potential of multi-channel ground-penetrating radar for mapping thaw depth in permafrost areas. The novel non-invasive technique is particularly useful when the thaw depth exceeds 1.5 m, so that it is hardly accessible by manual probing. In addition, multi-channel ground-penetrating radar holds potential for mapping the latent heat content of the active layer and for estimating weekly to monthly averages of the ground heat flux during the

  16. Integration of CERCLA and RCRA requirements at the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.; Wyatt, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper to is present the comprehensive approach being taken at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to consolidate regulatory documents, characterization and assessment activities for 3 contiguous waste management facilities. These facilities cover 7.12 x 10 5 m 2 (194 acres) and include an Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground, a Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and a closed Mixed Waste Management Facility. Each of these facilities include one or more operable units including solvent tanks, transuranic waste storage pads, research lysimeters and experimental confinement disposal vaults. All of these facilities have differing submittal dates for regulatory documents but similar and continuous environmental problems. The characterization and risk assessment require simultaneous efforts for all facilities to adequately define the nature and extent of past, present and future environmental impact. Current data indicates that contaminant plumes in both soil and water are comingled, interspersed and possibly exist internally within the contiguous facilities, requiring a combined investigative effort. This paper describes the combination of regulatory documents leading to this comprehensive and integrative approach for burial ground characterization at the Savannah River Site

  17. Contamination and UV ageing of diffuser targets used in satellite inflight and ground reference test site calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskuri, Anna; Greenwell, Claire; Hessey, Isabel; Tompkins, Jordan; Woolliams, Emma

    2018-02-01

    Diffuser reflectance targets are key components in in-orbit calibrations and for verifying ground reference test sites. In this work, Spectralon, Diffusil, and Heraeus diffusers were exposed to exhaust gases and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the ambient air conditions and their degradations were monitored by measuring changes in spectral reflectances. Spectralon is a state-of-the-art diffuser made of polytetrafluoroethylene, and Diffusil and Heraeus diffusers are made of fused silica with gas bubbles inside. Based on the contamination tests, Spectralon degrades faster than fused silica diffusers. For the samples exposed to contamination for 20 minutes, the 250 nm - 400 nm total diffuse spectral reflectance of Spectralon degraded 3-5 times more when exposed to petrol-like emission and 16-23 times more when exposed to diesel-like emission, compared with Diffusil. When the reflectance changes of Spectralon were compared with those of Heraeus, Spectralon degraded 3-4 times more when exposed to petrol-like emission for 20 minutes and 5-7 times more when exposed to diesel-like emission for 7.5 minutes. When the samples contaminated were exposed to UV radiation in the ambient air, their reflectance gradually restored back to the original level. In conclusion, fused silica diffusers are more resistant to hydrocarbon contaminants present in ground reference test sites, and thus more stable under UV radiation in the air.

  18. HEAVY METALS IN THE ECOSYSTEM COMPONENTS AT "DEGELEN" TESTING GROUND OF THE FORMER SEMIPALATINSK TEST SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Yankauskas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecological situation in the former Semipalatinsk test site is characterized by a combination of both radiative and "nonradiative" factors. There were investigated near-portal areas of the tunnels with water seepage at "Degelen" site. All the tunnel waters are characterized by higher concentrations of uranium, beryllium, and molybdenum. The watercourse of the tunnel # 504 is unique for its elemental composition, in particular, the content of rare earth elements, whose concentration in the water is in the range n*10-5 – n*10-7 %. Of all the rare earth elements in the samples were found 13, the concentrations of aluminum, manganese, zinc are comparable to the concentrations of macro-components. Concentration of 238U in the studied waters lie in the range of n*10-4 – n*10-6 %, which suggests the influence of uranium, not only as a toxic element, but its significance as the radiation factor.

  19. Graphics-based site information management at Hanford TRU burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the project described in this paper is to demonstrate the use of integrated computer graphics and data base techniques in managing nuclear waste facilities. The graphics-based site information management system (SIMS) combines a three-dimensional graphic model of the facility with databases which describe the facility's components and waste inventory. The SIMS can create graphic visualizations of any site data. The SIMS described here is being used by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) as part of its transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval program at the Hanford Reservation. It is being used to manage an inventory of over 38,000 containers, to validate records, and to help visualize conceptual designs of waste retrieval operations

  20. Graphics-based site information management at Hanford TRU burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, S.R.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the project described in this paper is to demonstrate the use of integrated computer graphics and database techniques in managing nuclear waste facilities. The graphics-based site information management system (SIMS) combines a three- dimensional graphic model of the facility with databases which describe the facility's components and waste inventory. The SIMS can create graphic visualization of any site data. The SIMS described here is being used by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) as part of its transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval program at the Hanford Reservation. It is being used to manage an inventory of over 38,000 containers, to validate records, and to help visualize conceptual designs of waste retrieval operations

  1. Effect of Mehmood Booti dumping site in Lahore on ground water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out to elucidate the effects of Mehmood Booti dumping site in Lahore on the quality of groundwater in conterminous areas and recommend improvement measures. For this purpose, five tube wells were selected for collection of water samples. One of these was located within the premises of Mahmood Booti dumping site while another tube well at a distance of 8 km near Mall Road was selected as the control point to compare the test results. Three samples from each sampling point were collected before monsoon and three after monsoon with a total of thirty (30) samples for statistical significance. To find out the effect of leachate on groundwater quality, five parameters i.e. turbidity, pH, hardness, total dissolved solids and fecal coliform were tested. Mean value of test results was compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. It was indicated by the test results that physico-chemical quality of all sources (tube wells) was satisfactory. The test results indicated that 20% of water samples collected from the tube wells before monsoon contained fecal contaminant and that percentage rose to 60% after monsoon. The analysis of results showed that Mehmood Booti dumping site has no significant effect on the selected water quality parameters. (author)

  2. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the US Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. 113 refs

  3. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Titus, Joshua T.N.; Bandfield, L.; Putzig, N.E.; Sizemore, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Surveillance of 18 Hz and 60 Hz components of ground motion at the APS site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the location and source of the 18- and 60-Hz vibration and to eliminate or reduce its amplitude in the APS Facility. To accomplish this it is necessary to know the time of occurrence and then, to utilize triangulation methods to identify the location of the source. It its time sequence is known, it may be possible to correlate it with the operation of some equipment at or near the site. Therefore, a major effort was made to obtain the time sequence and is the basis of this note

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailing site Maybell, Colorado. Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from former uranium processing activities at inactive uranium processing sites (40 CFR Part 192 (1993)) (52 FR 36000 (1978)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has decided that each assessment will include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes the proposed action compliance with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4, Water Resources Protection Strategy. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include the following: (1) Definition of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the environment, including hydrostratigraphy, aquifer parameters, areas of aquifer recharge and discharge, potentiometric surfaces, and ground water velocities. (2) Definition of background ground water quality and comparison with proposed EPA ground water protection standards. (3) Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant source and/or residual radioactive materials. (4) Definition of existing ground water contamination by comparison with the EPA ground water protection standards. (5) Description of the geochemical processes that affect the migration of the source contaminants at the processing site. (6) Description of water resource use, including availability, current and future use and value, and alternate water supplies

  6. Heavy metals in the ecosystem components at 'Degelen' testing ground of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankauskas, A.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Amirov, A.A.; Govenko, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    The ecological situation in the former Semipalatinsk test site is characterized by a combination of both radiative and nonradiative factors. There were investigated near-portal areas of the tunnels with water seepage at 'Degelen' site. All the tunnel waters are characterized by higher concentrations of uranium, beryllium, and molybdenum. The watercourse of the tunnel number 504 is unique for its elemental composition, in particular, the content of rare earth elements, whose concentration in the water is in the range n*10 -5 -n*10 -7 %. Of all the rare earth elements in the samples were found 13, the concentrations of aluminum, manganese, zinc are comparable to the concentrations of macro-components. Concentration of 238 U in the studied waters lie in the range of n*10 -4 - n*10 -6 %, which suggests the influence of uranium, not only as a toxic element, but its significance as the radiation factor. The analysis of complex data obtained showed that the elevated concentrations of heavy metals in the soils of the areas under study, as a rule, are a consequence of the carry-over of these metals by water flows and their subsequent deposition in the sediments. (authors)

  7. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  8. Radionuclide migration in ground water at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predicted radionuclide transport modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), in Ontario, Canada, a number of LLW shallow-land burial facilities have existed for 25-30 years. These facilities are useful for testing the concept of site modelability. In 1984, CRNL and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) established a cooperative research program to examine two disposal sites having plumes of slightly contaminated ground water for study. This report addresses the LLW Nitrate Disposal Pit site, which received liquid wastes containing approximately 1000-1500 curies of mixed fission products during 1953-54. The objective of this study is to test the regulatory requirement that a site be modeled and to use the Nitrate Disposal Pit site as a field site for testing the reliability of models in predicting radionuclide movement in ground water. The study plan was to approach this site as though it were to be licensed under the requirements of 10 CFR 61. Under the assumption that little was known about this site, a characterization plan was prepared describing the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information needed to assess site performance. After completion of the plan, site data generated by CRNL were selected to fill the plan data requirements. This paper describes the site hydrogeology, modeling of ground water flow, the comparison of observed and predicted radionuclide movement, and summarizes the conclusions and recommendations. 3 references, 10 figures

  9. Ground penetrating radar results at the Box Canyon Site - 1996 survey as part of infiltration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Williams, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    This data report presents a discussion of the borehole radar tomography experiment conducted at Box Canyon, Idaho. Discussion concentrates on the survey methodology, data acquisition procedures, and the resulting tomographic images and interpretations. The entire geophysics field effort for FY96 centered around the collection of the borehole radar data within the inclined boreholes R1, R2, R3, and R4 before, during, and after the ponded infiltration experiment. The well pairs R1-R2, R2-R4, and R3-R4 comprised the bulk of the field survey; however, additional data were collected between vertical boreholes within and around the infiltration basin. The intent of the inclined boreholes was to allow access beneath the infiltration basin and to enhance the ability of the radar method to image both vertical and horizontal features where flow may dominate. This data report will concentrate on the inclined borehole data and the resulting tomograms. The borehole radar method is one in which modified ground penetrating radar antennas are lowered into boreholes and high frequency electromagnetic signals are transmitted through subsurface material to a receiving antenna. The transmitted signals may be represented as multiple raypaths crossing through the zone of interest. If sufficient raypaths are recorded, a tomographic image may be obtained through computer processing. The data normally recorded are signal amplitude versus time. The information extracted from such data includes the following: (a) the transit time which depends on the wave velocity, (b) the amplitude which depends on the wave attenuation, the dispersion which indicates a change in velocity and attenuation with frequency

  10. Earth modeling and estimation of the local seismic ground motion due to site geology in complex volcanoclastic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Fiore

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic areas often show complex behaviour as far as seismic waves propagation and seismic motion at surface are concerned. In fact, the finite lateral extent of surface layers such as lava flows, blocks, differential welding and/or zeolitization within pyroclastic deposits, introduces in the propagation of seismic waves effects such as the generation of surface waves at the edge, resonance in lateral direction, diffractions and scattering of energy, which tend to modify the amplitude as well as the duration of the ground motion. The irregular topographic surface, typical of volcanic areas, also strongly influences the seismic site response. Despite this heterogeneity, it is unfortunately a common geophysical and engineering practice to evaluate even in volcanic environments the subsurface velocity field with monodimensional investigation method (i.e. geognostic soundings, refraction survey, down-hole, etc. prior to the seismic site response computation which in a such cases is obviously also made with 1D algorithms. This approach often leads to highly inaccurate results. In this paper we use a different approach, i.e. a fully 2D P-wave Çturning rayÈ tomographic survey followed by 2D seismic site response modeling. We report here the results of this approach in three sites located at short distance from Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei and characterized by overburdens constituted by volcanoclastic deposits with large lateral and vertical variations of their elastic properties. Comparison between 1D and 2D Dynamic Amplification Factor shows in all reported cases entirely different results, both in terms of peak period and spectral contents, as expected from the clear bidimensionality of the geological section. Therefore, these studies suggest evaluating carefully the subsoil geological structures in areas characterized by possible large lateral and vertical variations of the elastic properties in order to reach correct seismic site response

  11. A Bayesian truth serum for subjective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelec, Drazen

    2004-10-15

    Subjective judgments, an essential information source for science and policy, are problematic because there are no public criteria for assessing judgmental truthfulness. I present a scoring method for eliciting truthful subjective data in situations where objective truth is unknowable. The method assigns high scores not to the most common answers but to the answers that are more common than collectively predicted, with predictions drawn from the same population. This simple adjustment in the scoring criterion removes all bias in favor of consensus: Truthful answers maximize expected score even for respondents who believe that their answer represents a minority view.

