WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground transportation industry

  1. The industrial resurgence of Southern California? Advanced ground transportation equipment manufacturing and local economic develoment

    OpenAIRE

    A J Scott; D Bergman

    1995-01-01

    Southern California is in a deeply rooted process of economic restructuring. Much of the region's manufacturing base is made up of two groups of industries: a declining aerospace - defense sector, and a low-wage, low-skill sweatshop sector. What are the prospects for creating a growing manufacturing base focused on high-wage, high-skill industries? In this paper we examine the opportunities presented by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority's S183 billion thirty-year ca...

  2. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  3. Low-Speed Stability-and-Control and Ground-Effects Measurements on the Industry Reference High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Campbell, Bryan A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Yaros, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of a national effort to develop an economically feasible High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a single configuration has been accepted as the testing baseline by the organizations working in the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The configuration is based on a design developed by the Boeing Company and is referred to as the Reference H (Ref H). The data contained in this report are low-speed stability-and-control and ground-effect measurements obtained on a 0.06 scale model of the Ref H in a subsonic tunnel.

  4. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  5. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  6. Panorama 2010: The transport industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, S.

    2010-01-01

    Following the financial crisis of late 2008, the transport industry is probably one of the sectors to be hardest hit by the ensuing worldwide economic crisis. Businesses have failed, earnings gone into free fall and employees have been put on furlough or laid off during the past twelve months. This report will examine the state of the freight transport and motor vehicle industries in which new dynamics are emerging after a year of sluggish business activity: a new landscape, new players and new technologies. (author)

  7. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre....... Secondary endpoints included modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, 30-day and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included; 265 with ground transport and 65 with helicopter, of which 87 (33%) and 22 (34%), received thrombolysis, respectively (p=0.88). Time from contact to triaging...

  8. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  9. Air Transport and Travel Industry Training Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial Training Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Seeing its role as one of stimulating, guiding, and coordinating training activities rather than providing central training facilities, three programs have been developed by the Air Transport and Travel Industry Training Board: (1) an occupational program, (2) a company program, and (3) an industry program. (MW)

  10. GROUND TRANSPORTATION OF NUCLEAR PROPULSION STAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjon, P. L.

    1963-08-15

    The results of studies on transportation problems associated with the development and testing of nuclear rocket powered space vehicles at the static test size are presented. Factors involved in selecting a transport mode are discussed. Radiation shutdown considerations and a conceptual transporter capable of handling test articles of foreseeable size are examined. (D.C.W.)

  11. Mixed-μ magnetic levitation for advanced ground transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1977-12-01

    The possibility of applying the mixed-μ principle for magnetic levitation to ground transport systems is examined. The system is developed specifically for suspension and useful lift to passive weight ratios exceeding 8:1 have been calculated. Application to a hybrid system where conventional wheel drive is used in conjunction with magnetic levitation is explained for urban transport. (author)

  12. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.; Weng, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  13. Methodological proposal of grounding in commercial and industrial installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Araya, Michael Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    A methodology is elaborated for the design of methods of commercial and industrial grounding. International standards and technical documents related with the grounding in the electrical design are studied in commercial and industrial installations. The design techniques of earthing systems are investigated. The topics that were covered to develop a design proposal have been: the analysis of resistivity, soil types, calculations of step voltages, contact and voltage of mesh. A field visit is programmed in nearby of the Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica at the Universidad de Costa Rica, to realize the pertinent measurements of resistivity for the design of a hypothetical grounding mesh for a future installation. The tellurometer (GP-1 model) of the brand Amprobe Instrument was used to provide the data from ground resistivity. The equipment has used four electrodes and has implemented the Wenner method for calculations. A earthing design is realized in a company in the industrial or commercial sector of Costa Rica. The earthing designs are realized to protect equipments found at the site and are affected by conditions such as: atmospheric overloads, transients, sags, interruptions or any event that may to affect the quality of the energy. The resistivity of an ground has depended largely on the amount of moisture that has presented. A correct earthing system should cover the greater amount of the total area of the building, and to comply with the voltage of mesh necessary for the design has been optimal. The design of any earthing has depended on unique characteristics that have been indicated by the location of industry [es

  14. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  15. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  16. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  17. Numerical simualtion of underground 37Ar transportation to the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Ruogu; Li Hua; Liu Cheng'an; Wu Jun

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring radioactive gas 37 Ar is an important technique for the On-Site Inspection(OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. In order to establish a theoretical model that can be used to calculate the appearing time and radioactivity of 37 Ar which transports to the ground after a nuclear explosion, the rock media in the test area is assumed to be a homogeneous porous media, without consideration of gas absorption by and release from the rock media. The seepage model in the porous media is used to calculate 37 Ar transportation. Computational results give the time 37 Ar leaks to the ground and the variation of its radioactivity with time. And we can analyze and consider the computational results when we have developed OSI noble gas monitoring systems and evaluated their effectiveness. (authors)

  18. Globalisation and Air Transportation Industry: A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin, Shahrul Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Air transportation remains a large and growing industry that is central to the globalisation process. The globalisation impact on the air transportation industry remains largely focused on the airlines, while the impact on airports is rarely defined. The objective of this research is to identify the processes of globalisation that impact the air transportation industry specifically on airport development and operations that will greatly influence the changing nature of airports. A survey ques...

  19. Energy efficiency in industry and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscoe, J.

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of energy issues has changed since the 1970s as improvements have been made in energy efficiency. The present capacity for surplus energy production in economically advanced countries reflects a decrease in energy requirements as well as new production sources. At the same time, the energy crisis can be seen as having discouraged improvements in energy efficiency because of its negative impact on growth. And the centrally planned economies remain highly inefficient energy users. Economic growth encourages the use of new technologies which are likely to be less energy-intensive than those they replace. Permanent gains in energy efficiency are derived from structural changes in the economy and from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies. This article addresses the prospect of increased energy conservation, particularly in industry (the end-use which consumes the most energy) and transportation. Although investments in projects to promote energy conservation are more cost-effective and environment-friendly than investments in energy supply, there is still widespread support for the latter. Developing countries naturally give preference to quantitative growth, with an increasing consumption of energy, but in these countries, too, more efficient use of energy could greatly reduce demand. The policies of international development agencies which still favour increasing energy supply over conservation need to change. Awareness of the need to reduce energy demand is, however, growing worldwide. (author)

  20. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  1. 25 CFR 39.703 - What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Funds § 39.703 What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What ground transportation costs are covered for students traveling by commercial transportation? 39.703 Section 39.703 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  2. Transport of cobalt-60 industrial radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Gibson, Wayne

    This paper will deal with safety aspects of the handling of Cobalt-60, the most widely used industrial radio-isotope. Cobalt-60 is a man-made radioisotope of Cobalt-59, a naturally occurring non radioactive element, that is made to order for radiation therapy and a wide range of industrial processing applications including sterilization of medical disposables, food irradiation, etc.

  3. Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals in Ground Waters of Vijayawada Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiboyina, Ravisankar; Ptsrk, Prasada Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc., gives an attention to protect environment.one of the major source of contamination of ground water is improper discharge of industrial effluents these effluents contains so many heavy metals which…

  4. The prospects of construction and transport industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    The article is focused on a problem of moving the construction industry into the growth and prosperity phase. The method of target orienting developed by the author is aimed at overcoming technological weakness of the construction industry and eliminating disproportions of the capital funds’ structure. Exhaustion of traditional sources of construction industry growth and real property market growth required the research on specific technologies of interphase transformations and their development. It will contribute to implementing the objective laws of the new wave of construction growth, which provides the development of immovable’s structure that is reasonable in terms of strategic priorities of the national economy.

  5. Superconducting magnet suspensions in high speed ground transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A

    1973-08-01

    A technical and economic definition of high speed ground transport systems using magnetic suspensions is given. The full range of common superconducting suspensions and of propulsions are covered with designs produced for speeds ranging from 100 m/s (225 miles/hr) to 250 m/s (560 mile/hr). Technical descriptions of the vehicles, their suspensions, propulsions and tracks are given in some detail and operating costs are presented for all the systems together with details of the breakdown of costs and the capital costs involved. The design assumptions, the costing procedure and a cost sensitivity study are presented. It is concluded that the systems are technically feasible; that they are suited to existing duorail track for low speed running and that, in these circumstances, they would be economically viable over many routes.

  6. Simplified estimation technique for organic contaminant transport in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1984-05-01

    The analytical solution for one-dimensional dispersive-advective transport of a single solute in a saturated soil accompanied by adsorption onto soil surfaces and first-order reaction rate kinetics for degradation can be used to evaluate the suitability of potential sites for burial of organic chemicals. The technique can be used to the greatest advantage with organic chemicals that are present in ground waters in small amounts. The steady-state solution provides a rapid method for chemical landfill site evaluation because it contains the important variables that describe interactions between hydrodynamics and chemical transformation. With this solution, solute concentration, at a specified distance from the landfill site, is a function of the initial concentration and two dimensionless groups. In the first group, the relative weights of advective and dispersive variables are compared, and in the second group the relative weights of hydrodynamic and degradation variables are compared. The ratio of hydrodynamic to degradation variables can be rearranged and written as (a/sub L lambda)/(q/epsilon), where a/sub L/ is the dispersivity of the soil, lambda is the reaction rate constant, q is ground water flow velocity, and epsilon is the soil porosity. When this term has a value less than 0.01, the degradation process is occurring at such a slow rate relative to the hydrodynamics that it can be neglected. Under these conditions the site is unsuitable because the chemicals are unreactive, and concentrations in ground waters will change very slowly with distance away from the landfill site.

  7. Transportation charges in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.

    1994-01-01

    British Gas was privatized in 1986, a monopoly with no direct competition and only very light regulation of the tariff market. The regulator had an obligation to enable competition to develop in the unregulated, large-quantity, contract market. Competitors required access to the BG-owned transportation network. The government has recently rejected the recommendation of divestiture of the supply business, but has accelerated the advent of competition to the domestic market. This paper considers the role of BG's transport charges in these developments, using its past behaviour as a guide, and identifying the issues for future regulation and development of the gas market. (Author)

  8. Transport of oxide spent fuel. Industrial experience of COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1985-01-01

    COGEMA, the world leading Company in the reprocessing industry who is also involved in the transport activity, is ruling all transports of spent fuel to La Hague reprocessing plant. The paper summarizes some aspects of the experience gained in this field (road, rail and sea transports) and describes the standards defined by COGEMA as regards transport casks. These standards are as follows: - casks of dry type, - casks of the maximum size compatible with rail transports, - capability to be unloaded with standardized equipment and following standard procedures. Considering: 1) the extremely large experience of COGEMA for all transport modes and, 2) the fact that all these transports are performed in full compliance with the IAEA recommendations, COGEMA is convinced that its experience could serve to help countries or utilities willing to undertake to establish a transport system within their own country COGEMA is prepared to contribute to this task on terms to be agreed [fr

  9. Transport and logistics as network competencies in a localized industrial cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2004-01-01

    This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation.......This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation....

  10. Industrial Requirements for Thermodynamics and Transport Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriks, Eric; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Dohrn, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    the direction for future development. The use of new methods, such as SAFT, is increasing, but they are not yet in position to replace traditional methods such as cubic equations of state (especially in oil and gas industry) and the UNIFAC group contribution approach. A common problem with novel methods is lack...... addressed to or written by industrial colleagues, are discussed initially. This provides the context of the survey and material with which the results of the survey can be compared. The results of the survey have been divided into the themes: data, models, systems, properties, education, and collaboration...... of standardization, reference data, and correct and transparent implementations, especially in commercially available simulation programs. The survey indicates a great variety of systems where further work is required. For instance, for electrolyte systems better models are needed, capable of describing all types...

