WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground transportation system

  1. Mixed-μ magnetic levitation for advanced ground transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1977-12-01

    The possibility of applying the mixed-μ principle for magnetic levitation to ground transport systems is examined. The system is developed specifically for suspension and useful lift to passive weight ratios exceeding 8:1 have been calculated. Application to a hybrid system where conventional wheel drive is used in conjunction with magnetic levitation is explained for urban transport. (author)

  2. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The U.S. Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. Computer code used: SWIFT II (flow and transport code). 4 figs., 12 refs

  3. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-02-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The US Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. 12 refs., 4 figs

  4. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  5. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  6. Optimizing the design of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, H.; Itoi, R.; Fujii, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Earth Resources Engineering; Uchida, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    In order to predict the long-term performance of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems, it is necessary to take into consideration well-to-well interference, especially in the presence of groundwater flow. A mass and heat transport model was developed to simulate the behavior of this type of system in the Akita Plain, northern Japan. The model was used to investigate different operational schemes and to maximize the heat extraction rate from the GCHP system. (author)

  7. Earth sciences contribution to the safe development of ground transportation systems in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Kouteva, M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper looks at land transport safety aspects paying main attention to natural disaster analysis in the context of the Central European Initiative. It highlights mainly seismicity issues and proposes to build a geodynamic model as a crucial necessity. This model combined with credible hazard scenarios, and with seismic microzonation studies represent the base for the realistic definition, including the energetic aspects, of the peak perturbations that can be experienced by different transportation systems

  8. Association of Prehospital Mode of Transport With Mortality in Penetrating Trauma: A Trauma System-Level Assessment of Private Vehicle Transportation vs Ground Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandling, Michael W; Nathens, Avery B; Shapiro, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-02-01

    Time to definitive care following injury is important to the outcomes of trauma patients. Prehospital trauma care is provided based on policies developed by individual trauma systems and is an important component of the care of injured patients. Given a paucity of systems-level trauma research, considerable variability exists in prehospital care policies across trauma systems, potentially affecting patient outcomes. To evaluate whether private vehicle prehospital transport confers a survival advantage vs ground emergency medical services (EMS) transport following penetrating injuries in urban trauma systems. Retrospective cohort study of data included in the National Trauma Data Bank from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, comprising 298 level 1 and level 2 trauma centers that contribute data to the National Trauma Data Bank that are located within the 100 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Of 2 329 446 patients assessed for eligibility, 103 029 were included in this study. All patients were 16 years or older, had a gunshot wound or stab wound, and were transported by ground EMS or private vehicle. In-hospital mortality. Of the 2 329 446 records assessed for eligibility, 103 029 individuals at 298 urban level 1 and level 2 trauma centers were included in the analysis. The study population was predominantly male (87.6%), with a mean age of 32.3 years. Among those included, 47.9% were black, 26.3% were white, and 18.4% were Hispanic. Following risk adjustment, individuals with penetrating injuries transported by private vehicle were less likely to die than patients transported by ground EMS (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.31-0.47). This association remained statistically significant on stratified analysis of the gunshot wound (OR,  0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.56) and stab wound (OR,  0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.52) subgroups. Private vehicle transport is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of death when compared with

  9. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  10. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre....... Secondary endpoints included modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, 30-day and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included; 265 with ground transport and 65 with helicopter, of which 87 (33%) and 22 (34%), received thrombolysis, respectively (p=0.88). Time from contact to triaging...

  11. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  12. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  14. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  15. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  16. Ground System Survivability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Avoidance Blast Mitigation Optimization Customer ILIR RDT&E Funding 5.0 % 0.5% GSS has a proven, technically proficient workforce that meets...Evaluation of Defensive-Aid Suites (ARMED) Common Automatic Fire Extinguishing System ( CAFES ) Transparent Armor Development Ground Combat Vehicle...Survey TRADOC (WFO, CNA, etc) Voice of the Customer Sy st em s En gi ne er in g Publish overarching MIL-STD, design guidelines, technical

  17. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  18. Development of suitability maps for ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hikari; Itoi, Ryuichi [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Inatomi, Tadasuke [YBM Co. Ltd., Kishiyama 589-10 Kitahata, Karatsu 847-1211 (Japan); Uchida, Youhei [Geological Survey of Japan, AIST Tsukuba Central 7, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    The thermophysical properties of subsurface materials (soils, sediments and rocks) and groundwater flow strongly affect the heat exchange rates of ground heat exchangers (GHEs). These rates can be maximized and the installation costs of the ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems reduced by developing suitability maps based on local geological and hydrological information. Such maps were generated for the Chikushi Plain (western Japan) using field-survey data and a numerical modeling study. First, a field-wide groundwater model was developed for the area and the results matched against measured groundwater levels and vertical temperature profiles. Single GHE models were then constructed to simulate the heat exchange performance at different locations in the plain. Finally, suitability maps for GCHP systems were prepared using the results from the single GHE models. Variations in the heat exchange rates of over 40% revealed by the map were ascribed to differences in the GHE locations, confirming how important it is to use appropriate thermophysical data when designing GCHP systems. (author)

  19. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  20. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  1. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Buchhorn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI. The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS, and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  2. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  3. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  4. Numerical simualtion of underground 37Ar transportation to the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Ruogu; Li Hua; Liu Cheng'an; Wu Jun

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring radioactive gas 37 Ar is an important technique for the On-Site Inspection(OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. In order to establish a theoretical model that can be used to calculate the appearing time and radioactivity of 37 Ar which transports to the ground after a nuclear explosion, the rock media in the test area is assumed to be a homogeneous porous media, without consideration of gas absorption by and release from the rock media. The seepage model in the porous media is used to calculate 37 Ar transportation. Computational results give the time 37 Ar leaks to the ground and the variation of its radioactivity with time. And we can analyze and consider the computational results when we have developed OSI noble gas monitoring systems and evaluated their effectiveness. (authors)

  5. Removal of heavy-metal pollutants from ground water using a reverse-osmosis/coupled-transport hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Ray, R.J.; Scholfield, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two membrane processes - reverse osmosis (RO) and coupled transport (CT) - are useful in removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions and producing purified water. Each process has advantages. RO produces clean water reliably and relatively inexpensively. However, the pollutants are removed nonselectively and cannot be appreciably concentrated. CT removes pollutants selectively and can concentrate them by several orders of magnitude, but CT suffers from limited reliability and performs poorly at low pollutant concentrations. By combining these two unit processes in a hybrid process, it is possible to capitalize on the advantages of each process and to minimize their disadvantages. The RO/CT hybrid process the authors are developing removes more than 98% of the uranium and chromium in a contaminated groundwater stream - reducing concentrations of each pollutant to less than 100 ppb. These pollutants are simultaneously recovered as a concentrate at metal-ion concentrations greater than 1 wt% in relatively pure form. The hybrid process promises to be reliable and to reduce treatment costs below that for costs if either CT or RO were used alone. Even more importantly, the high selectivity of the hybrid process minimizes the volume of waste requiring disposal

  6. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.; Novotny, R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES)

  7. GROUND TRANSPORTATION OF NUCLEAR PROPULSION STAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjon, P. L.

    1963-08-15

    The results of studies on transportation problems associated with the development and testing of nuclear rocket powered space vehicles at the static test size are presented. Factors involved in selecting a transport mode are discussed. Radiation shutdown considerations and a conceptual transporter capable of handling test articles of foreseeable size are examined. (D.C.W.)

  8. TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain

  9. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  10. The automated ground network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miles T.; Militch, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of the Automated Ground Network System (AGNS) project is to reduce Ground Network (GN) station life-cycle costs. To accomplish this goal, the AGNS project will employ an object-oriented approach to develop a new infrastructure that will permit continuous application of new technologies and methodologies to the Ground Network's class of problems. The AGNS project is a Total Quality (TQ) project. Through use of an open collaborative development environment, developers and users will have equal input into the end-to-end design and development process. This will permit direct user input and feedback and will enable rapid prototyping for requirements clarification. This paper describes the AGNS objectives, operations concept, and proposed design.

  11. Superconducting magnet suspensions in high speed ground transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A

    1973-08-01

    A technical and economic definition of high speed ground transport systems using magnetic suspensions is given. The full range of common superconducting suspensions and of propulsions are covered with designs produced for speeds ranging from 100 m/s (225 miles/hr) to 250 m/s (560 mile/hr). Technical descriptions of the vehicles, their suspensions, propulsions and tracks are given in some detail and operating costs are presented for all the systems together with details of the breakdown of costs and the capital costs involved. The design assumptions, the costing procedure and a cost sensitivity study are presented. It is concluded that the systems are technically feasible; that they are suited to existing duorail track for low speed running and that, in these circumstances, they would be economically viable over many routes.

  12. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.; Weng, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  13. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  14. Transport infrastructure monitoring: A ground based optical displacement monitoring system, field tests on a bridge, the Musmeci's bridge in Potenza, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagene, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    A gound based optical displacement monitoring system, "NIODIM", is being developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk in the framework of the activities of the European project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), funded in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The optical displacement monitoring system has now participated in two real life field campaigns one in Switzerland and one in Italy. The latter, the tests in Potenza, Italy, will be presented in the following. The NIODIM system has undergone some development during the last year to adopt it for use in a somewhat higher frequency domain by changing the camera sensor part. This to make it more useful for monitoring of structures with oscillation frequencies tens of Hz. The original system was intended to a large extent to monitor land slides, quick clay and rock slides and similar phenomena typically having a relatively slow time response. The system has been significantly speeded up from the original 12 Hz. Current tests have been performed at a frame rate of 64 Hz i.e., the camera part and data processing unit have been running on 64Hz. In connection with the tests in Italy the data processing has been upgraded to include sub-pixel resolution i.e., the measurement results are no longer limited by pixel borders or single pixels. The main part of the NIODIM system is a camera capable of operating at a sufficiently high frame rate. This camera will typically be mounted on firm ground and will depict and monitor a reference point, typically a light emitting diode, LED, which will be mounted on the object susceptible to move. A processing unit will acquire the images from the camera part and find the position of the LED in the image and compare that to threshold values and if required raise a warning or an alarm. The NIODIM system can either be a standalone system or be an integrated part of the overall ISTIMES system, the ISTIMES system

  15. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  16. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  17. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  18. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  19. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  20. Ground states of quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume

  1. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  2. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  3. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  4. Lightweight Monorail Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Harold F.; Wood, Kenneth E.; Strecker, Myron T.

    1987-01-01

    Report proposes monorail transportation system for zero-gravity environment. System carries materials and parts between locations on space station. Includes tubular rails instead of open channels usually found in overhead conveyor systems. Since resistance to torque of closed tube greater than that of open channel for same amount of material, tubular monorail designed for higher loads or for greater spacing between support points.

  5. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 183.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral... generator to ground before the generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power...

  6. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 120.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each...

  7. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  9. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  10. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  11. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  12. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  13. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  14. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  15. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  16. 25 CFR 39.703 - What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Funds § 39.703 What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation? 39.703 Section 39.703 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  17. Heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acts as a pneumatic spring for the system. This system is suitable for use in a nuclear-powered artificial heart

  18. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification

  19. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  20. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development: Reducing Costs in the Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  1. Simplified estimation technique for organic contaminant transport in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1984-05-01

    The analytical solution for one-dimensional dispersive-advective transport of a single solute in a saturated soil accompanied by adsorption onto soil surfaces and first-order reaction rate kinetics for degradation can be used to evaluate the suitability of potential sites for burial of organic chemicals. The technique can be used to the greatest advantage with organic chemicals that are present in ground waters in small amounts. The steady-state solution provides a rapid method for chemical landfill site evaluation because it contains the important variables that describe interactions between hydrodynamics and chemical transformation. With this solution, solute concentration, at a specified distance from the landfill site, is a function of the initial concentration and two dimensionless groups. In the first group, the relative weights of advective and dispersive variables are compared, and in the second group the relative weights of hydrodynamic and degradation variables are compared. The ratio of hydrodynamic to degradation variables can be rearranged and written as (a/sub L lambda)/(q/epsilon), where a/sub L/ is the dispersivity of the soil, lambda is the reaction rate constant, q is ground water flow velocity, and epsilon is the soil porosity. When this term has a value less than 0.01, the degradation process is occurring at such a slow rate relative to the hydrodynamics that it can be neglected. Under these conditions the site is unsuitable because the chemicals are unreactive, and concentrations in ground waters will change very slowly with distance away from the landfill site.

  2. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and ground water. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However,the input parameters used in these models are highly variable, and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  3. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  4. Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS - A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Felicia M; Zielinski, Martin D; Myers, Lucas A; Berns, Kathy S; Luke, Anurahda; Stubbs, James R; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald H; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2018-06-01

    prehospital blood product administration, opportunities for ground administration appear limited within the described system. MixFM, ZielinskiMD, MyersLA, BernsKS, LukeA, StubbsJR, ZietlowSP, JenkinsDH, SztajnkrycerMD. Prehospital blood product administration opportunities in ground transport ALS EMS - a descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):230-236.

  5. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Safety of High Speed Ground Transportation Systems : Analytical Methodology for Safety Validation of Computer Controlled Subsystems : Volume 2. Development of a Safety Validation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a methodology designed to assure that a sufficiently high level of safety is achieved and maintained in computer-based systems which perform safety cortical functions in high-speed rail or magnetic levitation ...

  7. Predictive capabilities of a two-dimensional model in the ground water transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.; Beskid, N.J.; Marmer, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The discharge of low-level radioactive waste into tailings ponds is a potential source of ground water contamination. The estimation of the radiological hazards related to the ground water transport of radionuclides from tailings retention systems depends on reasonably accurate estimates of the movement of both water and solute. A two-dimensional mathematical model having predictive capability for ground water flow and solute transport has been developed. The flow equation has been solved under steady-state conditions and the mass transport equation under transient conditions. The simultaneous solution of both equations is achieved through the finite element technique using isoparametric elements, based on the Galerkin formulation. However, in contrast to the flow equation solution, the weighting functions used in the solution of the mass transport equation have a non-symmetric form. The predictive capability of the model is demonstrated using an idealized case based on analyses of field data obtained from the sites of operating uranium mills. The pH of the solution, which regulates the variation of the distribution coefficient (K/sub d/) in a particular site, appears to be the most important factor in the assessment of the rate of migration of the elements considered herein

  8. Sail GTS ground system analysis: Avionics system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of two different concepts for the guidance, navigation and control test set signal ground system is presented. The first is a concept utilizing a ground plate to which crew station, avionics racks, electrical power distribution system, master electrical common connection assembly and marshall mated elements system grounds are connected by 4/0 welding cable. An alternate approach has an aluminum sheet interconnecting the signal ground reference points between the crew station and avionics racks. The comparison analysis quantifies the differences between the two concepts in terms of dc resistance, ac resistance and inductive reactance. These parameters are figures of merit for ground system conductors in that the system with the lowest impedance is the most effective in minimizing noise voltage. Although the welding cable system is probably adequate, the aluminum sheet system provides a higher probability of a successful system design.

  9. The beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The first proton beams have been transported along the transfer beamline and the diagnostic components have thus been used and tested under real operating conditions. The various electronic systems have been linked to the control system and the equipment can now be operated from the control console. The performance of the diagnostic system for the transfer beamline is satisfactory. The beam diagnostic components for the high-energy beamlines up to the isotope production and neutron therapy vaults and the first experimental target rooms have been installed. The high-energy slits have been delivered. The scanner and harp electronics have been installed and linked to their respective components in the beamlines. The pneumatic acuator control electronics has been manufactured, installed and is operational; provision has been made for special control features of the equipment in the therapy beamline. The high-voltage bias supply for the Faraday cups has been implemented. The installation of the beam current measurement system is nearing completion although part of it is already operational. A coaxial relay multiplexer for the capacitive phase probe signals has been manufactured and installed. The diagnostic equipment for the beamlines to isotope production and neutron therapy is thus ready for operation. 4 figs

  10. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  11. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  12. Climate change, productivity shocks and demand for freight ground transportation in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevdokimov, Y. |; New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB; Byelyayev, O.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of climate change on the transportation sector in a regional context. The purpose was to analyze potential climate change impacts on demand for freight transportation in Atlantic Canada through its association with other sectors of the regional economy. Freight transportation is designed to meet transportation demands of commodity producers who must deliver their goods to final users. Since it is a by-product of profit maximization and cost minimization by producers of all types of commodities in various sectors of the economy, this study modelled climate change impacts as productivity shocks in relevant sectors of the economy. A computerized simulation was then used to determine how the consequences of these shocks influence the demand for freight transportation. This was accomplished by collecting climate related data in Atlantic Canada as well as aggregate economic data that reflects the economic performance of the regional economy. A growth model that links regional economy to freight transportation was then developed and different scenarios for future developments associated with climate change impacts were evaluated. Computer simulation with Mathcad-8 showed that the conditions specified in the best-case scenario, expected-case scenario and worst-case scenario resulted in a cumulative loss in demand for ground freight transportation of 7.213, 582.127 and 610.92 billion tonne-kilometers respectively, over the 2001-2100 period. In general, the results of the computer simulation demonstrated a considerable decrease in the demand for ground freight transportation in Atlantic Canada resulting from climate change impacts. The loss in demand was found to occur mostly in the first half of this century, with some recovery in the second half because the economic system would adapt to new climate conditions. It was recommended that policy instruments such as regulations or taxes, should be put in place to reduce the impacts

  13. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  14. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  15. Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederix, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)

  16. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  17. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and groundwater. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However, the input parameters used in these models are highly variable; and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  18. Ground penetrating radar system and method for detecting an object on or below a ground surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jongth, R.; Yarovoy, A.; Schukin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar system for detecting objects (17) on or below a ground surface (18), comprising at least one transmit antenna (13) having a first foot print (14) at the ground surface, at least one receive antenna (15) having a second foot print (16) at the ground surface, and processing

  19. TESS Ground System Operations and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Ana; Guerrero, Natalia; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the ground system operations for processing data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), highlighting the role of the Science Operations Center (SOC). TESS is a spaced-based (nearly) all-sky mission, designed to find small planets around nearby bright stars using the transit method. We detail the flow of data from pixel measurements on the instrument to final products available at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The ground system relies on a host of players to process the data, including the Payload Operations Center at MIT, the Science Processing Operation Center at NASA Ames, and the TESS Science Office, led by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and MIT. Together, these groups will deliver TESS Input Catalog, instrument calibration models, calibrated target pixels and full frame images, threshold crossing event reports, two-minute light curves, and the TESS Objects of Interest List.

  20. Intelligent systems for KSC ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1992-01-01

    The ground processing and launch of Shuttle vehicles and their payloads is the primary task of Kennedy Space Center. It is a process which is largely manual and contains little inherent automation. Business is conducted today much as it was during previous NASA programs such as Apollo. In light of new programs and decreasing budgets, NASA must find more cost effective ways in which to do business while retaining the quality and safety of activities. Advanced technologies including artificial intelligence could cut manpower and processing time. This paper is an overview of the research and development in Al technology at KSC with descriptions of the systems which have been implemented, as well as a few under development which are promising additions to ground processing software. Projects discussed cover many facets of ground processing activities, including computer sustaining engineering, subsystem monitor and diagnosis tools and launch team assistants. The deployed Al applications have proven an effectiveness which has helped to demonstrate the benefits of utilizing intelligent software in the ground processing task.

  1. Advanced public transportation systems benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Benefits and cost savings for various Advanced Public Transportation Systems are outlined here. Operational efficiencies are given for Transit Management Systems in different locales, as well as compliant resolution and safety. Electronic Fare Paymen...

  2. Intelligent Transportation Systems : critical standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards are industry-consensus standards that provide the details about how different systems interconnect and communicate information to deliver the ITS user services described in the National ITS Architect...

  3. Towards a reference architecture for a collaborative intelligent transport system infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osório, A.L.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The intelligent transport systems, which aim at providing smarter transport infrastructures and sustainable mobility, are deeply grounded on the Information and Communication Technologies. Current trends in the development of integrated complex systems, such as integrated road/highway concessions

  4. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  5. Modeling ground water flow and radioactive transport in a fractured aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohll, G.; Hassan, A.E.; Chapman, J.B.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical modeling is used to characterize ground water flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal nuclear test site in north-central Nevada. The fractured rock aquifer at the site is modeled using an equivalent porous medium approach. Field data are used to characterize the fracture system into classes: large, medium, and no/small fracture zones. Hydraulic conductivities are assigned based on discrete interval measurements. Contaminants from the Shoal test are assumed to all be located within the cavity. Several challenging issues are addressed in this study. Radionuclides are apportioned between surface deposits and volume deposits in nuclear melt glass, based on their volatility and previous observations. Surface-deposited radionuclides are released hydraulically after equilibration of the cavity with the surrounding ground water system, and as a function of ground water flow through the higher-porosity cavity into the low-porosity surrounding aquifer. Processes that are modeled include the release functions, retardation, radioactive decay, prompt injection, and in growth of daughter products. Prompt injection of radionuclides away from the cavity is found to increase the arrival of mass at the control plane but is not found to significantly impact calculated concentrations due to increased spreading. Behavior of the other radionuclides is affected by the slow chemical release and retardation behavior. The transport calculations are sensitive to many flow and transport parameters. Most important are the heterogeneity of the flow field and effective porosity. The effect of porosity in radioactive decay is crucial and has not been adequately addressed in the literature. For reactive solutes, retardation and the glass dissolution rate are also critical

  6. A proposed strategy for the validation of ground-water flow and solute transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Goodrich, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water flow and transport models can be thought of as a combination of conceptual and mathematical models and the data that characterize a given system. The judgment of the validity or invalidity of a model depends both on the adequacy of the data and the model structure (i.e., the conceptual and mathematical model). This report proposes a validation strategy for testing both components independently. The strategy is based on the philosophy that a model cannot be proven valid, only invalid or not invalid. In addition, the authors believe that a model should not be judged in absence of its intended purpose. Hence, a flow and transport model may be invalid for one purpose but not invalid for another. 9 refs

  7. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...

  8. Self-Organized Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-28

    This report presents the findings of the simulation model for a self-organized transport system where traffic lights communicate with neighboring traffic lights and make decisions locally to adapt to traffic conditions in real time. The model is insp...

  9. Grounding transport planning on principles of social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Transport modeling and cost-bene?t analysis are two key tools used in trans-port planning. Both tools have been adapted substantially to cope with thechallenges posed by the goal of sustainable development. However, the changeshave primarily focused on the negative environmental impacts of the

  10. Inactive trials of transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.

    1985-06-01

    The design and manufacture of a mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction (CHSR) facility, an experimental programme on the evaluation of a commercial air-transporter, and the selection, manufacture and commissioning trials of an integrated conveyor system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility, are considered. The mock-up facility was used for the test programme on the air-transporter and conveyor system. The air-transporter was considered suitable for transporting waste on the metal floor in the main dismantling area of the CHSR facility because it can tolerate asymmetric loading, the exhaust air flow liberated from the air-pads is low and it has excellent manoeuvrability. Commissioning trials were carried out on a commercial conveyor system consisting of unpowered rollers in the reception area, a powered slatted conveyor in the air-lock and an unpowered roller table placed on the air-transporter in the working area. It was demonstrated that a large asymmetrically loaded wooden crate can be transported into and within the facility by this method. Further design and experimental work necessary before the system can be used for remote operation is discussed. (author)

  11. Enhanced technologies for unattended ground sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartup, David C.

    2010-04-01

    Progress in several technical areas is being leveraged to advantage in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems. This paper discusses advanced technologies that are appropriate for use in UGS systems. While some technologies provide evolutionary improvements, other technologies result in revolutionary performance advancements for UGS systems. Some specific technologies discussed include wireless cameras and viewers, commercial PDA-based system programmers and monitors, new materials and techniques for packaging improvements, low power cueing sensor radios, advanced long-haul terrestrial and SATCOM radios, and networked communications. Other technologies covered include advanced target detection algorithms, high pixel count cameras for license plate and facial recognition, small cameras that provide large stand-off distances, video transmissions of target activity instead of still images, sensor fusion algorithms, and control center hardware. The impact of each technology on the overall UGS system architecture is discussed, along with the advantages provided to UGS system users. Areas of analysis include required camera parameters as a function of stand-off distance for license plate and facial recognition applications, power consumption for wireless cameras and viewers, sensor fusion communication requirements, and requirements to practically implement video transmission through UGS systems. Examples of devices that have already been fielded using technology from several of these areas are given.

  12. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  13. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  14. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  15. The transport system approval concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, B.G.

    1991-01-01

    The needs for, and merits of, a new concept for the safety assessment and approval of shipments of radioactive materials is introduced and discussed. The purpose of the new concept is to enable and encourage integration of analysis and review of transport safety with similar safety analysis and review of the handling operations involving the radioactive material at the despatching and receiving ends of a shipment. Safety contributing elements or functions of the means of transport (the Transport System) can thus readily be taken into account in the assessment. The objective is to avoid constraints -experienced or potential - introduced by the package functional provisions contained in the transport regulations, whilst maintaining safety during transport, as well as during facility handling operations, at least at the level at the level currently established. (author)

  16. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL GROUNDS FOR INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhelezniak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Ukraine, as in many countries of the world, transport is one of the most fundamental sectors of the national economy, important part of the industrial and social spheres. But in the conditions of industry reforming there are problems of investing in development of rail transport. So the work is devoted to the grounds of potentially available sources of investment in infrastructure of railway transport of Ukraine. The work stresses the importance of the problem of attracting foreign investment in the economy, highlights the proposals to solve this problem. Methodology. To solve the problems of this class the work presents the proposed methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison, deduction, induction, logic and abstraction. It becomes necessary to search for and study of new conceptual approaches to organization of investment processes at railway transport enterprises, appropriate management and financial decisions and schemes of railway infrastructure development. Findings. The paper shows ways to optimize investment for modernization and technical re-equipment of the transport complex of Ukraine. It proposes the ways of attracting capital of investors for development of transport infrastructure: compliance with European laws and regulations; reforming of the tax system of Ukraine; combating corruption in the country; implementation of public-private partnership tools into the mechanism of state regulation of investment processes; creating a favourable investment climate for implementation of rail transport infrastructure projects; creating a system of compensation to investors; guarantees of transport infrastructure investment protection. Originality. The work offers the sources of investment for development of railway infrastructure in Ukraine, which should include: state budget funds, use of targeted loans and leasing. The main direction of the state policy concerning infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activity in

  17. Bevalac beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.; Behrsing, G.; Morgado, R.; Rondeau, D.; Salsig, W.; Selph, F.; Staples, J.; Yourd, R.