  12. Climate science, truth, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2017-08-01

    This essay was written almost ten years ago when the urgency of America's failure as a nation to respond to the threats of climate change first came to preoccupy me. Although the essay was never published in full, I circulated it informally in an attempt to provoke a more public engagement among my colleagues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. In particular, it was written in almost direct response to Philip Kitcher's own book, Science, Truth and Democracy (2001), in an attempt to clarify what was special about Climate Science in its relation to truth and democracy. Kitcher's response was immensely encouraging, and it led to an extended dialogue that resulted, first, in a course we co-taught at Columbia University, and later, to the book The Seasons Alter: How to Save Our Planet in Six Acts (W. W. Norton) published this spring. The book was finished just after the Paris Climate Accord, and it reflects the relative optimism of that moment. Unfortunately events since have begun to evoke, once again, the darker mood of this essay. I am grateful to Greg Radick for suggesting its publication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defining an optimum pumping-time requirement for sampling ground-water wells on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharnhorst, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    The objective was to determine the optimum time period necessary to pump water from a well before a representative sample of the ground water can be obtained. It was assumed that a representative sample has been collected if the concentration of chemical parameters is the same in a number of samples taken consecutively, so that the concentration of parameters does not vary with time of collection. Ground-water samples used in this project were obtained by pumping selected wells on the Hanford Site. At each well, samples were taken at two minute intervals, and on each sample various chemical analyses were performed. Samples were checked for pH, sulfate, iron, specific conductivity, chloride, nitrate and alkalinity. The data showed that pH, alkalinity, sulfate and specific conductivity levels stabilized almost immediately after pumping of the well began. In many wells, the chloride and nitrate levels were unstable throughout the 38-minute sampling period. Iron levels, however, did not behave in either fashion. The concentration of iron in the samples was high when pumping began but dropped rapidly as pumping continued. The best explanation for this is that iron is flushed from the sides of the casing into the well when pumping begins. After several minutes of pumping, most of the dissolved iron is washed from the well casing and the iron concentration reaches a stable plateau representative of the iron concentration in the ground water.Since iron concentration takes longest to stabilize, the optimum pumping time for a well is based on the iron stabilization time for that well

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Ground magnetic survey at site for planned facility for calibration of borehole orientation equipment at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2012-01-15

    This report presents survey description and results of ground magnetic measurements carried out by GeoVista AB at Aespoe in December, 2011. The purpose of the ground magnetic measurement was to measure variations in the earth magnetic field and to gain knowledge of the magnetization of the bedrock in an area where SKB plan to build a facility for calibration of equipment for measurements of borehole orientation. A total of 312 data points were collected along three survey lines, 104 points/profile. The data show nice and smooth variations that appear to be natural. There is a clear consistency of the magnetic field variations between the three survey lines, which indicates that the variations in the magnetic field reflect geological variations related to lithology and content of magnetic minerals. There are no indications of artifacts or erroneous data. The anomaly field averages at -32 nT with peak values of Min = -1,016 nT and Max = +572 nT. The strongest anomalies occur at profile length c. 130-140 m. Adding the background field of 50,823 nT, measured at a base station located close to the survey area, the total magnetic field averages at 50,791+-226 nT. The ground magnetic measurement gives background information before the construction of the calibration facility. The magnetic anomaly at c. 130-140 m give possibilities to control disturbances of magnetic-accelerometer based instruments. The magnetic measurements show that it is possible to construct the facility at the site

  15. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Ground magnetic survey at site for planned facility for calibration of borehole orientation equipment at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Haakan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents survey description and results of ground magnetic measurements carried out by GeoVista AB at Aespoe in December, 2011. The purpose of the ground magnetic measurement was to measure variations in the earth magnetic field and to gain knowledge of the magnetization of the bedrock in an area where SKB plan to build a facility for calibration of equipment for measurements of borehole orientation. A total of 312 data points were collected along three survey lines, 104 points/profile. The data show nice and smooth variations that appear to be natural. There is a clear consistency of the magnetic field variations between the three survey lines, which indicates that the variations in the magnetic field reflect geological variations related to lithology and content of magnetic minerals. There are no indications of artifacts or erroneous data. The anomaly field averages at -32 nT with peak values of Min = -1,016 nT and Max = +572 nT. The strongest anomalies occur at profile length c. 130-140 m. Adding the background field of 50,823 nT, measured at a base station located close to the survey area, the total magnetic field averages at 50,791±226 nT. The ground magnetic measurement gives background information before the construction of the calibration facility. The magnetic anomaly at c. 130-140 m give possibilities to control disturbances of magnetic-accelerometer based instruments. The magnetic measurements show that it is possible to construct the facility at the site

  16. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model For Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kelkar; H. Viswanathan; A. Eddebbarrh; M. Ding; P. Reimus; B. Robinson; B. Arnold; A. Meijer

    2006-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated Kd distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions for colloid filtration. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from 14 C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficient and matrix diffusion coefficients. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters

  17. Identification of dissolved-constituent sources in mine-site ground water using batch mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Williams, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments were used to help identify lithologic and mineralogic sources of increased concentrations of dissolved solids in water affected by surface coal mining in northwestern Colorado. Ten overburden core samples were analyzed for mineral composition and mixed with distilled water for 90 days until mineral-water equilibrium was reached. Between one day and 90 days after initial contact, specific conductance in the sample mixtures had a median increase of 306 percent. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 200 to 8,700 mg/L in water samples extracted from the mixtures after 90 days. Mass-balance simulations were conducted using the geochemical models BALANCE and WATEQF to quantify mineral-water interactions occurring in five selected sample mixtures and in water collected from a spring at a reclaimed mine site. The spring water is affected by mineral-water interactions occurring in all of the lithologic units comprising the overburden. Results of the simulations indicate that oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and epsomite, and cation-exchange reactions are the primary mineral-water interactions occurring in the overburden. Three lithologic units in the overburden (a coal, a sandstone, and a shale) probably contribute most of the dissolved solids to the spring water. Water sample extracts from mixtures using core from these three units accounted for 85 percent of the total dissolved solids in the 10 sample extracts. Other lithologic units in the over-burden probably contribute smaller quantities of dissolved solids to the spring water.

  18. Identification of dissolved-constituent sources in mine-site ground water using batch mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.M.; Williams, R.S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments were used to help identify lithologic mineralogic sources of increased concentrations of dissolved solids in water affected by surface coal mining in northwestern Colorado. Ten overburden core samples were analyzed for mineral composition and mixed with distilled water for 90 days until mineral-water equilibrium was reached. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 200 to 8,700 mg/L in water samples extracted from the mixtures after 90 days. Mass-balance simulations were conducted using the geochemical models BALANCE and WATEQF to quantify mineral-water interactions occurring in five selected sample mixtures and in water collected from a spring at a reclaimed mine site. The spring water is affected by mineral-water interactions occurring in all of lithologic units comprising the overburden. Results of the simulations indicate that oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and epsomite, and cation-exchange reactions are the primary mineral-water interactions occurring in the overburden. Three lithologic units in the overburden probably contribute most of the dissolved solids to the spring water. Water sample extracts from mixtures using core from these three units accounted for 85 percent of the total dissolved solids in the 10 sample extracts. Other lithologic units in the overburden probably contribute smaller quantities of dissolved solids to the spring water

  19. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sprovieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project was funded by the European Commission (http://www.gmos.eu and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010–2015, analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  20. Ground deformation monitoring using RADARSAT-2 DInSAR-MSBAS at the Aquistore CO2 storage site in Saskatchewan (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnogorska, M.; Samsonov, S.; White, D.

    2014-11-01

    The research objectives of the Aquistore CO2 storage project are to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods for measurement, and verification of CO2 storage, and to integrate data to determine subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Aquistore site is located near Estevan in Southern Saskatchewan on the South flank of the Souris River and west of the Boundary Dam Power Station and the historical part of Estevan coal mine in southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. Several monitoring techniques were employed in the study area including advanced satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique, GPS, tiltmeters and piezometers. The targeted CO2 injection zones are within the Winnipeg and Deadwood formations located at > 3000 m depth. An array of monitoring techniques was employed in the study area including advanced satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) with established corner reflectors, GPS, tiltmeters and piezometers stations. We used airborne LIDAR data for topographic phase estimation, and DInSAR product geocoding. Ground deformation maps have been calculated using Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) methodology from 134 RADARSAT-2 images, from five different beams, acquired during 20120612-20140706. We computed and interpreted nine time series for selected places. MSBAS results indicate slow ground deformation up to 1 cm/year not related to CO2 injection but caused by various natural and anthropogenic causes.

  1. Ground-water data for the Nevada Test Site and selected other areas in South-Central Nevada, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in support of the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Hydrologic Resources Management Programs, collects and compiles hydrogeologic data to aid in characterizing the regional and local ground-water flow systems underlying the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. This report presents selected ground-water data collected from wells and test holes at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Depth-to-water measurements were made during water year 1993 at 55 sites at the Nevada Test Site and 43 regional sites in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Depth to water ranged from 87.7 to 674.6 meters below land surface at the Nevada Test Site and from 6.0 to 444.7 meters below land surface at sites in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Depth-to-water measurements were obtained using the wire-line, electric-tape, air-line, and steel-tape devices. Total measured ground-water withdrawal from the Nevada Test Site during the 1993 calendar year was 1,888.04 million liters. Annual ground-water withdrawals from 14 wells ranged from 0.80 million to 417.20 million liters. Tritium concentrations from four samples at the Nevada Test Site and from three samples in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site collected during water year 1993 ranged from near 0 to 27,676.0 becquerels per liter and from near 0 to 3.9 becquerels per liter, respectively

  2. MPL-net at ARM Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Berkoff, T. A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA MPL-net project goal is consistent data products of the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosol from globally distributed lidar observation sites. The four ARM micro pulse lidars are a basis of the network to consist of over twelve sites. The science objective is ground truth for global satellite retrievals and accurate vertical distribution information in combination with surface radiation measurements for aerosol and cloud models. The project involves improvement in instruments and data processing and cooperation with ARM and other partners.