  11. Crisis Relocation Workshops for Transportation Industry Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    executive, two National Guard members, one Air Force transporta- _a ,tion representative, two Red Cross representatives, one school bus z coordinators...manaaers, local transitCD operator, and miiltary busingA authorityA Local Governa-ient 2 Fire chief, assistantI Air Force 3 Liaison Support D CPA :z...to attend the workshop. Majur trans- portation problems anticipated during crisis relocation include: 1. Transportation of carless residents; 2. The

  12. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathnam P. Govender

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry, in which a high degree of competition exists. Previous measurements of service quality in the industry have been casual gauges, rather than a formalised process. This paper makes a contribution by examining the level of service quality, specifically from a tangibles, reliability and responsiveness perspective, thereby identifying service quality gaps which need to be closed, with a view to raising service quality levels in the industry. The SERVQUAL instrument has been used to measure service quality levels administered to 500 of the industry’s active customers, i.e. organisations utilising the services of the freight transportation industry. The targeted respondents were managers responsible for logistics in their organisations. It was found that gaps existed between expectations and perceptions of service quality on 14 of the 15 measured items. Recommendations are made as to how the industry can improve its service quality levels.

  13. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL GROUNDS FOR INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhelezniak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Ukraine, as in many countries of the world, transport is one of the most fundamental sectors of the national economy, important part of the industrial and social spheres. But in the conditions of industry reforming there are problems of investing in development of rail transport. So the work is devoted to the grounds of potentially available sources of investment in infrastructure of railway transport of Ukraine. The work stresses the importance of the problem of attracting foreign investment in the economy, highlights the proposals to solve this problem. Methodology. To solve the problems of this class the work presents the proposed methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison, deduction, induction, logic and abstraction. It becomes necessary to search for and study of new conceptual approaches to organization of investment processes at railway transport enterprises, appropriate management and financial decisions and schemes of railway infrastructure development. Findings. The paper shows ways to optimize investment for modernization and technical re-equipment of the transport complex of Ukraine. It proposes the ways of attracting capital of investors for development of transport infrastructure: compliance with European laws and regulations; reforming of the tax system of Ukraine; combating corruption in the country; implementation of public-private partnership tools into the mechanism of state regulation of investment processes; creating a favourable investment climate for implementation of rail transport infrastructure projects; creating a system of compensation to investors; guarantees of transport infrastructure investment protection. Originality. The work offers the sources of investment for development of railway infrastructure in Ukraine, which should include: state budget funds, use of targeted loans and leasing. The main direction of the state policy concerning infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activity in

  14. Environment issues and the future of the transport industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiller, J W [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    1992-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry must make the necessary investment in products and technology to meet the competitive and environmental challenges of the future. Discussion is presented of: the history of motor vehicles, the relationship of motor vehicles to the environment, the state of climate change knowledge, future economic development and the transport sector, the changing structure of the motor vehicle fleet, traffic congestion, alternative fuels, investments in transport, the European Energy Charter, The US Energy Strategy, the North American free trade agreement, and the economics of the automobile industry in Japan/South East Asia and the developing countries. 61 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Public Transportation and Industrial Location Patterns in California

    OpenAIRE

    Chatman , Daniel; Xu, Ruoying; Park , Janice; Le, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Public transit investments are a large and growing share of all transportation investments in the state of California, and such critical investments should be evaluated partly on their economic benefits. Taking such benefits into account could alter investment, service, and service restructuring decisions taken by transit agencies in the state. The relationship of public transportation to economic productivity, and spatial patterns of industrial location, is understudied. This project investi...

  16. Transportation: the vital tendons of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Of the 100 million packages of hazardous materials shipped each year, about 2 million contain radioactive materials; of these, only about 350,000 pertain to the fuel cycle and to radioactive wastes. A brief description is given of the philosophy responsible for the safe transportation of radioactive materials for the past 30 years. The range of problems facing the industry in the transportation of radioactive materials is discussed. DOE established a Transportation Technology Center at Sandia Laboratories in order to meet these problems

  17. Development of Transportation Package for Medical and Industrial Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is development of RI transport package and establishment of transportation system. This report describes the objective of project, necessaries, state of related technology, scope and results, proposal for application etc. The scope of the project consist of establishment of performance test system for type-A package for medical use, development of type-B package for industrial use and development of casting technology for DU shield and evaluation of shielding efficiency. The research results obtained from this project are expected to be utilized as a basic data for design, analysis, test and license of transport package.

  18. The vital role of industry in contributing to the IAEA transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, G.

    2004-01-01

    Industry has taken a key role in the development of radioactive transport regulation for many years. There are two main parties that need consideration in the regulatory process: the 'public and worker' interest, this responsibility is represented by the regulators: the 'industry' interest, these parties by their nature, give priority to representing their own interests. Any amendment or review of the regulations benefits greatly from the industry perspective. The opposite ends of the 'spectrum of opinion' suggests that insufficient industry involvement may lead to uneconomic transport, whereas, insufficient Competent Authority involvement may lead to unsafe transport. These seemingly polarised views are considered and discussed, but it becomes clear that the two parties complement each other, both ensuring each remains grounded. The basis for a regulation that compares the costs directly with the benefit in terms of reduced risk to the public or employees is at the heart of successful regulation. This balance is fragile and sensitive and underlines the importance of a harmonised approach by both Industry and Competent Authorities

  19. The vital role of industry in contributing to the IAEA transport regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, G. [BNFL (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Industry has taken a key role in the development of radioactive transport regulation for many years. There are two main parties that need consideration in the regulatory process: the 'public and worker' interest, this responsibility is represented by the regulators: the 'industry' interest, these parties by their nature, give priority to representing their own interests. Any amendment or review of the regulations benefits greatly from the industry perspective. The opposite ends of the 'spectrum of opinion' suggests that insufficient industry involvement may lead to uneconomic transport, whereas, insufficient Competent Authority involvement may lead to unsafe transport. These seemingly polarised views are considered and discussed, but it becomes clear that the two parties complement each other, both ensuring each remains grounded. The basis for a regulation that compares the costs directly with the benefit in terms of reduced risk to the public or employees is at the heart of successful regulation. This balance is fragile and sensitive and underlines the importance of a harmonised approach by both Industry and Competent Authorities.

  20. Transportation and Educational Needs of Industrial Airport Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Lisa

    In 1979, Johnson County Community College (JCCC) conducted a survey to identify the education and transportation needs of the Johnson County Industrial Airport employees and to determine employer educational requirements for employees and interest in courses. An employer survey, seeking information on company characteristics, employee education…

  1. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  2. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated-the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both the regulator and the transporter can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they cooperate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated-there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. It is suggested, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  3. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, L. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  4. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  5. Land transportation model for supply chain manufacturing industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Fajar

    2017-12-01

    Supply chain is a system that integrates production, inventory, distribution and information processes for increasing productivity and minimize costs. Transportation is an important part of the supply chain system, especially for supporting the material distribution process, work in process products and final products. In fact, Jakarta as the distribution center of manufacturing industries for the industrial area. Transportation system has a large influences on the implementation of supply chain process efficiency. The main problem faced in Jakarta is traffic jam that will affect on the time of distribution. Based on the system dynamic model, there are several scenarios that can provide solutions to minimize timing of distribution that will effect on the cost such as the construction of ports approaching industrial areas other than Tanjung Priok, widening road facilities, development of railways system, and the development of distribution center.

  6. Outsourcing of logistics transport: A Brazilian leather industry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Domingos Antoniolli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the transport sector in Brazil and the criteria for outsourcing of business transport through a case study in a Brazilian industry of leather sector, which outsourced its transport distribution process. As a result of this process, this company could save 60% of its transport costs and improved its service level, which generated an additional 3.5% on its revenue. These research findings are relevant in terms of transportation outsourcing decision criteria, being a strategic decision in operations; thus, in managerial terms, this outsourcing process could make the company’s distribution transportation capability more flexible and agile. RESUMEN: Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar el sector del transporte en Brasil y los criterios de subcontratación de transporte comercial a través de un estudio de caso, en una empresa brasileña del sector de cuero que subcontrató su proceso de transporte de distribución. Como resultado de este proceso, la empresa pudo ahorrar 60% de sus costes de transporte y mejoró su nivel de servicio, lo que generó un 3.5% adicional en sus ingresos. Estos resultados de la investigación son relevantes en cuanto a los criterios de subcontratación de transporte, como una decisión estratégica en las operaciones; así, en materia de gestión, este proceso de subcontratación podría hacer el transporte de distribución de la empresa más flexible y ágil.

  7. Quality assurance inspections in the transportation packaging supplier industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovich, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the quality assurance inspections of the transportation packaging supplier industry, conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on a routine basis since 1989 are discussed. The term supplier is used to include designers, fabricators, and distributors that hold NRC approved Quality Assurance Programs and Certificates of Compliance for packagings to transport radioactive materials. The objective of the inspections is to provide assurance that transportation packagings are fabricated and procured in accordance with 10 CFR Parts 21 and 71 requirements. The inspections are conducted in a systematic and comprehensive manner, utilizing uniform inspection techniques in order to assure uniformity and comparability. During the April 1989 and May 1991 period approximately 21 inspections were conducted by the Transportation Branch, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards of the NRC. The majority of the findings were identified in the areas of quality assurance procedures, control of special processes (e.g. welding, radiography), and maintenance of QA records

  8. Environmentalists get nervous as industry is gaining ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, Otto

    1998-01-01

    I think no reasonable person is against environment protection. But what we have seen over the last decades can hardly be judged as a balanced environment protection. Almost everything originating from industrial operations was painted as terribly dangerous, as life-threatening. Here are a few examples as, e. g.: DDT; Radiation; Dioxins; SO 2 (acid rain); CO, greenhouse effect; Asbestos; Low-frequency electromagnetic fields; Logging (endangered species); Synthetic chemicals (Ames test); and many more. Almost everything was painted as having terrible consequences for the environment and humankind. Many substances and effects were blamed as being mutagenous and cancerogenous even in the smallest quantities. The scientific literature was full of 'junk-science'. Just an example, the numerous studies linking leukemia with low-level radiation. The quintessence to be drawn from this contribution is very simple. Environmentalists have overwhelmingly a background in political and social sciences. Therefore, part of their education has been how to influence people. In order to cope with them, a promising approach is to copy them. Mirror their approach

  9. Environmentalists get nervous as industry is gaining ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildgruber, Otto

    1998-07-01

    I think no reasonable person is against environment protection. But what we have seen over the last decades can hardly be judged as a balanced environment protection. Almost everything originating from industrial operations was painted as terribly dangerous, as life-threatening. Here are a few examples as, e. g.: DDT; Radiation; Dioxins; SO{sub 2} (acid rain); CO, greenhouse effect; Asbestos; Low-frequency electromagnetic fields; Logging (endangered species); Synthetic chemicals (Ames test); and many more. Almost everything was painted as having terrible consequences for the environment and humankind. Many substances and effects were blamed as being mutagenous and cancerogenous even in the smallest quantities. The scientific literature was full of 'junk-science'. Just an example, the numerous studies linking leukemia with low-level radiation. The quintessence to be drawn from this contribution is very simple. Environmentalists have overwhelmingly a background in political and social sciences. Therefore, part of their education has been how to influence people. In order to cope with them, a promising approach is to copy them. Mirror their approach.