    1975-03-01

    The Bevalac consists of, in part, a 200 meter long transfer line between the SuperHILAC and the Bevatron, which are at differing elevation. Unique features in the construction of the transfer line are described. The line, located largely outside, must cope with a natural environment. Part of the line passes through a hillside, requiring some unique support and alignment techniques. The dipoles are of the tape-wound variety and the steering magnets use printed circuit conductors. The vacuum system and an inexpensive and effective destructive monitoring system are described. (U.S.)

  18. Dynamic Design of Ground Transport With the Help of Computational Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravets Victor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of ground transport (motor transport vehicle have been considered. Mathematical model of nonlinear dynamics in spatial motion of asymmetric carriage in the form of Euler-Lagrange equations represented as symmetrical block structure in quaternion matrices has been developed. Kinematic equations and partition matrices of external action in which Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters have been applied describe quaternionic matrices.

  19. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  20. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  1. NUHOMS transportation system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConaghy, W.J.; Lehnert, R.A.; Rasmussen, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The NUHOMS system utilizes a reinforced concrete Horizontal Storage Module (HSM) to store spent nuclear fuel assemblies which are sealed in a Dry Shielded Canister (DSC). The DSC has an internal basket assembly designed to hold 24 PWR or 60 BWR spent fuel assemblies. The HSMs are constructed in interconnected arrays on the utilities reactor site with each HSM holding one DSC. The HSMs and DSCs are the principal components of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for which plants are granted a 10CFR72 (1) license by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for interim dry storage. A complete description of the NUHOMS system for dry storage of spent fuel and its operation is contained in the NRC approved NUHOMS Topical Report and related publications (2, 3, 4, 6)

  2. UTMTOX, Toxic Chemical Transport in Atmosphere, Ground Water, Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: UTMTOX is a unified transport model for toxic materials. It combines hydrologic, atmospheric, and sediment transport in one computer code and extends the scope to predict the transport of not only trace metals but also many chemical compounds, including organics. UTMTOX is capable of calculating 1) the atmospheric dispersion of up to 20 chemicals from a maximum of 10 point, 10 line, and 10 area sources; 2) deposition of one chemical at a time in both wet and dry form on foliage or the surface of the earth; 3) surface flow and erosion; 4) percolation through the soil to a stream channel; and 5) flow in the stream channel to the outfall of a watershed. B - Method of solution: UTMTOX calculates rates of flux of chemicals from release to the atmosphere, through deposition on a watershed, infiltration, and runoff from the soil to flow in the stream channel and the associated sediment transport. From these values, mass balances can be established, budgets for the chemical can be made, and concentrations in many environmental compartments can be estimated. Since the coupling is established among three major submodels, they can share data

  3. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  4. Renaissance architecture for Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) has embarked on a new approach for developing and operating Ground Data Systems (GDS) for flight mission support. This approach is driven by the goals of minimizing cost and maximizing customer satisfaction. Achievement of these goals is realized through the use of a standard set of capabilities which can be modified to meet specific user needs. This approach, which is called the Renaissance architecture, stresses the engineering of integrated systems, based upon workstation/local area network (LAN)/fileserver technology and reusable hardware and software components called 'building blocks.' These building blocks are integrated with mission specific capabilities to build the GDS for each individual mission. The building block approach is key to the reduction of development costs and schedules. Also, the Renaissance approach allows the integration of GDS functions that were previously provided via separate multi-mission facilities. With the Renaissance architecture, the GDS can be developed by the MO&DSD or all, or part, of the GDS can be operated by the user at their facility. Flexibility in operation configuration allows both selection of a cost-effective operations approach and the capability for customizing operations to user needs. Thus the focus of the MO&DSD is shifted from operating systems that we have built to building systems and, optionally, operations as separate services. Renaissance is actually a continuous process. Both the building blocks and the system architecture will evolve as user needs and technology change. Providing GDS on a per user basis enables this continuous refinement of the development process and product and allows the MO&DSD to remain a customer-focused organization. This paper will present the activities and results of the MO&DSD initial efforts toward the establishment of the Renaissance approach for the development of GDS, with a particular focus on both the technical

  5. A Ground Systems Template for Remote Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.

    2002-10-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS.

  6. A ground systems template for remote sensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.

    2002-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS

  7. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  8. Multicomponent mass transport model: a model for simulating migration of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, J.F.; Kaszeta, F.E.; Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of the development of a one-dimensional radionuclide transport code, MMT2D (Multicomponent Mass Transport), for the AEGIS Program. Multicomponent Mass Transport is a numerical solution technique that uses the discrete-parcel-random-wald (DPRW) method to directly simulate the migration of radionuclides. MMT1D accounts for: convection;dispersion; sorption-desorption; first-order radioactive decay; and n-membered radioactive decay chains. Comparisons between MMT1D and an analytical solution for a similar problem show that: MMT1D agrees very closely with the analytical solution; MMT1D has no cumulative numerical dispersion like that associated with solution techniques such as finite differences and finite elements; for current AEGIS applications, relatively few parcels are required to produce adequate results; and the power of MMT1D is the flexibility of the code in being able to handle complex problems for which analytical solution cannot be obtained. Multicomponent Mass Transport (MMT1D) codes were developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to predict the movement of radiocontaminants in the saturated and unsaturated sediments of the Hanford Site. All MMT models require ground-water flow patterns that have been previously generated by a hydrologic model. This report documents the computer code and operating procedures of a third generation of the MMT series: the MMT differs from previous versions by simulating the mass transport processes in systems with radionuclide decay chains. Although MMT is a one-dimensional code, the user is referred to the documentation of the theoretical and numerical procedures of the three-dimensional MMT-DPRW code for discussion of expediency, verification, and error-sensitivity analysis

  9. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzyn, J.E.; Shaw, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration

  10. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    One of the major water-quality problems in the Chesapeake Bay is an overabundance of nutrients from the streams and rivers that discharge to the Bay. Some of these nutrients are from nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, agricultural manure and fertilizer, and septic systems. The effects of efforts to control nonpoint sources, however, can be difficult to quantify because of the lag time between changes at the land surface and the response in the base-flow (ground water) component of streams. To help resource managers understand the lag time between implementation of management practices and subsequent response in the nutrient concentrations in the base-flow component of streamflow, a study of ground-water discharge, residence time, and nitrate transport in springs throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and in four smaller watersheds in selected hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMRs) was conducted. The four watersheds were in the Coastal Plain Uplands, Piedmont crystalline, Valley and Ridge carbonate, and Valley and Ridge siliciclastic HGMRs.A study of springs to estimate an apparent age of the ground water was based on analyses for concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons in water samples collected from 48 springs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Results of the analysis indicate that median age for all the samples was 10 years, with the 25th percentile having an age of 7 years and the 75th percentile having an age of 13 years. Although the number of samples collected in each HGMR was limited, there did not appear to be distinct differences in the ages between the HGMRs. The ranges were similar between the major HGMRs above the Fall Line (modern to about 50 years), with only two HGMRs of small geographic extent (Piedmont carbonate and Mesozoic Lowland) having ranges of modern to about 10 years. The median values of all the HGMRs ranged from 7 to 11 years. Not enough samples were collected in the Coastal Plain for comparison. Spring samples showed slightly younger

  11. Modelling of the reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water; Modellierung des reaktiven Transports organischer Schadstoffe im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    1999-07-01

    The book describes reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water and its quantitative monitoring by means of numerical reaction transport models. A brief introduction dealing with the importance of and hazards to ground water and opportunities for making use of ground water models is followed by a more detailed chapter on organic pollutants in ground water. Here the focus is on organochlorine compounds and mineral oil products. Described are propagation mechanisms for these substances in the ground and, especially, their degradability in ground water. A separate chapter is dedicated to possibilities for cleaning up polluted ground water aquifers. The most important decontamination techniques are presented, with special emphasis on in-situ processes with hydraulic components. Moreover, this chapter discusses the self-cleaning capability of aquifers and the benefits of the application of models to ground water cleanup. In the fourth chapter the individual components of reaction transport models are indicated. Here it is, inter alia, differences in the formulation of reaction models as to their complexity, and coupling between suspended matter transport and reaction processes that are dealt with. This chapter ends with a comprehensive survey of literature regarding the application of suspended matter transport models to real ground water accidents. Chapter 5 consists of a description of the capability and principle of function of the reaction transport model TBC (transport biochemism/chemism). This model is used in the two described applications to the reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water. (orig.) [German] Inhalt des vorliegenden Buches ist die Darstellung des reaktiven Transports organischer Schadstoffe im Grundwasser und dessen quantitative Erfassung mithilfe numerischer Reaktions-Transportmodelle. Auf eine kurze Einleitung zur Bedeutung und Gefaehrdung von Grundwasser und zu den Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Grundwassermodellen folgt ein

  12. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  13. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Innis, Charles J; Kennedy, Adam E; McNally, Kerry L; Davis, Deborah G; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress ('transport stress') on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on 'control days' 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four 'stress-associated' parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp's ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These results are likely

  14. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  15. Quantum transport in complex system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnezov, D.; Bulgac, A.; DoDang, G.

    1998-01-01

    We derive the influence function and the effective dynamics of a quantum systems coupled to a chaotic environment, using very general parametric and banded random matrices to describe the quantum properties of a chaotic bath. We find that only in certain limits the thermalization can result from the environment. We study the general transport problems including escape, fusion and tunneling (fission). (author)

  16. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  17. Neoclassical transport in toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobig, H.

    1992-01-01

    The neoclassical theory of general toroidal equilibria is reformulated. The toroidal equilibrium of tokamaks and stellarators are described in Hamada coordinates. The relevant geometrical parameters are identified and it is shown how the reduction of Pfirsch-Schluter currents affects neoclassical transport and bootstrap effects. General flux-friction relations between thermodynamic forces and fluxes are derived. In drift-kinetic approximation the neoclassical transport coefficients are Onsager symmetric. Since a toroidal loop voltage is included, the theory is valid for all toroidal systems. (Author)

  18. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  19. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  20. System Convergence in Transport Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of most applied transport models is the existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium solution that balances demand x(t) and supply t(x). The demand consists of the people that travel in the transport system and on the defined network, whereas the supply consists of the resulting...... level-of-service attributes (e.g., travel time and cost) offered to travellers. An important source of complexity is the congestion, which causes increasing demand to affect travel time in a non-linear way. Transport models most often involve separate models for traffic assignment and demand modelling...... iterating between a route-choice (demand) model and a time-flow (supply) model. It is generally recognised that a simple iteration scheme where the level-of-service level is fed directly to the route-choice and vice versa may exhibit an unstable pattern and lead to cyclic unstable solutions. It can be shown...

  1. Guide to the Revised Ground-Water Flow and Heat Transport Simulator: HYDROTHERM - Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kenneth L.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Charlton, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    The HYDROTHERM computer program simulates multi-phase ground-water flow and associated thermal energy transport in three dimensions. It can handle high fluid pressures, up to 1 ? 109 pascals (104 atmospheres), and high temperatures, up to 1,200 degrees Celsius. This report documents the release of Version 3, which includes various additions, modifications, and corrections that have been made to the original simulator. Primary changes to the simulator include: (1) the ability to simulate unconfined ground-water flow, (2) a precipitation-recharge boundary condition, (3) a seepage-surface boundary condition at the land surface, (4) the removal of the limitation that a specified-pressure boundary also have a specified temperature, (5) a new iterative solver for the linear equations based on a generalized minimum-residual method, (6) the ability to use time- or depth-dependent functions for permeability, (7) the conversion of the program code to Fortran 90 to employ dynamic allocation of arrays, and (8) the incorporation of a graphical user interface (GUI) for input and output. The graphical user interface has been developed for defining a simulation, running the HYDROTHERM simulator interactively, and displaying the results. The combination of the graphical user interface and the HYDROTHERM simulator forms the HYDROTHERM INTERACTIVE (HTI) program. HTI can be used for two-dimensional simulations only. New features in Version 3 of the HYDROTHERM simulator have been verified using four test problems. Three problems come from the published literature and one problem was simulated by another partially saturated flow and thermal transport simulator. The test problems include: transient partially saturated vertical infiltration, transient one-dimensional horizontal infiltration, two-dimensional steady-state drainage with a seepage surface, and two-dimensional drainage with coupled heat transport. An example application to a hypothetical stratovolcano system with unconfined

  2. Update of super-speed ground transportation technology development status and performance capabilities. CIGGT report No. 89-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, W F

    1990-01-01

    This report presents an update of the Phase II assessment of development status and performance capabilities for four candidate super-speed ground transportation system alternatives for the Las Vegas-Southern California corridor. The four alternatives considered are the TGV wheel-on-rail technology, the Transrapid TR- 07 long-stator Electromagnetic Maglev (EMS) technology, the Japan Railways MLU Electrodynamic Maglev (EDS) technology, and the HSST Corp. HSST-400 short-stator Electromagnetic Maglev technology.

  3. Ground-water solute transport modeling using a three-dimensional scaled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crider, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Scaled models are used extensively in current hydraulic research on sediment transport and solute dispersion in free surface flows (rivers, estuaries), but are neglected in current ground-water model research. Thus, an investigation was conducted to test the efficacy of a three-dimensional scaled model of solute transport in ground water. No previous results from such a model have been reported. Experiments performed on uniform scaled models indicated that some historical problems (e.g., construction and scaling difficulties; disproportionate capillary rise in model) were partly overcome by using simple model materials (sand, cement and water), by restricting model application to selective classes of problems, and by physically controlling the effect of the model capillary zone. Results from these tests were compared with mathematical models. Model scaling laws were derived for ground-water solute transport and used to build a three-dimensional scaled model of a ground-water tritium plume in a prototype aquifer on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Model results compared favorably with field data and with a numerical model. Scaled models are recommended as a useful additional tool for prediction of ground-water solute transport

  4. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport

  5. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport.

  6. Physical System Requirements: Transport Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for the conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Director subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. The functional analysis approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. This approach recognizes that just as the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being. The objective of this document is to establish the essential functions, requirements, interfaces, and system architecture for the Transport Waste mission. Based upon the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the mission of the Waste Transportation System is to transport SNF and/or HLW from the purchaser's/producer's facilities to, and between, NWMS facilities in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment makes effective use of financial and other resources, and to the fullest extent possible uses the private sector

  7. There is need in new generation smart grid for the space and ground energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageev Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to considerate the opportunities of synchronization of the space and ground systems that generate and transfer energy on the basis of new generation smart grid using. The authors substantiate the necessity of new intellectual monitoring services that assess the processes took place in "generation-transportation-distribution-consumption" space and ground systems. This is made in order to improve the dynamic indicators of the energy system and to avoid the emergencies. The authors also give a prognosis of the dynamic indicators of the electric power super-system in analyzing metastable conditions in different energy modes.

  8. 30 CFR 75.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.803 Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. [Statutory Provisions] On and after September 30, 1970, high-voltage, resistance grounded systems... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage...

  9. Helicopter versus ground emergency medical services for the transportation of traumatically injured children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Camille L; Metzger, Ryan R; Pyle, Laura; Darmofal, Joe; Scaife, Eric; Moulton, Steven L

    2015-02-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are a common mode of transportation for pediatric trauma patients. We hypothesized that HEMS improve outcomes for traumatically injured children compared to ground emergency medical services (GEMS). We queried trauma registries of two level 1 pediatric trauma centers for children 0-17 years, treated from 2003 to 2013, transported by HEMS or GEMS, with known transport starting location and outcome. A geocoding service estimated travel distance and time. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to adjust for injury severity variables and travel distance/time. We identified 14,405 traumatically injured children; 3870 (26.9%) transported by HEMS and 10,535 (73.1%) transported by GEMS. Transport type was not significantly associated with survival, ICU length of stay, or discharge disposition. Transport by GEMS was associated with a 68.6%-53.1% decrease in hospital length of stay, depending on adjustment for distance/time. Results were similar for children with severe injuries, and with propensity score matched cohorts. Of note, 862/3850 (22.3%) of HEMS transports had an ISS<10 and hospitalization<1 day. HEMS do not independently improve outcomes for traumatically injured children, and 22.3% of children transported by HEMS are not significantly injured. These factors should be considered when requesting HEMS for transport of traumatically injured children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fun at Antarctic grounding lines: Ice-shelf channels and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Reinhard; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf; Helm, Veit; Ehlers, Todd A.; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Favier, Lionel; Hewitt, Ian H.; Ng, Felix; Fürst, Johannes J.; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Bergeot, Nicolas; Matsuoka, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    Meltwater beneath the polar ice sheets drains, in part, through subglacial conduits. Landforms created by such drainages are abundant in areas formerly covered by ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. However, observations of subglacial conduit dynamics under a contemporary ice sheet are lacking. We present results from ice-penetrating radar to infer the existence of subglacial conduits upstream of the grounding line of Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The conduits are aligned with ice-shelf channels, and underlain by esker ridges formed from sediment deposition due to reduced water outflow speed near the grounding line. In turn, the eskers modify local ice flow to initiate the bottom topography of the ice-shelf channels, and create small surface ridges extending onto the shelf. Relict features on the shelf are interpreted to indicate a history of these interactions and variability of past subglacial drainages. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation, and ice-shelf stability. To investigate the role of sediment transport beneath ice sheets further, we model the sheet-shelf system of the Ekstömisen catchment, Antarctica. A 3D finite element model (Elmer/ICE) is used to solve the transients full Stokes equation for isotropic, isothermal ice with a dynamic grounding line. We initialize the model with surface topography from the TanDEM-X satellites and by inverting simultaneously for ice viscosity and basal drag using present-day surface velocities. Results produce a flow field which is consitent with sattelite and on-site observations. Solving the age-depth relationship allows comparison with radar isochrones from airborne data, and gives information about the atmospheric/dynamic history of this sector. The flow field will eventually be used to identify potential sediment sources and sinks which we compare with more than 400 km of

  11. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  12. Barriers to Implementation of Recommendations for Transport of Children in Ground Ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rashida H; Shah, Manish; Doughty, Cara; Gilchrest, Anthony

    2017-10-16

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released draft recommendations in 2010 on the safe transport of children in ground ambulances. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness of these guidelines among emergency medical service (EMS) agencies and to identify implementation barriers. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous online survey of 911-responding, ground transport EMS agencies in Texas. Demographics, modes of transport based on case scenarios, and barriers to implementation were assessed. Of 62 eligible EMS agencies that took the survey, 35.7% were aware of the NHTSA guidelines, 62.5% agreed they would improve safety, and 41.1% planned to implement them. Seventy-five percent of EMS agencies used the ideal or acceptable alternative to transport children requiring continuous monitoring, and 69.5% chose ideal or acceptable alternatives for children requiring spinal immobilization. The ideal or acceptable alternative was not chosen for children who were not injured or ill (93.2%), ill or injured but not requiring continuous monitoring (53.3%), and situations when multiple patients required transport (57.6%). The main requirements for implementation were provider education, ambulance interior modifications, new guidelines in the EMS agency, and purchase of new equipment. Few EMS agencies are aware of the NHTSA guidelines on safe transport of children in ground ambulances. Although most agencies appropriately transport children who require monitoring, interventions, or spinal immobilization, they use inappropriate means to transport children in situations with multiple patients, lack of injury or illness, or lack of need for monitoring.

  13. A Survey of Restraint Methods for the Safe Transport of Children in Ground Ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rashida H; Shah, Manish; Doughty, Cara; Gilchrest, Anthony

    2018-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released draft recommendations in 2010 on the safe transport of children in ground ambulances. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness of these guidelines among emergency medical service (EMS) agencies and to identify implementation barriers. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous online survey of 911-responding, ground transport EMS agencies in Texas. Demographics, modes of transport based on case scenarios, and barriers to implementation were assessed. Of 62 eligible EMS agencies that took the survey, 35.7% were aware of the NHTSA guidelines, 62.5% agreed they would improve safety, and 41.1% planned to implement them. Seventy-five percent of EMS agencies used the ideal or acceptable alternative to transport children requiring continuous monitoring, and 69.5% chose ideal or acceptable alternatives for children requiring spinal immobilization. The ideal or acceptable alternative was not chosen for children who were not injured or ill (93.2%), ill or injured but not requiring continuous monitoring (53.3%), and situations when multiple patients required transport (57.6%). The main requirements for implementation were provider education, ambulance interior modifications, new guidelines in the EMS agency, and purchase of new equipment. Few EMS agencies are aware of the NHTSA guidelines on safe transport of children in ground ambulances. Although most agencies appropriately transport children who require monitoring, interventions, or spinal immobilization, they use inappropriate means to transport children in situations with multiple patients, lack of injury or illness, or lack of need for monitoring.

  14. The ground-fault detection system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoville, J.T.; Petersen, P.I.

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the ground-fault detection systems on the DIII-D tokamak. The subsystems that must be monitored for an inadvertent ground include the toroidal and poloidal coil systems, the vacuum vessel, and the coil support structures. In general, one point of each coil is tied to coil/power supply ground through a current limiting resistor. For ground protection the current through this resistor is monitored using a dynamically feedback balanced Hall probe transducer from LEM Industries. When large inductive currents flow in closed loops near the tokamak, the result is undesirable magnetic error fields in the plasma region and noise generation on signal cables. Therefore, attention must be paid to avoid closed loops in the design of the coil and vessel support structure. For DIII-D a concept of dual insulating breaks and a single-point ground for all structure elements was used to satisfy this requirement. The integrity of the support structure is monitored by a system which continuously attempts to couple a variable frequency waveform onto these single-point grounds. The presence of an additional ground completes the circuit resulting in current flow. A Rogowski coil is then used to track the unwanted ground path in order to eliminate it. Details of the ground fault detection circuitry, and a description of its operation will be presented. 2 refs., 7 figs

  15. Study of grounding system of large tokamak device JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kiyotsugu; Shimada, Ryuichi; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Yabuno, Kohei; Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1982-01-01

    In the critical plasma testing facility JT-60 constructed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, high voltage, large current is required in an instant. Accordingly, for the protection of human bodies and the equipment, and for realizing the stable operation of the complex, precise control and measurement system, a large scale facility of grounding system is required. In case of the JT-60 experimental facility, the equipments with different functions in separate buildings are connected, therefore, it is an important point to avoid high potential difference between buildings. In the grounding system for the JT-60, a reticulate grounding electrode is laid for each building, and these electrodes are connected with a low impedance metallic duct called grounding trunk line. The power supply cables for various magnetic field coils, control lines and measurement lines are laid in the duct. It is a large problem to grasp quantitatively the effect of a grounding trunk line by analysis. The authors analyzed the phenomenon that large current flows into a grounding system by lightning strike or grounding. The fundamental construction of the grounding system for the JT-60, the condition for the analysis and the result of simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. ADVANCES IN ZERO ENERGY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Othman

    2017-01-01

    Hyperloop mass transportation systems are activelydeveloped at the moment. They represent the forefront development of the ZeroEnergy Transportation systems where air drag is minimized by travelling in avacuum and friction is reduced by non-contact bearings. Hyperloop supportersare confident that the cost of their transportation systems would be lowcompared to existing transportation systems because of the low loss andtherefore low energy consumption as well as other cost-saving techniquesdoc...

  17. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E.; Innis, Charles J.; Kennedy, Adam E.; McNally, Kerry L.; Davis, Deborah G.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress (‘transport stress’) on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on ‘control days’ 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four ‘stress-associated’ parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp’s ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These

  18. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils, ground water and surface waters. This document describes the requirements for such a laboratory

  19. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  20. Method for analysis the complex grounding cables system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackovski, R.; Acevski, N.

    2002-01-01

    A new iterative method for the analysis of the performances of the complex grounding systems (GS) in underground cable power networks with coated and/or uncoated metal sheathed cables is proposed in this paper. The analyzed grounding system consists of the grounding grid of a high voltage (HV) supplying transformer station (TS), middle voltage/low voltage (MV/LV) consumer TSs and arbitrary number of power cables, connecting them. The derived method takes into consideration the drops of voltage in the cable sheets and the mutual influence among all earthing electrodes, due to the resistive coupling through the soil. By means of the presented method it is possible to calculate the main grounding system performances, such as earth electrode potentials under short circuit fault to ground conditions, earth fault current distribution in the whole complex grounding system, step and touch voltages in the nearness of the earthing electrodes dissipating the fault current in the earth, impedances (resistances) to ground of all possible fault locations, apparent shield impedances to ground of all power cables, e.t.c. The proposed method is based on the admittance summation method [1] and is appropriately extended, so that it takes into account resistive coupling between the elements that the GS. (Author)

  1. 75 FR 8412 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0047] Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of Accidental Radionuclide Releases; Solicitation of Public... ground water flow and transport of accidental radionuclide releases necessary to demonstrate compliance...

  2. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2009-01-01

    Livestock manure containing antimicrobials becomes a possible source of these compounds to surface and ground waters when applied to cropland as a nutrient source. The potential for transport of the veterinary antimicrobial lincomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to ground water was assessed by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snowmelt runoff, and ground water over a 2-yr period in Saskatchewan, Canada, after fall application of liquid swine manure to cropland. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify lincomycin in all matrix extracts. Initial concentrations in soil (46.3-117 mug kg(-1)) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for manure application rates ranging from 60,000 to 95,000 L ha(-1) and had decreased to nondetectable levels by mid-summer the following year. After fall manure application, lincomycin was present in all simulated rainfall runoff (0.07-2.7 mug L(-1)) and all snowmelt runoff (0.038-3.2 mug L(-1)) samples. Concentrations in snowmelt runoff were not significantly different from those in simulated rainfall runoff the previous fall. On average, lincomycin concentrations in ephemeral wetlands dissipated by 50% after 31 d. Concentrations of lincomycin in ground water were generally <0.005 mug L(-1). This study demonstrates that the management practice of using livestock manure from confined animal feeding operations as a plant nutrient source on cropland may result in antimicrobial transport to surface and ground waters.