  3. Use of ground-based radiometers for L-Band Freeze/Thaw retrieval in a boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Derksen, C.; Toose, P.; Pappas, C.; Mavrovic, A.; El Amine, M.; Royer, A.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The boreal forest is the second largest land biome in the world and thus plays a major role in the global and regional climate systems. The extent, timing and duration of the seasonal freeze/thaw (F/T) state influences vegetation developmental stages (phenology) and, consequently, constitutes an important control on how boreal forest ecosystems exchange carbon, water and energy with the atmosphere. Recently, new L-Band satellite-derived F/T information has become available. However, disentangling the seasonally differing contributions from forest overstory and understory vegetation, and the ground surface to the satellite signal remains challenging. Here we present results from an ongoing campaign with two L-Band surface-based radiometers (SBR) installed on a micrometeorological tower at the Southern Old Black Spruce site (53.99°N / 105.12°W) in central Saskatchewan. One radiometer unit is installed on top of the tower viewing the multi-layer vegetation canopy from above. A second radiometer unit is installed within the multi-layer canopy, viewing the understory and the ground surface only. The objectives of our study are to (i) disentangle the L-Band F/T signal contribution of boreal forest overstory from the combined understory and ground surface contribution, and (ii) link the L-Band F/T signal to related boreal forest structural and functional characteristics. Analysis of these radiometer measurements made from September to November 2016 shows that when the ground surface is thawed, the main contributor to both radiometer signals is soil moisture. The Pearson correlation coefficient between brightness temperature (TB) at vertical polarization (V-pol) and soil permittivity is 0.79 for the radiometer above the canopy and 0.74 for the radiometer below the canopy. Under cold conditions when the soil was thawed (snow insulation) and the trees were frozen (below 0°C), TB at V-pol is negatively correlated with tree permittivity. The freezing tree contribution to

  4. THEOLOGICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL THEORIES OF TRUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Grosshans

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Examining some theological and philosophical theories of truth, the author concentrates his attention on the experience of giving concrete reality to the Christian discourse about truth and at the same time contrasting this search with the attempts of philosophy to define truth. He draws the reader’s attention to the understanding of truth in language and communication. In his article he discusses the essential theories of truth which are characteristic of western philosophy: classical, correspondent, coherent, pragmatic, communicative and ontic. The author notes the specific traits of a theological understanding of truth and contends that it is based on an ontologically higher level than that of the classic definition of truth viewed simply in relation to reality and the understanding. The knowledge of God given to the Christian faith by the activity of the triune God, is in itself perfect and therefore in no need of further development. It is on this basis that theology develops its knowledge of faith, sweeping aside everything which is not in accord with this fundamental affirmation of faith or with the witness of revealed truth

  5. Objective Truth Institution in Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltornist O. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the category of objective truth in criminal procedure, its importance for correct determination of criminal court procedure aims. The author analyzes also the bill draft offered by the RF Committee of Inquiry “On amending in the RF Criminal Procedure Code due to the implementation ofobjective truth institution in criminal procedure”

  6. Ethics and Truth in Archival Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The complexities of the ethics and truth in archival research are often unrecognised or invisible in educational research. This paper complicates the process of collecting data in the archives, as it problematises notions of ethics and truth in the archives. The archival research took place in the former Czechoslovakia and its turbulent political…

  7. Does the Truth Matter in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Is science in the truth business, discovering ever more about an independent and largely unobservable world? Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, two of the most important figures in science studies in the 20th century, gave accounts of science that are in some tension with the truth view. Their central claims about science are considered here, along with…

  8. The Philosophical Problem of Truth in Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaree, Robert V.; Scimeca, Ross

    2008-01-01

    The authors develop a framework for addressing the question of truth in librarianship and in doing so attempt to move considerations of truth closer to the core of philosophical debates within the profession. After establishing ways in which philosophy contributes to social scientific inquiry in library science, the authors examine concepts of…

  9. Investigation of the performance of cement-bentonite cut-off walls in aggressive ground at a disused gasworks site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedd, P.; Holton, I.R.; Butcher, A.P.; Wallace, S.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increased use of cement-bentonite slurry trench cut-off walls to control the lateral migration of pollution in the UK. Concerns inevitably exist about their performance in chemically aggressive ground particularly in the long term. To address some of the uncertainties a programme of field and laboratory research is being undertaken at a disused gasworks in the UK. Elevated levels of sulphate and other contaminants are present on the site and could potentially change the properties of the cement-bentonite. Two boxes, 10m square in plan, by 5m deep have been constructed, one with and one without an HDPE membrane, to isolate parts of the site. Local hydraulic gradients across the walls have been created by pumping from within the boxes. Isolated lengths of wall have been constructed which are being used to assess and develop in-situ testing techniques such as the piezocone for measuring permeability, strength and overall integrity of the wall

  10. Geological disaster survey based on Curvelet transform with borehole Ground Penetrating Radar in Tonglushan old mine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinjian; Sun, Tao; Tang, Zhijie; Zhou, Zenghui; Wei, Baoming

    2011-06-01

    Tonglushan old mine site located in Huangshi City, China, is very famous in the world. However, some of the ruins had suffered from geological disasters such as local deformation, surface cracking, in recent years. Structural abnormalities of rock-mass in deep underground were surveyed with borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out whether there were any mined galleries or mined-out areas below the ruins. With both the multiresolution analysis and sub-band directional of Curvelet transform, the feature information of targets' GPR signals were studied on Curvelet transform domain. Heterogeneity of geotechnical media and clutter jamming of complicated background of GPR signals could be conquered well, and the singularity characteristic information of typical rock mass signals could be extracted. Random noise had be removed by thresholding combined with Curvelet and the statistical characteristics of wanted signals and the noise, then direct wave suppression and the spatial distribution feature extraction could obtain a better result by making use of Curvelet transform directional. GprMax numerical modeling and analyzing of the sample data have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of our method. It is important and applicable for the analyzing of the geological structure and the disaster development about the Tonglushan old mine site. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Truth and falsehood an inquiry into generalized logical values

    CERN Document Server

    Shramko, Yaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Here is a thoroughly elaborated logical theory of generalized truth-values, presenting the idea of a trilattice of truth values - a specific algebraic structure with information ordering and two distinct logical orderings, one for truth and another for falsity.

  12. Correlation of Self Potential and Ground Magnetic Survey Techniques to Investigate Fluid Seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tajudeen O. Adeeko; Nordiana M. Muztaza; Taqiuddin M. Zakaria; Nurina Ismail

    2018-01-01

    One of the substantial of geophysics is to investigate the subsurface condition of the earth (groundwater) using appropriate geophysical techniques. In this research the correlation of self potential (SP) and ground magnetic methods was used to investigate fluid seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia. Self-potential method was used to determine flow of water, and Ground magnetic method was used to find object that can influence the result of self potential...

  13. Measurement of flow and direction of ground water by radioactive tracers: hydrological evaluation of a waste disposal site at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Aoki, P.E.; Ramos e Silva, J.A.; Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1981-05-01

    The method of determining flow and drection of ground water by using radioactive tracers in ground water borings is described. Various parameters controlling the measurements are discussed in detail. Application of the method in studying a variety of geohydrological problems, in view of the hydrological evaluation of the waste disposal site at IPEN, is indicated. Comparison of the method with conventional pumping tests is made. (I.C.R.) [pt

  14. Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk D.; Cairns, Brian; Schmid, Beat; Roman, Miguel O.; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2008-10-21

    The surface spectral albedo is an important component of climate models since it determines the amount of incident solar radiation that is absorbed by the ground. The albedo can be highly heterogeneous, both in space and time, and thus adequate measurement and modeling is challenging. One source of measurements that constrain the surface albedo are satellite instruments that observe the Earth, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Satellites estimate the surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) by correcting top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiances for atmospheric effects and accumulating observations at a variety of viewing geometries. The BRDF can then be used to determine the albedo that is required in climate modeling. Other measurements that provide a more direct constraint on surface albedo are those made by upward and downward looking radiometers at the ground. One product in particular, the Best Estimate Radiation Flux (BEFLUX) value added product of the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the Southern Great Plains Central Facility (SGP CF) in central Oklahoma, has been used to evaluate the quality of the albedo products derived from MODIS BRDF estimates. These comparisons have highlighted discrepancies between the energy absorbed at the surface that is calculated from the BEFLUX products and that is predicted from the MODIS BRDF product. This paper attempts to investigate these discrepancies by using data from an airborne scanning radiometer, the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) that was flown at low altitude in the vicinity of the SGP CF site during the Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE) in September of 2005. The RSP is a polarimeter that scans in the direction of the aircraft ground track, and can thus estimate the BRDF in a period of seconds, rather than the days required by MODIS to accumulate enough viewing angles. Atmospheric correction is aided by the

  15. Ground-water data for the Nevada Test Site 1992, and for selected other areas in South-Central Nevada, 1952--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water data collected from wells and test holes at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site have been compiled in a recently released report. These data were collected by the US Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, in support of the US Department of Energy, Environmental Restoration and Hydrologic Resources Management Programs. Depth-to-water measurements were made at 53 sites at the Nevada Test Site from October 1, 1991, to September 30, 1992, and at 60 sites in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site from 1952 to September 30, 1992. For water year 1992, depth to water ranged from 288 to 2,213 feet below land surface at the Nevada Test Site and from 22 to 1,460 feet below land surface at sites in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Total ground-water withdrawal data compiled for 12 wells at the Nevada Test Site during calendar year 1992 was more than 400 million gallons. Tritium concentrations in water samples collected from five test holes at the Nevada Test Site in water year 1992 did not exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking, water limit

  16. Japanese attitudes towards truth disclosure in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, N

    1994-03-01

    Despite the increasing concerns of truth disclosure, most cancer patients are not told the truth about their disease in Japan. The author has tried to provide some insight into this issue by evaluating results from questionnaires given to hospital patients, clients in a mass cancer survey, and doctors of a college hospital. Results showed that 72% of patients and 83% of clients wanted to be told the truth, but only 33% and 34% of them thought that the truth should be told to cancer patients. These attitudes of patients and clients regarding truth disclosure were more positive than those of the general public and health care workers in previous studies. At present, 13% of doctors inform cancer patients of their disease. These trends indicate that the Japanese attitude toward avoiding truth disclosure stems primarily from paternalism but is also influenced by social characteristics including insufficient understanding of this issue. Open discussion involving all factions of society is necessary to attain a better understanding of this issue and to promote eventual truth disclosure.