  10. Grounding transport planning on principles of social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Transport modeling and cost-bene?t analysis are two key tools used in trans-port planning. Both tools have been adapted substantially to cope with thechallenges posed by the goal of sustainable development. However, the changeshave primarily focused on the negative environmental impacts of the

  11. Power electronics applied to industrial systems and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Patin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of power electronic converters (DC / DC, DC / AC, AC / DC and AC / AC) conventionally used in industrial and transportation applications, specifically for the supply of electric machines with variable speed drop off window. From the perspective of design and sizing, this book presents the different functions encountered in a modular way for power electronics.Power Converters and Their Control details less traditional topics such as matrix converters and multilevel converters. This book also features a case study design of an industrial controller, wh

  12. Space Transportation and the Computer Industry: Learning from the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, M. L.; Rasky, D.

    2002-01-01

    Since the space shuttle began flying in 1981, NASA has made a number of attempts to advance the state of the art in space transportation. In spite of billions of dollars invested, and several concerted attempts, no replacement for the shuttle is expected before 2010. Furthermore, the cost of access to space has dropped very slowly over the last two decades. On the other hand, the same two decades have seen dramatic progress in the computer industry. Computational speeds have increased by about a factor of 1000 and available memory, disk space, and network bandwidth has seen similar increases. At the same time, the cost of computing has dropped by about a factor of 10000. Is the space transportation problem simply harder? Or is there something to be learned from the computer industry? In looking for the answers, this paper reviews the early history of NASA's experience with supercomputers and NASA's visionary course change in supercomputer procurement strategy.

  13. Outsourcing in air transportation industry: the case of Turkish Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, Vildan; Adiller, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    Air transportation industry, in all over the world, is developing and changing day by day in a very competitive environment. Airline companies have to adopt themselves using different strategies to give more efficient and effective services to survive in that market. Outsourcing is one of these strategies to be able to reach the sustainability of airline companies. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the importance of outsourcing for the airline companies. For this reason, first outso...

  14. Power electronics applied to industrial systems and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Patin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    If the operation of electronic components switching scheme to reduce congestion and losses (in power converters in general and switching power supplies in particular), it also generates electromagnetic type of pollution in its immediate environment. Power Electronics for Industry and Transport, Volume 4 is devoted to electromagnetic compatibility. It presents the sources of disturbance and the square wave signal, spectral modeling generic perturbation. Disturbances propagation mechanisms called ""lumped"" by couplings such as a common impedance, a parasitic capacitance or a mutual and ""dis

  15. Proceedings of the New Mobility Industry Forum : a ground-breaking conference about the emerging new mobility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    New Mobility refers to a world-wide cluster of industries that are addressing emerging sustainable transportation needs in urban regions. New Mobility provides real life solutions for moving goods and people in ways that are integrated, clean, smart, service-oriented, safe and user-focused. This conference provided an opportunity for professionals with an interest in next generation transportation products to learn about the latest service, product, and technology developments in the global New Mobility Market. It also provided an opportunity to exchange ideas with a wide range of industry players on telecommunications, information technology, supply chain management, intelligent transportation systems, and transportation equipment. Some of the solutions that New Mobility promotes is to show businesses how they can gain competitive advantages by reducing unnecessary travel through smart growth development, telework-ready intelligent buildings and electronic conferencing. The 5 industry working sessions at this conference were entitled: integrated mobility systems; traveller information; Toronto's waterfront; transportation management association; and, urban green tourism. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Dynamic Design of Ground Transport With the Help of Computational Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravets Victor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of ground transport (motor transport vehicle have been considered. Mathematical model of nonlinear dynamics in spatial motion of asymmetric carriage in the form of Euler-Lagrange equations represented as symmetrical block structure in quaternion matrices has been developed. Kinematic equations and partition matrices of external action in which Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters have been applied describe quaternionic matrices.

  17. Safety and Health Perceptions in Work-related Transport Activities in Ghanaian Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Atombo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: OSH culture is not fully complied in industries transport activities. This study, therefore, supports the use of safety seminars and training sessions for industry workers responsible for transport operations for better integration of safety standards.

  18. UTMTOX, Toxic Chemical Transport in Atmosphere, Ground Water, Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: UTMTOX is a unified transport model for toxic materials. It combines hydrologic, atmospheric, and sediment transport in one computer code and extends the scope to predict the transport of not only trace metals but also many chemical compounds, including organics. UTMTOX is capable of calculating 1) the atmospheric dispersion of up to 20 chemicals from a maximum of 10 point, 10 line, and 10 area sources; 2) deposition of one chemical at a time in both wet and dry form on foliage or the surface of the earth; 3) surface flow and erosion; 4) percolation through the soil to a stream channel; and 5) flow in the stream channel to the outfall of a watershed. B - Method of solution: UTMTOX calculates rates of flux of chemicals from release to the atmosphere, through deposition on a watershed, infiltration, and runoff from the soil to flow in the stream channel and the associated sediment transport. From these values, mass balances can be established, budgets for the chemical can be made, and concentrations in many environmental compartments can be estimated. Since the coupling is established among three major submodels, they can share data

  19. Modelling of the reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water; Modellierung des reaktiven Transports organischer Schadstoffe im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    1999-07-01

    The book describes reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water and its quantitative monitoring by means of numerical reaction transport models. A brief introduction dealing with the importance of and hazards to ground water and opportunities for making use of ground water models is followed by a more detailed chapter on organic pollutants in ground water. Here the focus is on organochlorine compounds and mineral oil products. Described are propagation mechanisms for these substances in the ground and, especially, their degradability in ground water. A separate chapter is dedicated to possibilities for cleaning up polluted ground water aquifers. The most important decontamination techniques are presented, with special emphasis on in-situ processes with hydraulic components. Moreover, this chapter discusses the self-cleaning capability of aquifers and the benefits of the application of models to ground water cleanup. In the fourth chapter the individual components of reaction transport models are indicated. Here it is, inter alia, differences in the formulation of reaction models as to their complexity, and coupling between suspended matter transport and reaction processes that are dealt with. This chapter ends with a comprehensive survey of literature regarding the application of suspended matter transport models to real ground water accidents. Chapter 5 consists of a description of the capability and principle of function of the reaction transport model TBC (transport biochemism/chemism). This model is used in the two described applications to the reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water. (orig.) [German] Inhalt des vorliegenden Buches ist die Darstellung des reaktiven Transports organischer Schadstoffe im Grundwasser und dessen quantitative Erfassung mithilfe numerischer Reaktions-Transportmodelle. Auf eine kurze Einleitung zur Bedeutung und Gefaehrdung von Grundwasser und zu den Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Grundwassermodellen folgt ein

  20. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  1. The mechanism of transport of pollution from industrial accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagelova, A.; Takacova, A.

    2015-01-01

    During industrial accidents pollution may penetrate through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. Penetration depends on the characteristics of the contaminant, leaked pollution amount as well as rock composition. If the pollution reaches the groundwater level it is drifted by flowing water. The flowing water can carry it to greater distances, where may be water sources. During accidents it is necessary to take positions quickly and propose appropriate protective measures. It is necessary to know the management processes of pollution transport. Without knowledge of these processes the measures may not be effective. Aim of this paper is to review the mechanism of transport of pollution and the main processes influencing the change in pollutant concentrations. On concrete and fictitious examples there will be shown properties that influence the spread of contamination especially in his direction because its determination is crucial to the draft measures. Researching of other processes in natural conditions depends on its correct specification.

  2. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Innis, Charles J; Kennedy, Adam E; McNally, Kerry L; Davis, Deborah G; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress ('transport stress') on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on 'control days' 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four 'stress-associated' parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp's ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These results are likely

  3. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  4. Power electronics applied to industrial systems and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Patin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Some power electronic converters are specifically designed to power equipment under a smoothed DC voltage. Therefore, the filtering part necessarily involves the use of auxiliary passive components (inductors and capacitors). This book deals with technical aspects such as classical separation between isolated and non-isolated power supplies, and soft switching through a special converter. It addresses the problem of regulating the output voltage of the switching power supplies in terms of modeling and obtaining transfer of SMPS functions.Power Electronics for Industry and Transport, Volume 3,

  5. Spatial distribution of the ground beatles populations in industrial cities (on the example of Nikopol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bolgarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abiotic factors on species of Amara, Ophonus, Harpalus in the urban environment has been studied. The features of the ground beetles distribution in the districts of Nikopol have been analysed. The influence of roadway on the vital fuctions of ground beetles has been cleared up. Quantitative data of Amara, Ophonus, Harpalus numbers in the town of Nikopol have been discussed. The advantage of natural factors over anthropogenic ones for the existence of soil mesofauna in industrial town has been established.

  6. Ground truth data collection on mining industrial explosions registered by the International Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehl'tekov, A.Yu.; Gordon, V.P.; Firsov, V.A.; Chervyakov, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation is dedicated to organizational and technical issues connected with the task of Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization timely notification on large chemical explosions including data on explosion location and time, on applied explosive substance quantity and type, and also on configuration and assumed purpose of explosion. Explosions registered by International Monitoring System are of special interest. Their data could be used for calibration of the monitoring system. Ground truth data collection and some explosions location results on Russia's mining enterprises were given. Ground truth data collection peculiarities according to mining industrial explosions were considered. (author)

  7. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  8. Ground-water solute transport modeling using a three-dimensional scaled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crider, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Scaled models are used extensively in current hydraulic research on sediment transport and solute dispersion in free surface flows (rivers, estuaries), but are neglected in current ground-water model research. Thus, an investigation was conducted to test the efficacy of a three-dimensional scaled model of solute transport in ground water. No previous results from such a model have been reported. Experiments performed on uniform scaled models indicated that some historical problems (e.g., construction and scaling difficulties; disproportionate capillary rise in model) were partly overcome by using simple model materials (sand, cement and water), by restricting model application to selective classes of problems, and by physically controlling the effect of the model capillary zone. Results from these tests were compared with mathematical models. Model scaling laws were derived for ground-water solute transport and used to build a three-dimensional scaled model of a ground-water tritium plume in a prototype aquifer on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Model results compared favorably with field data and with a numerical model. Scaled models are recommended as a useful additional tool for prediction of ground-water solute transport

  9. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The U.S. Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. Computer code used: SWIFT II (flow and transport code). 4 figs., 12 refs

  10. Business analysis methodology in telecommunication industry – the research based on the grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nenickova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems in telecommunication enterprises in Czech Republic. In the preparation of the methodology I have used the current needs of telecommunications companies, which are characterized mainly by high dependence on information systems. Besides that, this industry is characterized by high flexibility and competition and compressing of the corporate strategy timeline. The grounded theory of business analysis defines the specifics of the telecommunications industry, focusing on the very specific description of the procedure for collecting the business requirements and following the business strategy.

  11. Energy use in the marine transportation industry. Task I. Industry summary. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-11

    Task 1 of an energy study of ship transportation systems to identify the various operating or service sectors of the marine transportation industry and determine the numbers and types of vessels, their operating characteristics and energy consumption, is presented. The analysis includes all powered water-borne craft with the exception of those owned or operated by a government and fixed offshore production platforms. The approach is described. The broad sectors covered are: the ocean shipping, the Great Lakes, the coastal shipping, offshore, inland waterways, and the fishing and miscellaneous sectors. Recreational boats are covered. Information in the appendices covers marine fuel consumption calculations, essential trade routes, conversion factors, and merchant vessels of the US. (MCW)

  12. Contributions to optimization of storage and transporting industrial goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanatsas, T.; Babanatis Merce, R. M.; Glăvan, D. O.; Glăvan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Optimization of storage and transporting industrial goods in a factory either from a constructive, functional, or technological point of view is a determinant parameter in programming the manufacturing process, the performance of the whole process being determined by the correlation realized taking in consideration those two factors (optimization and programming the process). It is imperative to take into consideration each type of production program (range), to restrain as much as possible the area that we are using and to minimize the times of execution, all of these in order to satisfy the client’s needs, to try to classify them in order to be able to define a global software (with general rules) that is expected to fulfil each client’s needs.