  3. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  4. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails

  5. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  6. Analytical and finite element modeling of grounding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Mauricio Valencia Ferreira da [University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mauricio@grucad.ufsc.br; Dular, Patrick [University of Liege (Belgium). Institut Montefiore], E-mail: Patrick.Dular@ulg.ac.be

    2007-07-01

    Grounding is the art of making an electrical connection to the earth. This paper deals with the analytical and finite element modeling of grounding systems. An electrokinetic formulation using a scalar potential can benefit from floating potentials to define global quantities such as electric voltages and currents. The application concerns a single vertical grounding with one, two and three-layer soil, where the superior extremity stays in the surface of the soil. This problem has been modeled using a 2D axi-symmetric electrokinetic formulation. The grounding resistance obtained by finite element method is compared with the analytical one for one-layer soil. With the results of this paper it is possible to show that finite element method is a powerful tool in the analysis of the grounding systems in low frequencies. (author)

  7. Air Versus Ground Transportation in Isolated Severe Head Trauma: A National Trauma Data Bank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiolfi, Alberto; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Recinos, Gustavo; De Leon Castro, Alejandro; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-03-01

    The effect of prehospital helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) on mortality has been analyzed previously in polytrauma patients with discordant results. Our aim was to compare outcomes in patients with isolated severe blunt traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) transported by HEMS or ground emergency medical services (GEMS). We conducted a National Trauma Data Bank study (2007-2014). All adult patients (≥16 years old) who sustained an isolated severe blunt TBI and were transported by HEMS or GEMS were included in the study. There were 145,559 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 116,391 (80%) patients were transported via GEMS and 29,168 (20%) via HEMS. Median transportation time was longer for HEMS patients (41 vs. 25 min; p transportation was independently associated with improved survival (odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.67; p transport was an independent predictor of survival (AIS 3: OR 0.35; p transport time was not an independent predictor of mortality. Helicopter transport, in adult patients with isolated severe TBI, is associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O'Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex

  9. Urban Transportation Planning Short Course: Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This urban transportation pamphlet delves into the roles of policy groups and technical staffs in evaluating alternative transportation plans, evaluation criteria, systems to evaluate, and evaluation procedures. The introduction admits the importance of subjective, but informed, judgment as an effective tool in weighing alternative transportation…

  10. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horton, William

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model GVSI is a top-level analysis tool designed to support engineering tradeoff studies and vehicle design optimization efforts...

  11. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  12. Performances of the HL (Hyperloop) transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goeverden, C.D.; Milakis, D.; Janic, M.; Konings, J.W.; Cools, M.; Limbourg, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of performances of the HL (Hyperloop) transport system considered as an advanced transport alternative to the existing APT (Air Passenger Transport) and HSR (High Speed Rail) systems. The considered performances are operational, financial, social and environmental.

  13. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transport Trailer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System system 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the US Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware

  14. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software utilizes techniques from the fields of model-based reasoning, machine learning, and data mining to build system...

  15. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  16. SDDOT transportation systems management & operations program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a comprehensive Transportation Systems Management and : Operations (TSM&O) Program Plan for the South Dakota Department of Transportation. This plan guides : business planning and strategic decision...

  17. Integral Transportation Systems in Military Transport Aircraft Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply of goods, equipment and soldiers by militwy transportaircraft can serve as a support to airborne landing operation,support to encircled forces, and support to forces leadinga gue1rilla war. Transport aircraft are designed in such a wayas to be able to cany containers, pallets, most of land vehiclesand helicopters. Militwy transport aircraft can be grouped intothose that were originally designed for military transp01t andthose that are modified civilian aircraft and helicopters. Supplypallets can be wooden, metal, can be airdropped in "taxiing","low-flight", and can also be fitted with a parachute or"retrorocket" for reducing the ground impact. Pallets canamong other things carry liquids, heavy combat and ca1rier vehicles,artillery and rocket weapons and valious containers.Pallets are usually pe1manently deformed at ground impact.Nowadays, high precision of airdrop has been achieved. Containersare used to carry various equipment, food, fue~ weapons,ammunition etc. It is to be expected that the containers,wmoured combat and other vehicles will be redesigned so asto provide more efficient transport and fast a!Tangement ofhigh-mobility units, whereas the form of the future militarytransport aircraft will not undergo substantial changes. By adjustingand standardising the transporlation vehicles, integraltransportation means and cwgo, the overall combat efficiencywill be increased, the a~rangement time especially shortenedand the air supply safety increased.

  18. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie Keith; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier–Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were valida...

  19. Anomalous transport in mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    As now being explored for fusion applications confinement systems based on the mirror principle embody two kinds of plasma regimes. These two regimes are: (a) high-beta plasmas, stabilized against MHD and other low frequency plasma instabilities by magnetic-well fields, but characterized by non-Maxwellian ion distributions; (b) near-Maxwellian plasmas, confined electrostatically (as in the tandem mirror) or in a field-reversed region within the mirror cell. Common to both situations are the questions of anomalous transport owing to high frequency instabilities in the non-maxwellian portions of the plasmas. This report will summarize the status of theory and of experimental data bearing on these questions, with particular reference to the high temperature regimes of interest for fusion power

  20. FLEXIBLE MOBILE COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING GROUND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Habarov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of highways environmental condition, in particular air pollution due to emission of hazardous substances into the atmosphere produced by exhaust gases of vehicles and the matters concerning traffic environment protection from hazardous radiation impact are considered.

  1. Classical many-particle systems with unique disordered ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2017-10-01

    Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016), 10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation . For all of the system sizes, parameters, and space dimensions that we have numerically investigated, the disordered ground states are unique such that they can always be superposed onto each other or their mirror image. At low energies, the density of states obtained from simulations matches those calculated from the harmonic approximation near a single ground state, further confirming ground-state uniqueness. Our discovery provides singular examples in which entropy and disorder are at odds with one another. The zero-entropy ground states provide a unique perspective on the celebrated Kauzmann-entropy crisis in which the extrapolated entropy of a supercooled liquid drops below that of the crystal. We expect that our disordered unique patterns to be of value in fields beyond glass physics, including applications in cryptography as pseudorandom functions with tunable computational complexity.

  2. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  3. Launching AI in NASA ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dorothy C.; Truszkowski, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will discuss recent operational successes in implementing expert systems to support the complex functions of NASA mission control systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center, including fault detection and diagnosis for real time and engineering analysis functions in the Cosmic Background Explorer and Gamma Ray Observatory missions and automation of resource planning and scheduling functions for various missions. It will also discuss ongoing developments and prototypes that will lead to increasingly sophisticated applications of artificial intelligence. These include the use of neural networks to perform telemetry monitoring functions, the implementation of generic expert system shells that can be customized to telemetry handling functions specific to NASA control centers, the applications of AI in training and user support, the long-term potential of implementing systems based around distributed, cooperative problem solving, and the use of AI to control and assist system development activities.

  4. Transport barrier in Helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the transport barrier in Helical plasmas are reviewed. There are two mechanisms of transport improvement, that results in the formation of the transport barrier. One is the improvement of neoclassical transport by reducing the ripple loss with radial electric field, which exist only in helical plasma. The other is the improvement of anomalous transport due to the suppression of fluctuations associated with a radial electric field shear both in tokamak and helical plasma. The formation of the transport barrier can be triggered by the radial electric field shear associated with the transition of the radial electric field (L/H transition or ion-electron root transition) or the peaked density or the optimization of magnetic field shear. The mechanisms of transport barrier formation are also discussed. (author). 60 refs

  5. 30 CFR 77.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. On and after September 30, 1971, all high-voltage... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. 77.803 Section 77.803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  6. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  7. Heart rate and leukocytes after air and ground transportation in artificially ventilated neonates: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosek, Stefan; Mlakar, Gorazd; Vidmar, Ivan; Ihan, Alojz; Primozic, Janez

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of interhospital air and ground transportation of artificially ventilated neonates on heart rate and peripheral blood leukocyte counts. Prospective, observational study. Level III multidisciplinary Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Fifty-eight near-term artificially ventilated transported neonates between May 2006 and April 2007. Day-helicopter, day- and night-ground transportation. Heart rate at retrieval, on admission to the ICU and 1 h later, and peripheral blood leukocyte counts on admission and 1 d later were compared. Fifteen neonates were transported by helicopter during the daytime (D-HEL), 20 by daytime ground and 23 by nighttime ground transportation (D-GROUND, N-GROUND). No differences in delivery mode, birth weight, gestational age, gender, primary diagnoses for transportation, response time and duration of transportation were found between the groups. Similarly, no differences in pH, pCO(2), blood pressure and skin temperature at retrieval and on admission to the ICU were found between the three groups. The mean heart rate at retrieval did not differ significantly, while on arrival in the ICU and 1 h later the D-GROUND group of patients showed a significantly higher mean heart rate compared to the D-HEL and N-GROUND groups. Moreover, leukocyte counts on arrival in the ICU showed significantly higher leukocyte counts in the D-GROUND group of patients compared to the D-HEL group of patients. These results demonstrate that there is an association between daytime ground transportation and higher heart rate and peripheral blood leukocytes.

  8. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  9. The COROT ground-based archive and access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.; González-Riestra, R.; Catala, C.; Baglin, A.

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of the COROT ground-based archive and access system is presented here. The system has been developed at LAEFF and it is based on the experience gained at Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental (LAEFF) with the INES (IUE Newly Extracted System) Archive.

  10. Ground test accelerator control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burczyk, L.; Dalesio, R.; Dingler, R.; Hill, J.; Howell, J.A.; Kerstiens, D.; King, R.; Kozubal, A.; Little, C.; Martz, V.; Rothrock, R.; Sutton, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the GTA control system that provides an environment in which the automation of a state-of-the-art accelerator can be developed. It makes use of commercially available computers, workstations, computer networks, industrial 110 equipment, and software. This system has built-in supervisory control (like most accelerator control systems), tools to support continuous control (like the process control industry), and sequential control for automatic start-up and fault recovery (like few other accelerator control systems). Several software tools support these levels of control: a real-time operating system (VxWorks) with a real-time kernel (VRTX), a configuration database, a sequencer, and a graphics editor. VxWorks supports multitasking, fast context-switching, and preemptive scheduling. VxWorks/VRTX is a network-based development environment specifically designed to work in partnership with the UNIX operating system. A data base provides the interface to the accelerator components. It consists of a run time library and a database configuration and editing tool. A sequencer initiates and controls the operation of all sequence programs (expressed as state programs). A graphics editor gives the user the ability to create color graphic displays showing the state of the machine in either text or graphics form

  11. Ground-source heat pump systems in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2007-01-01

    The Norwegian ground source heat pump (GSHP) market is reviewed. Boreholes in bedrock are of growing interest for residential systems and of growing interest for larger systems with thermal recharging or thermal energy storage. Ground water is limited to areas where the water has acceptable purity. Challenges and important boundary conditions include 1) high quality GSHP system requires engineering expertise, 2) new building codes and EU directive 'energy performance of buildings.'(2006), and 3) hydronic floor heating systems in 50 percent of new residences (author) (ml)

  12. Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalakis, Spyridon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamza, Eman [NON LANL; Nachtergaele, Bruno [NON LANL; Sims, Robert [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.

  13. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Man; Hongxing, Yang [Renewable Energy Research Group, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Zhaohong, Fang [School of Thermal Energy Engineering, Shandong Architecture University, Jinan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Although ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems are becoming attractive air-conditioning systems in some regions, the significant drawback for their wider application is the high initial cost. Besides, more energy is rejected into ground by the GCHP system installed in cooling-dominated buildings than the energy extracted from ground on an annual basis and this imbalance can result in the degradation of system performance. One of the available options that can resolve these problems is to apply the hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) systems, with supplemental heat rejecters for rejecting extra thermal energy when they are installed in cooling-dominated buildings. This paper presents a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system by modeling the heat transfer of its main components. The computer program developed on this hourly simulation model can be used to calculate the operating data of the HGCHP system according to the building load. The design methods and running control strategies of the HGCHP system for a sample building are investigated. The simulation results show that proper HGCHP system can effectively reduce both the initial cost and the operating cost of an air-conditioning system compared with the traditional GCHP system used in cooling-dominated buildings. (author)

  14. Application of a soil and ground-water pollutant-transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, M.; Duguid, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    A general two-dimensional model was developed for simulation of saturated-unsaturated transport of radionuclides in ground water. This model is being applied to the transport of radionuclides from waste-disposal sites, where field investigations are currently under way to obtain the necessary parameters. A zero-order simulation of a waste-disposal trench is presented. Estimated values of the soil properties have been used since very limited experimental information is available at the present time. However, as more measured values become available from field studies, the simulation will be updated. The end product of this research will be a reliable computer model useful both in predicting future transport of radionuclides from buried waste and in examining control measures if they are shown to be necessary. (U.S.)

  15. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  16. Evaluation of intelligent transport systems impact on school transport safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated system of safe transport of children to school using Intelligent Transport Systems was developed and implemented in four locations across Europe under the Safeway2School (SW2S project, funded by the EU. The SW2S system evaluation included speed measurements and an eye-tracking experiment carried out among drivers who used the school bus route, where selected elements of the system were tested. The subject of the evaluation were the following system elements: pedestrian safety system at the bus stop (Intelligent Bus Stop and tags for children, Driver Support System, applications for parents’ and students’ mobile phones, bus stop inventory tool and data server. A new sign designed for buses and bus stops to inform about child transportation/children waiting at the bus stop was added to the system. Training schemes for system users were also provided. The article presents evaluation results of the impact of selected elements of the SW2S system on school transport safety in Poland.

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  18. Proposed design criteria for a fusion facility electrical ground system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armellino, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground grid design considerations for a nuclear fusion reactor facility are no different than any other facility in that the basis for design must be safety first and foremost. Unlike a conventional industrial facility the available fault energy comes not only from the utility source and in-house rotating machinery, but also from energy storage capacitor banks, collapsing magnetic fields and D.C. transmission lines. It is not inconceivable for a fault condition occurrence where all available energy can be discharged. The ground grid must adequately shunt this sudden energy discharge in a way that personnel will not be exposed by step and/or touch to hazardous energy levels that are in excess of maximum tolerable levels for humans. Fault energy discharge rate is a function of the ground grid surge impedance characteristic. Closed loop paths must be avoided in the ground grid design so that during energy discharge no stray magnetic fields or large voltage potentials between remote points can be created by circulating currents. Single point connection of equipment to the ground grid will afford protection to personnel and sensitive equipment by reducing the probability of circulating currents. The overall ground grid system design is best illustrated as a wagon wheel concept with the fusion machine at the center. Radial branches or spokes reach out to the perimeter limits designated by step-and-touch high risk areas based on soil resistivity criteria considerations. Conventional methods for the design of a ground grid with all of its radial branches are still pertinent. The center of the grid could include a deep well single ground rod element the length of which is at least equivalent to the radius of an imaginary sphere that enshrouds the immediate machine area. Special facilities such as screen rooms or other shielded areas are part of the ground grid system by way of connection to radial branches

  19. Nonlinear transport of dynamic system phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xi; Xia Jiawen

    1993-01-01

    The inverse transform of any order solution of the differential equation of general nonlinear dynamic systems is derived, realizing theoretically the nonlinear transport for the phase space of nonlinear dynamic systems. The result is applicable to general nonlinear dynamic systems, with the transport of accelerator beam phase space as a typical example

  20. Magnetic levitation -The future transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rairan, Danilo

    2000-01-01

    The paper made a recount of the main advantages and disadvantages of the traditional systems of transport with base in electric power and it shows as the systems that use the magnetic levitation they are the future of the transport. Additionally it presents the physical principle of operation of the two main systems developed at the present time

  1. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  2. A National MagLev Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The case for a national high-speed magnetic-levitation (MagLev) transportation system is presented. Focus is on current issues facing the country, such as national security, the economy, transportation, technology, and the environment. NASA s research into MagLev technology for launch assist is also highlighted. Further, current socio-cultural norms regarding motor-vehicle-based transportation systems are questioned in light of the problems currently facing the U.S. The multidisciplinary benefits of a long-distance MagLev system support the idea that such a system would be an important element of a truly multimodal U.S. transportation infrastructure.

  3. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  4. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  5. Teaching transportation systems thinking concepts to undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Systems thinking is thought by many academics to be a graduate level educational venture. : Many traditional educators in the engineering field argue that first a student should gain a : grounding in some traditional branch of engineering (civil and ...

  6. Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2001-01-01

    Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems with an object-oriented methodology was investigated. Object-oriented modeling and design promote a better understanding of requirements, cleaner designs, and better maintainability of the harvesting simulation system. The model developed simulates chainsaw felling, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip...

  7. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  8. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  9. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, B.V.; Lund, H.; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2007-01-01

    Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...... transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  10. SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground Fault Location in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground fault location methods in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System, including ungrounded system, resonant grounded system and high-resistance grounded system which are widely used in Northern Europe and China. This type of fault is hard to detect and location because fault current is the sum of capacitance current of the system which is always small(about tens of amperes. The characteristics of SLG fault in NUGS and the fault location methods are introduced in the paper.

  11. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  12. Performances of the HL (Hyperloop) transport system

    OpenAIRE

    van Goeverden, C.D.; Milakis, D.; Janic, M.; Konings, J.W.; Cools, M.; Limbourg, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of performances of the HL (Hyperloop) transport system considered as an advanced transport alternative to the existing APT (Air Passenger Transport) and HSR (High Speed Rail) systems. The considered performances are operational, financial, social and environmental. The operational performance include capacity and quality of service provided to the system’s users-passengers with attributes such as door-to-door travel time consisting of the access and egress ti...

  13. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Britter, Rex E; Norford, Leslie Keith; Entekhabi, Dara

    2010-01-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street ca...

  14. Ground based measurements of particulate emissions from supersonic transports. Concorde olympus engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitefield, Ph D; Hagen, D E [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H V [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The application of a mobile aerosol monitoring facility, the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (MASS) is described to characterize engine aerosol emissions from the Rolls Royce Olympus Engine. The multi-configurational MASS has been employed in both ground and airborne field operations. It has been successfully flown on research aircrafts. In ground tests the MASS has participated in numerous jet engine related ground tests, and has been deployed to resolve aerosol generation problems in a high power chemical laser system. In all cases the measurements were made on samples taken from a harsh physical and chemical environment, with both high and low temperature and pressure, and in the presence of highly reactive gases. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  15. Ground based measurements of particulate emissions from supersonic transports. Concorde olympus engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitefield, Ph.D.; Hagen, D.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The application of a mobile aerosol monitoring facility, the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (MASS) is described to characterize engine aerosol emissions from the Rolls Royce Olympus Engine. The multi-configurational MASS has been employed in both ground and airborne field operations. It has been successfully flown on research aircrafts. In ground tests the MASS has participated in numerous jet engine related ground tests, and has been deployed to resolve aerosol generation problems in a high power chemical laser system. In all cases the measurements were made on samples taken from a harsh physical and chemical environment, with both high and low temperature and pressure, and in the presence of highly reactive gases. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  16. Securing Ground Data System Applications for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajevski, Michael J.; Tso, Kam S.; Johnson, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence and sophistication of cyber attacks has prompted the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) Program Office at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to initiate the Common Access Manager (CAM) effort to protect software applications used in Ground Data Systems (GDSs) at JPL and other NASA Centers. The CAM software provides centralized services and software components used by GDS subsystems to meet access control requirements and ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. In this paper we describe the CAM software; examples of its integration with spacecraft commanding software applications and an information management service; and measurements of its performance and reliability.

  17. Analysis and comparison of transportation security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1976-05-01

    The role of modeling in the analysis of transportation security systems is described. Various modeling approaches are outlined. The conflict model developed in Sandia Laboratories' Transportation Mode Analysis for the NRC Special Safeguards Study is used to demonstrate the capability of models to determine system sensitivities and compare alternatives

  18. Vertical unstable stability of electrodynamic suspension of high-speed ground transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiko, A.V.; Voevodskii, K.E.; Kochetkov, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem considered is the vertical oscillation of a superconducting solenoid moving over a conducting sheet in connection with the electrodynamic suspension of high-speed ground transport. The oscillation is considered to be unstable at a sufficiently high speed. The current oscillation in the superconducting solenoid caused by its mechanical oscillation is also investigated. The superconducting properties of a solenoid are found to have a pronounced effect on stability. Both the theory and numerical results are presented. Methods of oscillation damping are also discussed. (author)

  19. Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-05-21

    The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Wilhelm, A. N., Surgenor, B. W., and Pharoah, J. G., “Design and evaluation of a micro-fuel-cell-based power system for a mobile robot,” Mechatronics ... Embedded Control Systems ], Control Engineering, 91–116, Birkhuser Boston (2005). [12] Alur, R., Courcoubetis, C., Halbwachs, N., Henzinger, T., Ho, P.-H...Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System John Brodericka∗, Jack Hartnerb, Dawn Tilburya, and Ella Atkinsa aThe University

  1. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  2. The transportation operations system: A description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Dixon, L.D.; Peterson, R.W.; Pope, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the system for transporting radioactive waste that may be deployed to accomplish the assigned system mission, which includes accepting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from waste generator sites and transporting them to the FWMS destination facilities. The system description presented here contains, in part, irradiated fuel and waste casks, ancillary equipments, truck, rail, and barge transporters, cask and vehicle traffic management organizations, maintenance facilities, and other operations elements. The description is for a fully implemented system, which is not expected to be achieved, however, until several years after initial operations. 6 figs

  3. Sensor Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Ibáñez, Juan; Zeadally, Sherali; Contreras-Castillo, Juan

    2018-04-16

    Modern society faces serious problems with transportation systems, including but not limited to traffic congestion, safety, and pollution. Information communication technologies have gained increasing attention and importance in modern transportation systems. Automotive manufacturers are developing in-vehicle sensors and their applications in different areas including safety, traffic management, and infotainment. Government institutions are implementing roadside infrastructures such as cameras and sensors to collect data about environmental and traffic conditions. By seamlessly integrating vehicles and sensing devices, their sensing and communication capabilities can be leveraged to achieve smart and intelligent transportation systems. We discuss how sensor technology can be integrated with the transportation infrastructure to achieve a sustainable Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and how safety, traffic control and infotainment applications can benefit from multiple sensors deployed in different elements of an ITS. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges that need to be addressed to enable a fully operational and cooperative ITS environment.

  4. Sensor Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Ibáñez, Juan; Zeadally, Sherali

    2018-01-01

    Modern society faces serious problems with transportation systems, including but not limited to traffic congestion, safety, and pollution. Information communication technologies have gained increasing attention and importance in modern transportation systems. Automotive manufacturers are developing in-vehicle sensors and their applications in different areas including safety, traffic management, and infotainment. Government institutions are implementing roadside infrastructures such as cameras and sensors to collect data about environmental and traffic conditions. By seamlessly integrating vehicles and sensing devices, their sensing and communication capabilities can be leveraged to achieve smart and intelligent transportation systems. We discuss how sensor technology can be integrated with the transportation infrastructure to achieve a sustainable Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and how safety, traffic control and infotainment applications can benefit from multiple sensors deployed in different elements of an ITS. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges that need to be addressed to enable a fully operational and cooperative ITS environment. PMID:29659524

  5. Sensor Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guerrero-Ibáñez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern society faces serious problems with transportation systems, including but not limited to traffic congestion, safety, and pollution. Information communication technologies have gained increasing attention and importance in modern transportation systems. Automotive manufacturers are developing in-vehicle sensors and their applications in different areas including safety, traffic management, and infotainment. Government institutions are implementing roadside infrastructures such as cameras and sensors to collect data about environmental and traffic conditions. By seamlessly integrating vehicles and sensing devices, their sensing and communication capabilities can be leveraged to achieve smart and intelligent transportation systems. We discuss how sensor technology can be integrated with the transportation infrastructure to achieve a sustainable Intelligent Transportation System (ITS and how safety, traffic control and infotainment applications can benefit from multiple sensors deployed in different elements of an ITS. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges that need to be addressed to enable a fully operational and cooperative ITS environment.

  6. Report on the Audit of Unattended Ground Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-26

    This final report on the Audit of Unattended Ground Sensor Systems is for your information and use. Comments on the draft were considered in...preparing the final report and changes have been made where appropriate. We performed the audit from February through August 1990. The objective was to

  7. Culturally grounded indicators of resilience in social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor Sterling; Tamara Ticktin; Tē Kipa Kepa Morgan; Georgina Cullman; Diana Alvira; Pelika Andrade; Nadia Bergamini; Erin Betley; Kate Burrows; Sophie Caillon; Joachim Claudet; Rachel Dacks; Pablo Eyzaguirre; Chris Filardi; Nadav Gazit; Christian Giardina; Stacy Jupiter; Kealohanuiopuna Kinney; Joe McCarter; Manuel Mejia; Kanoe Morishige; Jennifer Newell; Lihla Noori; John Parks; Pua‘ala Pascua; Ashwin Ravikumar; Jamie Tanguay; Amanda Sigouin; Tina Stege; Mark Stege; Alaka Wali

    2017-01-01

    Measuring progress toward sustainability goals is a multifaceted task. International, regional, and national organizations and agencies seek to promote resilience and capacity for adaptation at local levels. However, their measurement systems may be poorly aligned with local contexts, cultures, and needs. Understanding how to build effective, culturally grounded...

  8. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  9. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie K.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2010-11-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier-Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were validated against experimental data obtained in wind-tunnel studies before the model was applied to study the detailed turbulence, temperature, and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon of aspect ratio 1. The effects of different Richardson numbers ( Ri) were investigated. The ground heating significantly enhanced mean flow, turbulence, and pollutant flux inside the street canyon, but weakened the shear at the roof level. The mean flow was observed to be no longer isolated from the free stream and fresh air could be entrained into the street canyon at the roof-level leeward corner. Weighed against higher temperature, the ground heating facilitated pollutant removal from the street canyon.

  10. Disposal facility in Olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in tunnel transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or a by vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  11. Disposal facility in olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in lift transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or by a vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  12. Driverless operation for public passenger transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Verkehrstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The author presents the automation of new and existing lines as a possible solution to the twin problems of the growing need for public transport and the threat of collapse facing many public transport systems in the big conurbations as they wrestle against overloading. It emerges that automatic, driverless operation is a suitable approach to making systems more flexible and more attractive. Automation can increase the capacities of existing systems significantly and thus help them gain more passengers. (orig.)

  13. Operating control techniques for maglev transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, K H; Schnieder, E

    1984-06-01

    The technical and operational possibilities of magnetic levitation transport systems can only be fully exploited by introducing 'intelligent' control systems which ensure automatic and trouble-free train running. The solution of exacting requirements in the fields of traction dynamics, security and control as well as information gathering transmission and processing is an important prior condition in that respect. The authors report here on the present state of research and development in operating control techniques applicable to maglev transport systems.

  14. Decentralized control of multi-agent aerial transportation system

    KAUST Repository

    Toumi, Noureddine

    2017-04-01

    Autonomous aerial transportation has multiple potential applications including emergency cases and rescue missions where ground intervention may be difficult. In this context, the following work will address the control of multi-agent Vertical Take-off and Landing aircraft (VTOL) transportation system. We develop a decentralized method. The advantage of such a solution is that it can provide better maneuverability and lifting capabilities compared to existing systems. First, we consider a cooperative group of VTOLs transporting one payload. The main idea is that each agent perceive the interaction with other agents as a disturbance while assuming a negotiated motion model and imposing certain magnitude bounds on each agent. The theoretical model will be then validated using a numerical simulation illustrating the interesting features of the presented control method. Results show that under specified disturbances, the algorithm is able to guarantee the tracking with a minimal error. We describe a toolbox that has been developed for this purpose. Then, a system of multiple VTOLs lifting payloads will be studied. The algorithm assures that the VTOLs are coordinated with minimal communication. Additionally, a novel gripper design for ferrous objects is presented that enables the transportation of ferrous objects without a cable. Finally, we discuss potential connections to human in the loop transportation systems.