  17. [Medicine and truth: between science and narrative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materia, Enrico; Baglio, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    To which idea of truth may medicine refer? Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is rooted in the scientific truth. To explain the meaning and to trace the evolution of scientific truth, this article outlines the history of the Scientific Revolution and of the parable of Modernity, up to the arrival of pragmatism and hermeneutics. Here, the concept of truth becomes somehow discomfiting and the momentum leans towards the integration of different points of view. The fuzzy set theory for the definition of disease, as well as the shift from disease to syndrome (which has operational relevance for geriatrics), seems to refer to a more complex perspective on knowledge, albeit one that is less defined as compared to the nosology in use. Supporters of narrative medicine seek the truth in the interpretation of the patients' stories, and take advantage of the medical humanities to find the truth in words, feelings and contact with the patients. Hence, it is possible to mention the parresia, which is the frank communication espoused by stoicism and epicureanism, a technical and ethical quality which allows one to care in the proper way, a true discourse for one's own moral stance. Meanwhile, EBM and narrative medicine are converging towards a point at which medicine is considered a practical knowledge. It is the perspective of complexity that as a zeitgeist explains these multiple instances and proposes multiplicity and uncertainty as key referents for the truth and the practice of medicine.

  18. Unveiling the truth: warnings reduce the repetition-based truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarevic, Lena; Aßfalg, André

    2017-07-01

    Typically, people are more likely to consider a previously seen or heard statement as true compared to a novel statement. This repetition-based "truth effect" is thought to rely on fluency-truth attributions as the underlying cognitive mechanism. In two experiments, we tested the nature of the fluency-attribution mechanism by means of warning instructions, which informed participants about the truth effect and asked them to prevent it. In Experiment 1, we instructed warned participants to consider whether a statement had already been presented in the experiment to avoid the truth effect. However, warnings did not significantly reduce the truth effect. In Experiment 2, we introduced control questions and reminders to ensure that participants understood the warning instruction. This time, warning reduced, but did not eliminate the truth effect. Assuming that the truth effect relies on fluency-truth attributions, this finding suggests that warned participants could control their attributions but did not disregard fluency altogether when making truth judgments. Further, we found no evidence that participants overdiscount the influence of fluency on their truth judgments.

  19. Development of Mine Explosion Ground Truth Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    interest. The two candidates are the GS11-D by Oyo Geospace that is used extensively in seismic monitoring of geothermal fields and the Sensor Nederland SM...Technologies 853 Figure 4. Our preferred sensors and processor for the GTMS. (a) Sensor Nederland SM-6 geophone with emplacement spike. (b

  20. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    that with the high performance components available, and modular software construction in a Higher Level Language, it is possible to design equipment specially tailored to ones needs, rapidly and cost effectively...

  1. Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

  2. Global Ground Truth Data Set with Waveform and Arrival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    local del Proyecto GASPI (1999-2002), Trabajos de Geología, Univ. de Oviedo, 24, 91-106, 2004. 10116 Terceira, Azores Islands 28/0 Kennett, B. L. N...in the inversion are well-connected, i.e., stations observed many events in the cluster. To assess cluster connectivity, we employ a graph...information. In the RCA inversion we fix the pattern of relative hypocenters and origin times obtained from HDC, and locate the centroid of the local

  3. The Incoherence of Post-Truth

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Dom

    2018-01-01

    Ostensibly, there has been a recent rise in ‘post-truth’ thinking (Higgins, 2016; Rochlin, 2017; Speed & Mannion, 2017; Suiter, 2016). The Oxford English Dictionary, which made ‘post-truth’ its word of the year for 2016, defines post-truth as “[r]elating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping political debate or public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief” (“Post-truth,” 2017). Going into more detail, post-truth is described not ju...

  4. Power and Truth in Foucault and Habermas

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Amurabi; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Current paper examines how truth is enmeshed with power in Foucault´s and Habermas´s theories, highlighting similarities and differences within the two theoretical perspectives. If, on the one hand, truth in Foucault is based on a monologic imposition, on the other hand, Habermas insists on the dialogic understanding of the truth, although in both cases, related to power, at opposite positions, as Habermas himself points out in ‘The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity’. Foucault takes on a c...

  5. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs

  6. "Angels & Demons" - Distinguishing truth from fiction

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Dan Brown's best-selling novel "Angels & Demons" was published in French on 2 March. A web page on CERN's public site is dedicated to separating truth from fiction in this novel. After the extraordinary success of Dan Brown's "Da Vinci Code", one of his earlier novels "Angels & Demons", published in 2000, has now become a best seller and has generated a flood of questions about CERN. This detective story is about a secret society, the Illuminati, who wish to destroy the Vatican with an antimatter bomb stolen from - wait for it - CERN! Inevitably, CERN has been bombarded with calls about the technologies described in the novel that are supposed to be under development in the Laboratory. The Press Office has always explained that, even if the novel appears to be very informative, it is in fact a mixture of fact and fiction. For instance, according to the novel CERN is supposed to own a plane that can cover the distance between Massachusetts in the United States and Switzerland in just over an hour! ...

  7. Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography for the safety management of a cultural heritage site: Miletos Ilyas Bey Mosque (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Detection and assessment of structural damage affecting foundation robustness is of significant relevance for the safety management of cultural heritage sites. In this framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is worth consideration owing to its capability of providing high resolution and detailed information about the inner status of a structure, without involving significant invasive actions and ensuring a fast survey. On the other hand, the effectiveness of a GPR diagnostic survey can be impaired by the low interpretability of the raw data radargrams; thus huge interest is currently focused on the development of advanced and application-oriented data processing strategies. In this paper, a data processing chain based on the combined use of the commercial REFLEXW program and a microwave tomography approach is presented. An assessment of the achievable imaging capabilities is provided by processing measurements collected during a survey at the Great Mosque of Ilyas Bey (Ilyas Bey Mosque), one of the most important cultural heritages in ancient Miletos-Iona in Söke-Aydin city (Turkey). (paper)

  8. GAMMA-PULSE-HEIGHT EVALUATION OF A USA SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BURIAL GROUND SPECIAL CONFIGURATION WASTE ITEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewberry, R.; Sigg, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Burial Ground had a container labeled as Box 33 for which they had no reliable solid waste stream designation. The container consisted of an outer box of dimensions 48-inch x 46-inch x 66-inch and an inner box that contained high density and high radiation dose material. From the outer box Radiation Control measured an extremity dose rate of 22 mrem/h. With the lid removed from the outer box, the maximum dose rate measured from the inner box was 100 mrem/h extremity and 80 mrem/h whole body. From the outer box the material was sufficiently high in density that the Solid Waste Management operators were unable to obtain a Co-60 radiograph of the contents. Solid Waste Management requested that the Analytical Development Section of Savannah River National Laboratory perform a {gamma}-ray assay of the item to evaluate the radioactive content and possibly to designate a solid waste stream. This paper contains the results of three models used to analyze the measured {gamma}-ray data acquired in an unusual configuration.

  9. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  10. GAMMA-PULSE-HEIGHT EVALUATION OF A USA SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BURIAL GROUND SPECIAL CONFIGURATION WASTE ITEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewberry, R.; Sigg, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Burial Ground had a container labeled as Box 33 for which they had no reliable solid waste stream designation. The container consisted of an outer box of dimensions 48-inch x 46-inch x 66-inch and an inner box that contained high density and high radiation dose material. From the outer box Radiation Control measured an extremity dose rate of 22 mrem/h. With the lid removed from the outer box, the maximum dose rate measured from the inner box was 100 mrem/h extremity and 80 mrem/h whole body. From the outer box the material was sufficiently high in density that the Solid Waste Management operators were unable to obtain a Co-60 radiograph of the contents. Solid Waste Management requested that the Analytical Development Section of Savannah River National Laboratory perform a γ-ray assay of the item to evaluate the radioactive content and possibly to designate a solid waste stream. This paper contains the results of three models used to analyze the measured γ-ray data acquired in an unusual configuration

  11. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  12. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis without truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkelman, R.M.; Kay, I.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the preferred method of evaluating diagnostic imaging tests, requires an independent assessment of the true state of disease, which can be difficult to obtain and is often of questionable accuracy. A new method of analysis is described which does not require independent truth data and which can be used when several accurate tests are being compared. This method uses correlative information to estimate the underlying model of multivariate normal distributions of disease-positive and disease-negative patients. The method is shown to give results equivalent to conventional ROC analysis in a comparison of computed tomography, radionuclide scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging for liver metastasis. When independent truth is available, the method can be extended to incorporate truth data or to evaluate the consistency of the truth data with the imaging data

  13. Truthfulness in science teachers’ corporeal performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    2014-01-01

    , sincerity and trustworthiness in dealing with classroom management. Jane shows effort, fidelity and honesty in developing outdoor teaching. Simon shows transparency, objectivity and sincerity in his support of colleagues. By addressing the relations in the vocabulary of truthfulness the teachers...

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Detailed ground magnetic survey and lineament interpretation in the Forsmark area, 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans; Pitkaenen, Timo; Keisu, Mikael

    2007-12-01

    The report presents detailed ground magnetic measurements carried out on an 11.1 km 2 area in the Forsmark site investigation area. The main objective of this activity is to determine a detailed ground magnetic representation of the bedrock. The results from previous surveys were encouraging and have led to a broad geophysical programme for investigation of lineaments at Forsmark. This report comprises the results from the second and final phase of the extended survey programme and a compilation and summary of all phases in the programme. On ground and on lake ice, a grid with parallel lines was staked. Measurements of the magnetic total field were carried out along profiles, perpendicular to the staked lines, with a profile spacing of 10 m and a station spacing of 5 m. Measurements on the ice-covered sea bays were carried out by a two man crew. One crew member walked along the survey lines, carrying a RTK-GPS guiding the other crew member who measured the magnetic total field. No seaborne survey was carried out in the final phase. Previously, using a high accuracy RTK-GPS unit for boat navigation gave a seaborne survey grid of on average 10 m line spacing and 2-3 m station spacing. In total 427,238 magnetic survey stations have been measured and an area of 4.7 km 2 has been surveyed from boat. The magnetic pattern in the survey area can be divided into six main areas with different magnetic character. Along the southwest margin of the survey area the magnetic pattern is intensely banded with rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands striking southeast-northwest, which to the northeast changes to a gentler, banded pattern of low to moderate magnetic intensity. To the northeast, at the SFR office and along the coastline to the southeast, the pattern is again intensely banded with, southeast-northwest trending, rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands. These two banded structures probably forms fold limbs of a common fold with a northwest oriented fold

  15. Space-Borne and Ground-Based InSAR Data Integration: The Åknes Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns a proposal of the integration of InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data acquired by ground-based (GB and satellite platforms. The selected test site is the Åknes rockslide, which affects the western Norwegian coast. The availability of GB-InSAR and satellite InSAR data and the accessibility of a wide literature make the landslide suitable for testing the proposed procedure. The first step consists of the organization of a geodatabase, performed in the GIS environment, containing all of the available data. The second step concerns the analysis of satellite and GB-InSAR data, separately. Two datasets, acquired by RADARSAT-2 (related to a period between October 2008 and August 2013 and by a combination of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X (acquired between July 2010 and October 2012, both of them in ascending orbit, processed applying SBAS (Small BAseline Subset method, are available. GB-InSAR data related to five different campaigns of measurements, referred to the summer seasons of 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2012, are available, as well. The third step relies on data integration, performed firstly from a qualitative point of view and later from a semi-quantitative point of view. The results of the proposed procedure have been validated by comparing them to GPS (Global Positioning System data. The proposed procedure allowed us to better define landslide sectors in terms of different ranges of displacements. From a qualitative point of view, stable and unstable areas have been distinguished. In the sector concerning movement, two different sectors have been defined thanks to the results of the semi-quantitative integration step: the first sector, concerning displacement values higher than 10 mm, and the 2nd sector, where the displacements did not exceed a 10-mm value of displacement in the analyzed period.