  13. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-02-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The US Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. 12 refs., 4 figs

  14. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  15. Helicopter versus ground emergency medical services for the transportation of traumatically injured children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Camille L; Metzger, Ryan R; Pyle, Laura; Darmofal, Joe; Scaife, Eric; Moulton, Steven L

    2015-02-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are a common mode of transportation for pediatric trauma patients. We hypothesized that HEMS improve outcomes for traumatically injured children compared to ground emergency medical services (GEMS). We queried trauma registries of two level 1 pediatric trauma centers for children 0-17 years, treated from 2003 to 2013, transported by HEMS or GEMS, with known transport starting location and outcome. A geocoding service estimated travel distance and time. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to adjust for injury severity variables and travel distance/time. We identified 14,405 traumatically injured children; 3870 (26.9%) transported by HEMS and 10,535 (73.1%) transported by GEMS. Transport type was not significantly associated with survival, ICU length of stay, or discharge disposition. Transport by GEMS was associated with a 68.6%-53.1% decrease in hospital length of stay, depending on adjustment for distance/time. Results were similar for children with severe injuries, and with propensity score matched cohorts. Of note, 862/3850 (22.3%) of HEMS transports had an ISS<10 and hospitalization<1 day. HEMS do not independently improve outcomes for traumatically injured children, and 22.3% of children transported by HEMS are not significantly injured. These factors should be considered when requesting HEMS for transport of traumatically injured children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Barriers to Implementation of Recommendations for Transport of Children in Ground Ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rashida H; Shah, Manish; Doughty, Cara; Gilchrest, Anthony

    2017-10-16

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released draft recommendations in 2010 on the safe transport of children in ground ambulances. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness of these guidelines among emergency medical service (EMS) agencies and to identify implementation barriers. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous online survey of 911-responding, ground transport EMS agencies in Texas. Demographics, modes of transport based on case scenarios, and barriers to implementation were assessed. Of 62 eligible EMS agencies that took the survey, 35.7% were aware of the NHTSA guidelines, 62.5% agreed they would improve safety, and 41.1% planned to implement them. Seventy-five percent of EMS agencies used the ideal or acceptable alternative to transport children requiring continuous monitoring, and 69.5% chose ideal or acceptable alternatives for children requiring spinal immobilization. The ideal or acceptable alternative was not chosen for children who were not injured or ill (93.2%), ill or injured but not requiring continuous monitoring (53.3%), and situations when multiple patients required transport (57.6%). The main requirements for implementation were provider education, ambulance interior modifications, new guidelines in the EMS agency, and purchase of new equipment. Few EMS agencies are aware of the NHTSA guidelines on safe transport of children in ground ambulances. Although most agencies appropriately transport children who require monitoring, interventions, or spinal immobilization, they use inappropriate means to transport children in situations with multiple patients, lack of injury or illness, or lack of need for monitoring.

  17. A Survey of Restraint Methods for the Safe Transport of Children in Ground Ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rashida H; Shah, Manish; Doughty, Cara; Gilchrest, Anthony

    2018-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released draft recommendations in 2010 on the safe transport of children in ground ambulances. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness of these guidelines among emergency medical service (EMS) agencies and to identify implementation barriers. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous online survey of 911-responding, ground transport EMS agencies in Texas. Demographics, modes of transport based on case scenarios, and barriers to implementation were assessed. Of 62 eligible EMS agencies that took the survey, 35.7% were aware of the NHTSA guidelines, 62.5% agreed they would improve safety, and 41.1% planned to implement them. Seventy-five percent of EMS agencies used the ideal or acceptable alternative to transport children requiring continuous monitoring, and 69.5% chose ideal or acceptable alternatives for children requiring spinal immobilization. The ideal or acceptable alternative was not chosen for children who were not injured or ill (93.2%), ill or injured but not requiring continuous monitoring (53.3%), and situations when multiple patients required transport (57.6%). The main requirements for implementation were provider education, ambulance interior modifications, new guidelines in the EMS agency, and purchase of new equipment. Few EMS agencies are aware of the NHTSA guidelines on safe transport of children in ground ambulances. Although most agencies appropriately transport children who require monitoring, interventions, or spinal immobilization, they use inappropriate means to transport children in situations with multiple patients, lack of injury or illness, or lack of need for monitoring.

  18. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E.; Innis, Charles J.; Kennedy, Adam E.; McNally, Kerry L.; Davis, Deborah G.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress (‘transport stress’) on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on ‘control days’ 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four ‘stress-associated’ parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp’s ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These

  19. Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS - A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Felicia M; Zielinski, Martin D; Myers, Lucas A; Berns, Kathy S; Luke, Anurahda; Stubbs, James R; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald H; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2018-06-01

    IntroductionHemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS). This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90). A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort. In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in

  20. Effect of soap industry effluents on soil and ground water in Albageir area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, S. O.

    2004-02-01

    This study investigates the effect on soil and ground water produced by the effluent from soap industry discharged from Alsheikh Mustafa Alamin (SMA) factory, in Albageir industrial area, located 45 Km south of Khartoum. Soil samples were taken from the periphery of the effluent pond and from 25 and 50 cm depths from pits at different distances from the pond.The samples were analyzed for the following chemical and physical characteristics PH, EC, sodium, chloride ions and their grain size, in order to investigate any possible soil degradation. The results showed that there is an increase in soil salinity and sodicity resulting from the improper discharge of the liquid waste, and from lack of treatment before the discharge. Hence, there are definitive signs for soil degradation in the study area, which could reach a high magnitude in the long.This situation could be rectified by adopting updated techniques for treatment and disposal of effluent, and by regular inspection, by the authorities in order to make sure that the regulations are not violated. Chemical and physical analyses of ground water samples showed no signs of pollution. However, if the disposal practices are not revised, the possibility of pollution in the near future is likely to occur. A package of measurements is proposed in order to curb the impact of the industry on the environment. (Author)

  1. Regional elevator survey : grain transportation & industry trends for Great Plains elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    One potential means for gaining insight into the current state of the elevator industry, : and into expectations for future trends, is through a survey. The objective of this study is to profile the transportation and industry characteristics of the ...

  2. 75 FR 8412 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0047] Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of Accidental Radionuclide Releases; Solicitation of Public... ground water flow and transport of accidental radionuclide releases necessary to demonstrate compliance...

  3. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and ground water. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However,the input parameters used in these models are highly variable, and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  4. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2009-01-01

    Livestock manure containing antimicrobials becomes a possible source of these compounds to surface and ground waters when applied to cropland as a nutrient source. The potential for transport of the veterinary antimicrobial lincomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to ground water was assessed by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snowmelt runoff, and ground water over a 2-yr period in Saskatchewan, Canada, after fall application of liquid swine manure to cropland. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify lincomycin in all matrix extracts. Initial concentrations in soil (46.3-117 mug kg(-1)) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for manure application rates ranging from 60,000 to 95,000 L ha(-1) and had decreased to nondetectable levels by mid-summer the following year. After fall manure application, lincomycin was present in all simulated rainfall runoff (0.07-2.7 mug L(-1)) and all snowmelt runoff (0.038-3.2 mug L(-1)) samples. Concentrations in snowmelt runoff were not significantly different from those in simulated rainfall runoff the previous fall. On average, lincomycin concentrations in ephemeral wetlands dissipated by 50% after 31 d. Concentrations of lincomycin in ground water were generally <0.005 mug L(-1). This study demonstrates that the management practice of using livestock manure from confined animal feeding operations as a plant nutrient source on cropland may result in antimicrobial transport to surface and ground waters.

  5. Predictive capabilities of a two-dimensional model in the ground water transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.; Beskid, N.J.; Marmer, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The discharge of low-level radioactive waste into tailings ponds is a potential source of ground water contamination. The estimation of the radiological hazards related to the ground water transport of radionuclides from tailings retention systems depends on reasonably accurate estimates of the movement of both water and solute. A two-dimensional mathematical model having predictive capability for ground water flow and solute transport has been developed. The flow equation has been solved under steady-state conditions and the mass transport equation under transient conditions. The simultaneous solution of both equations is achieved through the finite element technique using isoparametric elements, based on the Galerkin formulation. However, in contrast to the flow equation solution, the weighting functions used in the solution of the mass transport equation have a non-symmetric form. The predictive capability of the model is demonstrated using an idealized case based on analyses of field data obtained from the sites of operating uranium mills. The pH of the solution, which regulates the variation of the distribution coefficient (K/sub d/) in a particular site, appears to be the most important factor in the assessment of the rate of migration of the elements considered herein

  6. Air Versus Ground Transportation in Isolated Severe Head Trauma: A National Trauma Data Bank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiolfi, Alberto; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Recinos, Gustavo; De Leon Castro, Alejandro; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-03-01

    The effect of prehospital helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) on mortality has been analyzed previously in polytrauma patients with discordant results. Our aim was to compare outcomes in patients with isolated severe blunt traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) transported by HEMS or ground emergency medical services (GEMS). We conducted a National Trauma Data Bank study (2007-2014). All adult patients (≥16 years old) who sustained an isolated severe blunt TBI and were transported by HEMS or GEMS were included in the study. There were 145,559 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 116,391 (80%) patients were transported via GEMS and 29,168 (20%) via HEMS. Median transportation time was longer for HEMS patients (41 vs. 25 min; p transportation was independently associated with improved survival (odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.67; p transport was an independent predictor of survival (AIS 3: OR 0.35; p transport time was not an independent predictor of mortality. Helicopter transport, in adult patients with isolated severe TBI, is associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate change, productivity shocks and demand for freight ground transportation in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevdokimov, Y. |; New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB; Byelyayev, O.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of climate change on the transportation sector in a regional context. The purpose was to analyze potential climate change impacts on demand for freight transportation in Atlantic Canada through its association with other sectors of the regional economy. Freight transportation is designed to meet transportation demands of commodity producers who must deliver their goods to final users. Since it is a by-product of profit maximization and cost minimization by producers of all types of commodities in various sectors of the economy, this study modelled climate change impacts as productivity shocks in relevant sectors of the economy. A computerized simulation was then used to determine how the consequences of these shocks influence the demand for freight transportation. This was accomplished by collecting climate related data in Atlantic Canada as well as aggregate economic data that reflects the economic performance of the regional economy. A growth model that links regional economy to freight transportation was then developed and different scenarios for future developments associated with climate change impacts were evaluated. Computer simulation with Mathcad-8 showed that the conditions specified in the best-case scenario, expected-case scenario and worst-case scenario resulted in a cumulative loss in demand for ground freight transportation of 7.213, 582.127 and 610.92 billion tonne-kilometers respectively, over the 2001-2100 period. In general, the results of the computer simulation demonstrated a considerable decrease in the demand for ground freight transportation in Atlantic Canada resulting from climate change impacts. The loss in demand was found to occur mostly in the first half of this century, with some recovery in the second half because the economic system would adapt to new climate conditions. It was recommended that policy instruments such as regulations or taxes, should be put in place to reduce the impacts

  8. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  9. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie Keith; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier–Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were valida...