  15. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a) Transportation...

  16. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  17. Automatic Scheduling and Planning (ASAP) in future ground control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlin, Sam

    1988-01-01

    This report describes two complementary approaches to the problem of space mission planning and scheduling. The first is an Expert System or Knowledge-Based System for automatically resolving most of the activity conflicts in a candidate plan. The second is an Interactive Graphics Decision Aid to assist the operator in manually resolving the residual conflicts which are beyond the scope of the Expert System. The two system designs are consistent with future ground control station activity requirements, support activity timing constraints, resource limits and activity priority guidelines.

  18. The power of ground user in recommender systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Zhou

    Full Text Available Accuracy and diversity are two important aspects to evaluate the performance of recommender systems. Two diffusion-based methods were proposed respectively inspired by the mass diffusion (MD and heat conduction (HC processes on networks. It has been pointed out that MD has high recommendation accuracy yet low diversity, while HC succeeds in seeking out novel or niche items but with relatively low accuracy. The accuracy-diversity dilemma is a long-term challenge in recommender systems. To solve this problem, we introduced a background temperature by adding a ground user who connects to all the items in the user-item bipartite network. Performing the HC algorithm on the network with ground user (GHC, it showed that the accuracy can be largely improved while keeping the diversity. Furthermore, we proposed a weighted form of the ground user (WGHC by assigning some weights to the newly added links between the ground user and the items. By turning the weight as a free parameter, an optimal value subject to the highest accuracy is obtained. Experimental results on three benchmark data sets showed that the WGHC outperforms the state-of-the-art method MD for both accuracy and diversity.

  19. The power of ground user in recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanbo; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping; Zhang, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Accuracy and diversity are two important aspects to evaluate the performance of recommender systems. Two diffusion-based methods were proposed respectively inspired by the mass diffusion (MD) and heat conduction (HC) processes on networks. It has been pointed out that MD has high recommendation accuracy yet low diversity, while HC succeeds in seeking out novel or niche items but with relatively low accuracy. The accuracy-diversity dilemma is a long-term challenge in recommender systems. To solve this problem, we introduced a background temperature by adding a ground user who connects to all the items in the user-item bipartite network. Performing the HC algorithm on the network with ground user (GHC), it showed that the accuracy can be largely improved while keeping the diversity. Furthermore, we proposed a weighted form of the ground user (WGHC) by assigning some weights to the newly added links between the ground user and the items. By turning the weight as a free parameter, an optimal value subject to the highest accuracy is obtained. Experimental results on three benchmark data sets showed that the WGHC outperforms the state-of-the-art method MD for both accuracy and diversity.

  20. RELIABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS OF ROCK HAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of increasing of exploitation reliability of dump trucks with the aim of increasing of effectiveness of exploitation of transportation systems of rock heaps at coal mines.

  1. Intelligent Transportation Systems statewide architecture : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the development of Kentuckys Statewide Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Architecture. The process began with the development of an ITS Strategic Plan in 1997-2000. A Business Plan, developed in 2000-2001, translated t...

  2. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  3. Web-Altairis: An Internet-Enabled Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Phil; Coleman, Jason; Gemoets, Darren; Hughes, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Web-Altairis, an Internet-enabled ground system software package funded by the Advanced Automation and Architectures Branch (Code 588) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Web-Altairis supports the trend towards "lights out" ground systems, where the control center is unattended and problems are resolved by remote operators. This client/server software runs on most popular platforms and provides for remote data visualization using the rich functionality of the VisAGE toolkit. Web-Altairis also supports satellite commanding over the Internet. This paper describes the structure of Web-Altairis and VisAGE, the underlying technologies, the provisions for security, and our experiences in developing and testing the software.

  4. Advanced control for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP), also known as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are proven advanced HVAC systems that utilize clean and renewable geothermal energy, as well as the massive thermal storage capacity of the ground, to provide space conditioning and water heating for both residential and commercial buildings. GSHPs have higher energy efficiencies than conventional HVAC systems. It is estimated, if GSHPs achieve a 10% market share in the US, in each year, 0.6 Quad Btu primary energy consumption can be saved and 36 million tons carbon emissions can be avoided (Liu et al. 2017). However, the current market share of GSHPs is less than 1%. The foremost barrier preventing wider adoption of GSHPs is their high installation costs. To enable wider adoption of GSHPs, the costeffectiveness of GSHP applications must be improved.

  5. Ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Haule, Kristjan

    2012-02-10

    We resolve the controversy regarding the ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system near half filling. The numerical renormalization group predicts an underscreened Kondo state with residual spin-1/2 magnetic moment, ln2 residual impurity entropy, and unitary conductance, while the Bethe ansatz solution predicts a fully screened impurity, regular Fermi-liquid ground state, and zero conductance. We calculate the impurity entropy of the system as a function of the temperature using the hybridization-expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo technique, which is a numerically exact stochastic method, and find excellent agreement with the numerical renormalization group results. We show that the origin of the unconventional behavior in this model is the odd-symmetry "dark state" on the dots.

  6. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  7. Study on load temperature control system of ground laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xunhua; Zhang, Hongtao; Liu, Wangsheng; Zhang, Chijun; Zhou, Xun

    2007-12-01

    The ground laser communication terminal as the termination of a communication system, works at the temperature which varies from -40°C to 50°C. We design a temperature control system to keep optical and electronic components working properly in the load. The load is divided into two sections to control temperature respectively. Because the space is limited, we use heater film and thermoelectric cooler to clearify and refrigerate the load. We design a hardware and a software for the temperature control system, establish mathematic model, and emulate it with Matlab.

  8. The role of moisture transport between ground and atmosphere in global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rind, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Stieglitz, M.

    1997-01-01

    Projections of the effect of climate change on future water availability are examined by reviewing the formulations used to calculate moisture transport between the ground and the atmosphere. General circulation models and climate change impact models have substantially different formulations for evapotranspiration, so their projections of future water availability often disagree, even though they use the same temperature and precipitation forecasts. General circulation models forecast little change in tropical and subtropical water availability, while impact models show severe water and agricultural shortages. A comparison of observations and modeling techniques shows that the parameterizations in general circulation models likely lead to an underestimate of the impacts of global warming on soil moisture and vegetation. Such errors would crucially affect the temperature and precipitation forecasts used in impact models. Some impact model evaporation formulations are probably more appropriate than those in general circulation models, but important questions remain. More observations are needed, especially in the vicinity of forests, to determine appropriate parameterizations

  9. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  10. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.; McFadden, M.

    1993-01-01

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ''B'' package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ''TRANSCOM''

  11. Practical Approach on Lightning and Grounding Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Jose Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Lightning Protection and Grounding of Electrical and Mechanical equipment’s for the Protection of the Human Beings, Structure of the building and equipment protection, safe working of the Worker at Industry as per my latest practical knowledge in the site environment in extreme climatic condition of low lying areas of the Gulf Region in the challenging projects. All the conductor calculation, Lightning Risk Factor calculations, all the system information regarding the ...

  12. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  13. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially- designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that is was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 20 states through which it would travel

  14. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially-designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracing system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels.'' The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that it was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 23 states through which it traveled

  15. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems. (a...

  16. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  17. Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    voltage bias, the tunneling of the electron from the lead to the dot and vice versa will happen very rarely. Then two successive ..... A typical mesoscopic quantum dot system (a small drop- .... dynamical behavior of the distribution function of the.

  18. Primary heat transport pump trip by ground fault (deterioration of insulation in the cable quick disconnect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, C.-Y.

    1991-01-01

    At 08:29 Sept. 1, 1988, Wolsong unit 1 was operating at 100% full power when a primary heat transport pump was suddenly tripped by breaker trip due to ground fault in the power distribution connector assembly. Soon after the pump trip, the reactor was shut down automatically on low heat transport flow. Operators tried to restart the pump twice but failed. A field operator reported to the shift supervisor that he found an electrical spark and smoke at the vicinity of the pump when the pump started to run. Inspection showed that a power distribution connector assembly for making fast and easy power connections to the PHT pump motor, 3312-PM2, was damaged severely by thermal shock. Particularly, broken parts of the insulating plug flew away across the boiler room and dropped to the floor. Direct causes of the failure were bad contact and deterioration of integrity along the creep paths between the insulating plug and the connector housing. The failed connector assembly had been used for more than 7 years. Its status had been checked infrequently during the in-service period. The standard torque value was not applied to the installation of connectors. Therefore, we concluded that long term inservice in combinations of application of improper torque value induced failure of insulation. This paper describes the scenarios, causes of the event and corrective actions to prevent recurrence of this event. (author)

  19. Primary heat transport pump trip by ground fault (deterioration of insulation in the cable quick disconnect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, C -Y [Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant, Korea Electric Power Corporation, Wolsong (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-04-01

    At 08:29 Sept. 1, 1988, Wolsong unit 1 was operating at 100% full power when a primary heat transport pump was suddenly tripped by breaker trip due to ground fault in the power distribution connector assembly. Soon after the pump trip, the reactor was shut down automatically on low heat transport flow. Operators tried to restart the pump twice but failed. A field operator reported to the shift supervisor that he found an electrical spark and smoke at the vicinity of the pump when the pump started to run. Inspection showed that a power distribution connector assembly for making fast and easy power connections to the PHT pump motor, 3312-PM2, was damaged severely by thermal shock. Particularly, broken parts of the insulating plug flew away across the boiler room and dropped to the floor. Direct causes of the failure were bad contact and deterioration of integrity along the creep paths between the insulating plug and the connector housing. The failed connector assembly had been used for more than 7 years. Its status had been checked infrequently during the in-service period. The standard torque value was not applied to the installation of connectors. Therefore, we concluded that long term inservice in combinations of application of improper torque value induced failure of insulation. This paper describes the scenarios, causes of the event and corrective actions to prevent recurrence of this event. (author)

  20. Review of ground-water flow and transport models in the unsaturated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oster, C.A.

    1982-11-01

    Models of partially saturated flow and transport in porous media have application in the analysis of existing as well as future low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. An extensive literature search along with telephone and mail correspondence with recognized leading experts in the field, was conducted to identify computer models suitable for studies of low-level radioactive waste facilities located in the unsaturated zone. Fifty-five existing models were identified as potentially useful. Ten of these models were selected for further examination. This report contains a statement of the ground-water flow-contaminant transport problem, a discussion of those methods used to reduce the physical problem to a computer model, a brief discussion about the data requirements of these models. The procedure used to select the ten codes for further discussion is given, along with a list of these models. Finally, the Appendices contain the data about the fifty-five codes examined. Specifically Appendix D contains the detailed discussion of each of the ten selected codes. Included in each discussion are such items which a potential user requires in determining whether the code is suitable for his applications. Appendix E contains brief summary information about each of the fifty-five codes. Included in the summaries are identification data, authors, pertinent references, and model type.

  1. Review of ground-water flow and transport models in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, C.A.

    1982-11-01

    Models of partially saturated flow and transport in porous media have application in the analysis of existing as well as future low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. An extensive literature search along with telephone and mail correspondence with recognized leading experts in the field, was conducted to identify computer models suitable for studies of low-level radioactive waste facilities located in the unsaturated zone. Fifty-five existing models were identified as potentially useful. Ten of these models were selected for further examination. This report contains a statement of the ground-water flow-contaminant transport problem, a discussion of those methods used to reduce the physical problem to a computer model, a brief discussion about the data requirements of these models. The procedure used to select the ten codes for further discussion is given, along with a list of these models. Finally, the Appendices contain the data about the fifty-five codes examined. Specifically Appendix D contains the detailed discussion of each of the ten selected codes. Included in each discussion are such items which a potential user requires in determining whether the code is suitable for his applications. Appendix E contains brief summary information about each of the fifty-five codes. Included in the summaries are identification data, authors, pertinent references, and model type

  2. Inactive trials of transport systems: phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.; Kennedy, S.T.

    1986-11-01

    Progress made during 1984-85 is reviewed in four sections: the design and installation of a stainless steel working floor in the mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction facility; the detailed evaluation of a single air pad of the type used on commercial air-transporter; an experimental programme designed to examine the problems associated with the operation of a commercial air-transporter; the design, manufacture and commissioning trials of two powered conveyor units which when combined complete a remotely operated transfer system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility. (author)

  3. Integrated Unmanned Air-Ground Robotics System, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-20

    3) IPT Integrated Product Team IRP Intermediate Power Rating JAUGS TBD JCDL TBD Joint Vision 2020 TBD Km Kilometer lbs. pounds MAE Mechanical and...compatible with emerging JCDL and/or JAUGS . 2.3.2.2. Payload must be “plug and play.” 2.3.3. Communications 2.3.3.1. System communications shall be robust...Power JCDL JAUGS Joint Architecture for Unmanned Ground Systems JP-8 Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 km Kilometer lbs. Pounds LOS Line Of Sight MAE Mechanical

  4. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Göran; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed

  5. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Göran, E-mail: goran.finnveden@abe.kth.se; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  6. Characterization of the Hanford 300 Area Burial Grounds. Task III: fluid transport and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Simmons, C.S.

    1979-08-01

    In Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling, a computer model was developed and applied to the 300 Area Burial Grounds to analyze the influence of potential evaporation and rainfall patterns on drainage. The model describes one-dimensional unsaturated flow. Fluid transport equations were evaluated to describe the driving forces of fluid flow. The data indicate that the major processes are evaporative drying, capillarity, and gravity flow. Thermally induced transport does not appear significant in the subsurface sediments of the area. Several empirical evaporation methods are available for assessing potential evaporation/evapotranspiration. Four methods were used with the unsaturated flow model. Ultimately, the Blaney-Criddle method was chosen for subsequent simulation examples because it relies only on the climatic data available and gave results comparable to the other methods tested. Simulations showed that a dry layer formation is important in controlling the soil-water balance in the profile. The surface dry layer acts as a mulch to retard the evaporative water losses and increase water storage. The most important climatic factor in determining drainage appears to be yearly rainfall distribution. When rainfall is distributed in fall or winter, during periods of low potential evaporation, both water storage and drainage are increased. Summer showers, on the other hand, were shown to add little to the annual water storage. Rainfall occurring in one year influences the subsequent annual drainage for several succeeding years because of annual changes in water storage capacity and the transient nature of unsaturated flow in the storage zone. 47 figures, 9 tables

  7. Transportable Vitrification System Demonstration on Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from the first demonstration of the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) on actual mixed waste. The TVS is a fully integrated, transportable system for the treatment of mixed and low-level radioactive wastes. The demonstration was conducted at Oak Ridge's East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly known as the K-25 site. The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixed wastes could be vitrified safely on a 'field' scale using joule-heated melter technology and obtain information on system performance, waste form durability, air emissions, and costs

  8. Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity in a complex fluvial hydrogeologic system to evaluate migration in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.G.; Pavlik, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogeology and extent of ground water contamination were characterized at a site in northern California. Wood preserving compounds, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, have been detected in the soil and ground water. A plume of dissolved PCP up to 1.5 miles long has been identified south of the plant. The aquifer consists of a complex multizonal system of permeable gravels and sands composed of units from four geologic formations deposited by the ancestral Feather River. Fluvial channel gravels form the principal aquifer zones and contain overbank clay and silt deposits which locally form clay lenses or more continuous aquitards. The geometric mean horizontal hydraulic conductivities for channel gravels range between 120 to 530 feet/day. Mean vertical aquitard hydraulic conductivity is 0.07 feet/day. Ground water flow is generally southward with a velocity ranging from 470 to 1000 feet/year. The spatial distribution of dissolved PCP in the aquifer documents the interactions between major permeable zones. Hydrostratigraphic evidence pointing to the separation of aquifer zones is supported by the major ion chemistry of ground water. The sodium and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate-rich water present in the upper aquifer zones is significantly different in chemical composition from the predominantly sodium chloride-rich water present in the deeper permeable zone. This indicates that hydrodynamic separation exists between the upper and lower zones of the aquifer, limiting the vertical movement of the PCP plume. A numerical ground water model, based on this conceptual hydrogeologic model, was developed to evaluate groundwater transport pathways and for use in the design of a ground water extraction and treatment system. (9 refs., 7 figs., tab.)

  9. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Air operations language for military space ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P.

    The trends in military space ground system architecture is toward large amounts of software and more widely distributed processors. At the same time, life cycle cost considerations dictate that fewer personnel with minimized skill levels and knowledge operate and support these systems. This squeeze necessitates more human engineering and operational planning into the design of these systems. Several techniques have been developed to satisfy these requirements. An operations language is one of these techniques. It involves a specially defined syntax for control of the system. Individual directives are able to be grouped into operations language procedures. These procedures can be prepared offline ahead of time by more skilled personnel and then used to ensure repeatability of operational sequences and reduce operator errors. The use of an operations language also provides benefits for the handling of contingency operations as well as in the system testing and validation programs.

  11. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2017-06-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  12. High-Energy Beam Transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Farrell, J.A.; Liska, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to be installed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) at Richland, Washington. The linear accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power, continuous-duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread either to a lithium target or a beam stop. A periodic quadrupole and bending-magnet system provides the beam transport and focusing on target with small beam aberrations. A special rf cavity distributes the energy in the beam so that the Bragg Peak is distributed within the lithium target. Operation of the rf control system, the Energy Dispersion Cavity (EDC), and the beam transport magnets is tested on the beam stop during accelerator turn-on. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostic techniques and noninterceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports using a cluster system to simplify maintenance and alignment techniques

  13. Advanced public transportation systems : evaluation guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Transit Administration has developed the Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program which is an integral part of the overall U.S. DOT Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) effort. A major aim of the APTS Program is to prom...

  14. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  15. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  16. LCLS-II CRYOMODULE TRANSPORT SYSTEM TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); McGee, Michael W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Cryomodules (CM) for the Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will be shipped to SLAC (Menlo Park, California) from JLab (Newport News, Virginia) and FNAL (Batavia, Illinois). A transportation system has been designed and built to safely transport the CMs over the road. It uses an array of helical isolator springs to attenuate shocks on the CM to below 1.5g in all directions. The system rides on trailers equipped with Air-Ride suspension, which attenuates vibration loads. The prototype LCLS-II CM (pCM) was driven 750 miles to test the transport system; shock loggers recorded the shock attenuation on the pCM and vacuum gauges were used to detect any compromises in beamline vacuum. Alignment measurements were taken before and after the trip to check whether cavity positions had shifted beyond the ± 0.2mm spec. Passband frequencies and cavity gradients were measured at 2K at the Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) at JLab to identify any degradation of CM performance after transportation. The transport system was found to have safely carried the CM and is cleared to begin shipments from JLab and FNAL to SLAC.

  17. Ground loops detection system in the RFX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellina, F.; Pomaro, N.; Trevisan, F.

    1996-01-01

    RFX is a toroidal machine for the fusion research based on the RFP configuration. During the pulse, in any conductive loop close to the machine very strong currents can be induced, which may damage the diagnostics and the other instrumentation. To avoid loops, the earthing system of the machine is tree-shaped. However, an accidental contact between metallic earthed masses of the machine may give rise to an unwanted loop as well. An automatic system for the detection of ground loops in the earthing system has therefore been developed, which works continuously during shutdown intervals and between pulses. In the paper the design of the detection system is presented, together with the experimental results on prototypes. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral......The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint...

  19. Transport modeling: An artificial immune system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an artificial immune system approach (AIS to modeling time-dependent (dynamic, real time transportation phenomenon characterized by uncertainty. The basic idea behind this research is to develop the Artificial Immune System, which generates a set of antibodies (decisions, control actions that altogether can successfully cover a wide range of potential situations. The proposed artificial immune system develops antibodies (the best control strategies for different antigens (different traffic "scenarios". This task is performed using some of the optimization or heuristics techniques. Then a set of antibodies is combined to create Artificial Immune System. The developed Artificial Immune transportation systems are able to generalize, adapt, and learn based on new knowledge and new information. Applications of the systems are considered for airline yield management, the stochastic vehicle routing, and real-time traffic control at the isolated intersection. The preliminary research results are very promising.

  20. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  1. The transport system for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndalen, Joergen; Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the actors on the Norwegian shelf in cooperation with the authorities established a new regime for sale and transport of gas. This article deals with some issues of interest relating to this new regime. The transport system for natural gas shows clear signs of being a natural monopoly, which makes it difficult to use the system efficiently. Two main problems of the current way of organizing are pointed out: (1) lack of price and market signals in capacity allocation and (2) unclear incentive effects. The article indicates a possible solution based on the form of organization that is used in the power market

  2. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume I, transportation engineers and expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...

  3. Conflict simulation for surface transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeton, S.C.; De Laquil, P. III.

    1977-07-01

    An important element in the analysis of transportation safeguards systems is the determination of the outcome of an armed attack against the system. Such information is necessary to understand relationships among the various defender tactics, weapons systems, and adversary attributes. A battle model, SABRES, which can simulate safeguards engagements is under development. This paper briefly describes the first phase of SABRES and presents some examples of its capabilities

  4. Effects of space weather on high-latitude ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Risto

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems, such as power grids, pipelines, cables and railways, are a ground manifestation of space weather. The first GIC observations were already made in early telegraph equipment more than 150 years ago. In power networks, GIC may saturate transformers with possible harmful consequences extending even to a collapse of the whole system or to permanent damage of transformers. In pipelines, GIC and the associated pipe-to-soil voltages may enhance corrosion or disturb surveys associated with corrosion control. GIC are driven by the geoelectric field induced by a geomagnetic variation at the Earth’s surface. The electric and magnetic fields are primarily produced by ionospheric currents and secondarily affected by the ground conductivity. Of great importance is the auroral electrojet with other rapidly varying currents indicating that GIC are a particular high-latitude problem. In this paper, we summarize the GIC research done in Finland during about 25 years, and discuss the calculation of GIC in a given network. Special attention is paid to modelling a power system. It is shown that, when considering GIC at a site, it is usually sufficient to take account for a smaller grid in the vicinity of the particular site. Modelling GIC also provides a basis for developing forecasting and warning methods of GIC.

  5. Wireless Communications in Smart Rail Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Briso-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway, subway, airplane, and other transportation systems have drawn an increasing interest on the use of wireless communications for critical and noncritical services to improve performance, reliability, and passengers experience. Smart transportation systems require the use of critical communications for operation and control, and wideband services can be provided using noncritical communications. High speed train (HST is one of the best test cases for the analysis of communication links and specification of the general requirements for train control and supervision, passenger communications, and onboard and infrastructure wireless sensors. In this paper, we analyze in detail critical and noncritical networks mainly using the HST as a test case. First, the different types of links for smart rail transportation are described, specifying the main requirements of the transportation systems, communications, and their applications for different services. Then, we propose a network architecture and requirements of the communication technologies for critical and noncritical data. Finally, an analysis is made for the future technologies, including the fifth-generation (5G communications, millimeter wave (mmWave, terahertz (THz, and satellites for critical and high-capacity communications in transportation.

  6. Lessons learned on the Ground Test Accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubal, A.J.; Weiss, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    When we initiated the control system design for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), we envisioned a system that would be flexible enough to handle the changing requirements of an experimental project. This control system would use a developers' toolkit to reduce the cost and time to develop applications for GTA, and through the use of open standards, the system would accommodate unforeseen requirements as they arose. Furthermore, we would attempt to demonstrate on GTA a level of automation far beyond that achieved by existing accelerator control systems. How well did we achieve these goals? What were the stumbling blocks to deploying the control system, and what assumptions did we make about requirements that turned out to be incorrect? In this paper we look at the process of developing a control system that evolved into what is now the ''Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System'' (EPICS). Also, we assess the impact of this system on the GTA project, as well as the impact of GTA on EPICS. The lessons learned on GTA will be valuable for future projects

  7. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  8. SP-100 ground engineering system at Hanford. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  9. SP-100 ground engineering system at Hanford. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  10. SP-100 Ground Engineering System at Hanford. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  11. INERTIAL TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEMS FOR STABILIZATION OF GROUND VEHICLES EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Sushchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The vibratory inertial technology is a recent modern inertial technology. It represents the most perspective approach to design of inertial sensors, which can be used in stabilization and tracking systems operated on vehicles of the wide class. The purpose of the research is to consider advantages of this technology in comparison with laser and fiber-optic ones. Operation of the inertial sensors on the ground vehicles requires some improvement of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope with the goal to simplify information processing, increase reliability, and compensate bias. Methods: Improvement of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope includes introducing of the phase detector and additional excitation unit. The possibility to use the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in the stabilization systems operated on the ground vehicles is shown by means of analysis of gyroscope output signal. To prove efficiency of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in stabilization system the simulation technique is used. Results: The scheme of the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope including the phase detector and additional excitation unit is developed and analyzed. The way to compensate bias is determined. Simulation of the stabilization system with the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope is carried out. Expressions for the output signals of the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope are derived. The error of the output signal is estimated and the possibility to use the modified Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in stabilization systems is proved. The results of stabilization system simulation are given. Their analysis is carried out. Conclusions: The represented results prove efficiency of the proposed technical decisions. They can be useful for design of stabilization platform with instrumental equipment operated on moving vehicles of the wide class.

  12. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  13. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  14. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molz, Fred J. III

    2010-01-01

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  15. Developing intelligent transportation systems using the national ITS architecture: an executive edition for senior transportation managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This document has been produced to provide senior transportation managers of state and local departments of transportation with practical guidance for deploying Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) consistent with the National ITS Architecture. T...

  16. Evaluation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Lompoc area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Daniel J.; Nash, David B.; Martin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the Lompoc area, especially in the Lompoc plain, is only marginally acceptable for most uses. Demand for ground water has increased for municipal use since the late 1950's and has continued to be high for irrigation on the Lompoc plain, the principal agricultural area in the Santa Ynez River basin. As use has increased, the quality of ground water has deteriorated in some areas of the Lompoc plain. The dissolved-solids concentration in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath most of the central and western plains has increased from less than 1,000 milligrams per liter in the 1940's to greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter in the 1960's. Dissolved- solids concentration have remained relatively constant since the 1960's. A three-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow in the Lompoc area and a two-dimensional finite-element model was used to simulate solute transport to gain a better understanding of the ground-water system and to evaluate the effects of proposed management plans for the ground-water basin. The aquifer system was simulated in the flow model as four horizontal layers. In the area of the Lompoc plain, the layers represent the shallow, middle, and main zones of the upper aquifer, and the lower aquifer. For the Lompoc upland and Lompoc terrace, the four layers represent the lower aquifer. The solute transport model was used to simulate dissolved-solids transport in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath the Lompoc plain. The flow and solute-transport models were calibrated to transient conditions for 1941-88. A steady-state simulation was made to provide initial conditions for the transient-state simulation by using long-term average (1941-88) recharge rates. Model- simulated hydraulic heads generally were within 5 feet of measured heads in the main zone for transient conditions. Model-simulated dissolved- solids concentrations for the main zone generally differed less than 200milligrams

  17. Helicopter vs. ground transportation of patients bound for primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Rasmussen, L S; Siersma, V

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation of the first Danish helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) was associated with reduced time from first medical contact to treatment at a specialized centre for patients with suspected ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to investigate effects of HEMS...... was 22.1% (HEMS) vs. 21.2% (adjusted OR = 1.10, 0.64-1.90, P = 0.73). CONCLUSION: In an observational study of patients with suspected STEMI in eastern Denmark, no significant beneficial effect of helicopter transport could be detected on mortality, premature labour market exit or work ability. Only...... a study with random allocation to one system vs. another, along with a large sample size, will allow determination of superiority of helicopter transport....