  16. Attenuation characteristics of seismic motion based on earthquake observation records. Identification of damping factor at hard rock sites and its influences on ground stability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Kanatani, Mamoru; Ohtori, Yasuki

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we examined validity of currently available ground stability evaluation method by applying commonly used damping factor which was invariant for frequency. First, we conducted a survey of the actual conditions of damping factors, which were used in ground stability evaluation, on 10 existing nuclear power plants. As a result, we found that damping factor of 0.03(3%) was used in of 80 percent investigated plants. Next, a spectral inversion method using very fast simulated annealing was proposed for identifying damping factor and its lower limit. Here, the lower limit of damping factor means intrinsic damping factor. The developed inversion method was applied to borehole array data recorded at hard rock ground. From the inversion, it was found that intrinsic damping factor of hard rock ground distributed between about 0.03(3%) and 0.06(3%) at a depth of less than 100m, and between about 0.003(0.3%) and 0.01(1%) at a depth of more than 100m. Furthermore, we indicated that scattering damping factor with in a depth of less than 100m was in proportion to the almost -1.0 power of the frequency, and the factor in a depth of more than 100m had a peak in a frequency range from about 1.0 to 5.0 Hz. Therefore, it was recognized that commonly used damping of 0.03(3%) expressed intrinsic damping factor of shallower hard rock ground. Finally, we estimated the influences of damping factor on ground stability evaluation by 2D dynamic FEM analyses of hard rock foundation ground considering 8 slipping lines using 6 combinations of damping factor. It was demonstrated that the variation of damping factor was not so decisive on the results of ground stability evaluation. This suggests present ground stability evaluation method by applying commonly used damping factor is reasonable for hard rock sites. (author)

  17. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs

  19. Environmental surveillance status and assessment of the marking of ground waters and waterways around nuclear sites and radioactive waste old warehousing sites. Report for the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the general objectives of environment radioactivity surveillance (notions about origin and behaviour of radioactive species in the environment, role of surveillance), this report describes the environment surveillance organisation and the investigations performed by the IRSN. It presents an overview of the current knowledge of the radiological status around the various French nuclear sites (radioactive effluent rejections, nuclear waste old warehousing sites, surface waters and soils, ground waters). It recalls and describes how surveillance results are published by the different involved parties. Each site is more precisely presented in appendix with its geological context, its surveillance equipment and results

  20. Forsmark site investigation. Detailed ground magnetic survey and lineament interpretation in the Forsmark area, 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans; Pitkaenen, Timo; Keisu, Mikael (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The report presents detailed ground magnetic measurements carried out on an 11.1 km2 area in the Forsmark site investigation area. The main objective of this activity is to determine a detailed ground magnetic representation of the bedrock. The results from previous surveys were encouraging and have led to a broad geophysical programme for investigation of lineaments at Forsmark. This report comprises the results from the second and final phase of the extended survey programme and a compilation and summary of all phases in the programme. On ground and on lake ice, a grid with parallel lines was staked. Measurements of the magnetic total field were carried out along profiles, perpendicular to the staked lines, with a profile spacing of 10 m and a station spacing of 5 m. Measurements on the ice-covered sea bays were carried out by a two man crew. One crew member walked along the survey lines, carrying a RTK-GPS guiding the other crew member who measured the magnetic total field. No seaborne survey was carried out in the final phase. Previously, using a high accuracy RTK-GPS unit for boat navigation gave a seaborne survey grid of on average 10 m line spacing and 2-3 m station spacing. In total 427,238 magnetic survey stations have been measured and an area of 4.7 km2 has been surveyed from boat. The magnetic pattern in the survey area can be divided into six main areas with different magnetic character. Along the southwest margin of the survey area the magnetic pattern is intensely banded with rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands striking southeast-northwest, which to the northeast changes to a gentler, banded pattern of low to moderate magnetic intensity. To the northeast, at the SFR office and along the coastline to the southeast, the pattern is again intensely banded with, southeast-northwest trending, rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands. These two banded structures probably forms fold limbs of a common fold with a northwest oriented fold axis

  1. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and ground water at selected sites on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.S.; Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Relative stable isotopic ratios for hydrogen and oxygen compared to standard mean ocean water are presented for water from 4 surface-water sites and 38 ground-water sites on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The surface-water samples were collected monthly from March 1991 through April 1992 and after a storm event on June 18, 1992. The ground-water samples either were collected during 1991 or 1992. These data were collected as part of the US Geological Survey's continuing hydrogeological investigations at the INEL. The relative isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are reported as delta 2 H (δ 2 H) and as delta 18 O (δ 18 O), respectively. The values of δ 2 H and δ 18 O in water from the four surface-water sites ranged from -143.0 to -122 and from -18.75 to -15.55, respectively. The values of δ 2 H and δ 18 O in water from the 38 ground-water sites ranged from -141.0 to -120.0 and from -18.55 to -14.95, respectively

  2. Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.

    2009-04-01

    Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method Selma KADIOGLU Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan/ANKARA-TURKEY kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr Anatolia has always been more the point of transit, a bridge between West and East. Anatolia has been a home for ideas moving from all directions. So it is that in the Roman and post-Roman periods the role of Anatolia in general and of Ancyra (the Roman name of Ankara) in particular was of the greatest importance. Now, the visible archaeological remains of Roman period in Ankara are Roman Bath, Gymnasium, the Temple of Augustus of Rome, Street, Theatre, City Defence-Wall. The Caesar Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, conquered Asia Minor in 25 BC. Then a marble temple was built in Ancyra, the administrative capital of province, today the capital of Turkish Republic, Ankara. This monument was consecrated to the Empreror and to the Goddess Rome. This temple is supposed to have built over an earlier temple dedicated to Kybele and Men between 25 -20 BC. After the death of the Augustus in 14AD, a copy of the text of "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. In the 5th century, it was converted in to a church by the Byzantines. The aim of this study is to determine old buried archaeological remains in the Augustus temple, Roman Bath and in the governorship agora in Ulus district. These remains were imaged with transparent three dimensional (3D) visualization of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. Parallel two dimensional (2D) GPR profile data were acquired in the study areas, and then a 3D data volume were built using parallel 2D GPR data. A simplified amplitude-colour range and appropriate opacity function were constructed and transparent 3D image were obtained to activate buried

  3. Ground stone tool assemblages at the end of the Chalcolithic period: A preliminary analysis of the Late Chalcolithic sites in the Fazael Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggai Cohen-Klonymus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The very Late Chalcolithic sites of the Fazael Valley exhibit changes in settlement patterns and material culture. This paper presents the analysis of the ground stone tool assemblages of these sites, and includes the combination of attribute analysis, functional typology, and spatial and contextual analyses, allowing comparisons both between the different sites and between different phases within the sites. The assemblages of the late sites of Fazael 2 and Fazael 7 show similar use of raw materials and tool design, which is clearly different from the assemblage of the earlier typical Ghassulian Chalcolithic site of Fazael 1. In Fazael 2, two phases revealed a shift from the use of large grinding tools to mortars and small grinding tools. In both the earlier and the later phases, the separation of activity areas within the site is clear. Grinding activity in both phases is restricted to the western side of the site, while mortars and spindle whorls were found only in the south-eastern part. Finally, a comparison with Fazael 1, as well as with other Late Chalcolithic sites, such as Gilat, 'Ein Hilu and 'En Esur, show that the large number of mortars found in Fazael 2 and Fazael 7 is unique, and may hint at a shift to different subsistence strategies appearing in this region in the latest phases of the Chalcolithic period.

  4. Site selection for disposal of nuclear waste - on what grounds? A report from hearings at the Council June 4-5 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Waste Council's own knowledge-building on site selection, the Council organized a hearing on the what grounds site selection will be made. The public hearing, had several objectives: to contribute to knowledge building on site selection for Nuclear Waste Council and other actors, to contribute to an improved basis for site selection by clarifying the factors and values of importance, to clarify the different actors' expectations SKB's future accounting, to highlight how to deal with different aspects (safety, geological, environmental, infrastructural, socio-economic and democratic) instruments for site selection, and to identify operators of critical issues. The report is divided into the following sections: The Government's View on the upcoming Site Selection; the Site Selection Process, The View of the Local Communities on the Site Selection; the Current Status of the Selection Process, SKB's plans, the Site-Selection Factors; he Authorities' perspective; the Environmental Organizations perspective; Reflections of the Council on the Hearings; Discussion and Analysis of Key Issues related to Groundwater Flow, Final Discussion

  5. LONG-TERM STABILITY OF THE LOCAL GROUND CONTROL NETWORK AT THE CO-LOCATION SITE OF MEDICINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, C.; Sarti, P.; Legrand, J.

    2009-12-01

    ITRF combinations rely on the availability of accurate tie vectors linking reference points of space geodetic techniques. Co-located instruments are assumed to move consistently and no local relative motion is taken into account. Instabilities may degrade the quality of the co-location itself and perturb the result of ITRF combinations. This work aims to determine the stability of the local ground control network at Medicina (Italy) with independent surveying methods. The observatory hosts a co-location between a VLBI telescope and two GPS antennas, MEDI and MSEL. It is located in the Po Plain where thick layers of clays are the prevalent soil characteristics. Hence, provision of long term stability of geodetic monuments is a challenge and monitoring their stability is an issue. MEDI and the VLBI station regularly contribute to the determination of ITRF, while MSEL is part of the EUREF network. A set of five tie vectors observations linking the VLBI and MEDI reference points was acquired between 2001 and 2007. It is our main tool for performing local deformation analysis. Additionally, the GPS time series of MEDI and MSEL were used to cross check and confirm the local instability detected by terrestrial methods. To achieve a rigorous and reliable investigation of the local stability, multi-epoch terrestrial observations were homogeneously processed according to common parameterizations in a consistent reference frame. Similarly, continuous GPS observations from MEDI and MSEL were analysed according to the new EPN reprocessing strategy in order to monitor the short baseline between MEDI and MSEL; to spotlight any change in its length. Both approaches confirm differential motions at the site which can be related to monument instabilities originated by the particularly unfavourable local geological setting and the inapt design of the monuments foundation. The monuments move non homogeneously at rates reaching up to 1.6 mm/year, this value being comparable to intra

  6. STS, symmetry and post-truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This essay takes up a series of questions about the connection between 'symmetry' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and 'post-truth' in contemporary politics. A recent editorial in this journal by Sergio Sismondo argues that current discussions of 'post-truth' have little to do with conceptions of 'symmetry' or with concerns about 'epistemic democracy' in STS, while others, such as Steve Fuller and Harry Collins, insist that there are such connections. The present essay discusses a series of questions about the meaning of 'post-truth' and 'symmetry', and the connections of those concepts to each other and to 'epistemic democracy'. The essay ends with a series of other questions about STS and contemporary politics, and an invitation to further discussions.