  10. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  11. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and groundwater. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However, the input parameters used in these models are highly variable; and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  12. Heart rate and leukocytes after air and ground transportation in artificially ventilated neonates: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosek, Stefan; Mlakar, Gorazd; Vidmar, Ivan; Ihan, Alojz; Primozic, Janez

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of interhospital air and ground transportation of artificially ventilated neonates on heart rate and peripheral blood leukocyte counts. Prospective, observational study. Level III multidisciplinary Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Fifty-eight near-term artificially ventilated transported neonates between May 2006 and April 2007. Day-helicopter, day- and night-ground transportation. Heart rate at retrieval, on admission to the ICU and 1 h later, and peripheral blood leukocyte counts on admission and 1 d later were compared. Fifteen neonates were transported by helicopter during the daytime (D-HEL), 20 by daytime ground and 23 by nighttime ground transportation (D-GROUND, N-GROUND). No differences in delivery mode, birth weight, gestational age, gender, primary diagnoses for transportation, response time and duration of transportation were found between the groups. Similarly, no differences in pH, pCO(2), blood pressure and skin temperature at retrieval and on admission to the ICU were found between the three groups. The mean heart rate at retrieval did not differ significantly, while on arrival in the ICU and 1 h later the D-GROUND group of patients showed a significantly higher mean heart rate compared to the D-HEL and N-GROUND groups. Moreover, leukocyte counts on arrival in the ICU showed significantly higher leukocyte counts in the D-GROUND group of patients compared to the D-HEL group of patients. These results demonstrate that there is an association between daytime ground transportation and higher heart rate and peripheral blood leukocytes.

  13. Transport of oxide spent fuel. Industrial experience of COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1983-01-01

    COGEMA is ruling all transports of spent fuel to La Hague reprocessing plant. The paper summarizes some aspects of the experience gained in this field (road, rail and sea transports) and describes the standards defined by COGEMA as regards transport casks. These standards are as follows: - casks of dry type, - casks of the maximum size compatible with rail transports, - capability to be unloaded with standardized equipment and following standard procedures

  14. Application of a soil and ground-water pollutant-transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, M.; Duguid, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    A general two-dimensional model was developed for simulation of saturated-unsaturated transport of radionuclides in ground water. This model is being applied to the transport of radionuclides from waste-disposal sites, where field investigations are currently under way to obtain the necessary parameters. A zero-order simulation of a waste-disposal trench is presented. Estimated values of the soil properties have been used since very limited experimental information is available at the present time. However, as more measured values become available from field studies, the simulation will be updated. The end product of this research will be a reliable computer model useful both in predicting future transport of radionuclides from buried waste and in examining control measures if they are shown to be necessary. (U.S.)

  15. METHODS AND RESEARCH CONCERNING SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION OF SUPORTING STRUCTURES OF TRACTION ROLLING STOCK FOR INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is scientifically grounded introduction of the acquired techniques into works for service life extension of the traction and motor rolling stock for industrial transport. Methodology. To achieve the purpose it was analyzed the acquired techniques for service life extension of the traction and motor rolling stock for mainline transport. The acquired techniques during solution of problems concerning the service life extension of rolling stock units were adapted to the locomotives TGM6A and traction aggregates OPE1. Findings. On the basis of experimental and theoretical complex of studies some results were obtained. They gave the ground to determine the possibility of acquired techniques use when solving the problems on service life extension of rolling stock units concerning locomotives TGM6A and traction aggregates OPE1. Originality. On the basis of conducted experimental and theoretical studies scientific maintenance of the works providing extension of service life of traction and motor units of industrial rolling stock was executed. Practical value. Technical solutions and measures, which have to be carried out during operation within the prolonged appointed service life of traction and motor units of industrial rolling stock enterprises using locomotives and traction aggregates to provide the basic technological cycles were developed.

  16. Membrane transporter engineering in industrial biotechnology and whole cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B; Swainston, Neil; Pir, Pınar; Oliver, Stephen G

    2015-04-01

    Because they mainly do not involve chemical changes, membrane transporters have been a Cinderella subject in the biotechnology of small molecule production, but this is a serious oversight. Influx transporters contribute significantly to the flux towards product, and efflux transporters ensure the accumulation of product in the much greater extracellular space of fermentors. Programmes for improving biotechnological processes might therefore give greater consideration to transporters than may have been commonplace. Strategies for identifying important transporters include expression profiling, genome-wide knockout studies, stress-based selection, and the use of inhibitors. In addition, modern methods of directed evolution and synthetic biology, especially those effecting changes in energy coupling, offer huge opportunities for increasing the flux towards extracellular product formation by transporter engineering. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. EXPLORATORY STUDY OF OBSTACLES IN SAFETY CULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: A GROUNDED THEORY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure H.W. Hadikusumo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the obstacles that prevent the development of a safety culture in Thailand’s large construction industry from various managerial points of view. Qualitative research methods were used by performing a series of semi-structured interviews of eight case studies selected from six prominent construction firms to investigate the obstacles they face. Glaser’s keyword coding from Grounded Theory was used to reduce the information load after the interviews. Our findings revealed that the factors influencing the successful development of a safety culture in the construction industry are the workers, the characteristics of construction, the subcontractors, the supervisors, and external factors. Based on the frequency analysis, the main obstacles in developing a safety culture result from problems related to the workers themselves. The three most frequently discussed problems are unskilled workers, unsafe worker habits, and high worker turnover. Our results also suggest that managers should encourage engagement from their workers to optimise the successful implementation of safety programs and their long-term improvement.

  18. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Britter, Rex E; Norford, Leslie Keith; Entekhabi, Dara

    2010-01-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street ca...

  19. Modeling ground water flow and radioactive transport in a fractured aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohll, G.; Hassan, A.E.; Chapman, J.B.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical modeling is used to characterize ground water flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal nuclear test site in north-central Nevada. The fractured rock aquifer at the site is modeled using an equivalent porous medium approach. Field data are used to characterize the fracture system into classes: large, medium, and no/small fracture zones. Hydraulic conductivities are assigned based on discrete interval measurements. Contaminants from the Shoal test are assumed to all be located within the cavity. Several challenging issues are addressed in this study. Radionuclides are apportioned between surface deposits and volume deposits in nuclear melt glass, based on their volatility and previous observations. Surface-deposited radionuclides are released hydraulically after equilibration of the cavity with the surrounding ground water system, and as a function of ground water flow through the higher-porosity cavity into the low-porosity surrounding aquifer. Processes that are modeled include the release functions, retardation, radioactive decay, prompt injection, and in growth of daughter products. Prompt injection of radionuclides away from the cavity is found to increase the arrival of mass at the control plane but is not found to significantly impact calculated concentrations due to increased spreading. Behavior of the other radionuclides is affected by the slow chemical release and retardation behavior. The transport calculations are sensitive to many flow and transport parameters. Most important are the heterogeneity of the flow field and effective porosity. The effect of porosity in radioactive decay is crucial and has not been adequately addressed in the literature. For reactive solutes, retardation and the glass dissolution rate are also critical

  20. Case Studies in Understanding Transport Sensitive Industries (TSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus; Serin, Göran Folke

    The mega trends of modern mobility are increasing the pressure on capacity, time and costs. Globalization, urbanization, demographic, and change in consumerism represent the biggest challenges to transport and logistics today. More and more goods have to be brought to their destination. Goods mus...... oriented businesses. The essential reason for understanding business in transport and logistics, especially in this report...

  1. Combining ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction for industrial site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Saey, Timothy; De Smedt, Philippe; Delefortrie, Samuël; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    Industrial sites pose specific challenges to the conventional way of characterizing soil and groundwater properties through borehole drilling and well monitoring. The subsurface of old industrial sites typically exhibits a large heterogeneity resulting from various anthropogenic interventions, such as the dumping of construction and demolition debris and industrial waste. Also larger buried structures such as foundations, utility infrastructure and underground storage tanks are frequently present. Spills and leaks from industrial activities and leaching of buried waste may have caused additional soil and groundwater contamination. Trying to characterize such a spatially heterogeneous medium with a limited number of localized observations is often problematic. The deployment of mobile proximal soil sensors may be a useful tool to fill up the gaps in between the conventional observations, as these enable measuring soil properties in a non-destructive way. However, because the output of most soil sensors is affected by more than one soil property, the application of only one sensor is generally insufficient to discriminate between all contributing factors. To test a multi-sensor approach, we selected a study area which was part of a former manufactured gas plant site located in one of the seaport areas of Belgium. It has a surface area of 3400 m² and was the location of a phosphate production unit that was demolished at the end of the 1980s. Considering the long and complex history of the site we expected to find a typical "industrial" soil. Furthermore, the studied area was located between buildings of the present industry, entailing additional practical challenges such as the presence of active utilities and aboveground obstacles. The area was surveyed using two proximal soil sensors based on two different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR), to image contrasts in dielectric permittivity, and electromagnetic induction (EMI), to measure the apparent

  2. Vertical unstable stability of electrodynamic suspension of high-speed ground transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiko, A.V.; Voevodskii, K.E.; Kochetkov, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem considered is the vertical oscillation of a superconducting solenoid moving over a conducting sheet in connection with the electrodynamic suspension of high-speed ground transport. The oscillation is considered to be unstable at a sufficiently high speed. The current oscillation in the superconducting solenoid caused by its mechanical oscillation is also investigated. The superconducting properties of a solenoid are found to have a pronounced effect on stability. Both the theory and numerical results are presented. Methods of oscillation damping are also discussed. (author)

  3. A proposed strategy for the validation of ground-water flow and solute transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Goodrich, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water flow and transport models can be thought of as a combination of conceptual and mathematical models and the data that characterize a given system. The judgment of the validity or invalidity of a model depends both on the adequacy of the data and the model structure (i.e., the conceptual and mathematical model). This report proposes a validation strategy for testing both components independently. The strategy is based on the philosophy that a model cannot be proven valid, only invalid or not invalid. In addition, the authors believe that a model should not be judged in absence of its intended purpose. Hence, a flow and transport model may be invalid for one purpose but not invalid for another. 9 refs

  4. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie K.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2010-11-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier-Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were validated against experimental data obtained in wind-tunnel studies before the model was applied to study the detailed turbulence, temperature, and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon of aspect ratio 1. The effects of different Richardson numbers ( Ri) were investigated. The ground heating significantly enhanced mean flow, turbulence, and pollutant flux inside the street canyon, but weakened the shear at the roof level. The mean flow was observed to be no longer isolated from the free stream and fresh air could be entrained into the street canyon at the roof-level leeward corner. Weighed against higher temperature, the ground heating facilitated pollutant removal from the street canyon.