  18. Relationships of dispersive mass transport and stochastic convective flow through hydrologic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Uncertainty in water flow velocity appears to be a major factor in determining the magnitude of contaminant dispersion expected in a ground water system. This report discusses some concepts and mathematical methods relating dispersive contaminant transport to stochastic aspects of ground water flow. The theory developed should not be construed as absolutely rigorous mathematics, but is presented with the intention of clarifying the physical concepts

  19. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  20. Differential privacy in intelligent transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargl, Frank; Friedman, Arik; Boreli, Roksana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the concept of differential privacy can be applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), focusing on protection of Floating Car Data (FCD) stored and processed in central Traffic Data Centers (TDC). We illustrate an integration of differential privacy with

  1. A Proven Methodology for Developing Secure Software and Applying It to Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Part Two expands upon Part One in an attempt to translate the methodology for ground system personnel. The goal is to build upon the methodology presented in Part One by showing examples and details on how to implement the methodology. Section 1: Ground Systems Overview; Section 2: Secure Software Development; Section 3: Defense in Depth for Ground Systems; Section 4: What Now?

  2. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Overview and Architectural Tenets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS architecture will receive a technology refresh in 2015 to satisfy several key

  3. A design for a ground-based data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambird, Barbara A.; Lavine, David

    1988-01-01

    An initial design for a ground-based data management system which includes intelligent data abstraction and cataloging is described. The large quantity of data on some current and future NASA missions leads to significant problems in providing scientists with quick access to relevant data. Human screening of data for potential relevance to a particular study is time-consuming and costly. Intelligent databases can provide automatic screening when given relevent scientific parameters and constraints. The data management system would provide, at a minimum, information of availability of the range of data, the type available, specific time periods covered together with data quality information, and related sources of data. The system would inform the user about the primary types of screening, analysis, and methods of presentation available to the user. The system would then aid the user with performing the desired tasks, in such a way that the user need only specify the scientific parameters and objectives, and not worry about specific details for running a particular program. The design contains modules for data abstraction, catalog plan abstraction, a user-friendly interface, and expert systems for data handling, data evaluation, and application analysis. The emphasis is on developing general facilities for data representation, description, analysis, and presentation that will be easily used by scientists directly, thus bypassing the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. Expert system technology is used for many different aspects of the data management system, including the direct user interface, the interface to the data analysis routines, and the analysis of instrument status.

  4. Recent Ground Hold and Rapid Depressurization Testing of Multilayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of flight insulation systems for large cryogenic orbital storage (spray on foam and multilayer insulation), testing need include all environments that are experienced during flight. While large efforts have been expended on studying, bounding, and modeling the orbital performance of the insulation systems, little effort has been expended on the ground hold and ascent phases of a mission. Historical cryogenic in-space systems that have flown have been able to ignore these phases of flight due to the insulation system being within a vacuum jacket. In the development phase of the Nuclear Mars Vehicle and the Shuttle Nuclear Vehicle, several insulation systems were evaluated for the full mission cycle. Since that time there had been minimal work on these phases of flight until the Constellation program began investigating cryogenic service modules and long duration upper stages. With the inception of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, a specific need was seen for the data and as such, several tests were added to the Cryogenic Boil-off Reduction System liquid hydrogen test matrix to provide more data on a insulation system. Testing was attempted with both gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and gaseous helium (GHe) backfills. The initial tests with nitrogen backfill were not successfully completed due to nitrogen liquefaction and solidification preventing the rapid pumpdown of the vacuum chamber. Subsequent helium backfill tests were successful and showed minimal degradation. The results are compared to the historical data.

  5. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  6. Advanced technologies for intelligent transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on emerging technologies in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) namely efficient information dissemination between vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation systems. It covers the state-of-the-art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) communication architectures, considering several application scenarios. With a detailed treatment of emerging communication paradigms, including cross networking  and distributed algorithms. Unlike most of the existing books, this book presents a multi-layer overview of information dissemination systems, from lower layers (MAC) to high layers (applications). All those aspects are investigated considering the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones/tablets and embedded systems, i.e. technologies that during last years completely changed the current market, the user expectations, and communication networks. The presented networking paradigms are supported and validate...

  7. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  8. Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component report for the Ground Demonstration System Accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainard, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Model Number ORC1A3A01 System Accumulator for the Kilowatt Isotope Power System was expulsion tested and demonstrated to be in compliance with the requirements of Sundstrand Explusion Test Procedure, TP 400. Test requirements of TP 400 were extracted from the Kilowatt Isotope Power System, Ground Demonstration System Test Plan

  9. NRC Information No. 88-86: Operating with multiple grounds in direct current distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During recent NRC maintenance inspections at Quad Cities, Oconee, and D.C. Cook power reactor facilities, it was found that plants had been operating with multiple grounds in the dc distribution systems for extended periods. Specific examples are described. Most nuclear power plant dc systems are two-wire ungrounded, combination battery/charger systems equipped with ground detection. Typical ground detection system features include a remote annunciator and a local indicator and/or recorder. Ground detectors are incorporated in the dc system so that if a single ground point does occur, immediate steps can be taken to clear the ground fault from the system. Failure to respond to a single ground will mask subsequent grounds. Multiple grounds can cause the indiscriminate operation of equipment, which may have safety consequences. Grounds can cause control circuit fuses to fail and can render important safety equipment inoperable as previously described. Furthermore, batteries have a designed capacity to supply power during a station blackout condition, and this capacity can be affected by the presence of unanalyzed loads in the form of multiple grounds. It is recognized that troubleshooting and finding grounds on a dc system are difficult tasks that may affect plant operation. The licensees previously mentioned have reviewed their designs and conditions for potential impact on safety system operability and have taken corrective actions to minimize the effect of grounds

  10. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  11. Modelling of the evolution of ground waters in a granite system at low temperature: the Stripa ground waters, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaud, D.; Michard, G.; Beaucaire, C.

    1990-01-01

    From chemical data on the Stripa ground waters we have tried to model the evolution of the chemical composition of a ground water in a granitic system at low temperature. The existence of two end-member ground water compositions made it possible first, to test the conventional model of a geothermal system according to which an overall equilibrium between the waters and a given mineral assemblage can be defined, and then to show that such a model could be extended to low temperatures (10 o C). Conversely, if we know the mineral assemblage, the equilibration temperature and the charge of the mobile ions (in this case, Cl), the composition of the solution is entirely fixed. In our model of the Stripa ground waters, the existence of two end-member ground water compositions can be explained by an evolution from a ''kaolinite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium to a ''prehnite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium, the latter requiring less Al than the former. We have also emphasized the importance of the Cl ion concentrations of the ground waters, because they can be considered as indicators of the degree of reaction progress between rock and water, thus determining the degree of equilibration of the system. (author)

  12. Performance Analysis of Slinky Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers for a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the thermal performance of reclined (parallel to ground surface and standing (perpendicular to ground surface slinky horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs with different water mass flow rates in the heating mode of continuous and intermittent operations. A copper tube with an outer surface protected with low-density polyethylene was selected as the tube material of the ground heat exchanger. Effects on ground temperature around the reclined slinky HGHE due to heat extraction and the effect of variation of ground temperatures on reclined HGHE performance are discussed. A higher heat exchange rate was experienced in standing HGHE than in reclined HGHE. The standing HGHE was affected by deeper ground temperature and also a greater amount of backfilled sand in standing HGHE (4.20 m3 than reclined HGHE (1.58 m3, which has higher thermal conductivity than site soil. For mass flow rate of 1 L/min with inlet water temperature 7 °C, the 4-day average heat extraction rates increased 45.3% and 127.3%, respectively, when the initial average ground temperatures at 1.5 m depth around reclined HGHE increased from 10.4 °C to 11.7 °C and 10.4 °C to 13.7 °C. In the case of intermittent operation, which boosted the thermal performance, a short time interval of intermittent operation is better than a long time interval of intermittent operation. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of power consumption by the circulating pump, the intermittent operation is more efficient than continuous operation.

  13. Assessment of ground-water flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer using geostatistical filtering and hydrocarbon fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, S.A. Jr.; Smith, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional environmental investigations at tidally influenced hazardous waste sites such as marine fuel storage terminals have generally failed to characterize ground-water flow and chemical transport because they have been based on only a cursory knowledge of plume geometry, chemicals encountered, and hydrogeologic setting and synoptic ground-water level measurement. Single-time observations cannot be used to accurately determine flow direction and gradient in tidally fluctuating aquifers since these measurements delineate hydraulic head at only one point in time during a tidal cycle, not the net effect of the fluctuations. In this study, a more rigorous approach was used to characterize flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer at a marine fuel storage terminal using: (1) ground-water-level monitoring over three tidal cycles (72 hours), (2) geostatistical filtering of ground-water-level data using 25-hour and 71-hour filtering methods, and (3) hydrocarbon fingerprinting analysis. The results from the study indicate that naphtha released from one of the on-site naphtha tanks has been the predominant contributor to the hydrocarbon plume both on-site and downgradient off-site and that net ground-water and hydrocarbon movement has been to the southeast away from the tank since 1989

  14. IOT Based Smart Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Gawade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things IoT joins the objects of this present reality to the virtual world and empowers at whatever time anyplace network for anything that has a turn ON and turn OFF switch. It constitutes to a world where physical things and humans and other living things and virtual information and situations collaborate with each other. Substantial measure of information is created as expansive number of gadgets is associated with the web. So this expansive measure of information must be controlled and changed over to helpful data keeping in mind the end goal to create productive frameworks. In this paper we concentrate on to a urban IoT framework that is utilized to construct Intelligent Transportation System ITS. IoT based intelligent transportation systems are intended to bolster the Smart City vision which intends to utilize the progressed and capable communication systems for the organization of the city and the residents.

  15. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  16. Guide to federal intelligent transportation system (ITS) research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program aims to bring connectivity to transportation through the use of advanced wireless technologies powerful technologies that enable transformative chan...

  17. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The paper examines the operations of Public Transport in Nigeria using the Kwara State Transport Service as a case study. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Ice nucleating particles over the Eastern Mediterranean measured at ground and by unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Drücke, Jaqueline; Keleshis, Christos; Pikridas, Michael; Ebert, Martin; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Nickovic, Slobodan; Baars, Holger; Marinou, Eleni; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Curtius, Joachim; Bingemer, Heinz G.

    2017-04-01

    During the intensive INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS field campaign focusing on aerosols, clouds and ice nucleation in the Eastern Mediterranean in April 2016, we have measured the abundance of ice nucleating particles (INP) in the lower troposphere both with unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as well as from the ground. Aerosol samples were collected by miniaturized electrostatic precipitators onboard the UAS and were analyzed immediately after collection on site in the ice nucleus counter FRIDGE for INP active at -20˚ C to -30˚ C in the deposition/condensation mode (INPD). Immersion freezing INP (INPI) were sampled on membrane filters and were analysed in aqueous extracts by the drop freezing method on the cold stage of FRIDGE. Ground samples were collected at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO) in Agia Marina Xyliatou (Latitude; 35˚ 2' 8" N; Longitude: 33˚ 3' 26" E; Altitude: 532 m a.s.l.). During the one-month campaign, we encountered a series of Saharan dust plumes that traveled at several kilometers altitude. Here we present INP data from 42 individual flights, together with OPC aerosol number concentrations, backscatter and depolarization retrievals from the Polly-XT Raman Lidar, dust concentrations derived by the dust transport model DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model), and results from scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the dust plumes is reflected by the coincidence of INP with the particulate mass (PM), the Lidar retrievals and the predicted dust mass of the model. This suggests that mineral dust or a constituent related to dust was a major contributor to the ice nucleating properties of the aerosol. Peak concentrations of above 100 INP std.l-1 were measured at -30˚ C. The INPD concentration in elevated plumes was on average a factor of 10 higher than at ground level. The INPI concentration at ground also agreed with PM levels and exceeded the ground-based INPD concentration by more than one order of magnitude. Since desert dust is transported

  19. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  20. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... board aircraft. Air-ground systems operating in these frequency bands are referred to in this part as... systems. 22.857 Section 22.857 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground...

  1. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141... customer as follows: (i) Chemical disinfection—(A) Ground water systems serving greater than 3,300 people...

  2. A method to estimate characteristics of grounding systems considering experimental studies and computational simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andre Nunes de; Silva, Ivan Nunes da; Ulson, Jose Alfredo C.; Zago, Maria Goretti [UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: andrejau@bauru.unesp.br

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes a novel approach for mapping characteristics of grounding systems using artificial neural networks. The network acts as identifier of structural features of the grounding processes. So that output parameters can be estimated and generalized from an input parameter set. The results obtained by the network are compared with other approaches also used to model grounding systems concerning lightning. (author)

  3. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this contractual effort is the development and demonstration of a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system to meet the unique needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system will be designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganics, and explosive materials. The planned laboratory system will consist of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site's specific needs

  4. Development of Ground Test System For RKX-200EB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

    2018-04-01

    After being postponed for seven years, the development of RKX-200EB now restarts by initiating a ground test, preceding the real flight test. The series of the development starts from simulation test using the real vehicle and its components, focusing on a flight sequence test using hardware in the loop simulation. The result of the simulation shows that the autonomous control system in development is able to control the X tail fin vehicle, since take off using booster, separating booster-sustainer, making flight maneuver using sustainer with average cruise speed of 1000 km/h, and doing bank to maneuver up to ±40 deg heading to the target. The simulation result also shows that the presence of sustainer in vehicle control can expand the distance range by 162% (12.6 km) from its ballistic range using only a booster.

  5. Software Development and Test Methodology for a Distributed Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Guillebeau, Pat; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes in an effort to minimize unnecessary overhead while maximizing process benefits. The Software processes that have evolved still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Processes have evolved, highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project.

  6. Aircraft interrogation and display system: A ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor-based general purpose ground support equipment for electronic systems was developed. The hardware and software are designed to permit diverse applications in support of aircraft flight systems and simulation facilities. The implementation of the hardware, the structure of the software, describes the application of the system to an ongoing research aircraft project are described.

  7. Arterial intelligent transportation systems : infrastructure elements and traveler information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Applying Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to arterial systems allows TxDOT to significantly enhance : transportation system operation efficiency and improve traffic mobility. However, no guidelines are available to : assist TxDOT staff in sel...

  8. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  9. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  10. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  11. Adverse events during air and ground neonatal transport: 13 years' experience from a neonatal transport team in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Johannes; Olsson, Linn; Svensson, Amelie; Håkansson, Stellan

    2015-07-01

    To study the prevalence of adverse events (AEs) associated with neonatal transport, and to categorize, classify and assess the risk estimation of these events. Written comments in 1082 transport records during the period 1999-2011 were reviewed. Comments related to events that infringed on patient and staff safety were included as AEs, and categorized and further classified as complaint, imminent risk of incident/negative event, actual incident or actual negative event. AEs were also grouped into emergency or planned transports, and risk estimation was calculated according to a risk assessment tool and defined as low, intermediate, high or extreme risk. AEs (N = 883) were divided into five categories: logistics (n = 337), organization (n = 177), equipment (n = 165), vehicle (n = 129) and medical/nursing care (n = 75). Eighty-five percent of AEs were classified as incidents or negative events. The majority of AEs were estimated to be of low or intermediate risk in both planned and emergency transports. AEs estimated to be of high or extreme risk were significantly more frequent in emergency transports (OR = 10.1; 95% CI: 5.0-20.9; p transport, often related to imperfect transport logistics or equipment failure. AEs of high or extreme risk were more frequent in emergency transports.

  12. The Efficiency of the Bimodal System Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of fast railway results in an increased applicationof Trailer Train bimodal system transportation. Thetraffic costs are multiply reduced, particularly the variablecosts. On the other hand the environmental pollution from exhaustgases is also reduced. Therefore, by the year 2010 cargotransport should be preponderant~v used which would be characterisedby fast electric trains producing less noise, at lowercosts and with clean environment.

  13. Cotton Transportation and Logistics: A Dynamic System

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John R.; Park, John L.; Fuller, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the evolution of U.S. cotton transportation and logistics patterns over the last three decades. There have been many forces of change over this time period, with the largest change being a shift from primarily domestic market destinations to the international market. We describe the pre-1999 system and flow patterns when domestic consumption of U.S. cotton was dominant. We contrast this with current flow patterns as measured by available secondary export data and a sample of...

  14. Assateague Island National Seashore alternative transportation systems planning study and business plan for alternative transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to (1) study the potential expansion of existing alternative transportation systems (bicycle facilities) and development of new alternative transportation systems in and around the Maryland District of Assateague Island ...

  15. Evaluation of alternative public transportation systems in Izmit urban transportation via axiomatic design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen AKMAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world and in our country, most of urban transportation is performed by public transportation. Public transportation is a system which provides transportation easiness and opportunity to people, not to vehicles. Therefore, giving priority to public transportation system is necessary in organizing urban transportation. In this study, in order to reduce traffic intensity and to facilitate passenger transportation in Izmit urban transportation, It is tried to determine appropriate public transportation system. For this, firstly, alternatives which could be used for public transportation were determined. These alternatives are metro, metrobus, tram, light rail system and monorail. Afterwards, the variables affecting decision making about public transportation were determined. These variables are cost, transportation line features, vehicle characteristics, sensitivity to environment and customer satisfaction. Lastly, most appropriate public transportation system is proposed by using the axiomatic design method. As a result, light trail system and metrobus are determined as the most appropriate alternatives for Izmit public transportation system.Keywords: Urban transportation, Multi criteria decision making, Axiomatic design

  16. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  17. Pipesworld : applying planning systems to pipeline transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milidiu, R.L.; Santos Liporace, F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This paper explored issues facing the complex task of managing pipelines that transport large volumes of petroleum products over long distances. Since oil pipelines are generally a few inches wide and several miles long, reasonable amounts of distinct products can be transported with very small loss due to the mixing at liquid boundaries. Optimizing the transportation through oil pipelines in terms of maintenance and environmental safety is a high priority for pipeline operators. This paper presented the Pipesworld model which takes into account features such as product interface constraints, limited product storage capacities and due dates for product delivery. It has been benchmarked as a start-of-art general purpose artificial planning system. This paper also reported the results derived by general purpose artificial intelligence planning systems when applied to the Pipesworld model. It demonstrated how various modelling techniques can be used to enhance the planners performance. Current work in developing Plumber was also presented. This dedicated solver that addresses operational situations uses both general purpose planning techniques as well as domain specific knowledge. When Plumber was incorporated into Pipesworld, its outperformed Fast-Forward, one of the best available general purpose planning systems, suggesting that improved versions of Plumber have the potential to deal with various problem scenarios in pipeline operations. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Evolution of the JPSS Ground Project Calibration and Validation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patrick; Chander, Gyanesh; Jain, Peyush

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) next-generation operational Earth observation Program that acquires and distributes global environmental data from multiple polar-orbiting satellites. The JPSS Program plays a critical role to NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in weather, climate, oceans, coasts, and space environments, which supports the Nation's economy and protection of lives and property. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is acquiring and implementing the JPSS, comprised of flight and ground systems, on behalf of NOAA. The JPSS satellites are planned to fly in the afternoon orbit and will provide operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. To support the JPSS Calibration and Validation (CalVal) node Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) services facilitate: Algorithm Integration and Checkout, Algorithm and Product Operational Tuning, Instrument Calibration, Product Validation, Algorithm Investigation, and Data Quality Support and Monitoring. GRAVITE is a mature, deployed system that currently supports the SNPP Mission and has been in operations since SNPP launch. This paper discusses the major re-architecture for Block 2.0 that incorporates SNPP lessons learned, architecture of the system, and demonstrates how GRAVITE has evolved as a system with increased performance. It is now a robust, stable, reliable, maintainable, scalable, and secure system that supports development, test, and production strings, replaces proprietary and custom software, uses open source software, and is compliant with NASA and NOAA standards.

  19. SCOS 2: A distributed architecture for ground system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyte, Karl P.

    The current generation of spacecraft ground control systems in use at the European Space Agency/European Space Operations Centre (ESA/ESOC) is based on the SCOS 1. Such systems have become difficult to manage in both functional and financial terms. The next generation of spacecraft is demanding more flexibility in the use, configuration and distribution of control facilities as well as functional requirements capable of matching those being planned for future missions. SCOS 2 is more than a successor to SCOS 1. Many of the shortcomings of the existing system have been carefully analyzed by user and technical communities and a complete redesign was made. Different technologies were used in many areas including hardware platform, network architecture, user interfaces and implementation techniques, methodologies and language. As far as possible a flexible design approach has been made using popular industry standards to provide vendor independence in both hardware and software areas. This paper describes many of the new approaches made in the architectural design of the SCOS 2.

  20. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  1. The Place of Railway Transport in Romania’s Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    Dãneci-Pãtrãu Daniel; Coca Carmen Elena

    2012-01-01

    The transport activity in all its forms represents one of the most complex sections of an economy, but also an important factor of influence over the quality of life, that is why current preoccupations of international organisms are oriented towards measures meant to develop performing transport systems and compatible with the environment. In the article the main activities and resources of Romania’s railway transport system are presented , the place of the railway transport in the transport ...

  2. Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Arisona, Stefan Müller; Erath, Alexander; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.

  3. Ecological transport and radiation doses from ground water borne radioactive matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Bergstroem, U.; Evans, S.

    1978-12-01

    Turnover of radioactive matter entering the biosphere with ground water has been studied with regard to exposure and dose to critical groups and populations. The main alternatives considered for outflow of radioactive effluents to the biosphere are: outflow in a valley containing wells, outflow to a fresh-water lake, and outflow in a coastal region of the Baltic Sea. Mathematical models of a set of coupled ecosystems on local, regional- intermediate- and global levels have been used for calculations of doses. The intermediate system refers to the Baltic Sea. The mathematical analysis, based on first order kinetics for the exchange of matter in a system according to compartment principles, also includes products in decay chains, i.e. daughter nuclides generated by decay of nuclides under ecological cycling. The time dependent exposures have been studied for certain long-lived nuclides of radiological interest in waste from reprosessed fuel. Dose and dose commitment have been calculted for different release patterns comprising idealised episodes for outflow to the biosphere during short periods and outflow governed by constant leakage from a source on the border between geosphere and biosphere. (author)

  4. A new digital ground-fault protection system for generator-transformer unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielichowski, Mieczyslaw; Szlezak, Tomasz [Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    Ground faults are one of most often reasons of damages in stator windings of large generators. Under certain conditions, as a result of ground-fault protection systems maloperation, ground faults convert into high-current faults, causing severe failures in power system. Numerous publications in renowned journals and magazines testify about ground-fault matter importance and problems reported by exploitators confirm opinions, that some issues concerning ground-fault protection of large generators have not been solved yet or have been solved insufficiently. In this paper a new conception of a digital ground-fault protection system for stator winding of large generator was proposed. The process of intermittent arc ground fault in stator winding has been briefly discussed and actual ground-fault voltage waveforms were presented. A new relaying algorithm, based on third harmonic voltage measurement was also drawn and the methods of its implementation and testing were described. (author)

  5. Development of cask and transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seong Gy; Kang, Hee Dong; Lee, Heung Young; Seo, Ki Suk; Koo, Jung Hoe; Jung, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ju Chan; Bang, Kyung Sik; Baek, Chang Yeol

    1992-03-01

    The major goal of this project is to establish the safe transport system and obtain the necessary data for cask development by during research work for the design and safety test of shipping cask. The analysis technique using computer code for design has been studied in the field of structure, thermal and shielding analysis in this study. And also the test and measurement technology was developed for the measuring system of drop and fire test. It is expected that research activity ensured in this job will enable us to ultilize the basic data for the cask development. (Author)

  6. FFTF Heat Transport System (HTS) component and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.W.; Edwards, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The FFTF Heat Transport Systems and Components designs have been completed and successfully tested at isothermal conditions up to 427 0 C (800 0 F). General performance has been as predicted in the design analyses. Operational flexibility and reliability have been outstanding throughout the test program. The components and systems have been demonstrated ready to support reactor powered operation testing planned later in 1980

  7. Previsional evaluation of risks associated with ground transportation of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Tomachevsky, E.

    1987-11-01

    This communication is a concrete example of application of the evaluation method for risks associated with road transportation of uranium hexafluoride by 48Y shipping container. The statistical bases for UF6 transportation are given by analysis of the list of accidents for dangerous road transportation. This study examines all parameters (cost-safety-meteorology-radiation doses) to take in account in the safety analysis of the UF6 transportation between Pierrelatte and Le Havre [fr

  8. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  9. National Space Transportation System (NSTS) technology needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhalter, David L.; Ulrich, Kimberly K.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is one of the Nation's most valuable resources, providing manned transportation to and from space in support of payloads and scientific research. The NSTS program is currently faced with the problem of hardware obsolescence, which could result in unacceptable schedule and cost impacts to the flight program. Obsolescence problems occur because certain components are no longer being manufactured or repair turnaround time is excessive. In order to achieve a long-term, reliable transportation system that can support manned access to space through 2010 and beyond, NASA must develop a strategic plan for a phased implementation of enhancements which will satisfy this long-term goal. The NSTS program has initiated the Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA) project with the following objectives: eliminate hardware obsolescence in critical areas, increase reliability and safety of the vehicle, decrease operational costs and turnaround time, and improve operational capability. The strategy for ASA will be to first meet the mandatory needs - keep the Shuttle flying. Non-mandatory changes that will improve operational capability and enhance performance will then be considered if funding is adequate. Upgrade packages should be developed to install within designated inspection periods, grouped in a systematic approach to reduce cost and schedule impacts, and allow the capability to provide a Block 2 Shuttle (Phase 3).