  7. Can partisan voting lead to truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Redner, S.

    2011-02-01

    We study an extension of the voter model in which each agent is endowed with an innate preference for one of two states that we term as 'truth' or 'falsehood'. Due to interactions with neighbors, an agent that innately prefers truth can be persuaded to adopt a false opinion (and thus be discordant with its innate preference) or the agent can possess an internally concordant 'true' opinion. Parallel states exist for agents that inherently prefer falsehood. We determine the conditions under which a population of such agents can ultimately reach a consensus for the truth, reach a consensus for falsehood, or reach an impasse where an agent tends to adopt the opinion that is in internal concordance with its innate preference with the outcome that consensus is never achieved.

  8. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.; Larson, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides the hazard categorizations and classifications for the activities associated with the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) remediation. Categories and classifications presented are applicable only to the 300-FF-1 OU waste sites specifically listed in the inventory. The purpose of this remedial action is to remove contaminated soil, debris, and solid waste from liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4 within the 300-FF-1 OU. Resulting waste from this project will be sent to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) in the 200 West Area. The 300-FF-1 OU is part of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and is next to the Columbia River. The objective of this remedial action is to reduce contamination at these waste sites to levels that are acceptable for industrial purposes. Specific remedial objectives (cleanup goals) for each contaminant of concern (COC) are provided in a table, along with the maximum soil concentration detected

  9. Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happel, A.M.; Rice, D.; Beckenbach, E.; Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R.; Dooher, B.

    1996-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites

  10. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib

  11. The Experience of Truth in Jazz Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    2015-01-01

    This is a book on truth, experience, and the interrelations between these two fundamental philosophical notions. The questions of truth and experience have their roots at the very heart of philosophy, both historically and thematically. This book gives an insight into how philosophers working...... in the fields of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics respond to challenges posed by these questions, not only in relation to the history of philosophy, but to philosophy itself. The book contains texts written by distinguished professors and in particular by young scholars. It is the result...

  12. Truth, laws and the progress of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dorato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic meta-induction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that appear in the laws.

  13. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  14. Site Evaluation for Application of Fuel Cell Technology, Naval Hospital - Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, CA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binder, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...). CERL has selected and evaluated application sites, supervised the design and installation of fuel cells, actively monitored the operation and maintenance of fuel cells, and compiled "lessons learned...

  15. A logical approach to fuzzy truth hedges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esteva, F.; Godo, L.; Noguera, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 1 (2013), s. 366-385 ISSN 0020-0255 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * Standard completeness * Truth hedges Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/noguera-0469148.pdf

  16. Corporate truth: the limits to transparency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henriques, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    ... plc What the directors' report should cover Conditions of use of the Rio Tinto website Practical complicity 75 83 90 95 98 160 FIGURES 3.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 The ring of truth The global trend in non-fi...

  17. Gödel, Truth and Proof

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    -, č. 82 (2007), s. 1-10 E-ISSN 1742-6596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/04/0117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Gödel * incompleteness of arithmetic * proof vs. truth Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.iop.org/EJ/ toc /1742-6596/82/1

  18. La verità scientifica - Scientific truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mazzeo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific theory is not a speculation. On the contrary it is based on facts and observations. Nevertheless the facts and the observations are unable to show us the truth about the world. Indeed to understand the facts or even to discover them through experiments we need a starting theory about the world. Therefore the world is not only discovered by us, but we can say that it is created by our brain. Facts are the constraints for the possible theories and theories are creations of our minds to understand the facts. There are no facts without a theory in mind, and there are no scientific theories about the world without facts. It is obvious therefore that science cannot give any absolute truth but “only” temporary truths which will change with new discoveries and theories. The scientific truth is therefore unstable: after few decades the concepts become unable to explain the news discoveries and become old, but the new concepts will include the old ones. This is called science progress. In this work we analyze all these points discussing the historical creation of the gravitational theory from Aristotle to Newton.

  19. An Exchange on "Truth and Methods."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughie, Pamela L.; Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1996-01-01

    Takes issue with Reed Way Dasenbrock's criticism of literary theory and the terms under which literary interpretation and discussion take place. Presents Dasenbrock's reply, which discusses his understanding of certain terms (evidence, truth, debate), his description of the problem, and the logical contradictions he finds internal to…

  20. 76 FR 18354 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... extent that a creditor imposed charges that were inconsistent with Regulation Z while the account was... amounts charged during the period the account was exempt or to provide disclosures regarding transactions...) amends the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) by increasing the threshold for exempt consumer credit...

  1. Lost Academic Souls and the Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, William M.

    The connection between knowing the truth and some version of how men should live has always guided those who would lead the university. Walls around a campus or geographic isolation cannot prevent social pressures from affecting the institution. Colleges and universities have always been politicalized. The danger lies not in that fact but in the…

  2. What Truth in Lending Means to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school economics students, this pamphlet discusses the provisions of the Truth in Lending Law. The act requires that creditors state credit charges in a uniform way. The pamphlet provides a brief description of finance charges and annual percentage rates. It also focuses on…

  3. Problematizing Religious Truth: Implications for Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblith, Suzanne; Priestman, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The question motivating this paper is whether or not there can be standards governing the evaluation of truth claims in religion. In other areas of study such as physics, math, history, and even value-laden realms like morality there is some widespread agreement as to what constitutes good thinking. If such a standard existed in religion, then our…

  4. Beauty, a road to the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, T.A.F.

    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of the relation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the one hand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called 'mere-exposure effect' which has been more or less established in experimental psychology regarding

  5. 76 FR 11319 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be... Final Rule Congress enacted TILA based on findings that economic stability would be enhanced and... Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA), also provides that its principal obligation limitations are subject...

  6. 75 FR 81836 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be enhanced and... MDIA is contained in Sections 2501 through 2503 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, Public Law 110-289, enacted on July 30, 2008. The MDIA was later amended by the Emergency Economic...

  7. Truth and (self) censorship in military memoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinreesink, E.; Soeters, J.M.M.L.

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult for researchers from outside the military to gain access to the field. However, there is a rich source on the military that is readily available for every researcher: military memoirs. This source does provide some methodological challenges with regard to truth and (self)

  8. Scientific revolution, incommensurability and truth in theories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific revolution, incommensurability and truth in theories: objection to Kuhn's perspective. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... The core of our discussion is, ultimately, to provide a clearer and broader picture of the general characteristics of scientific revolution or theory change.

  9. Development of methods and criteria for a standardized evaluation of contaminated sites and abandoned waste disposal sites particularly concerning their ground water contamination potential. Pt. 1. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerndorff, H.; Schleyer, R.; Arneth, J.D.; Struppe, T.; Milde, G.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated sites should be evaluated to such an extend, that nearly all risks for man and environment can be safely estimated. An assessment for such sites is presented which combines a substance-specific and a site-specific evaluation. It is a standardized path-specific concept in which - as an example - the contamination path ''waste - groundwater - drinking-water'' is investigated and evaluated in detail. Path-specific main contaminants are established on a statistic basis and ranked according to normalized evaluation numbers of 1-100. Their toxicity potential is calculated for which a particular and standardized method was developed. Main contaminants having a high toxicity potential are called priority contaminants. For the most important exposure/usage on this contamination path, the drinking-water catchment, hygienic and toxicologic based standards are presented. Together with site-specific conditions and the also path-specific and normalized transfer/persistency potential of the priority contaminants it is possible to come to a site- and usage/exposure-specific evaluation of individual sites. (orig.) [de

  10. Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content ; results of comparative measurements at two test sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeeren, R.A. van; Sariowan, S.V.; Gehrels, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide information on the soil water content of the unsaturated zone in sandy deposits via measurements from the surface, and so avoids drilling. Proof of this was found from measurements of radar wave velocities carried out ten times over 13 months at two test

  11. Interdependence versus Truth and Justice: Lessons from Reconciliation Processes in Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Kusumaningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth commissions and trials have been applauded as the way to move on from a violent past. Yet, some post-conflict societies managed to move toward reconciliation without the presence, or the effective presence of such formal institutions. This article discusses a number of lessons learned from Maluku, where reconciliation took the interdependence path. Taking on an interpretive, emic approach, it elaborates on the sites and mechanisms of interpendence. It argues that interdependence can be as viable as truth and justice procedures in bringing about reconciliation.

  12. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoreticanalysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Geologic Maps and Cross Sections of the Tuba City Open Dump Site and Vicinity, With Implications for the Occurrence and Flow of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Johnson, Ray H.; Horton, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    This report is designed to make available to interested parties geologic and limited hydrologic and geochemical information about the Tuba City Open Dump (TCOD) site. This information has been gathered during studies of the site from January to September 2008. Mapping by the authors and construction of cross sections show that a section of gently northeast-dipping Jurassic sedimentary rocks underlies the TCOD and vicinity. Low mesas in the area are capped by variably cemented gravels and siliceous limestones. Surficial sediments are composed of eolian sand and fluvially reworked eolian sand that overlie bedrock underneath the TCOD. Nearby Pasture Canyon is underlain by fluvial and floodplain sediment consisting of sand and silt. Shallow ground water of the water-table aquifer at the TCOD moves westward through the surficial sediment and the underlying weathered bedrock to Pasture Canyon then southward along the canyon. A fracture zone extends up the wash that passes just to the north of the TCOD and brings deeper ground water of the N-aquifer to the water-table aquifer. Bedrock consists of the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone composed of thick sections of eolian crossbedded sandstone with lesser laterally discontinuous layers of silty sandstone, siltstone, and limestone. Below the Navajo Sandstone is a section informally known as the Kayenta Formation-Navajo Sandstone transition zone. It is composed of calcareous sandstone, silty sandstone, siltstone, and limestone beds that intertongue with crossbedded sandstone. The finer grained rocks in both major bedrock units form aquitards that limit downward movement of ground water. The water-table aquifer is perched on these aquitards, which locally occurs beneath the two open dumps that form the TCOD site. A monocline occupies the position of Pasture Canyon west of the TCOD. Fractures likely related to the monocline are exposed in several localities. Deep ground waters consist of dilute calcium-bicarbonate waters low in all

  15. Ground-water levels and precipitation data at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky, October 1988-September 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettwoch, Douglas D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet--Department for Environmental Protection--Division of Waste Management, has an ongoing program to monitor water levels at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky. Ground-water-level and precipitation data were collected from 112 wells and 1 rain gage at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site during October 1988-September 2000. Data were collected on a semi-annual basis from 62 wells, continuously from 6 wells, and monthly or bimonthly from 44 wells (13 of which had continuous recorders installed for the period October 1998-September 2000). One tipping-bucket rain gage was used to collect data at the Maxey Flats site for the period October 1988-September 2000.