  5. Disposal facility in Olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in tunnel transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or a by vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  6. Disposal facility in olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in lift transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or by a vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  7. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  8. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    One of the major water-quality problems in the Chesapeake Bay is an overabundance of nutrients from the streams and rivers that discharge to the Bay. Some of these nutrients are from nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, agricultural manure and fertilizer, and septic systems. The effects of efforts to control nonpoint sources, however, can be difficult to quantify because of the lag time between changes at the land surface and the response in the base-flow (ground water) component of streams. To help resource managers understand the lag time between implementation of management practices and subsequent response in the nutrient concentrations in the base-flow component of streamflow, a study of ground-water discharge, residence time, and nitrate transport in springs throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and in four smaller watersheds in selected hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMRs) was conducted. The four watersheds were in the Coastal Plain Uplands, Piedmont crystalline, Valley and Ridge carbonate, and Valley and Ridge siliciclastic HGMRs.A study of springs to estimate an apparent age of the ground water was based on analyses for concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons in water samples collected from 48 springs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Results of the analysis indicate that median age for all the samples was 10 years, with the 25th percentile having an age of 7 years and the 75th percentile having an age of 13 years. Although the number of samples collected in each HGMR was limited, there did not appear to be distinct differences in the ages between the HGMRs. The ranges were similar between the major HGMRs above the Fall Line (modern to about 50 years), with only two HGMRs of small geographic extent (Piedmont carbonate and Mesozoic Lowland) having ranges of modern to about 10 years. The median values of all the HGMRs ranged from 7 to 11 years. Not enough samples were collected in the Coastal Plain for comparison. Spring samples showed slightly younger

  9. Multicomponent mass transport model: a model for simulating migration of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, J.F.; Kaszeta, F.E.; Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of the development of a one-dimensional radionuclide transport code, MMT2D (Multicomponent Mass Transport), for the AEGIS Program. Multicomponent Mass Transport is a numerical solution technique that uses the discrete-parcel-random-wald (DPRW) method to directly simulate the migration of radionuclides. MMT1D accounts for: convection;dispersion; sorption-desorption; first-order radioactive decay; and n-membered radioactive decay chains. Comparisons between MMT1D and an analytical solution for a similar problem show that: MMT1D agrees very closely with the analytical solution; MMT1D has no cumulative numerical dispersion like that associated with solution techniques such as finite differences and finite elements; for current AEGIS applications, relatively few parcels are required to produce adequate results; and the power of MMT1D is the flexibility of the code in being able to handle complex problems for which analytical solution cannot be obtained. Multicomponent Mass Transport (MMT1D) codes were developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to predict the movement of radiocontaminants in the saturated and unsaturated sediments of the Hanford Site. All MMT models require ground-water flow patterns that have been previously generated by a hydrologic model. This report documents the computer code and operating procedures of a third generation of the MMT series: the MMT differs from previous versions by simulating the mass transport processes in systems with radionuclide decay chains. Although MMT is a one-dimensional code, the user is referred to the documentation of the theoretical and numerical procedures of the three-dimensional MMT-DPRW code for discussion of expediency, verification, and error-sensitivity analysis

  10. A Grounded Theory for Regional Development through the IT Offshoring Industry with the Triple-Helix Involvment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal de la Garza, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded study was to explore the thoughts, experiences, and needs of potential clients and of the triple-helix members with the intention to establish a framework to support the development of the regional economy through the information technology (IT) and business processing outsourcing (BPO) offshoring industry.…

  11. Transport regulation of NORM - a threat to the industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.J.; Wickens, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent changes to the IAEA regulations have led to an increasing number of cases of refusal to ship tantalite because of its radioactivity, which is in fact at a very low level. The consequence of denial of shipment is a disruption of the supply chain which is already being felt by the tantalum industry

  12. Guide to the Revised Ground-Water Flow and Heat Transport Simulator: HYDROTHERM - Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kenneth L.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Charlton, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    The HYDROTHERM computer program simulates multi-phase ground-water flow and associated thermal energy transport in three dimensions. It can handle high fluid pressures, up to 1 ? 109 pascals (104 atmospheres), and high temperatures, up to 1,200 degrees Celsius. This report documents the release of Version 3, which includes various additions, modifications, and corrections that have been made to the original simulator. Primary changes to the simulator include: (1) the ability to simulate unconfined ground-water flow, (2) a precipitation-recharge boundary condition, (3) a seepage-surface boundary condition at the land surface, (4) the removal of the limitation that a specified-pressure boundary also have a specified temperature, (5) a new iterative solver for the linear equations based on a generalized minimum-residual method, (6) the ability to use time- or depth-dependent functions for permeability, (7) the conversion of the program code to Fortran 90 to employ dynamic allocation of arrays, and (8) the incorporation of a graphical user interface (GUI) for input and output. The graphical user interface has been developed for defining a simulation, running the HYDROTHERM simulator interactively, and displaying the results. The combination of the graphical user interface and the HYDROTHERM simulator forms the HYDROTHERM INTERACTIVE (HTI) program. HTI can be used for two-dimensional simulations only. New features in Version 3 of the HYDROTHERM simulator have been verified using four test problems. Three problems come from the published literature and one problem was simulated by another partially saturated flow and thermal transport simulator. The test problems include: transient partially saturated vertical infiltration, transient one-dimensional horizontal infiltration, two-dimensional steady-state drainage with a seepage surface, and two-dimensional drainage with coupled heat transport. An example application to a hypothetical stratovolcano system with unconfined

  13. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  14. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  15. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Gan [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway)

    2003-05-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analysed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis. (author)

  16. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Lin E-mail: lin.gan@cicero.uio.no

    2003-05-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis.

  17. Further activities of safety culture toward nuclear transportation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Y.; Shimakura, D.

    2004-01-01

    On September 30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred at the uranium processing facility of the JCO Co. Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as ''JCO'') Tokai plant, located in Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture. This was an unprecedented accident in Japan's history of peaceful use of nuclear power, resulting in three workers exposed to severe radiation, two of whom died, and the evacuation and enforced indoor confinement of local residents. Nuclear power suppliers must take personal responsibility for ensuring safety. In this connection, the electric power industry, heavy electric machinery manufacturers, fuel fabricators, and nuclear power research organizations gathered together to establish the Nuclear Safety Network (NSnet) in December 1999, based on the resolve to share and improve the level of the safety culture across the entire nuclear power industry and to assure that such an accident never occurs again. NSnet serves as a link between nuclear power enterprises, research organizations, and other bodies, based on the principles of equality and reciprocity. A variety of activities are pursued, such as diffusing a safety culture, implementing mutual evaluation among members, and exchanging safety-related information. Aiming to share and improve the safety culture throughout the entire nuclear power industry, NSnet thoroughly implements the principle of safety first, while at the same time making efforts to restore trust in nuclear power

  18. Further activities of safety culture toward nuclear transportation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Y.; Shimakura, D. [NSnet, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    On September 30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred at the uranium processing facility of the JCO Co. Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as ''JCO'') Tokai plant, located in Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture. This was an unprecedented accident in Japan's history of peaceful use of nuclear power, resulting in three workers exposed to severe radiation, two of whom died, and the evacuation and enforced indoor confinement of local residents. Nuclear power suppliers must take personal responsibility for ensuring safety. In this connection, the electric power industry, heavy electric machinery manufacturers, fuel fabricators, and nuclear power research organizations gathered together to establish the Nuclear Safety Network (NSnet) in December 1999, based on the resolve to share and improve the level of the safety culture across the entire nuclear power industry and to assure that such an accident never occurs again. NSnet serves as a link between nuclear power enterprises, research organizations, and other bodies, based on the principles of equality and reciprocity. A variety of activities are pursued, such as diffusing a safety culture, implementing mutual evaluation among members, and exchanging safety-related information. Aiming to share and improve the safety culture throughout the entire nuclear power industry, NSnet thoroughly implements the principle of safety first, while at the same time making efforts to restore trust in nuclear power.

  19. International Oil Price’s Impacts on Carbon Emission in China’s Transportation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry.Design/methodology/approach: This paper chooses five independent variables of GDP, international oil price, private car population, passenger and freight transportation volume as impact factors to investigate industrial carbon emissions, the paper also analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and finally the paper uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry. With the independent variables’ historical data from 1994 to 2009 as a sample, the fitting of the industry carbon emissions is satisfying. And based on the data of 2011, the paper maintains the private car owning, passenger and freight transportation volume to study international oil prices’ impact on the industry carbon emissions at different levels of GDP.Findings: The results show that: with the same GDP growth, the industry carbon emissions increase with the rise in international oil prices, and vice versa, the industry carbon emissions decrease; and lastly when GDP increases to a certain extent, in both cases of international oil prices’ rise or fall, the industry carbon emissions will go up, and the industry carbon emissions increase even faster while the energy prices are rising.Practical implications: Limit the growth in private-vehicle ownership, change China's transport sector within the next short-term in the structure of energy consumption and put forward China's new energy, alternative energy sources and renewable energy application so as to weaken the dependence on international oil, and indirectly slowdown China's GDP growth rate, which are all possible

  20. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport

  1. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport.

  2. The role of moisture transport between ground and atmosphere in global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rind, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Stieglitz, M.

    1997-01-01

    Projections of the effect of climate change on future water availability are examined by reviewing the formulations used to calculate moisture transport between the ground and the atmosphere. General circulation models and climate change impact models have substantially different formulations for evapotranspiration, so their projections of future water availability often disagree, even though they use the same temperature and precipitation forecasts. General circulation models forecast little change in tropical and subtropical water availability, while impact models show severe water and agricultural shortages. A comparison of observations and modeling techniques shows that the parameterizations in general circulation models likely lead to an underestimate of the impacts of global warming on soil moisture and vegetation. Such errors would crucially affect the temperature and precipitation forecasts used in impact models. Some impact model evaporation formulations are probably more appropriate than those in general circulation models, but important questions remain. More observations are needed, especially in the vicinity of forests, to determine appropriate parameterizations

  3. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  4. Oxidation-reduction processes in ground water at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.A.; Braun, Christopher L.; Lee, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of trichloroethene in ground water at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant in Dallas, Texas, indicate three source areas of chlorinated solvents?building 1, building 6, and an off-site source west of the facility. The presence of daughter products of reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene, which were not used at the facility, south and southwest of the source areas are evidence that reductive dechlorination is occurring. In places south of the source areas, dissolved oxygen concentrations indicated that reduction of oxygen could be the dominant process, particularly south of building 6; but elevated dissolved oxygen concentrations south of building 6 might be caused by a leaking water or sewer pipe. The nitrite data indicate that denitrification is occurring in places; however, dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicate that iron reduction is the dominant process south of building 6. The distributions of ferrous iron indicate that iron reduction is occurring in places south-southwest of buildings 6 and 1; dissolved hydrogen concentrations generally support the interpretation that iron reduction is the dominant process in those places. The generally low concentrations of sulfide indicate that sulfate reduction is not a key process in most sampled areas, an interpretation that is supported by dissolved hydrogen concentrations. Ferrous iron and dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicate that ferric iron reduction is the primary oxidation-reduction process. Application of mean first-order decay rates in iron-reducing conditions for trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride yielded half-lives for those solvents of 231, 347, and 2.67 days, respectively. Decay rates, and thus half-lives, at the facility are expected to be similar to those computed. A weighted scoring method to indicate sites where reductive dechlorination might be likely to occur indicated strong evidence for anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents at six sites

  5. Primary heat transport pump trip by ground fault (deterioration of insulation in the cable quick disconnect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, C.-Y.