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Helicopter Versus Ground Emergency Medical Services for Trauma Scene Transport in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M. Kit; Staudenmayer, Kristan L.; Wang, N. Ewen; Spain, David A.; Weir, Sharada; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We determined the minimum mortality reduction that helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) should provide relative to ground EMS for the scene transport of trauma victims to offset higher costs, inherent transport risks, and inevitable overtriage of minor injury patients. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model to compare the costs and outcomes of helicopter versus ground EMS transport to a trauma center from a societal perspective over a patient's lifetime. We determined the mortality reduction needed to make helicopter transport cost less than $100,000 and $50,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared to ground EMS. Model inputs were derived from the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT), National Trauma Data Bank, Medicare reimbursements, and literature. We assessed robustness with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results HEMS must provide a minimum of a 17% relative risk reduction in mortality (1.6 lives saved/100 patients with the mean characteristics of the NSCOT cohort) to cost less than $100,000 per QALY gained and a reduction of at least 33% (3.7 lives saved/100 patients) to cost less than $50,000 per QALY. HEMS becomes more cost-effective with significant reductions in minor injury patients triaged to air transport or if long-term disability outcomes are improved. Conclusions HEMS needs to provide at least a 17% mortality reduction or a measurable improvement in long-term disability to compare favorably to other interventions considered cost-effective. Given current evidence, it is not clear that HEMS achieves this mortality or disability reduction. Reducing overtriage of minor injury patients to HEMS would improve its cost-effectiveness. PMID:23582619

  11. Detection of underground water distribution piping system and leakages using ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Tengku Sarah Tengku; Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi; Ahmad, Mohamad Ridzuan; Amin, Mohamad Syafiq Mohd; Sani, Suhairy; Masenwat, Noor Azreen; Ismail, Mohd Azmi; Hamid, Shu-Hazri Abdul

    2017-01-01

    A water pipe is any pipe or tubes designed to transport and deliver water or treated drinking with appropriate quality, quantity and pressure to consumers. The varieties include large diameter main pipes, which supply entire towns, smaller branch lines that supply a street or group of buildings or small diameter pipes located within individual buildings. This distribution system (underground) is used to describe collectively the facilities used to supply water from its source to the point of usage. Therefore, a leaking in the underground water distribution piping system increases the likelihood of safe water leaving the source or treatment facility becoming contaminated before reaching the consumer. Most importantly, leaking can result in wastage of water which is precious natural resources. Furthermore, they create substantial damage to the transportation system and structure within urban and suburban environments. This paper presents a study on the possibility of using ground penetrating radar (GPR) with frequency of 1GHz to detect pipes and leakages in underground water distribution piping system. Series of laboratory experiment was designed to investigate the capability and efficiency of GPR in detecting underground pipes (metal and PVC) and water leakages. The data was divided into two parts: 1. detecting/locating underground water pipe, 2. detecting leakage of underground water pipe. Despite its simplicity, the attained data is proved to generate a satisfactory result indicating GPR is capable and efficient, in which it is able to detect the underground pipe and presence of leak of the underground pipe.

  12. Transport in low-dimensional mesoscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syzranov, Sergey

    2011-05-05

    The work is devoted to the physics of graphene-based optoelectronics and arrays of Josephson junctions. The first part deals with transport in a graphene p-n junction irradiated by an electromagnetic field. The photocurrent in such device is calculated analytically and compared to those observed in the recent experiments on graphene photodetectors. It is shown that in a clean effectively one-dimensional junction the photocurrent oscillates as a function of gate voltages due to the interference between electron paths accompanied by the resonant photon absorption. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the construction of a Drude-like theory for the transport of Cooper pairs in weakly disordered Josephson networks and to finding the conductivity and the characteristic temperature of the commencement of strong localization. Also, it is shown that the low-temperature superconductor-insulator transition is necessarily of the first order in all 3D and in most 2D systems.

  13. Tomorrow's Transportation Market : Developing an Innovative, Seamless Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    With the cost of congestion in the United States estimated to be in the order of $121 billion, transportation planners are under increasing pressure to improve conditions and meet projected demand increases. Harnessing emerging technologies to develo...

  14. Design of a hydraulic ash transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodskii, V.G.; Mova, M.E.; Korenev, V.E.; Grechikhin, Yu.A. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-04-01

    Discusses general design of a hydraulic ash removal system to be employed at the reconstructed six 225 MW blocks of the Mironov State Regional Power Plant in the USSR. The blocks burn low-grade solid fuel with an ash content of up to 40.5%. Large quantities of ash have to be moved from the plant (total ash production 60 t/h, using 570 t/h of water for cooling and moistening). An optimum hydraulic ash transportation system would include a two-section airlift pumping system, shown in a diagram. Technological advantages of using this airlift system are enumerated, including short pipes, reduction in required water quantity and the possibility of siting hydraulic pumps at zero level.

  15. Web-based ground loop supervision system for the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A. de la; Lapayese, F.; Pacios, L.; Carrasco, R.

    2005-01-01

    To minimize electromagnetic interferences in diagnostic and control signals, and to guarantee safe operation of TJ-II, ground loops must be avoided. In order to meet this goal, the whole grounding system of the TJ-II was split into multiple single branches that are connected at a single earth point located near the TJ-II structure in the torus hall. A real-time ground loop supervision system (GLSS) has been designed, manufactured and tested by the TJ-II control group for detecting unintentional short circuits between isolated grounded parts. A web server running on the real-time operating system OS-9 provides remote access to the real-time ground loops measurement. Ground loops monitoring and different operation modes can be configured via any web browser. This paper gives the detailed design of the whole TJ-II ground loop supervision system and its results during its operation

  16. Web-based ground loop supervision system for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A. de la [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: a.delapena@ciemat.es; Lapayese, F. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacios, L. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carrasco, R. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT Para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-15

    To minimize electromagnetic interferences in diagnostic and control signals, and to guarantee safe operation of TJ-II, ground loops must be avoided. In order to meet this goal, the whole grounding system of the TJ-II was split into multiple single branches that are connected at a single earth point located near the TJ-II structure in the torus hall. A real-time ground loop supervision system (GLSS) has been designed, manufactured and tested by the TJ-II control group for detecting unintentional short circuits between isolated grounded parts. A web server running on the real-time operating system OS-9 provides remote access to the real-time ground loops measurement. Ground loops monitoring and different operation modes can be configured via any web browser. This paper gives the detailed design of the whole TJ-II ground loop supervision system and its results during its operation.

  17. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  18. Intelligent transport systems (UTS) and driving behaviour: setting the agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Wieinga, P.; Pantic, M.; Ludema, M.

    2004-01-01

    The application of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), in particular advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), is expected to improve the performance of road transportation significantly. Public policy makers, among others, are therefore increasingly interested in the implementation

  19. Principle and Design of a Single-phase Inverter-Based Grounding System for Neutral-to-ground Voltage Compensation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, Lingjie; Zeng, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Neutral-to-ground overvoltage may occur in non-effectively grounded power systems because of the distributed parameters asymmetry and resonance between Petersen coil and distributed capacitances. Thus, the constraint of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks....... In this paper, an active grounding system based on single-phase inverter and its control parameter design method is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between its output current and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral-to-ground voltage compensation. Then...

  20. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  1. Intermodal transport as an integral part of logistics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bitkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of companies that are successful in the carriage of goods prove that intermodal transport is now a major factor in determining the success of logistics system. A modern approach to the transport is based on intermodal transport. The article is based on the method of external observation. It presents the essence of intermodal transport and its benefits. It specifies transportation as an integral part of logistics system.

  2. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  3. Study of a transportable neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.N.A. de.

    1991-05-01

    This work presents a study a transportable neutron radiography system for a 185 GBq 241 Am-Be (α, η) source with a neutron yield roughly 1,25 x 10 7 n/s. Studies about moderation, collimation and shielding are showed. In these studies, a calculation using Transport Theory was carried out by means of transport codes ANISN and DOT (3.5). Objectives were: to obtain a maximum and more homogeneous thermal neutron flux in the collimator outlet to the image plain, and an adequate radiation shielding to attend radiological protection rules. With the presented collimator, it was possible to obtain for the thermal neutron flux, at the collimator outlet and next to the image plain, a L/D ratio of 14, for neutron fluxes up to 4,09 x 10 2 n.cm -2 .s -1 . Considering the low intensity of the source, it is a good value. Studies have also been carried out for L/D ratios of 22 and 30, giving thermal neutron fluxes at the image plain of 1,27 x 10 2 n.cm -2 .s -1 and 2,65 x 10 2 n.cm -2 .s -1 , respectively. (author). 30 refs, 39 figs, 9 tabs

  4. Effects of Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground on the Seismic Response of Transportation Infrastructure Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This interdisciplinary project combined seismic data recorded at bridge sites with computer models to identify how highway bridges built on permanently and seasonally frozen ground behave during an earthquake. Two sites one in Anchorage and one in...

  5. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  6. Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses an integrated power and road transport system. For analysing the influences of including passenger road transport in the energy system, a road transport model is developed. Based on this model, the benefits of integration of the two systems and using electric-drive vehicles ...

  7. Evaluation of a ground thermal energy storage system for heating and cooling of an existing dwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, W.H; Lawrence, C.J. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tarnawski, V.R. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Rosen, M.A. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2006-07-01

    A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system for heating and cooling a residential house in Ontario was simulated. The system uses the surface ground as a thermal energy storage for storing thermal energy in the summer for later use in the winter. In the summer, the ground receives both solar energy and the heat rejected by the system during cooling operation. The relationship between a heat pump and the ground is a ground heat exchanger (GHE). This presentation described the vertical and horizontal configurations of the GHE, which are the 2 basic configurations. It also described the modelling and analysis of the GCHP system. The modelling involved both simplified and comprehensive models. The simplified models of heating and cooling loads of a building, a heat pump unit, and heat transfer at the ground heat exchanger provided a direct link to the comprehensive model of heat and moisture transfer in the ground, based on the finite element method. This combination of models provided an accurate and practical simulation tool for GCHP systems. The energy analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the system. The use of a horizontal ground heat exchanging pipe and the impact of heat deposition and extraction through it in the ground were also studied with reference to the length of pipe, depth of pipe and layout of the pipe loop. The objective of the analysis was to find ways to optimize the thermal performance of the system and environmental sustainability of the ground. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.; Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command

  9. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model For Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kelkar; H. Viswanathan; A. Eddebbarrh; M. Ding; P. Reimus; B. Robinson; B. Arnold; A. Meijer

    2006-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated Kd distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions for colloid filtration. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from 14 C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficient and matrix diffusion coefficients. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters

  10. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  11. Preclosure radiological safety assessment for the ground support system in the exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.; Tsai, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    An initial probabilistic safety assessment was performed for the exploratory studies facility underground opening to determine whether the ground support system should be classified as an item important to safety. The initiating event was taken to be a rock fall in an operational facility impacting a loaded waste transporter. Rock fall probability rates were estimated from data reported by commercial mining operations. This information was retrieved from the data base compiled by the Mining Safety and Health Administration from the mandatory reporting of incidents. The statistical distribution of the rock fall magnitude was estimated from the horizontal and vertical spacing fractures measured at the Yucca Mountain repository horizon. Simple models were developed to estimate container deformation and radionuclide releases arising from the projected distribution of impacts. Accepted techniques were used to calculate atmospheric dispersion and obtain the committed dose to individuals

  12. Application of the transport system concept to the transport of LSA waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Appleton, P.; Libon, H.; Sannen, H.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to illustrate using two examples how a particular special arrangement can be envisaged for the transport of a well defined category of waste according to the ''Transport System Concept''. (authors)

  13. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  14. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site's specific needs

  15. Risk management model in road transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  16. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  17. Application of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to ground subsidence hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inhye; Choi, Jaewon; Jin Lee, Moung; Lee, Saro

    2012-11-01

    We constructed hazard maps of ground subsidence around abandoned underground coal mines (AUCMs) in Samcheok City, Korea, using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a geographical information system (GIS). To evaluate the factors related to ground subsidence, a spatial database was constructed from topographic, geologic, mine tunnel, land use, and ground subsidence maps. An attribute database was also constructed from field investigations and reports on existing ground subsidence areas at the study site. Five major factors causing ground subsidence were extracted: (1) depth of drift; (2) distance from drift; (3) slope gradient; (4) geology; and (5) land use. The adaptive ANFIS model with different types of membership functions (MFs) was then applied for ground subsidence hazard mapping in the study area. Two ground subsidence hazard maps were prepared using the different MFs. Finally, the resulting ground subsidence hazard maps were validated using the ground subsidence test data which were not used for training the ANFIS. The validation results showed 95.12% accuracy using the generalized bell-shaped MF model and 94.94% accuracy using the Sigmoidal2 MF model. These accuracy results show that an ANFIS can be an effective tool in ground subsidence hazard mapping. Analysis of ground subsidence with the ANFIS model suggests that quantitative analysis of ground subsidence near AUCMs is possible.

  18. A multidimensonal Examination of Prefomences of the Future advanced Transport Systems: The ETT (Evacuated Tube Transport) TRM (Transrapid MAGLEV) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional examination of performances of the future advanced ETT Evacuated Tube Transport) system operated by TRM (TransRapidMaglev); assessment of the ETT TRM system contribution to sustainability of the future transport sector through its completion with APT (Air Passenger Transport) system

  19. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Domanski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport properties of various systems are studied here in the context of three different models. These are: - the disordered Hubbard model applicable to correlated binary alloys with a general disorder, - the Anderson model used in describing the Kondo physics of a quantum dot connected to the external superconducting leads, and - the Ranninger-Robaszkiewicz model applied to the study of optical properties of the system with preformed electron pairs above the temperature of transition to the superconducting state. We calculate the density of states, specific heat, the Wilson ratio and conductivity of the correlated binary alloy with off-diagonal disorder. We investigate the conditions under which the Kondo peak appears in the density of states and in the conductance of a dot coupled to the external superconducting leads. We analyze the effect of the pseudogap on the optical spectra in the high temperature superconductors described by the boson-fermion model.

  20. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  1. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...

  2. Approach for delineation of contributing areas and zones of transport to selected public-supply wells using a regional ground-water flow model, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal

  3. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Norford, Leslie K.; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Entekhabi, Dara

    2012-02-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street canyon of aspect ratio 2 and 0.5, while only the street canyon of aspect ratio 0.5 showed a change in flow regime (from wake interference flow to skimming flow). The street canyon of aspect ratio 1 does not show any significant change in the flow field. Ground heating generated strong mixing of heat and pollutant; the normalized temperature inside street canyons was approximately spatially uniform and somewhat insensitive to the aspect ratio and heating intensity. This study helps elucidate the combined effects of urban geometry and thermal stratification on the urban canyon flow and pollutant dispersion.

  4. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  5. Energy and exergy analysis of a ground-coupled heat pump system with two horizontal ground heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa; Pihtili, Kazim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    In this paper we investigate of energetic and exergetic efficiencies of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system as a function of depth trenches for heating season. The horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs) were used and it were buried with in 1 m (HGHE1) and 2 m (HGHE2) depth trenches. The energy efficiency of GCHP systems are obtained to 2.5 and 2.8, respectively, while the exergetic efficiencies of the overall system are found to be 53.1% and 56.3%, respectively, for HGHE1 and HGHE2. The irreversibility of HGHE2 is less than of the HGHE1 as about 2.0%. The results show that the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the system increase when increasing the heat source (ground) temperature for heating season. And the end of this study, we deal with the effects of varying reference environment temperature on the exergy efficiencies of HGHE1 and HGHE2. The results show that increasing reference environment temperature decreases the exergy efficiency in both HGHE1 and HGHE2. (author)

  6. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  7. Consistent treatment of ground deposition together with species growth and decay during atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.D.; Nelson, C.B.; Ohr, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the adaptation of a trajectory model to an initial pollutant species and a series of successor species at mesoscale distances. The effect of source height is discussed since it is important in determining close-in ground level concentration, which influences plume depletion due to dry deposition. A scheme is outlined which handles deposition and species decay in a consistent manner and which does so for an arbitrary number of successor pollutant species. This scheme is discussed in terms of a Lagrangian trajectory model which accounts for initial source height and which calculates ground-level concentrations out to mesoscale distances

  8. Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.

    2016-12-01

    This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.

  9. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    as if SATCOM is guaranteed. This complacency is accompanied by the procurement of high-data communication and mission command systems that deny...threat. To overcome these significant vulnerabilities, the US Army must procure communications systems that maintain the information high ground, but...precious gift of our freedom.”1 A key element of remaining strong on the ground is maintaining the capability to effectively communicate on the ground. If

  10. Propagating fronts in reaction-transport systems with memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, A. [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: ayadav1@lsu.edu; Fedotov, Sergei [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1DQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sergei.fedotov@manchester.ac.uk; Mendez, Vicenc [Grup de Fisica Estadistica, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: vicenc.mendez@uab.es; Horsthemke, Werner [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: whorsthe@smu.edu

    2007-11-26

    In reaction-transport systems with non-standard diffusion, the memory of the transport causes a coupling of reactions and transport. We investigate the effect of this coupling for systems with Fisher-type kinetics and obtain a general analytical expression for the front speed. We apply our results to the specific case of subdiffusion.

  11. Sustainable Transportation Systems Research Group: Ongoing and Past Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gkritza, Konstantina "Nadia"; Hurtado, Davis Chacon; Gkartzonikas, Christos; Ke, Yue; Losada, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the ongoing and past activities of the Sustainable Transportation Systems Research (STSR) group at Purdue University (https://engineering.purdue.edu/STSRG). The STSR group aims to achieve green, safe, efficient, and equitable transportation systems by studying and modeling transportation externalities, using state of the art statistical, econometric, and economic analysis tools.

  12. 77 FR 57640 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office, the ITS PAC makes...

  13. 78 FR 64048 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO...

  14. 77 FR 20872 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory..., development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint...

  15. 77 FR 51845 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory..., development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint...

  16. 77 FR 26067 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office, the ITS PAC...

  17. Picosecond excitation transport in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.E.

    1987-11-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay profiles are used to study excitation transport in 2- and 3-dimensional disordered systems. Time-correlated single photon counting detection is used to collect the fluorescence depolarization data. The high signal-to-noise ratios afforded by this technique makes it possible to critically examine current theories of excitation transport. Care has been taken to eliminate or account for the experimental artifacts common to this type of study. Solutions of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) in glycerol serve as a radomly distributed array of energy donors in 3-dimensions. A very thin sample cell (/approximately/ 2 μm) is used to minimize the effects of fluorescence self-absorption on the decay kinetics. Evidence of a dynamic shift of the fluorescence spectrum of DODCI in glycerol due to solvent reorganization is presented. The effects of excitation trapping on the decay profiles is minimized in the data analysis procedure. The 3-body theory of Gochanour, Andersen, and Fayer (GAF) and the far less complex 2-particle analytic theory of Huber, Hamilton, and Barnett yield indistinguishable fits to the data over the wide dynamic range of concentrations and decay times studied

  18. Low-Speed Stability-and-Control and Ground-Effects Measurements on the Industry Reference High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Campbell, Bryan A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Yaros, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of a national effort to develop an economically feasible High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a single configuration has been accepted as the testing baseline by the organizations working in the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The configuration is based on a design developed by the Boeing Company and is referred to as the Reference H (Ref H). The data contained in this report are low-speed stability-and-control and ground-effect measurements obtained on a 0.06 scale model of the Ref H in a subsonic tunnel.

  19. Wireless Battery Management System of Electric Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Rahman, Mizanur; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are being developed and considered as the future transportation to reduce emission of toxic gas, cost and weight. The battery pack is one of the main crucial parts of the electric vehicle. The power optimization of the battery pack has been maintained by developing a two phase evaporative thermal management system which operation has been controlled by using a wireless battery management system. A large number of individual cells in a battery pack have many wire terminations that are liable for safety failure. To reduce the wiring problem, a wireless battery management system based on ZigBee communication protocol and point-to-point wireless topology has been presented. Microcontrollers and wireless modules are employed to process the information from several sensors (voltage, temperature and SOC) and transmit to the display devices respectively. The WBMS multistage charge balancing system offering more effective and efficient responses for several numbers of series connected battery cells. The concept of double tier switched capacitor converter and resonant switched capacitor converter is used for reducing the charge balancing time of the cells. The balancing result for 2 cells and 16 cells are improved by 15.12% and 25.3% respectively. The balancing results are poised to become better when the battery cells are increased.

  20. Optimal Recovery Trajectories for Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto GCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplisson, Angela W.

    The US Air Force recently fielded the F-16 Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS). This system meets the operational requirements of being both aggressive and timely, meaning that extremely agile avoidance maneuvers will be executed at the last second to avoid the ground. This small window of automatic operation maneuvering in close proximity to the ground makes the problem challenging. There currently exists no similar Auto GCAS for manned military 'heavy' aircraft with lower climb performance such as transport, tanker, or bomber aircraft. The F-16 Auto GCAS recovery is a single pre-planned roll to wings-level and 5-g pull-up which is very effective for fighters due to their high g and climb performance, but it is not suitable for military heavy aircraft. This research proposes a new optimal control approach to the ground collision avoidance problem for heavy aircraft by mapping the aggressive and timely requirements of the automatic recovery to the optimal control formulation which includes lateral maneuvers around terrain. This novel mapping creates two ways to pose the optimal control problem for Auto GCAS; one as a Max Distance with a Timely Trigger formulation and the other as a Min Control with an Aggressive Trigger formulation. Further, the optimal path and optimal control admitted by these two formulations are demonstrated to be equivalent at the point the automatic recovery is initiated for the simplified 2-D case. The Min Control formulation was demonstrated to have faster computational speed and was chosen for the 3-D case. Results are presented for representative heavy aircraft scenarios against 3-D digital terrain. The Min Control formulation was then compared to a Multi-Trajectory Auto GCAS with five pre-planned maneuvers. Metrics were developed to quantify the improvement from using an optimal approach versus the pre-planned maneuvers. The proposed optimal Min Control method was demonstrated to require less control or trigger later

  1. Establishing an intelligent transportation systems (ITS) lab at LTRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    The primary goal of this research project is to lay the foundation for establishing a state-of-the-art Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) : lab at the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC), where data will be collected, analyzed, and ...

  2. Modelling the Global Transportation Systems for the Hydrogen Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyzanowski, D.A.; Kypreos, S.

    2004-03-01

    A modelling analysis of the transportation system is described, focused on the market penetration of different transportation technologies (including Learning-by-Doing) until the year 2050. A general outline of the work and first preliminary results are presented. (author)

  3. Costs and benefits of MDOT intelligent transportation system deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report analyses costs and benefits of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployed by : the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). MDOT ITS focuses on traffic incident : management and also provide Freeway Courtesy Patrol services. A...

  4. Sensor network design for multimodal freight transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The agricultural and manufacturing industries in the US Midwest region rely heavily on the efficiency of freight transportation systems. While the growth of freight movement far outpaces that of the transportation infrastructure, ensuring the efficie...

  5. Functional requirements for a comprehensive transportation location referencing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Transportation agencies manage data that is referenced in one, two, three, and four dimensions. Location referencing system (LRS) data models vary across transportation agencies and often within organizations as well. This has resulted in failed atte...

  6. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  7. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  8. Biking and Walking: The Position of Non-Motorised Transport Modes in Transport Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet

    2001-01-01

    Long run developments such as income growth and urban sprawl lead one to expect a continuous decline of thecontribution of non-motorised transport modes to the performance of transport systems. In terms of the total number of trips, non-motorised transport modes have retained high shares, however.

  9. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13...

  10. Monju secondary heat transport system sodium leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Hiroi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin; Iwata, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    On December 8, 1995, the sodium leakage from the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) occurred in the piping room of the reactor auxiliary building in Monju. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the well tube of the sensor installed near the outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the C loop of SHTS. The reactor core remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There were no adverse effects for operating personnel or the surrounding environment. The cause of the well tube failure is considered to result from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibrations. Delay in draining the sodium from the leaking loop increased the consequential effects from sodium combustion products. (author)

  11. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  12. QoS-Aware Resource Allocation for Network Virtualization in an Integrated Train Ground Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hongli

    2018-01-01

    Urban rail transit plays an increasingly important role in urbanization processes. Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) Systems, Passenger Information Systems (PIS), and Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) are key applications of urban rail transit to ensure its normal operation. In existing urban rail transit systems, different applications are deployed with independent train ground communication systems. When the train ground communication systems are built repeatedly, limited wireless sp...

  13. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    , and cultural differences, to ensure an efficient response to customer issues using a small Customer Service Team (CST) and adaptability, constant communication with customers, technical expertise and knowledge of services, and dedication to customer service. The HOSC Customer Support Team has implemented a variety of processes, and procedures that help to mitigate the potential problems that arise when integrating ground system services for a variety of complex missions and the lessons learned from this experience will lead the future of customer service in the space operations industry.

  14. Tailoring NIST Security Controls for the Ground System: Selection and Implementation -- Recommendations for Information System Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Mangum, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests millions of dollars in spacecraft and ground system development, and in mission operations in the pursuit of scientific knowledge of the universe. In recent years, NASA sent a probe to Mars to study the Red Planet's upper atmosphere, obtained high resolution images of Pluto, and it is currently preparing to find new exoplanets, rendezvous with an asteroid, and bring a sample of the asteroid back to Earth for analysis. The success of these missions is enabled by mission assurance. In turn, mission assurance is backed by information assurance. The information systems supporting NASA missions must be reliable as well as secure. NASA - like every other U.S. Federal Government agency - is required to manage the security of its information systems according to federal mandates, the most prominent being the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002 and the legislative updates that followed it. Like the management of enterprise information technology (IT), federal information security management takes a "one-size fits all" approach for protecting IT systems. While this approach works for most organizations, it does not effectively translate into security of highly specialized systems such as those supporting NASA missions. These systems include command and control (C&C) systems, spacecraft and instrument simulators, and other elements comprising the ground segment. They must be carefully configured, monitored and maintained, sometimes for several years past the missions' initially planned life expectancy, to ensure the ground system is protected and remains operational without any compromise of its confidentiality, integrity and availability. Enterprise policies, processes, procedures and products, if not effectively tailored to meet mission requirements, may not offer the needed security for protecting the information system, and they may even become disruptive to mission operations

  15. ASTRA - an automatic system for transport analysis in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereverzev, G.V.; Yushmanov, P.N.; Dnestrovskii, A.Yu.; Polevoi, A.R.; Tarasjan, K.N.; Zakharov, L.E.

    1991-08-01

    The set of codes described here - ASTRA (Automatic System of Transport Analysis) - is a flexible and effective tool for the study of transport mechanisms in reactor-oriented facilities of the tokamak type. Flexibility is provided within the ASTRA system by a wide choice of standard relationships, functions and subroutines representing various transport coefficients, methods of auxiliary heating and other physical processes in the tokamak plasma, as well as by the possibility of pre-setting transport equations and variables for data output in a simple and conseptually transparent form. The transport code produced by the ASTRA system provides an adequate representation of the discharges for present experimental conditions. (orig.)