  16. Assessment of Westinghouse Hanford Company methods for estimating radionuclide release from ground disposal of waste water at the N Reactor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of an independent assessment by Golder Associates, Inc. of the methods used by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and its predecessors to estimate the annual offsite release of radionuclides from ground disposal of cooling and other process waters from the N Reactor at the Hanford Site. This assessment was performed by evaluating the present and past disposal practices and radionuclide migration data within the context of the hydrology, geology, and physical layout of the N Reactor disposal site. The conclusions and recommendations are based upon the available data and simple analytical calculations. Recommendations are provided for conducting more refined analyses and for continued field data collection in support of estimating annual offsite releases. Recommendations are also provided for simple operational and structural measures that should reduce the quantities of radionuclides leaving the site. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Estimation of the release and migration of nickel through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    An assessment was performed to evaluate release and transport of nickel from large metal components containing nickel-bearing alloys at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The potential for nickel within the components to enter groundwater under the burial site was investigated by examining available data on the site's geology, geochemistry, and geohydrology to develop a conceptual model for release and transport of nickel from the components. In addition, laboratory studies were performed to provide information needed for the model, but which was not available from existing databases. Estimates of future concentrations of nickel radioisotopes ( 59 Ni and 63 Ni) and total elemental nickel in the unconfined aquifer and in the Columbia River were developed based on this information

  18. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site

  19. Implications of the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake for ground motion scaling with source, path, and site parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Midorikawa, Saburoh; Graves, Robert W.; Khodaverdi, Khatareh; Kishida, Tadahiro; Miura, Hiroyuki; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    The Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki Japan earthquake produced approximately 2,000 ground motion recordings. We consider 1,238 three-component accelerograms corrected with component-specific low-cut filters. The recordings have rupture distances between 44 km and 1,000 km, time-averaged shear wave velocities of VS30 = 90 m/s to 1,900 m/s, and usable response spectral periods of 0.01 sec to >10 sec. The data support the notion that the increase of ground motions with magnitude saturates at large magnitudes. High-frequency ground motions demonstrate faster attenuation with distance in backarc than in forearc regions, which is only captured by one of the four considered ground motion prediction equations for subduction earthquakes. Recordings within 100 km of the fault are used to estimate event terms, which are generally positive (indicating model underprediction) at short periods and zero or negative (overprediction) at long periods. We find site amplification to scale minimally with VS30 at high frequencies, in contrast with other active tectonic regions, but to scale strongly with VS30 at low frequencies.

  20. The Truth and Harriet Martineau: Interpreting a Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    This paper explores the difficulty of claims to truth in the analysis of the life of the Victorian feminist, reformer, educationist, and celebrity, Harriet Martineau (1802-76). She was widely known as a truthful person. For example, her contemporary, the poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning, wrote in 1845 that "her love of the truth is proverbial…

  1. The Logic of Truth in Paraconsistent Internal Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bremer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses which modal principles should hold for a truth operator answering to the truth theory of internal realism. It turns out that the logic of truth in internal realism is isomorphic to the modal system S4.

  2. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  3. Influence of the extreme millennial values of the physical data of the natural environment on the ground and near underground. Application to waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinle-Thenevin, I.

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with effects of extreme climatic events in France on perenniality of radioactive or toxic waste disposal coverings or of tailing storage barriers. Three phenomena are quantified: erosion or scraping produced by storm showers, ground freezing depth caused by harsh winters and ground drying resulted from arid summers. To quantify this phenomena, we need statistical evaluation of the climatic events (erosivity of rain showers, frost severity index, drought severity indices), a study of the soil characteristics (petrography, thermal and hydraulic properties) and numeric models of soils (finite elements or finite differences methods). Last but not least, each method is applied to French sites chosen for their climate and their proximity to real or possible storage. Therefore, we show critical parameters for the design of waste disposal covering which takes into account extreme climatic events. (author)

  4. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  5. Ground-motion site effects from multimethod shear-wave velocity characterization at 16 seismograph stations deployed for aftershocks of the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Angster, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    We characterize shear-wave velocity versus depth (Vs profile) at 16 portable seismograph sites through the epicentral region of the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral (Virginia, USA) earthquake to investigate ground-motion site effects in the area. We used a multimethod acquisition and analysis approach, where active-source horizontal shear (SH) wave reflection and refraction as well as active-source multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and passive-source refraction microtremor (ReMi) Rayleigh wave dispersion were interpreted separately. The time-averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (Vs30), interpreted bedrock depth, and site resonant frequency were estimated from the best-fit Vs profile of each method at each location for analysis. Using the median Vs30 value (270–715 m/s) as representative of a given site, we estimate that all 16 sites are National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class C or D. Based on a comparison of simplified mapped surface geology to median Vs30 at our sites, we do not see clear evidence for using surface geologic units as a proxy for Vs30 in the epicentral region, although this may primarily be because the units are similar in age (Paleozoic) and may have similar bulk seismic properties. We compare resonant frequencies calculated from ambient noise horizontal:vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) at available sites to predicted site frequencies (generally between 1.9 and 7.6 Hz) derived from the median bedrock depth and average Vs to bedrock. Robust linear regression of HVSR to both site frequency and Vs30 demonstrate moderate correlation to each, and thus both appear to be generally representative of site response in this region. Based on Kendall tau rank correlation testing, we find that Vs30 and the site frequency calculated from average Vs to median interpreted bedrock depth can both be considered reliable predictors of weak-motion site effects in the epicentral region.

  6. Truth and beauty in contemporary urban photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Colistra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Does city still need photography? Or does it show itself more effectively through other forms of communication? The question brings us back almost two hundred years ago, at the time of the spread of the first daguerreotypes, when the query was: Does city still need painting? The question raises several other issues - truth and beauty, analogical and digital, truth and photo editing - that this essay examines by comparing some images. We are convinced that “the more we can speak of a picture, the more unlikely it is to speak of photography” (R. Barthes. The essay describes the work of some artists/photographers who have addressed the issue of urban photography. Works in which the figurative and visionary component is based on the interaction of traditional shooting techniques and processes of digital post-production.

  7. An inconvenient truth; Une verite qui derange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al, Gore

    2007-01-15

    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  8. Use of Loran-C navigation system to accurately determine sampling site location in an above ground cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, R.E.; Blankinship, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs often require accurate determination of sampling site locations in aquatic environments. This is especially true when a open-quotes pictureclose quotes of high resolution is needed for observing a changing variable in a given area and location is assumed to be important to the distribution of that variable. Sample site location can be difficult if few visible land marks are available for reference on a large body of water. The use of navigational systems such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and its predecessor, Loran-C, provide an excellent method for sample site location. McFarland (1992) discusses the practicality of GPS for location determination. This article discusses the use of Loran-C in a sampling scheme implemented at the South Texas Project Electrical Generating Station (STPEGS), Wadsworth, Texas

  9. Do citation systems represent theories of truth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the citation can be viewed not only as a "concept symbol" but also as a "boundary object". The scientific, legal, and patent citation systems in America are examined at the micro, meso, and macro levels in order to understand how they function as commodified theories of truth in contemporary knowledge representation. This approach also offers a meta-theoretical overview of existing citation research efforts in science, law, and technology that may be of interdisciplinary interest.

  10. Political Corruption as Deformities of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Allard-Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conception of corruption informed by epistemic democratic theory. I first explain the view of corruption as a disease of the political body. Following this view, we have to consider the type of actions that debase a political entity of its constitutive principal in order to assess corruption. Accordingly, we need to consider what the constitutive principle of democracy is. This is the task I undertake in the second section where I explicate democratic legitimacy. I present democracy as a procedure of social inquiry about what ought to be done that includes epistemic and practical considerations. In the third section, I argue that the problem of corruption for a procedural conception of democracy is that the epistemic value of the procedure is diminished by corrupted agents’ lack of concern for truth. Corruption, according to this view, consists in two deformities of truth: lying and bullshit. These deformities corrupt since they conceal private interests under the guise of a concern for truth. In the fourth section, I discuss the difficulties a procedural account may face in formulating solutions to the problem of corruption.

  11. Finding a single point of truth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, S.; Thijssen, H. [Autodesk Inc, Toronto, ON (Canada); Laslo, D.; Martin, J. [Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Electric utilities collect large volumes of data at every level of their business, including SCADA, Smart Metering and Smart Grid initiatives, LIDAR and other 3D imagery surveys. Different types of database systems are used to store the information, rendering data flow within the utility business process extremely complicated. The industry trend has been to endure redundancy of data input and maintenance of multiple copies of the same data across different solution data sets. Efforts have been made to improve the situation with point to point interfaces, but with the tools and solutions available today, a single point of truth can be achieved. Consolidated and validated data can be published into a data warehouse at the right point in the process, making the information available to all other enterprise systems and solutions. This paper explained how the single point of truth spatial data warehouse and process automation services can be configured to streamline the flow of data within the utility business process using the initiate-plan-execute-close (IPEC) utility workflow model. The paper first discussed geospatial challenges faced by utilities and then presented the approach and technology aspects. It was concluded that adoption of systems and solutions that can function with and be controlled by the IPEC workflow can provide significant improvement for utility operations, particularly if those systems are coupled with the spatial data warehouse that reflects a single point of truth. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2015-12-01

    Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and truth (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism.

  13. Knowledge does not protect against illusory truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K; Brashier, Nadia M; Payne, B Keith; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2015-10-01

    In daily life, we frequently encounter false claims in the form of consumer advertisements, political propaganda, and rumors. Repetition may be one way that insidious misconceptions, such as the belief that vitamin C prevents the common cold, enter our knowledge base. Research on the illusory truth effect demonstrates that repeated statements are easier to process, and subsequently perceived to be more truthful, than new statements. The prevailing assumption in the literature has been that knowledge constrains this effect (i.e., repeating the statement "The Atlantic Ocean is the largest ocean on Earth" will not make you believe it). We tested this assumption using both normed estimates of knowledge and individuals' demonstrated knowledge on a postexperimental knowledge check (Experiment 1). Contrary to prior suppositions, illusory truth effects occurred even when participants knew better. Multinomial modeling demonstrated that participants sometimes rely on fluency even if knowledge is also available to them (Experiment 2). Thus, participants demonstrated knowledge neglect, or the failure to rely on stored knowledge, in the face of fluent processing experiences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Information pertinent to the migration of radionuclides in ground water at the Nevada Test Site. Part 2: annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.; Stone, R.; Levy, H.B.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    Part 2 of UCRL-52078 consists of the bibliography and abstracts that were compiled in the course of searching the literature for information on the migration of radionuclides in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site. The bibliography also includes numerous references to work done at foreign nuclear centers or contracted to outside agencies by these same centers

  15. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND GROUND WATER AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES (EPA/540/S-01/500)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this issue paper is to provide a concise discussion of the processes associated with the use of phytoremediation as a cleanup or containment technique for remediation of hazardous waste sites. Introductory material on plant processes is provided. The different form...

  16. 76 FR 20287 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... may lead to the discovery of a significant environmental impact from this proposed rule. List of... engaged in activities associated with remediation efforts in the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site... activity can be performed without undue risk to environmental remediation efforts. Requests for waivers...

  17. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on soil, streambed sediment, and ground- and surface-water quality at a site near Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes the effects of burial and land application of municipal sewage sludge on soil and streambed sediment and water quality in the underlying aquifers and surface water within and around the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. The existing ground-water observation-well network at the disposal area was expanded for the study. Surface-water-sampling sites were selected so that runoff could be sampled from intense rainstorms or snowmelt. The sampling frequency for ground-water and surface-water runoff was changed from yearly to quarterly, and soil samples were collected. Four years of data were collected from 1984 to 1987 during the expanded monitoring program at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. These data, in addition to the data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1981 to 1983, were used to determine effects of sewage-sludge-disposal on soil and streambed sediment and surface- and ground-water quality at the disposal area.