    1991-01-01

    At 08:29 Sept. 1, 1988, Wolsong unit 1 was operating at 100% full power when a primary heat transport pump was suddenly tripped by breaker trip due to ground fault in the power distribution connector assembly. Soon after the pump trip, the reactor was shut down automatically on low heat transport flow. Operators tried to restart the pump twice but failed. A field operator reported to the shift supervisor that he found an electrical spark and smoke at the vicinity of the pump when the pump started to run. Inspection showed that a power distribution connector assembly for making fast and easy power connections to the PHT pump motor, 3312-PM2, was damaged severely by thermal shock. Particularly, broken parts of the insulating plug flew away across the boiler room and dropped to the floor. Direct causes of the failure were bad contact and deterioration of integrity along the creep paths between the insulating plug and the connector housing. The failed connector assembly had been used for more than 7 years. Its status had been checked infrequently during the in-service period. The standard torque value was not applied to the installation of connectors. Therefore, we concluded that long term inservice in combinations of application of improper torque value induced failure of insulation. This paper describes the scenarios, causes of the event and corrective actions to prevent recurrence of this event. (author)

  6. Primary heat transport pump trip by ground fault (deterioration of insulation in the cable quick disconnect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, C -Y [Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant, Korea Electric Power Corporation, Wolsong (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-04-01

    At 08:29 Sept. 1, 1988, Wolsong unit 1 was operating at 100% full power when a primary heat transport pump was suddenly tripped by breaker trip due to ground fault in the power distribution connector assembly. Soon after the pump trip, the reactor was shut down automatically on low heat transport flow. Operators tried to restart the pump twice but failed. A field operator reported to the shift supervisor that he found an electrical spark and smoke at the vicinity of the pump when the pump started to run. Inspection showed that a power distribution connector assembly for making fast and easy power connections to the PHT pump motor, 3312-PM2, was damaged severely by thermal shock. Particularly, broken parts of the insulating plug flew away across the boiler room and dropped to the floor. Direct causes of the failure were bad contact and deterioration of integrity along the creep paths between the insulating plug and the connector housing. The failed connector assembly had been used for more than 7 years. Its status had been checked infrequently during the in-service period. The standard torque value was not applied to the installation of connectors. Therefore, we concluded that long term inservice in combinations of application of improper torque value induced failure of insulation. This paper describes the scenarios, causes of the event and corrective actions to prevent recurrence of this event. (author)

  7. Review of ground-water flow and transport models in the unsaturated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oster, C.A.

    1982-11-01

    Models of partially saturated flow and transport in porous media have application in the analysis of existing as well as future low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. An extensive literature search along with telephone and mail correspondence with recognized leading experts in the field, was conducted to identify computer models suitable for studies of low-level radioactive waste facilities located in the unsaturated zone. Fifty-five existing models were identified as potentially useful. Ten of these models were selected for further examination. This report contains a statement of the ground-water flow-contaminant transport problem, a discussion of those methods used to reduce the physical problem to a computer model, a brief discussion about the data requirements of these models. The procedure used to select the ten codes for further discussion is given, along with a list of these models. Finally, the Appendices contain the data about the fifty-five codes examined. Specifically Appendix D contains the detailed discussion of each of the ten selected codes. Included in each discussion are such items which a potential user requires in determining whether the code is suitable for his applications. Appendix E contains brief summary information about each of the fifty-five codes. Included in the summaries are identification data, authors, pertinent references, and model type.

  8. Review of ground-water flow and transport models in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, C.A.

    1982-11-01

    Models of partially saturated flow and transport in porous media have application in the analysis of existing as well as future low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. An extensive literature search along with telephone and mail correspondence with recognized leading experts in the field, was conducted to identify computer models suitable for studies of low-level radioactive waste facilities located in the unsaturated zone. Fifty-five existing models were identified as potentially useful. Ten of these models were selected for further examination. This report contains a statement of the ground-water flow-contaminant transport problem, a discussion of those methods used to reduce the physical problem to a computer model, a brief discussion about the data requirements of these models. The procedure used to select the ten codes for further discussion is given, along with a list of these models. Finally, the Appendices contain the data about the fifty-five codes examined. Specifically Appendix D contains the detailed discussion of each of the ten selected codes. Included in each discussion are such items which a potential user requires in determining whether the code is suitable for his applications. Appendix E contains brief summary information about each of the fifty-five codes. Included in the summaries are identification data, authors, pertinent references, and model type

  9. Fun at Antarctic grounding lines: Ice-shelf channels and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Reinhard; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf; Helm, Veit; Ehlers, Todd A.; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Favier, Lionel; Hewitt, Ian H.; Ng, Felix; Fürst, Johannes J.; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Bergeot, Nicolas; Matsuoka, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    Meltwater beneath the polar ice sheets drains, in part, through subglacial conduits. Landforms created by such drainages are abundant in areas formerly covered by ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. However, observations of subglacial conduit dynamics under a contemporary ice sheet are lacking. We present results from ice-penetrating radar to infer the existence of subglacial conduits upstream of the grounding line of Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The conduits are aligned with ice-shelf channels, and underlain by esker ridges formed from sediment deposition due to reduced water outflow speed near the grounding line. In turn, the eskers modify local ice flow to initiate the bottom topography of the ice-shelf channels, and create small surface ridges extending onto the shelf. Relict features on the shelf are interpreted to indicate a history of these interactions and variability of past subglacial drainages. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation, and ice-shelf stability. To investigate the role of sediment transport beneath ice sheets further, we model the sheet-shelf system of the Ekstömisen catchment, Antarctica. A 3D finite element model (Elmer/ICE) is used to solve the transients full Stokes equation for isotropic, isothermal ice with a dynamic grounding line. We initialize the model with surface topography from the TanDEM-X satellites and by inverting simultaneously for ice viscosity and basal drag using present-day surface velocities. Results produce a flow field which is consitent with sattelite and on-site observations. Solving the age-depth relationship allows comparison with radar isochrones from airborne data, and gives information about the atmospheric/dynamic history of this sector. The flow field will eventually be used to identify potential sediment sources and sinks which we compare with more than 400 km of

  10. Characterization of the Hanford 300 Area Burial Grounds. Task III: fluid transport and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Simmons, C.S.

    1979-08-01

    In Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling, a computer model was developed and applied to the 300 Area Burial Grounds to analyze the influence of potential evaporation and rainfall patterns on drainage. The model describes one-dimensional unsaturated flow. Fluid transport equations were evaluated to describe the driving forces of fluid flow. The data indicate that the major processes are evaporative drying, capillarity, and gravity flow. Thermally induced transport does not appear significant in the subsurface sediments of the area. Several empirical evaporation methods are available for assessing potential evaporation/evapotranspiration. Four methods were used with the unsaturated flow model. Ultimately, the Blaney-Criddle method was chosen for subsequent simulation examples because it relies only on the climatic data available and gave results comparable to the other methods tested. Simulations showed that a dry layer formation is important in controlling the soil-water balance in the profile. The surface dry layer acts as a mulch to retard the evaporative water losses and increase water storage. The most important climatic factor in determining drainage appears to be yearly rainfall distribution. When rainfall is distributed in fall or winter, during periods of low potential evaporation, both water storage and drainage are increased. Summer showers, on the other hand, were shown to add little to the annual water storage. Rainfall occurring in one year influences the subsequent annual drainage for several succeeding years because of annual changes in water storage capacity and the transient nature of unsaturated flow in the storage zone. 47 figures, 9 tables

  11. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Transport of radioactive source of cobalt-60 for the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive materials are used in the fields of medicine, industry, research and nuclear power production. The use of radioactive material may involve transportation and this implies in the application of safety measures to the workers, public and the environment. Many types of radioactive material are produced all over the world and some modes of transport are involved. The IAEA regulations are based on the philosophy that radioactive material being transported should be adequately packaged to provide protection against the hazards of the material under all conditions of transport. Some Brazilian steel industries control the levels of liquid steel in continuous casting systems by means of sealed sources of cobalt-60. The Center for Development of Nuclear Technology-CDNT produces several of these sources to meet these industries and these sources must be transported in packages designed and tested as requirements of the rules of carriage of radioactive materials. For the transportation of seven sources of cobalt-60 with total activity of 1 GBq since CDNT to the applicant industries was designed, built and tested a Type A package. The thickness of the shield to meet the surface dose rate and the index of transport was calculated by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code-Version 5) and practical values were compatible. The sealed sources of cobalt-60 were tested as to leak through the tightness test conducted according to ISO 9978:1992 (E) and the tests to demonstrate the capability of resistance of packaged under normal conditions of transport were made on the facilities of CDNT. (author)

  13. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re

  14. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re-used. (author)

  15. physiochemical study of ground water quality of quaid-e-azam industrial estate, kot lakhpat lahore-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, M.U.; Ather, A.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns regarding contamination of ground water due to the presence of different elements is of great importance. Study of ground water quality is an essential parameter for healthy population of Quaid-e-Azam industrial estate (Kot Lakhpat Area). The measurements of ground water quality parameters were found in the following ranges such as pH 7.16-7.43, Turbidity 5.0-6.4 N.T.U, Conductivit micro s/cm, TDS 492-1499, Hardness 80-380, Total Alkalinity 300-500, Chloride 21-192, Sulphate 80-450, Phosphate 0.1-2.2, Fluoride 0.04-0.08, Iron <0.01, Nitrite <0.01, Nitrate 0.01-0.04, Zinc 0.01-1.6 ppm respectively. The concentration of essential metal ions (Na, K, Ca and Mg) was found to be in range of 119-366, 4-6, 16-56 and 10-58 ppm respectively. Results of this study showed that ground water of the particular research area was characterized by good quality of water except some slight variations due to industrial activity. (author)

  16. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  17. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow, Transport, Age, and Particle Tracking near York, Nebraska, for a Study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to Public-Supply Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Landon, Matthew K.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Hornberger, George Z.

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of public-supply wells has resulted in public-health threats and negative economic effects for communities that must treat contaminated water or find alternative water supplies. To investigate factors controlling vulnerability of public-supply wells to anthropogenic and natural contaminants using consistent and systematic data collected in a variety of principal aquifer settings in the United States, a study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The area simulated by the ground-water flow model described in this report was selected for a study of processes influencing contaminant distribution and transport along the direction of ground-water flow towards a public-supply well in southeastern York, Nebraska. Ground-water flow is simulated for a 60-year period from September 1, 1944, to August 31, 2004. Steady-state conditions are simulated prior to September 1, 1944, and represent conditions prior to use of ground water for irrigation. Irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells were simulated using the Multi-Node Well package of the modular three-dimensional ground-water flow model code, MODFLOW-2000, which allows simulation of flow and solutes through wells that are simulated in multiple nodes or layers. Ground-water flow, age, and transport of selected tracers were simulated using the Ground-Water Transport process of MODFLOW-2000. Simulated ground-water age was compared to interpreted ground-water age in six monitoring wells in the unconfined aquifer. The tracer chlorofluorocarbon-11 was simulated directly using Ground-Water Transport for comparison with concentrations measured in six monitoring wells and one public supply well screened in the upper confined aquifer. Three alternative model simulations indicate that simulation results are highly sensitive to the distribution of multilayer well bores where leakage

  18. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  19. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molz, Fred J. III

    2010-01-01

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  20. Influence of transport infrastructure on the industrial development of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Eduardovna Kolchinskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to build a model describing the relationship between the level of transport infrastructure development of the region and the level of industrial development in the region. Methods calculation of the integral indicators of a particular industry development regression analysis method of the production function constructing. For regression analysis the paper uses panel data models with random and fixed effects and the pooled panel data model. To check the quality of the regression model the Fisher and Student ttests were used. To test the model for heteroskedastic properties tests by Park Glazer GoldfeldQuandt and White were applied. Results models of linear and logarithmic specifications with random and fixed effects were built as well as pooled panel data models. Significant coefficients of transport infrastructure indicators were obtained in both cases only in the pooled panel data models. The model which considered the railway density index as one of the characteristics of the transport infrastructure of the region showed the negative coefficient of this variable. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of Russian regions statistics using regression models of panel data the dependence has been studied between the level of transport development in the region and the dynamics of industrial production in it. As the characteristic of transport infrastructure development the specially designed integral indicator was used i.e. the transport enterprises and communications functioning in the region summarizing several characteristics of enterprises in the industry. Practical value the obtained results can be used to predict effects of adopting decisions on improving the transport infrastructure in the Russian Federation regions. The results and conclusion can serve as a basis for further research on this topic and be applied in the characterization of the Russian economy. In addition the results can be used in the educational

  1. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  2. New solution for transport and industrial noise protection through reflective noise barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kralov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution for protection of transportation and industrial noise through reflective noise barriers is proposed and investigated in this study. The new solution combines the advantages of the known barriers and has its own advantages in addition. The preliminary results show a very good level of noise reduction for this type of barriers.