  16. A feasible system integrating combined heating and power system with ground-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, HongQiang; Kang, ShuShuo; Yu, Zhun; Cai, Bo; Zhang, GuoQiang

    2014-01-01

    A system integrating CHP (combined heating and power) subsystem based on natural gas and GSHP (ground-source heat pump subsystem) in series is proposed. By help of simulation software-Aspen Plus, the energy performance of a typical CHP and GSHP-S (S refers to ‘in series’) system was analyzed. The results show that the system can make a better use of waste heat in flue gas from CHP (combined heating and power subsystem). The total system energy efficiency is 123% and the COP (coefficient of performance) of GSHP (ground-source heat pump) subsystem is 5.3. A referenced CHP and GSHP-P (P refers to ‘in parallel’) system is used for comparison; its total system energy efficiency and COP of GSHP subsystem are 118.6% and 3.5 respectively. Compared with CHP and GSHP-P system with different operating parameters, the CHP and GSHP-S system can increase total system energy efficiency by 0.8–34.7%, with related output ratio of heat to power (R) from 1.9 to 18.3. Furthermore, the COP of GSHP subsystem can be increased between the range 3.6 and 6, which is much higher than that in conventional CHP and GSHP-P system. This study will be helpful for other efficient GSHP systems integrating if there is waste heat or other heat resources with low temperature. - Highlights: • CHP system based on natural gas and ground source heat pump. • The new system can make a better utilization of waste heat in flue gas by a special way. • The proposed system can realize energy saving potential from 0.8 to 34.7%. • The coefficient of performance of ground source heat pump subsystem is significantly improved from 3.5 to 3.6–6. • Warm water temperature and percentage of flue gas used to reheat are key parameters

  17. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Galvanic Corrosion Caused by Shaft Grounding Systems in Steel Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Y

    2005-01-01

    The shaft grounding systems used on board HMC ships have substantially reduced the shaft-to-hull resistance and, thus, improved the performance of the shipboard impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system...

  19. Hydrogeologic Settings and Ground-Water Flow Simulations for Regional Studies of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to Public-Supply Wells - Studies Begun in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2007-01-01

    This study of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells (TANC study) is being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and was designed to increase understanding of the most important factors to consider in ground-water vulnerability assessments. The seven TANC studies that began in 2001 used retrospective data and ground-water flow models to evaluate hydrogeologic variables that affect aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability at a regional scale. Ground-water flow characteristics, regional water budgets, pumping-well information, and water-quality data were compiled from existing data and used to develop conceptual models of ground-water conditions for each study area. Steady-state regional ground-water flow models were used to represent the conceptual models, and advective particle-tracking simulations were used to compute areas contributing recharge and traveltimes from recharge to selected public-supply wells. Retrospective data and modeling results were tabulated into a relational database for future analysis. Seven study areas were selected to evaluate a range of hydrogeologic settings and management practices across the Nation: the Salt Lake Valley, Utah; the Eagle Valley and Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada; the San Joaquin Valley, California; the Northern Tampa Bay region, Florida; the Pomperaug River Basin, Connecticut; the Great Miami River Basin, Ohio; and the Eastern High Plains, Nebraska. This Professional Paper Chapter presents the hydrogeologic settings and documents the ground-water flow models for each of the NAWQA TANC regional study areas that began work in 2001. Methods used to compile retrospective data, determine contributing areas of public-supply wells, and characterize oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions also are presented. This Professional Paper Chapter provides the foundation for future susceptibility and vulnerability analyses in the TANC

  20. An Agent-Based Approach for a Smart Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PEÑARANDA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for a Smart Transport System which is an application that facilitates the interconnection between people (citizens, tourists and transport providers (Bus, metro, trains, trams, defining the services that everyone can request or offer. The system has been defined as a virtual organization where agents (representing actors of the transport system can enter or leave into the system consuming or offering services. Due to the fact that modern urban public transport is increasingly an important service used by citizens in current cities, the proposed system will improve the use of resources while also ensuring time flexible mobility solutions for citizens.

  1. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...... constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model....

  2. Public acceptance of radioactive waste transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    As the thoughts of the country concentrate on the problems of transportation of waste through high traffic urban areas, the problem of how to deal directly and honestly with the public takes on greater significance in the nuclear industry. Non-technical aspects of the methods of transportation, especially by railroad and highway, enter into the total scheme of moving radioactive waste from both weapon and nuclear power plant sources to final processing and disposal. Factors such as shape, color, size, familiarity, and industrial designing are necessary ingredients that take on equal or more significance that the designing of containers to survive the hypothetical accident conditions of the present, or even of the future. Protective Packaging, Inc. has been a leader in the presentation of containers to the private and public sector of the nuclear industry. The products have undergone very open testing, in public, with both invited and uninvited witnesses. In those experiences, dating back to 1969, the problems of public acceptance will be related between the technical problems and the associated social and political problems that relate to container acceptance by the public in today's world. Proven experience data, relative to the safety of the present day systems will be discussed, as well as methods of improving the image in the future. Review will also be given to the effort by industry to discuss the proven record with parties outside the nuclear industry, i.e., individuals and pressure groups that are diametrically opposed to review the facts relative to safety as opposed to other, but more traditional industries

  3. Ground state solutions for diffusion system with superlinear nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Luo

    2015-03-01

    where $z=(u,v\\colon\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}\\rightarrow\\mathbb{R}^{2}$, $b\\in C^{1}(\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}, \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ and $V(x\\in C(\\mathbb{R}^{N},\\mathbb{R}$. Under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, we establish the existence of ground state solutions by the generalized Nehari manifold method developed recently by Szulkin and Weth.

  4. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  5. Development Ground Fault Detecting System for D.C Voltage Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Taek Soo; Song Ung Il; Gwon, Young Dong; Lee Hyoung Kee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to keep the security of reliability and to maximize the efficiency of maintenance by prompt detection of a D.C feeder ground fault point at the built ed or a building power plants. At present, the most of the power plants are set up the ground fault indicator lamp in the monitor room. If a ground fault occurs on DC voltage feeder, a current through the ground fault relay is adjusted and the lamps have brightened while the current flows the relay coil. In order to develop such a system, it is analyzed a D.C feeder ground circuit theoretically and studied a principles which can determine ground fault point or a polarity discrimination and a phase discrimination of the line. So, the developed system through this principles can compute a resistance ground fault current and a capacitive ground fault current. It shows that the system can defect a ground fault point or a bad insulated line by measuring a power plant D.C feeder insulation resistance at the un interruptible power status, and therefore the power plant could protect an unexpected service interruption . (author). 18 refs., figs.

  6. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  7. 78 FR 16030 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... Transportation on all matters relating to the study, development, and implementation of intelligent...

  8. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Attitude Ground System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Joseph E.; Superfin, Emil; Raymond, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude ground system (AGS) design to be used for support of the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission. The AGS exists as one component of the mission operations control center. It has responsibility for validating the onboard attitude and accelerometer bias estimates, calibrating the attitude sensors and the spacecraft inertia tensor, and generating a definitive attitude history for use by the science teams. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland is responsible for developing the MMS spacecraft, for the overall management of the MMS mission, and for mission operations. MMS is scheduled for launch in 2014 for a planned two-year mission. The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation in an eccentric Earth orbit. The relatively tight formation, ranging from 10 to 400 km, will provide coordinated observations giving insight into small-scale magnetic field reconnection processes. By varying the size of the tetrahedron and the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity, and making use of the changing solar phase, this geometry allows for the study of both bow shock and magnetotail plasma physics, including acceleration, reconnection, and turbulence. The mission divides into two phases for science; these phases will have orbit dimensions of l.2xl2 Earth radii in the first phase and l.2x25 Earth radii in the second in order to study the dayside magnetopause and the nightside magnetotail, respectively. The orbital periods are roughly one day and three days for the two mission phases. Each of the four MMS spacecraft will be spin stabilized at 3 revolutions per minute (rpm), with the spin axis oriented near the ecliptic north pole but tipped approximately 2.5 deg towards the Sun line. The main body of each spacecraft will be an eight-sided platform with diameter of 3.4 m and height of 1.2 m. Several booms are attached to this central core: two axial booms of 14.9 m length, two radial

  9. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

    2014-05-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

  10. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  11. Study on the System Design of a Solar Assisted Ground Heat Pump System Using Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of hybrid systems using multiple heat sources in buildings to ensure a stable energy supply and improve the system performance has gained attention. Among them, a heat pump system using both solar and ground heat was developed and various system configurations have been introduced. However, establishing a suitable design method for the solar-assisted ground heat pump (SAGHP system including a thermal storage tank is complicated and there are few quantitative studies on the detailed system configurations. Therefore, this study developed three SAGHP system design methods considering the design factors focused on the thermal storage tank. Using dynamic energy simulation code (TRNSYS 17, individual performance analysis models were developed and long-term quantitative analysis was carried out to suggest optimum design and operation methods. As a result, it was found that SYSTEM 2 which is a hybrid system with heat storage tank for only a solar system showed the highest average heat source temperature of 14.81 °C, which is about 11 °C higher than minimum temperature in SYSTEM 3. Furthermore, the best coefficient of performance (COP values of heat pump and system were 5.23 and 4.32 in SYSYEM 2, using high and stable solar heat from a thermal storage tank. Moreover, this paper considered five different geographical and climatic locations and the SAGHP system worked efficiently in having high solar radiation and cool climate zones and the system COP was 4.51 in the case of Winnipeg (Canada where the highest heating demand is required.

  12. Environmental analyses of land transportation systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Mirjan E.; Moll, Henri C.

    Environmental analyses of the impact of transportation systems on the environment from the cradle to the grave are rare. This article makes a comparison of various Dutch passenger transportation systems by studying their complete life-cycle energy use. Moreover, systems are compared according to

  13. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Current Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.; Panas, M.; Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture is being upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to "operationalize" S-NPP, leverage lessons learned to date in multi-mission support, take advantage of more reliable and efficient technologies, and satisfy new requirements and constraints in the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 49 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 10 categories, such as data latency, operational availability and scalability. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 10 TPM categories listed above. We will provide updates on how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  14. Uncertainty characteristics of EPA's ground-water transport model for low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Man-Sung

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment is an essential step either in design or in licensing processes to ensure the safety of any proposed radioactive waste disposal facilities. Since performance assessment requires the use of computer codes, understanding the characteristics of computer models used and the uncertainties of the estimated results is important. The PRESTO-EPA code, which was the basis of the Environmental Protection Agency's analysis for low-level-waste rulemaking, is widely used for various performance assessment activities in the country with no adequate information available for the uncertainty characteristics of the results. In this study, the groundwater transport model PRESTO-EPA was examined based on the analysis of 14 C transport along with the investigation of uncertainty characteristics

  15. The industrial resurgence of Southern California? Advanced ground transportation equipment manufacturing and local economic develoment

    OpenAIRE

    A J Scott; D Bergman

    1995-01-01

    Southern California is in a deeply rooted process of economic restructuring. Much of the region's manufacturing base is made up of two groups of industries: a declining aerospace - defense sector, and a low-wage, low-skill sweatshop sector. What are the prospects for creating a growing manufacturing base focused on high-wage, high-skill industries? In this paper we examine the opportunities presented by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority's S183 billion thirty-year ca...

  16. Transportation system requirements document. Revision 1 DCN01. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The original Transportation System Requirements Document described the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of that document was to define the system-level requirements. These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presented an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. This revision of the document contains only the pages that have been modified

  17. The Exchange Value Embedded in a Transport System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Qinglan; Xu Shaofeng

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that a well designed transport system has an embedded exchange value by serving as a market for potential exchange between consumers. Under suitable conditions, one can improve the welfare of consumers in the system simply by allowing some exchange of goods between consumers during transportation without incurring additional transportation cost. We propose an explicit valuation formula to measure this exchange value for a given compatible transport system. This value is always nonnegative and bounded from above. Criteria based on transport structures, preferences and prices are provided to determine the existence of a positive exchange value. Finally, we study a new optimal transport problem with an objective taking into account of both transportation cost and exchange value.

  18. Stochasticity and transport in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, R.S.; Meiss, J.D.; Percival, I.C.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of transport in nonlinear dynamics is developed in terms of ''leaky'' barriers which remain when invariant tori are destroyed. A critical exponent for transport times across destroyed tori is obtained which explains numerical results of Chirikov. The combined effects of many destroyed tori lead to power-law decay of correlations observed in many computations. (author)

  19. Ground State Structure of a Coupled 2-Fermion System in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    1997-05-01

    We prove the uniqueness of the ground state for a supersymmetric quantum mechanical system of two fermions and two bosons, which is closely related to theN=1 WZ-model. The proof is constructive and gives detailed information on what the ground state looks like

  20. Ground state structure of a coupled 2-fermion system in supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, F.

    1997-01-01

    We prove the uniqueness of the ground state for a supersymmetric quantum mechanical system of two fermions and two bosons, which is closely related to the N=1 WZ-model. The proof is constructive and gives detailed information on what the ground state looks like. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc

  1. Indicator system for the environmental assessment of energy transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to define a consistent set of indicators for the environmental assessment of different energy transport systems: high-voltage alternating and direct current transmission lines, electric cables, pipelines for gas and oil, inland waterway, road and rail transportation, according to state-of-the-art technologies. The indicator system is used for comparative analysis and identification of environmental hot-spots of the different systems. The environmental performance of power plants close to production or unloading terminals with subsequent power transmission and the transport of fossil fuels with power production close to the end-users is compared. Quantitative indicators are defined for different impact categories: fossil energy depletion, impacts from emissions, land use, noise impacts and visibility. A further aggregation of the different indicators to obtain a universal environmental score was not envisaged. It was not possible to define a quantitative indicator for possible electric and magnetic field effects because of insufficient knowledge of the involved dose-response metrics. The proposed indicators quantify dose-response relationships also below emission or immission limits imposed by law, which was one of the main requirements in this work. By reducing all information to an equivalent impacted area, a high level of consistency was achieved for land use, noise impacts and visibility indicators. Other indicators refer to the energy content of fossil resources and to equivalent emissions of reference substances. The calculation of an equivalent impacted area was not considered an efficient approach in these cases. The performance of the proposed indicator system and its applicability to infrastructure and regional planning is tested in two practical examples. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  2. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  3. INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLIED TO TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN ANDRES ZAPATA CORTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El transporte es uno de los elementos más relevantes para la competitividad de las empresas y las ciudades, pues un sistema de transporte inadecuado genera altos costos y bajos niveles de servicio al cliente, lo que fi nalmente produce un impacto económico para ambas partes. Este artículo presenta una revisión de herramientas tecnológicas que hacen parte de los sistemas de transporte inteligentes (ITS, sistemas utilizados para el mejoramiento del desempeño y seguridad del transporte, no solo de carga sino también de pasajeros y en diferentes modos. El artículo comienza con una descripción sobre los sistemas de transporte ITS, seguido por la presentación de los benefi cios de estos sistemas y fi nalmente se realiza una revisión de las diferentes herramientas que enmarcan los ITS.

  4. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO 2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies show the potential of drawing the transport demand to the more energy efficient vehicles; however, more initiatives are needed if the sustainable transport is the long term objective, such as the solutions to stabilise the private vehicle demands, to continuously improve the vehicle efficiency and to boost the alternative fuels produced from the renewable energy sources. - Highlights: • A Chinese transport model was created and three transport strategies were evaluated • Transport is the biggest driver of the oil demand in China not the industry • The energy demand of transport in 2020 will be twice as much as today • Strategies contribute 13% energy saving and 12% CO 2 emission reduction • More initiatives are needed if a sustainable transport is the long-term objective

  5. Operation performance investigation of ground-coupled heat-pump system for temperate region

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Man; Hongxing Yang; Jinggang Wang; Zhaohong Fang

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the operation performance of ground-coupled heat-pump (GCHP) system, an analytical simulation model of GCHP system on short time-step basis and a computer program based on this model to predict system operating parameters are developed in this study. Besides, detailed on-site experiments on GCHP test rig installed in a temperate region of China are carried out. The temperature distributions of borehole as well as ground around borehole at different depths are evaluated...

  6. The ground fault detection system for the Tore Supra toroidal pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, K.; Cara, P.; Fejoz, P.; Hourtoule, J.; Loarer, T.; Pomaro, N.; Santagiustina, A.; Spuig, P.; Villecroze, F.

    2003-01-01

    The toroidal pump limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is electrically insulated from the vacuum-vessel, to allow its polarization at a voltage of up to 1 kV. In order to monitor continuously the integrity of the TPL electrical insulation, an electronic diagnostic system called TPL ground fault detection system (GFDS) has been developed. The paper will report on the design and the operation experience of the GFD system and on the evolution of the TPL grounding

  7. A scientific operations plan for the large space telescope. [ground support system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an LST ground system which is compatible with the operational requirements of the LST. The goal of the approach is to minimize the cost of post launch operations without seriously compromising the quality and total throughput of LST science. Attention is given to cost constraints and guidelines, the telemetry operations processing systems (TELOPS), the image processing facility, ground system planning and data flow, and scientific interfaces.

  8. Data security in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services expect availability of the secure seamless communications solutions typically covering widely spread areas. Different ITS solutions require different portfolio of telecommunications service quality. These parameters have to correspond with ITS service performance parameters required by specific service. Even though quite extensive range of public wireless data services with reasonable coverage are provided, most of them are provided with no guaranteed quality and security. ITS requirements can be in most parameters easier reached if multi-path communications systems are applied core solution is combined with both public as well as private ones where and when it is needed. Such solution requires implementation of relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. This paper is concentrated the telecommunications security issues relevant to the ITS wide area networking. Expected level of security varies in dependence on relevant ITS service requirements. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure (C2I or other vehicles (C2C progressively grow. Such trend upsurges the fatal problems appearance probability in case security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. That is reason why relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS solution. Besides of available "off shelf" security tools we present solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension (time and position dependency as an autonomous variables and data selection according to actor role or category. Presented results were obtained within projects e-Ident1, DOTEK2 and SRATVU3.

  9. Simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Glen Canyon aquifer, East-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.; Stolp, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of methane from coal beds in the Ferron coal trend in central Utah started in the mid-1980s. Beginning in 1994, water from the extraction process was pressure injected into the Glen Canyon aquifer. The lateral extent of the aquifer that could be affected by injection is about 7,600 square miles. To address regional-scale effects of injection over a decadal time frame, a conceptual model of ground-water movement and transport of dissolved solids was formulated. A numerical model that incorporates aquifer concepts was then constructed and used to simulate injection.The Glen Canyon aquifer within the study area is conceptualized in two parts—an active area of ground-water flow and solute transport that exists between recharge areas in the San Rafael Swell and Desert, Waterpocket Fold, and Henry Mountains and discharge locations along the Muddy, Dirty Devil, San Rafael, and Green Rivers. An area of little or negligible ground-water flow exists north of Price, Utah, and beneath the Wasatch Plateau. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water occurs in this area where dissolved-solids concentrations can be more than 100,000 milligrams per liter. Injection has the potential to increase hydrologic interaction with the active flow area, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally less than 3,000 milligrams per liter.Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water in 1994 initiated a net addition of flow and mass of solutes into the Glen Canyon aquifer. To better understand the regional scale hydrologic interaction between the two areas of the Glen Canyon aquifer, pressurized injection was numerically simulated. Data constraints precluded development of a fully calibrated simulation; instead, an uncalibrated model was constructed that is a plausible representation of the conceptual flow and solute-transport processes. The amount of injected water over the 36-year simulation period is about 25,000 acre-feet. As a result

  10. Radon transport model into a porous ground layer of finite capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parovik, Roman

    2017-10-01

    The model of radon transfer is considered in a porous ground layer of finite power. With the help of the Laplace integral transformation, a numerical solution of this model is obtained which is based on the construction of a generalized quadrature formula of the highest degree of accuracy for the transition to the original - the function of solving this problem. The calculated curves are constructed and investigated depending on the diffusion and advection coefficients.The work was a mathematical model that describes the effect of the sliding attachment (stick-slip), taking into account hereditarity. This model can be regarded as a mechanical model of earthquake preparation. For such a model was proposed explicit finite- difference scheme, on which were built the waveform and phase trajectories hereditarity effect of stick-slip.

  11. Geographic information systems - transportation ISTEA management systems server net prototype pooled fund study : phase B - summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems ...

  12. Monitoring and characterization of radionuclide transport in the hydrogeologic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Raymond, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Historical records pertaining to the 300 North and Wye Burial Grounds at the Hanford Reservation were reviewed as a prerequisite to determining programs for land reclamation. All available historical documents, agency communications, and engineering drawings related to the study areas were located, reviewed, and analyzed. An inventory of recorded location, type, and quantity of radionuclides and associated materials in each burial ground was completed and distributed to cooperating investigators. A geophysical survey of the 300 North Burial Ground was conducted as a basis for detecting the composition, size, distribution, and depth of buried objects and characterizing the sediments in which they are buried. Acoustic, radar, magnetic, and metal detection surveys were completed and their applicability evaluated; drilling techniques and equipment for recovering and characterizing sediments and radioactive contaminated material were developed. Drilling will also determine the amount and dimensional extent of radionuclide migration; sediment-fluid interaction and fluid migration through the unsaturated zone at the 300 North Burial Ground were characterized. A study to determine biological transport of radionuclides at the Wye Burial Ground was also initiated. This study involved a preliminary survey of present flora and fauna inhabiting the Wye Burial Ground site. Plant tissue was chemically and radiochemically analyzed to determine radionuclide migration and possible dose effects and population dynamics of burrowing animals that could potentially be exposed to buried waste materials were investigated

  13. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  14. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) international research exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ITS applications address surface transportation challenges in safety, mobility, and : sustainability that are similar in cause and impact worldwide. International ITS : exchange allows cooperating nations to benefit from each others pre-competitiv...

  15. Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowship Program System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — DDETFP is a web-based application used to measure the performance of the DDETFP program, enhance reporting, and evaluate the programs' effectiveness in meeting goals...

  16. 2015 International Conference on Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2017-01-01

    This volume includes the proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITITS 2015) which was held in Xi’an on December 12-13, 2015. The conference provided a platform for all professionals and researchers from industry and academia to present and discuss recent advances in the field of Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems. The presented information technologies are connected to intelligent transportation systems including wireless communication, computational technologies, floating car data/floating cellular data, sensing technologies, and video vehicle detection. The articles focusing on intelligent transport systems vary in the technologies applied, from basic management systems to more application systems including topics such as emergency vehicle notification systems, automatic road enforcement, collision avoidance systems and some cooperative systems. The conference hosted 12 invited speakers and over 200 part...

  17. Radiation transport in earth for neutron and gamma ray point sources above an air-ground interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-03-01

    Two-dimensional discrete ordinates methods were used to calculate the instantaneous dose rate in silicon and neutron and gamma ray fluences as a function of depth in earth from point sources at various heights (1.0, 61.3, and 731.5 meters) above an air--ground interface. The radiation incident on the earth's surface was transported through an earth-only and an earth--concrete model containing 0.9 meters of borated concrete beginning 0.5 meters below the earth's surface to obtain fluence distributions to a depth of 3.0 meters. The inclusion of borated concrete did not significantly reduce the total instantaneous dose rate in silicon and, in all cases, the secondary gamma ray fluence and corresponding dose are substantially larger than the primary neutron fluence and corresponding dose for depths greater than 0.6 meter. 4 figures, 4 tables

  18. Uranium-series isotopes transport in surface, vadose and ground waters at San Marcos uranium bearing basin, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo Montúfar, Juan Carlos; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Reyes Cortés, Ignacio Alfonso; Espino Valdez, Ma. Socorro; Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio Raúl; Nevárez Ronquillo, Diana Pamela; Herrera Peraza, Eduardo; Rentería Villalobos, Marusia; Montero Cabrera, María Elena

    2012-01-01

    In the U deposit area at San Marcos in Chihuahua, Mexico, hydrogeological and climatic conditions are very similar to the Nopal I, Peña Blanca U deposit, 50 km away. The physicochemical parameters and activity concentrations of several 238 U-series isotopes have been determined in surface, vadose and ground waters at San Marcos. The application of some published models to activity ratios of these isotopes has allowed assessing the order of magnitude of transport parameters in the area. Resulting retardation factors in San Marcos area are R f238 ≈ 250–14,000 for the unsaturated zone and ≈110–1100 for the saturated zone. The results confirm that the mobility of U in San Marcos is also similar to that of the Nopal I U deposit and this area can be considered as a natural analog of areas suitable for geologic repositories of high-level nuclear waste.

  19. Radiation transport in earth for neutron and gamma-ray point sources above an air-ground interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Santoro, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional discrete-ordinates methods have been used to calculate the instantaneous dose rate in silicon and neutron and gamma-ray fluences as a function of depth in earth from point sources at various heights (1.0, 61.3, and 731.5 m) above an air-ground interface. The radiation incident on the earth's surface was transported through an earth-only and an earth-concrete model containing 0.9 m of borated concrete beginning 0.5 m below the earth's surface to obtain fluence distributions to a depth of 3.0 m. The inclusion of borated concrete did not significantly reduce the total instantaneous dose rate in silicon, and in all cases, the secondary gamma-ray fluence and corresponding dose are substantially larger than the primary neutron fluence and corresponding dose for depths > 0.6 m

  20. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  1. Transport in arrays of submicron Josephson junctions over a ground plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Teressa Rae [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) arrays of Al islands linked by submicron Al/AlxOy/Al tunnel junctions were fabricated on an insulating layer grown on a ground plane. The arrays were cooled to temperatures as low as 20 mK where the Josephson coupling energy EJ of each junction and the charging energy EC of each island were much greater than the thermal energy kBT. The capacitance Cg between each island and the ground plane was much greater than the junction capacitance C. Two classes of arrays were studied. In the first class, the normal state tunneling resistance of the junctions was much larger than the resistance quantum for single electrons, RN>> RQe≡ h/e2 ~ 25.8 kΩ, and the islands were driven normal by an applied magnetic field such that EJ = 0 and the array was in the Coulomb blockade regime. The arrays were made on degenerately-doped Si, thermally oxidized to a thickness of approximately 100 nm. The current-voltage (I - V) characteristics of a 1D and a 2D array were measured and found to display a threshold voltage VT below which little current flows. In the second class of arrays, the normal state tunneling resistance of the junctions was close to the resistance quantum for Cooper pairs, RN≈RQ≡h/4e2≈6.45kΩ, such that EJ/EC≈1. The arrays were made on GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas approximately 100 nm below the surface. One array displayed superconducting behavior at low temperature. Two arrays displayed insulating behavior at low temperature, and the size of the Coulomb gap increased with increasing Rg.