  18. Digital Elevation Models of Patterned Ground in the Canadian Arctic and Implications for the Study of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, P.; Murakami, Y.; Clarke, J.; Sizemore, H.; Siegler, M.; Rupert, S.; Chevrier, V.

    2017-12-01

    Patterned ground forms in periglacial zones from both expansion and contraction of permafrost by freeze-thaw and sub-freezing temperature changes and has been observed on both Earth and Mars from orbital and the surface at the Phoneix and Viking 2 landing sites. The Phoenix mission to Mars studied patterned ground in the vicinity of the spacecraft including the excavation of a trench revealing water permafrost beneath the surface. A study of patterned ground at the Haughton Impact structure on Devon Island used stereo-pair imaging and three-dimensional photographic models to catalog the type and occurrence of patterned ground in the study area. This image catalog was then used to provide new insight into photographic observations gathered by Phoenix. Stereo-pair imagery has been a valuable geoscience tool for decades and it is an ideal tool for comparative planetary geology studies. Stereo-pair images captured on Devon Island were turned into digital elevation models (DEMs) and comparisons were noted between the permafrost and patterned ground environment of Earth and Mars including variations in grain sorting, active layer thickness, and ice table depth. Recent advances in 360° cameras also enabled the creation of a detailed, immersive site models of patterned ground at selected sites in Haughton crater on Devon Island. The information from this ground truth study will enable the development and refinement of existing models to better evaluate patterned ground on Mars and predict its evolution.

  19. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy''s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed

  20. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed.

  1. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Hydrogeology, ground-water flow, and tritium movement at low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garklavs, George; Healy, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Groundwater flow and tritium movement are described at and near a low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Flow in the shallow aquifer is confined to three basins that ultimately drain into a stripmine lake. Most of the flow from the site is through a buried, pebbly sandfilled channel. Remaining flow is toward alluvium of an existing stream. Conceptual flow models for the two largest basins are used to improve definition of flow velocity and direction. Flow velocities range from about 25 to 2,500 ft/yr. Tritium was found in all three basins. The most extensive migration of tritium is coincident with buried channel. Tritium concentrations ranged from detection level to more than 300 nanocuries/L. (USGS)

  3. Ground deformation monitoring using RADARSAT-2 DInSAR-MSBAS at the Aquistore CO2 storage site in Saskatchewan (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnogorska, M.; Samsonov, S.; White, D.

    2014-01-01

    The research objectives of the Aquistore CO2 storage project are to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods for measurement, and verification of CO2 storage, and to integrate data to determine subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Aquistore site is located near Estevan in Southern Saskatchewan on the South flank of the Souris River and west of the Boundary Dam Power Station and the historical part of Estevan coal mine in s...

  4. AND THE TRUTH SHALL SET YOU FREE. TRUTH COMMISSIONS AND CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael DELOACH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For societies suffering in the wake of a repressive regime, truth commissions may be a necessary compromise regarding the form of transitional justice pursued, but they can still play a far-reaching role in the democratization of civil-military relations. Because the perpetrators of past abuses are likely to continue to wield some level of power at the time of transition, prosecution of these members may be politically infeasible. Lacking the mandate to prosecute guilty parties or implement recommendations, truth commissions can still lay the foundation for a new era of civil-military relations. By distinguishing contemporary institutions from their past acts, revealing the patterns that allowed abuses to be carried out , and helping garner the political will for reforms, truth commissions can provide the impetus for the security sector reforms necessary to ensure a democratic future.

  5. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  6. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  7. The use of the truth and deception in dementia care amongst general hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alex; Eccles, Fiona; Keady, John; Simpson, Jane; Elvish, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Deceptive practice has been shown to be endemic in long-term care settings. However, little is known about the use of deception in dementia care within general hospitals and staff attitudes towards this practice. This study aimed to develop understanding of the experiences of general hospital staff and explore their decision-making processes when choosing whether to tell the truth or deceive a patient with dementia. This qualitative study drew upon a constructivist grounded theory approach to analyse data gathered from semi-structured interviews with a range of hospital staff. A model, grounded in participant experiences, was developed to describe their decision-making processes. Participants identified particular triggers that set in motion the need for a response. Various mediating factors influenced how staff chose to respond to these triggers. Overall, hospital staff were reluctant to either tell the truth or to lie to patients. Instead, 'distracting' or 'passing the buck' to another member of staff were preferred strategies. The issue of how truth and deception are defined was identified. The study adds to the growing research regarding the use of lies in dementia care by considering the decision-making processes for staff in general hospitals. Various factors influence how staff choose to respond to patients with dementia and whether deception is used. Similarities and differences with long-term dementia care settings are discussed. Clinical and research implications include: opening up the topic for further debate, implementing staff training about communication and evaluating the impact of these processes.

  8. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey at the Giribaile site (upper Guadalquivir valley; southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Rey, J.; Gutiérrez, L. M.; Novo, A.; Ortiz, A. J.; Alejo, M.; Galdón, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Giribaile archaeological site is one of the most important Iberian enclaves of the Alto Guadalquivir (Southern Spain). However, to date, only minimal excavation work has been performed at the site. Evaluation requires a preliminary, non-destructive general analysis to determine high-interest areas. This stage required a geophysical survey. Specifically, a 100 m2 grid was selected, where an initial campaign of nine electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) profiles was performed, where each profile was 111 m in length; these profiles were previously located using a detailed topographical survey. A total of 112 electrodes were used for each profile, spaced at 1 m apart with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Secondly, 201 GPR profiles were created using a 500 MHz antenna. The 100 m long profiles were spaced 0.5 m apart and parallel to one another. The present research analyses the efficiency of each of these geophysical tools in supporting archaeological research. Using these methodologies, the position, morphology, and depth of different buried structures can be determined. 3D interpretation of the geophysical survey in 100 × 100 m grid allowed to differentiate structures square and rectangular, interesting buildings in a semicircle (interpreted as ovens) plus delineate different streets. From the geophysical survey follows the Carthaginian presence inside this ancient Iberian enclave.

  9. The vital role of transcendental truth in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-04-01

    I have come to believe that science depends for its long-term success on an explicit and pervasive pursuit of the ideal of transcendental truth. 'Transcendental' implies that a value is ideal and ultimate - it is aimed-at but can only imperfectly be known, achieved or measured. So, transcendental truth is located outside of science; beyond scientific methods, processes and peer consensus. Although the ultimate scientific authority of a transcendental value of truth was a view held almost universally by the greatest scientists throughout recorded history, modern science has all-but banished references to truth from professional scientific discourse - these being regarded as wishful, mystical and embarrassing at best, and hypocritical or manipulative at worst. With truth excluded, the highest remaining evaluation mechanism is 'professional consensus' or peer review - beyond which there is no higher court of appeal. Yet in Human accomplishment, Murray argues that cultures which foster great achievement need transcendental values (truth, beauty and virtue) to be a live presence in the culture; such that great artists and thinkers compete to come closer to the ideal. So a scientific system including truth as a live presence apparently performs better than a system which excludes truth. Transcendental truth therefore seems to be real in the pragmatic sense that it makes a difference. To restore the primacy of truth to science a necessary step would be to ensure that only truth-seekers were recruited to the key scientific positions, and to exclude from leadership those who are untruthful or exhibit insufficient devotion to the pursuit of truth. In sum, to remain anchored in its proper role, science should through 'truth talk' frequently be referencing normal professional practice to transcendental truth values. Ultimately, science should be conducted at every level, from top to bottom, on the basis of what Bronowski termed the 'habit of truth'. Such a situation currently

  10. Establishment of a Site-Specific Tropospheric Model Based on Ground Meteorological Parameters over the China Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chongchong; Peng, Bibo; Li, Wei; Zhong, Shiming; Ou, Jikun; Chen, Runjing; Zhao, Xinglong

    2017-07-27

    China is a country of vast territory with complicated geographical environment and climate conditions. With the rapid progress of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS); more accurate tropospheric models must be applied to improve the accuracy of navigation and positioning. Based on the formula of the Saastamoinen and Callahan models; this study develops two single-site tropospheric models (named SAAS_S and CH_S models) for the Chinese region using radiosonde data from 2005 to 2012. We assess the two single-site tropospheric models with radiosonde data for 2013 and zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) data from four International GNSS Service (IGS) stations and compare them to the results of the Saastamoinen and Callahan models. The experimental results show that: the mean accuracy of the SAAS_S model (bias: 0.19 cm; RMS: 3.19 cm) at all radiosonde stations is superior to those of the Saastamoinen (bias: 0.62 cm; RMS: 3.62 cm) and CH_S (bias: -0.05 cm; RMS: 3.38 cm) models. In most Chinese regions; the RMS values of the SAAS_S and CH_S models are about 0.51~2.12 cm smaller than those of their corresponding source models. The SAAS_S model exhibits a clear improvement in the accuracy over the Saastamoinen model in low latitude regions. When the SAAS_S model is replaced by the SAAS model in the positioning of GNSS; the mean accuracy of vertical direction in the China region can be improved by 1.12~1.55 cm and the accuracy of vertical direction in low latitude areas can be improved by 1.33~7.63 cm. The residuals of the SAAS_S model are closer to a normal distribution compared to those of the Saastamoinen model. Single-site tropospheric models based on the short period of the most recent data (for example 2 years) can also achieve a satisfactory accuracy. The average performance of the SAAS_S model (bias: 0.83 cm; RMS: 3.24 cm) at four IGS stations is superior to that of the Saastamoinen (bias: -0.86 cm; RMS: 3.59 cm) and CH_S (bias: 0.45 cm; RMS: 3.38 cm

  11. Ground thermal and geomechanical conditions in a permafrost-affected high-latitude rock avalanche site (Polvartinden, northern Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Isaksen, Ketil; Lato, Matthew J.; Noetzli, Jeannette

    2018-04-01

    On 26 June 2008, a rock avalanche detached in the northeast facing slope of Polvartinden, a high-alpine mountain in Signaldalen, northern Norway. Here, we report on the observed and modelled past and present near-surface temperature regime close to the failure zone, as well as on a subsequent simulation of the subsurface temperature regime, and on initial geomechanical mapping based on laser scanning. The volume of the rock avalanche was estimated to be approximately 500 000 m3. The depth to the actual failure surface was found to range from 40 m at the back of the failure zone to 0 m at its toe. Visible in situ ice was observed in the failure zone just after the rock avalanche. Between September 2009 and August 2013, ground surface temperatures were measured with miniature temperature data loggers at 14 different localities, close to the original failure zone along the northern ridge of Polvartinden and on the valley floor. The results from these measurements and from a basic three-dimensional heat conduction model suggest that the lower altitudinal limit of permafrost at present is at 600-650 m a.s.l., which corresponds to the upper limit of the failure zone. A coupling of our in situ data with regional climate data since 1958 suggests a general gradual warming and that the period with highest mean near surface temperatures on record ended four months before the Signaldalen rock avalanche detached. A comparison with a transient permafrost model run at 10 m depth, representative for areas where snow accumulates, strengthen these findings, which are also in congruence with measurements in nearby permafrost boreholes. It is likely that permafrost in and near the failure zone is presently subject to degradation. This degradation, in combination with the extreme warm year antecedent to the rock failure, is seen to have played an important role in the detaching of the Signaldalen rock avalanche.