  2. Seasonal variation of spherical aerosols distribution in East Asia based on ground and space Lidar observation and a Chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y.; Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Ohara, T.

    2009-12-01

    The anthropogenic aerosols largely impact on not only human health but also global climate system, therefore air pollution in East Asia due to a rapid economic growth has been recognized as a significant environmental problem. Several international field campaigns had been conducted to elucidate pollutant gases, aerosols characteristics and radiative forcing in East Asia. (e.g., ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, ADEC, EAREX 2005). However, these experiments were mainly conducted in springtime, therefore seasonal variation of aerosols distribution has not been clarified well yet. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been constructing a lidar networks by automated dual wavelength / polarization Mie-lidar systems to observe the atmospheric environment in Asian region since 2001. Furthermore, from June 2006, space-borne backscatter lidar, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), onboard NASA/CALIPSO satellite, measures continuous global aerosol and cloud vertical distribution with very high spatial resolution. In this paper, we will show the seasonal variation of aerosols distribution in East Asia based on the NIES lidar network observation, Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) chemical transport model simulation and CALIOP observation over the period from July 2006 to December 2008. We found that CMAQ result explains the typical seasonal aerosol characteristics by lidar observations. For example, CMAQ and ground lidar showed a summertime peak of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at Beijing, an autumn AOT peak at Guangzhou and summertime AOT trough at Hedo, Okinawa. These characteristics are mainly controlled by seasonal variations of Asian summer/winter monsoon system. We also examined the CMAQ seasonal average aerosol extinction profiles with ground lidar and CALIOP extinction data. These comparisons clarified that the CMAQ reproduced the observed aerosol layer depth well in the downwind region. Ground lidar and CALIOP seasonal

  3. Capacity analysis of an automated kit transportation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, W.H.M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Buitenhek, R.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a capacity analysis of an automated transportation system in a flexible assembly factory. The transportation system, together with the workstations, is modeled as a network of queues with multiple job classes. Due to its complex nature, the steadystate behavior of this

  4. Urban Transportation Systems in Bogotá and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogotá and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems...

  5. Markets and system developments in rail-guided passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Guenter [DB International GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Grein, Ottmar [DB International GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The way people are transported is an ever-changing process - and that applies to the railway systems too. If anything, this process of change has sped up in recent years. The authors of this report present an overview of the markets for rail-guided forms of transport and the various systems that exist. (orig.)

  6. Transport Coefficients for dense hard-disk systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Rojo, R.; Luding, Stefan; Brey, J. Javier; Ooms, G.; Hoogendoorn, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks, based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The pressure, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined for different density and system-size. While most transport coefficients agree with Enskog theory

  7. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  8. Plug and Play Realtime Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is moving towards transforming parts of the Kennedy Space Center from a historically government-only...

  9. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...

  10. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  11. Aspects of transport system management within mining complex using information and telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semykina, A. S.; Zagorodniy, N. A.; Konev, A. A.; Duganova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers aspects of transport system management within the mining complex. It indicates information and telecommunication systems that are used to increase transportation efficiency. It also describes key advantages and disadvantages. It is found that software products of the Modular Company used in pits allow increasing transport performance, minimizing losses and ensuring efficient transportation of minerals.

  12. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, X. F.; Saunders, S. M.; Fan, S. J.; Zuo, H. C.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities - Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site downwind of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv), while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in situ production. The O3 production was in a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-limited regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2) on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO), were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  13. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  14. BEHAVIOUR OF BACKFILL MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. LIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Backfill materials like Bentonite and cement are effective in lowering grounding resistance of electrodes for a considerable period. During lightning, switching impulses and earth fault occurrences in medium and high voltage networks, the grounding system needs to handle extremely high currents either for a short duration or prolonged period respectively. This paper investigates the behaviour of bentonite, cement and sand under impulse and alternating high voltage (50Hz conditions. Fulguritic-formation was observed in all materials under alternating high voltage. The findings reveal that performance of grounding systems under high voltage conditions may significantly change from the outcomes anticipated at design stage.

  15. Internal transport barrier physics in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Minami, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Herranz, J.; Ida, K.; Yamagishi, O.; Yamada, H.; Maaberg, H.; Beidler, C.D.; Dinklage, A.; Estrada, T.; Castejon, F.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    The electron internal transport barrier (eITB) has been observed in wide range of helical systems, such as CHS [eg.,1], LHD [eg., 2], TJ-II [eg., 3] and W7-AS [eg., 4]. The eITB isA defined as highly peaked electron temperature (Te) profile with strongly positive radial electric field (Er) in the central region. These observations are reviewed in this paper to understand the device-independent common findings and also to draw the main differences. This is the first report from the International Stellarator Profile Database Activity. The formation of the strong central positive Er has been understood mainly as a result of the ambipolarity of neoclassical electron and ion fluxes, although some additional convective electron flux such as driven by ECRH is required in some situations. This 'neoclassical' physics peculiar to low collisional regime of helical plasmas provides the commonly observed existence of the ECRH power threshold (which is also depending on the density). This is contrastive characteristics to the ITB observed in tokamaks. The dependence of the ECRH power threshold on the magnetic configuration and on the heating scenario among these devices are currently being examined by taking the effective ripple and the trapped particle fraction as parameters to achieve the comprehensive understanding. The roles of low order rational surfaces on the onset of eITB formation and also on its radial size (location of the footpoint of the eITB) have been indicated in inward shifted configurations in LHD (depending on the relative locations of heating position and 2/1 island) and TJ-II (eITB becomes possible at higher density when 3/2 rational is introduced in the plasma core region). It is speculated that, for the latter case, the resonance causes an extra electron flux to trigger the positive Er. The interplay between low order rational surfaces and the formation of eITB still waits for the systematic experiment and theoretical analysis. The external controllability

  16. Improvement of urban passenger transport ticketing systems by deploying intelligent transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jakubauskas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main advantages and disadvantages of conventional and intelligent ticketing systems and possible positive outcomes when introducing intelligent transport solutions – namely smart cards or e‑ticketing instead of conventional ones (paper tickets and magnetic cards are analysed in the paper. Two ideas of creating an intelligent ticketing system in an urban public transport are scrutinized. The first is electronic ticket and related equipment, the second – e-ticket and functional areas of it. In the article analysis has also been made on practical outcomes related with introduction of smart cards and e-ticketing. Practical tests and trials as well as a subsequent implementation of electronic tickets have proved unchallenged advantages of contactless smart cards against the contact ones. Nevertheless, a new age of modern technologies calls even for more effective solutions – namely virtual-ticketing systems that might be achieved through introduction of mobile technologies. Therefore, the main focus in the paper is made on the analysis of e-ticket.

  17. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper

  18. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper.

  19. Achieving Lights-Out Operation of SMAP Using Ground Data System Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The approach used in the SMAP ground data system to provide reliable, automated capabilities to conduct unattended operations has been presented. The impacts of automation on the ground data system architecture were discussed, including the three major automation patterns identified for SMAP and how these patterns address the operations use cases. The architecture and approaches used by SMAP will set the baseline for future JPL Earth Science missions.

  20. Decarbonizing Sweden’s energy and transportation system by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bramstoft

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decarbonizing Sweden’s transportation sector is necessary to realize its long-term vision of eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the energy system by 2050. Within this context, this study develops two scenarios for the transportation sector: one with high electrification (EVS and the other with high biofuel and biomethane utilization (BIOS. The energy system model STREAM is utilized to compute the socioeconomic system cost and simulate an integrated transportation, electricity, gas, fuel refinery, and heat system. The results show that electrifying a high share of Sweden’s road transportation yields the least systems cost. However, in the least-cost scenario (EVS, bioenergy resources account for 57% of the final energy use in the transportation sector. Further, a sensitivity analysis shows that the costs of different types of cars are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative analysis of the scenarios.

  1. Decarbonizing Sweden’s energy and transportation system by 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramstoft, Rasmus; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Decarbonizing Sweden’s transportation sector is necessary to realize its long-term vision of eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the energy system by 2050. Within this context, this study develops two scenarios for the transportation sector: one with high electrification (EVS......) and the other with high biofuel and biomethane utilization (BIOS). The energy system model STREAM is utilized to compute the socioeconomic system cost and simulate an integrated transportation, electricity, gas, fuel refinery, and heat system. The results show that electrifying a high share of Sweden’s road...... transportation yields the least systems cost. However, in the least-cost scenario (EVS), bioenergy resources account for 57% of the final energy use in the transportation sector. Further, a sensitivity analysis shows that the costs of different types of cars are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative...

  2. Public transport traffic management systems simulation in Craiova city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    Urban transport is a comprehensive and dynamic mechanism. Therefore, all the problems for improving and reorganization of the system can be examined only in the light of a systemic approach. Currently, public passenger transport is one of the most important branches of the urban development in cities and metropolis. Public passenger transport activity and all the steps taken to improve that activity are considered to be of great social importance. In the current stage of city development, one of the main tasks is to create a public passenger transportation system that is safe, affordable, economical, reliable and environmentally friendly. The important role of passenger transport in the city's economy and achieving important social services to the population, dictates the need to introduce measures in the system that are harmonious, balanced and effective. This can only be done, in the context of current development, only after the system as a whole is tested extensively through special traffic and management software. (Author)

  3. Critical review of expert system validation in transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Expert system validationthat is, testing systems to ascertain whether they achieve acceptable performance levelshas with few exceptions been ad hoc, informal, and of dubious value. Very few efforts have been made in this regard in the transport...

  4. Environmental management system for transportation maintenance operations : [technical brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report provides the framework for the environmental management system to analyze : greenhouse gas emissions from transportation maintenance operations. The system enables user : to compare different scenarios and make informed decisions to minim...

  5. FY17 Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center Journal Publication Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-08

    NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center published 39 journal articles in fiscal year 2017 highlighting recent research in advanced vehicle technology, alternative fuels, and hydrogen systems.

  6. Decentralized control of multi-agent aerial transportation system

    KAUST Repository

    Toumi, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    and Landing aircraft (VTOL) transportation system. We develop a decentralized method. The advantage of such a solution is that it can provide better maneuverability and lifting capabilities compared to existing systems. First, we consider a cooperative group

  7. Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems for transportation engineering: Current practice and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil N. Barmpounakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring and processing video streams from static cameras has been proposed as one of the most efficient tools for visualizing and gathering traffic information. With the latest advances in technology and visual media, combined with the increased needs in dealing with congestion more effectively and directly, the use of Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems (UAS has emerged in the field of traffic engineering. In this paper, we review studies and applications that incorporate UAS in transportation research and practice with the aim to set the grounds from the proper understanding and implementation of UAS related surveillance systems in transportation and traffic engineering. The studies reviewed are categorized in different transportation engineering areas. Additional significant applications from other research fields are also referenced to identify other promising applications. Finally, issues and emerging challenges in both a conceptual and methodological level are revealed and discussed.

  8. Road Transport Management System (RTMS): a self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most recent developments of an initiative to introduce meaningful self-regulation in the heavy vehicle transport industry through a Road Transport Management System (RTMS) with the aim of contributing to the road authorities...

  9. Description of the microbial ecology evaluation device, flight equipment, and ground transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassay, C. E.; Taylor, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Exposure of test systems in space required the fabrication of specialized hardware termed a Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device that had individual test chambers and a complex optical filter system. The characteristics of this device and the manner in which it was deployed in space are described.

  10. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  11. Efficiency increase of complex production and transport systems management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornilov S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of the reduced efficiency of management in complex production - transport systems due to the lack of co-ordination in the operation of industrial enterprises and transport carrying out their maintenance. The existing transport service schedules for auxiliary departments do not take into account possible changes in operating conditions, the probability of malfunctions and the amount of reserves, which leads to an increase in general production costs. To solve this problem, we propose to use the interval regulation of production and transport processes in all departments of the complex production and transport systems. Also, such regulation involves the determination of traffic service priority. This will allow passing on from the regulated control of production and transport processes to the situational one, adapted to specific conditions, and reducing losses from untimely transport servicing, which will lead to a stores reduction and efficiency increase of the enterprise circulating facilities use. Testing the effectiveness of interval regulation was performed on the system and dynamics simulation model of liquid iron transportation in the oxygen converter shop of the metallurgical enterprise. It was established that the use of interval regulation processes in iron production and its transportation will allow decreasing non-productive downtime by 21% and the amount of the liquid iron in anticipation of recasting in the oxygen converter shop – by 33%. Economical effect of reducing the liquid iron downtime during transportation to the oxygen converter shop will be about 30 million rubles per year.

  12. Adding a Mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 With this established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS

  13. Radioactive waste transportation systems analysis and program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Joy, D.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of the Transportation/Logistics Study is to ensure the availability of a viable system for transporting the wastes to a federal repository in 1985. In order to accomplish this objective, a systems analysis of waste transportation has been directed by ORNL to determine the problems that must be solved and to develop a program plan that identifies which problems must first be pursued. To facilitate this overall approach and to provide for short- and long-range waste management, logistics models have been developed to determine the transportation fleet requirements and costs. Results of the study are described in this report

  14. Ground standoff mine detection system (GSTAMIDS) engineering, manufacturing, and development (EMD) Block 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Jackson R.; Pabst, Donald; Sower, Gary D.; Nee, Larry; Green, Brian; Howard, Peter

    2001-10-01

    The United States Army has contracted EG&G Technical Services to build the GSTAMIDS EMD Block 0. This system autonomously detects and marks buried anti-tank land mines from an unmanned vehicle. It consists of a remotely operated host vehicle, standard teleoperation system (STS) control, mine detection system (MDS) and a control vehicle. Two complete systems are being fabricated, along with a third MDS. The host vehicle for Block 0 is the South African Meerkat that has overpass capability for anti-tank mines, as well as armor anti-mine blast protection and ballistic protection. It is operated via the STS radio link from within the control vehicle. The Main Computer System (MCS), located in the control vehicle, receives sensor data from the MDS via a high speed radio link, processes and fuses the data to make a decision of a mine detection, and sends the information back to the host vehicle for a mark to be placed on the mine location. The MCS also has the capability to interface into the FBCB2 system via SINGARS radio. The GSTAMIDS operator station and the control vehicle communications system also connect to the MCS. The MDS sensors are mounted on the host vehicle and include Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI) metal detector, and (as an option) long-wave infrared (LWIR). A distributed processing architecture is used so that pre-processing is performed on data at the sensor level before transmission to the MCS, minimizing required throughput. Nine (9) channels each of GPR and PMI are mounted underneath the meerkat to provide a three-meter detection swath. Two IR cameras are mounted on the upper sides of the Meerkat, providing a field of view of the required swath with overlap underneath the vehicle. Also included on the host vehicle are an Internal Navigation System (INS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and radio communications for remote control and data transmission. The GSTAMIDS Block 0 is designed as a modular, expandable system

  15. Third-Order Transport with MAD Input: A Computer Program for Designing Charged Particle Beam Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Karl

    1998-10-28

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems.

  16. Solar House Obdach: experiences with a solar ground-coupled storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, M; Blum, P; Held, E; Aranovitch, E; Hardacre, A G; Ofverholm, E [eds.

    1982-09-14

    Within the framework of the Solar House Obdach-project, a system consisting of a ground heat exchanger, a low-temperature collector, a water-glycol/water heat pump and a low-temperature heating system was examined with regard to its suitability as only heat source of a house. With the design chosen (1 m/sup 2/ ground collector area and 0.3 m/sup 2/ low-temperature collector area per 80 W load), a seasonal performance factor of 2.83 could be obtained. About 40% of the low-temperature heat supplied to the heat pump were delivered directly or indirectly (by means of short-term storage in the ground) by the low-temperature collector, whereas about 60% came from the natural sources of energy of the ground (air heat, radiation, precipitation, ground water and slope water). The results obtained are used to verify and improve a computer model design program for ground collectors and ground-coupled storage systems which should help to optimize the design of solar plants, particularly under difficult conditions.

  17. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-30

    number of stowed kills Same basic load lasts longer range Gun/ammo parameters impact system weight, under - armor volume requirements Round volume...internal volume is reduced, the model assumes that the crew’s ability to operate while under armor will be impaired. If the size of a vehicle crew is...changing swept volume will alter under armor volume requirements for the total system; if system volume is fixed, changing swept volume will

  18. Annual simulations of heat pump systems with vertical ground heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M.A.; Randriamiarinjatovo, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    2001-06-01

    The recent increased popularity in ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems is due to their energy saving potential. However, in order for a GCHP to operate efficiently, they must be sized correctly. This paper presents a method to perform annual simulations of GCHP systems to optimize the length of the ground heat exchanger and provide annual energy consumption data. A computer program has been developed to simulate the building load, heat pump and the ground heat exchanger, the three most distinct parts of the system. The coupled governing equations of these three models are solved simultaneously until a converged solution is obtained at each time step. The simulations are performed using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES). This program has proven to be useful in balancing ground heat exchanger length against heat pump energy consumption.15 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  20. Resolution of holograms produced by the fluid experiment system and the holography ground system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Howard L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fluid Experiment System (FES) was developed to study low temperature crystal growth of triglycine sulfate from solution in a low gravity environment onboard Spacelab. The first flight of FES was in 1985. FES uses an optical system to take holograms of the growing crystal to be analyzed after the mission in the Holography Ground System (HGS) located in the Test Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center. Microscopic observation of the images formed by the reconstructed holograms is critical to determining crystal growth rate and particle velocity. FES and HGS were designed for a resolution of better than 20 micrometers, but initial observation of the flight holograms show a limit of 80 micrometers. The resolution of the FES holograms is investigated, as well as the role of beam intensity ratio and exposure time on the resolution of HGS produced holograms.

  1. Environmental assessment of 9 European public bus transportation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanaki, Eva; Koroneos, Christophis; Roset, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    that affect the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as of air pollutants, in 9 major European cities, aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the actual knowledge on the atmospheric pollution from public transportation systems. CO2 emissions as well as air pollutants, such as CO, HC, PM, NOx......The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants...... from transport. As, transportation and mobility play a crucial part both in urban economics and the quality of life, it is of great significance to ensure a low carbon transportation sector, so as to deal with the threat that climate change poses to urban areas. This study examines the factors...

  2. SWIFT BAT Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System Characteristics and Ground/Flight Operation Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    The SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array has a total power dissipation of 208 W. To meet the stringent temperature gradient and thermal stability requirements in the normal operational mode, and heater power budget in both the normal operational and safehold modes, the Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate (DAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat fiom the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array XA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has the AZ-Tek AZW-LA-II low-alpha white paint as the thermal coating and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. This paper presents the characteristics, ground operation and flight operation procedures of the LHP thermal system.

  3. Modelling a ground-coupled heat pump system using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Sengur, Abdulkadir [Department of Electronic and Computer Science, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for the modelling of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system. The GCHP system connected to a test room with 16.24 m{sup 2} floor area in Firat University, Elazig (38.41 N, 39.14 E), Turkey, was designed and constructed. The heating and cooling loads of the test room were 2.5 and 3.1 kW at design conditions, respectively. The system was commissioned in November 2002 and the performance tests have been carried out since then. The average performance coefficients of the system (COPS) for horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHE) in the different trenches, at 1 and 2 m depths, were obtained to be 2.92 and 3.2, respectively. Experimental performances were performed to verify the results from the ANFIS approach. In order to achieve the optimal result, several computer simulations have been carried out with different membership functions and various number of membership functions. The most suitable membership function and number of membership functions are found as Gauss and 2, respectively. For this number level, after the training, it is found that root-mean squared (RMS) value is 0.0047, and absolute fraction of variance (R{sup 2}) value is 0.9999 and coefficient of variation in percent (cov) value is 0.1363. This paper shows that the values predicted with the ANFIS, especially with the hybrid learning algorithm, can be used to predict the performance of the GCHP system quite accurately. (author)

  4. A system for transportation of hydrocarbons at sea; System for transport av hydrokarboner til havs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, K.; Smedal, A.

    1997-04-01

    To exploit the offshore oil and gas fields economically it is important to use suitable methods and equipment for transporting the oil and gas to the landing sites. The present invention concerns a system for transportation of hydrocarbons to the landing sites. It consists of one or more loading buoys and a number of preferably conventional tankers and at least one offshore loading ship arranged to receive hydrocarbons from the loading buoy to which it is connected by means of a coupling device in the ship`s bow. The tankers have in their sterns arrangements to convey the fluid through flexible tubes from complementary arrangements in the bow of the loading ship. The loading ship and the tanker have a position reference system for mutual dynamical positioning. The entire operation of connecting the tubes and transferring the fluid flow takes place with both ships moving, at least at steerage way. The invention aims to provide efficient use of the expensive special ships that are needed to communicate with the loading buoys. Another aim is to reduce the need for expensive specialized equipment onboard both the loading ships and the tankers. 5 figs.

  5. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  6. Monitoring and characterization of radionuclide transport in the hydrogeologic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Raymond, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The groundwater monitoring program provides information and data on groundwater quality required to evaluate the impact of waste disposal practices on the Hanford Reservation. The program includes: collection and analysis of groundwater samples on a routine basis; data processing, analysis and reporting; design, construction and maintenance of well sampling structures; and design and implementation of supporting research studies. Within the overall framework of the Groundwater Monitoring Program, the 300 Area and Wye Burial Ground Characterization Program was initiated to evaluate transport of radionuclides in the partially saturated zone above the water table and to provide site characterization at solid waste burial locations on the Reservation. Methods for collecting and analyzing program data include geophysical exploration by ground penetrating radar, refraction and reflection acoustics, magnetics, and metal detection; stratigraphic investigations by drilling and sample collection techniques; evaluation of transport phenomena by in situ psychrometric and gamma-neutron techniques; laboratory characterization of fluid and vapor transport-controlling mechanisms; and evaluation of biological radionuclide transport by organisms inhabiting contaminated areas

  7. United States Department of Energy Automated Transportation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) 80 transportation facilities, each contractor's transportation management operation has different internal and site specific procedures, and reports to a DOE regional Field Office Traffic Manager (FOTM). The DOE Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the responsibility to manage a transportation program for safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The TMP develops and administers transportation/traffic operations management policies and programs for materials; including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, hazardous substances, and hazardous wastes, pursuant to applicable federal regulations, such as the Code of Federal Register, Sections 40 and 49. Transportation management has become an increasingly critical primarily because of transportation issues regarding the shipment of radioactive materials and hazardous wastes that are frequently the focus of public concerns. A large shipments and requiring millions of business transactions necessitates the establishment of automated systems, programs, procedures, and controls to ensure that the transportation management process in being handled in a safe, efficient, and economical manner. As the mission of many DOE facilities changes from production of special nuclear materials for defense purposes to environmental restoration and waste management, the role of transportation management will become even more important to the safe and efficient movement of waste materials to prescribed locations. In support of this role, the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) was conceived to assist the DOE and its contractors in the performance of their day-to-day transportation management activities. The ATMS utilizes the latest in technology and will supply state-of-the-art automated transportation management for current and future DOE transportation requirements

  8. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, F.; Igarashi, M.; Nomura, T. [Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagome, Y. [Research Reactor Inst., Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on.

  9. Innovating for a competitive and resource-efficient transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    Transport is vital to the economic prosperity and social integration of Europe. EU-transport policy is directed to developing a smart, efficient transport system with reduced dependency on fossil fuels and less environmental impacts that will enhance mobility in Europe and will underpin Europe's competitiveness in global markets. This includes the transport sector itself, which is an important part of the EU economy. In contributing to achieving these ambitious goals, extensive investments are made in research and development for sustainable and innovative solutions. This Policy Brochure, which is produced by the Transport Research and Innovation Portal (TRIP), highlights the contribution of research, development, and innovation in securing a competitive and resource-efficient transport system in Europe.

  10. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, F.; Igarashi, M.; Nomura, T.; Nakagome, Y.

    2004-01-01

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on

  11. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  12. Salt Repository Project transportation system interface requirements: Transportation system/repository receiving facility interface requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Insalaco, J.W.; Trainer, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is a preliminary review of the interface between the transportation system and the repository receiving facility for a nuclear waste mined geologic disposal system in salt. Criteria for generic cask and facility designs are developed. These criteria are derived by examining the interfaces that occur as a result of the operations needed to receive nuclear waste at a repository. These criteria provide the basis for design of a safe, operable, practical nuclear waste receiving facility. The processing functions required to move the shipping unit from the gate into the unloading area and back to the gate for dispatch are described. Criteria for a generic receiving facility are discussed but no specific facility design is presented or evaluated. The criteria are stated in general terms to allow application to a wide variety of cask and facility designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, and risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

    1988-01-01

    In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline); (2) standalone expert systems; (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS); and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

  14. Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

    1988-01-01

    In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline), (2) standalone expert systems, (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS), and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

  15. Control system of fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Minoru.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively avoid an obstacle in a fuel transporting device by reading the outputs of absolute position detectors mounted on movable trucks, controlling the movements of the trucks, and thereby smoothly and accurately positioning the fuel transporting device at predetermined position and providing a contact detector thereat. Method: The outputs from absolute position detectors which are mounted on a longitudinally movable truck and a laterally movable truck are input to an input/output control circuit. The input/output control circuit serves to compare, the position a fuel transporting device is to be moved to, with the present position on the basis of said input detection signal and a command signal from an operator console, to calculate the amount of movement to be driven, to produce an operation signal therefor to a control panel, and to drive and control the drive motors which are respectively mounted on the trucks for the fuel transfer device. On the other hand, in case that the transfer device comes into contact with an obstacle, the contact detector will immediately operate to produce a stop command through the control panel to the transporting device, and avoid a collision with the obstacle. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Stochasticity and transport in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, R.S.; Meiss, J.D.; Percival, I.C.

    1983-08-01

    The theory of transport in nonlinear dynamics is developed in terms of leaky barriers which remain when invariant tori are destroyed. We describe the organization of stochastic motion by these barriers and give an explanation of long-time correlations in the stochastic regime

  17. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...

  18. Control of machine functions or transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, M.D.; Lee, M.J.; Jaeger, J.; King, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer code, COMFORT, has been developed at SLAC for on-line calculation of the strengths of magnetic elements in an electron storage ring or transport beam line, subject to first order fitting constraints on the ring or beam line parameters. This code can also be used off-line as an interactive lattice or beam line design tool

  19. The setting for ground based augmentation system station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yude; Liu, Ruihua

    2007-11-01

    Based on the minimum field strength requirement within the whole GBAS service volume, this paper performs nominal link power budget for GBAS VHF data broadcast (VDB) system, and the required power transmitted from VDB system is derived. The paper elaborates the requirement of Desired-to-Undesired (D/U) signal ratio for a specific VHF airborne receiver to ensure the normal operation by the test, and presents the experimental method and results for acquiring the D/U signal ratios. The minimum geographical separations among GBAS, VOR and ILS stations are calculated according to the specifications of these three kinds of navigation systems.

  20. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.