  3. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  4. PM 10 emission inventory of industrial and road transport vehicles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid development in industrial and road transportation sector in developing countries has contributing the environmental issue. Determining the estimated PM10 emission in Klang Valley, Malaysia is based on the best available resources. Emission of PM10 from both sources was estimated particularly from numbers of ...

  5. Assessment of ground-water flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer using geostatistical filtering and hydrocarbon fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, S.A. Jr.; Smith, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional environmental investigations at tidally influenced hazardous waste sites such as marine fuel storage terminals have generally failed to characterize ground-water flow and chemical transport because they have been based on only a cursory knowledge of plume geometry, chemicals encountered, and hydrogeologic setting and synoptic ground-water level measurement. Single-time observations cannot be used to accurately determine flow direction and gradient in tidally fluctuating aquifers since these measurements delineate hydraulic head at only one point in time during a tidal cycle, not the net effect of the fluctuations. In this study, a more rigorous approach was used to characterize flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer at a marine fuel storage terminal using: (1) ground-water-level monitoring over three tidal cycles (72 hours), (2) geostatistical filtering of ground-water-level data using 25-hour and 71-hour filtering methods, and (3) hydrocarbon fingerprinting analysis. The results from the study indicate that naphtha released from one of the on-site naphtha tanks has been the predominant contributor to the hydrocarbon plume both on-site and downgradient off-site and that net ground-water and hydrocarbon movement has been to the southeast away from the tank since 1989

  6. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS ON FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN FURNITURE INDUSTRY, A CASE STUDY IN BANTUL, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Soekamto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Supply Chain Management is a new philosophy encouraging internal and external integration which encompass all the aspects, from the supplier until down to the customers. Transportation plays a major role in achieving efficiency and effectiveness because the role of transportation in the Supply Chain is as the intermediary help to distribute the physical goods from one entity to another entity.  For this reason, the objective of this research is to analyse and measure the effectiveness and efficiency of inbound and outbound logistics in the furniture industry in Bantul, Yogyakarta. Firstly, the author will try to draw the supply chain mapping in order to gain more understanding about the entities in the supply chain.  Secondly, performance of the transportation modes that will be used to move the furniture will be assessed through questionnaire. Thirdly, the author will try to analyse the response if rail transportation is proposed as an alternative transportation mode to move the goods. Lastly, conclusion and recommendation regarding the issue will be derived as implied in the result from data analysis. Keywords: Supply chain management, transportation, performance, furniture industry.

  7. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  8. Multi-objective model of waste transportation management for crude palm oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Meslin; Mawengkang, Herman; Irsa Syahputri, Nenna

    2018-02-01

    The crude palm oil industry is an agro-industrial commodity. The global market of this industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years, such that it has a strategic value to be developed for Indonesian economy. Despite these economic benefits there are a number of environmental problems at the factories, such as high water consumption, the generation of a large amount of wastewater with a high organic content, and the generation of a large quantity of solid wastes and air pollution. In terms of waste transportation, we propose a multiobjective programming model for managing business environmental risk in a crude palm oil manufacture which gives the best possible configuration of waste management facilities and allocates wastes to these facilities. Then we develop an interactive approach for tackling logistics and environmental risk production planning problem for the crude palm oil industry.

  9. Adverse events during air and ground neonatal transport: 13 years' experience from a neonatal transport team in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Johannes; Olsson, Linn; Svensson, Amelie; Håkansson, Stellan

    2015-07-01

    To study the prevalence of adverse events (AEs) associated with neonatal transport, and to categorize, classify and assess the risk estimation of these events. Written comments in 1082 transport records during the period 1999-2011 were reviewed. Comments related to events that infringed on patient and staff safety were included as AEs, and categorized and further classified as complaint, imminent risk of incident/negative event, actual incident or actual negative event. AEs were also grouped into emergency or planned transports, and risk estimation was calculated according to a risk assessment tool and defined as low, intermediate, high or extreme risk. AEs (N = 883) were divided into five categories: logistics (n = 337), organization (n = 177), equipment (n = 165), vehicle (n = 129) and medical/nursing care (n = 75). Eighty-five percent of AEs were classified as incidents or negative events. The majority of AEs were estimated to be of low or intermediate risk in both planned and emergency transports. AEs estimated to be of high or extreme risk were significantly more frequent in emergency transports (OR = 10.1; 95% CI: 5.0-20.9; p transport, often related to imperfect transport logistics or equipment failure. AEs of high or extreme risk were more frequent in emergency transports.

  10. Association of Prehospital Mode of Transport With Mortality in Penetrating Trauma: A Trauma System-Level Assessment of Private Vehicle Transportation vs Ground Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandling, Michael W; Nathens, Avery B; Shapiro, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-02-01

    Time to definitive care following injury is important to the outcomes of trauma patients. Prehospital trauma care is provided based on policies developed by individual trauma systems and is an important component of the care of injured patients. Given a paucity of systems-level trauma research, considerable variability exists in prehospital care policies across trauma systems, potentially affecting patient outcomes. To evaluate whether private vehicle prehospital transport confers a survival advantage vs ground emergency medical services (EMS) transport following penetrating injuries in urban trauma systems. Retrospective cohort study of data included in the National Trauma Data Bank from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, comprising 298 level 1 and level 2 trauma centers that contribute data to the National Trauma Data Bank that are located within the 100 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Of 2 329 446 patients assessed for eligibility, 103 029 were included in this study. All patients were 16 years or older, had a gunshot wound or stab wound, and were transported by ground EMS or private vehicle. In-hospital mortality. Of the 2 329 446 records assessed for eligibility, 103 029 individuals at 298 urban level 1 and level 2 trauma centers were included in the analysis. The study population was predominantly male (87.6%), with a mean age of 32.3 years. Among those included, 47.9% were black, 26.3% were white, and 18.4% were Hispanic. Following risk adjustment, individuals with penetrating injuries transported by private vehicle were less likely to die than patients transported by ground EMS (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.31-0.47). This association remained statistically significant on stratified analysis of the gunshot wound (OR,  0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.56) and stab wound (OR,  0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.52) subgroups. Private vehicle transport is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of death when compared with

  11. Marine spill response planning for the non-persistent oil transportation industry in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Egland, L.

    1998-01-01

    The unique difficulties that face oil spill response planning for the oil transportation industry in Alaska were discussed. Three levels of response strategies and actions proposed by the Alaska Petroleum Distributors and Transporters (APD and T) member companies were reviewed. They were: (1) immediate response (on-board resources), (2) in-region response (caches in Subareas), and (3) out-of-region cascaded resources (from Anchorage and other sources). The strategies and levels of capability were proposed as emergency measures in addition to the more important prevention measures already instituted to prevent discharges of non-persistent oil. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  12. Optimizing the design of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, H.; Itoi, R.; Fujii, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Earth Resources Engineering; Uchida, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    In order to predict the long-term performance of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems, it is necessary to take into consideration well-to-well interference, especially in the presence of groundwater flow. A mass and heat transport model was developed to simulate the behavior of this type of system in the Akita Plain, northern Japan. The model was used to investigate different operational schemes and to maximize the heat extraction rate from the GCHP system. (author)

  13. Update of super-speed ground transportation technology development status and performance capabilities. CIGGT report No. 89-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, W F

    1990-01-01

    This report presents an update of the Phase II assessment of development status and performance capabilities for four candidate super-speed ground transportation system alternatives for the Las Vegas-Southern California corridor. The four alternatives considered are the TGV wheel-on-rail technology, the Transrapid TR- 07 long-stator Electromagnetic Maglev (EMS) technology, the Japan Railways MLU Electrodynamic Maglev (EDS) technology, and the HSST Corp. HSST-400 short-stator Electromagnetic Maglev technology.

  14. Previsional evaluation of risks associated with ground transportation of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Tomachevsky, E.

    1987-11-01

    This communication is a concrete example of application of the evaluation method for risks associated with road transportation of uranium hexafluoride by 48Y shipping container. The statistical bases for UF6 transportation are given by analysis of the list of accidents for dangerous road transportation. This study examines all parameters (cost-safety-meteorology-radiation doses) to take in account in the safety analysis of the UF6 transportation between Pierrelatte and Le Havre [fr

  15. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Helicopter Versus Ground Emergency Medical Services for Trauma Scene Transport in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M. Kit; Staudenmayer, Kristan L.; Wang, N. Ewen; Spain, David A.; Weir, Sharada; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We determined the minimum mortality reduction that helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) should provide relative to ground EMS for the scene transport of trauma victims to offset higher costs, inherent transport risks, and inevitable overtriage of minor injury patients. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model to compare the costs and outcomes of helicopter versus ground EMS transport to a trauma center from a societal perspective over a patient's lifetime. We determined the mortality reduction needed to make helicopter transport cost less than $100,000 and $50,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared to ground EMS. Model inputs were derived from the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT), National Trauma Data Bank, Medicare reimbursements, and literature. We assessed robustness with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results HEMS must provide a minimum of a 17% relative risk reduction in mortality (1.6 lives saved/100 patients with the mean characteristics of the NSCOT cohort) to cost less than $100,000 per QALY gained and a reduction of at least 33% (3.7 lives saved/100 patients) to cost less than $50,000 per QALY. HEMS becomes more cost-effective with significant reductions in minor injury patients triaged to air transport or if long-term disability outcomes are improved. Conclusions HEMS needs to provide at least a 17% mortality reduction or a measurable improvement in long-term disability to compare favorably to other interventions considered cost-effective. Given current evidence, it is not clear that HEMS achieves this mortality or disability reduction. Reducing overtriage of minor injury patients to HEMS would improve its cost-effectiveness. PMID:23582619

  17. Decentralized Transactions in a Centralized Environment : A Blockchain Study Within the Transport Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The blockchain technology constitutes a domain where significant research is done. The technology revolutionized the world through the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, and since then new applications of the technology have emerged. One of the applications is to represent real assets as digital assets on a blockchain, so called smart-property. In this thesis a smart-property solution is utilized to address creditworthiness issues within the transport industry. A Proof-of-Concept (PoC) is implemented us...

  18. Energized CO{sub 2} dry ice blast cleaning firmly grounded in the Canadian electrical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, K.

    1999-02-01

    Development and use of energized carbon dioxide dry ice blast technology for cleaning electrical distribution system components by Oakville Hydro and Milton Hydro (both in Ontario) is discussed. The technology was developed by Alpheus Cleaning Technologies of California and Puget Sound Power and Light Company after a two-year study that commenced in 1991, and has been supplied in Canada by Wickens Industrial Ltd., since 1993 for cleaning various industrial and non-energized electrical applications in the automotive, printing , food processing and other manufacturing industries and hydro generating facilities. The unique cleaning dynamics of this technology allow for the removal of contaminants that are much more stubborn than those encountered in pad-mounted switchgear and other electrical apparatus. Dry ice pellets, by expanding to 400 times their solid state on impact, create a flushing action that helps to remove contaminants. No grit or solvents are required and the process is non-toxic. In using the process workers wear fire retardant clothing, 40 kV-Class 4 rubber gloves and full face shields. Dielectric tests are performed routinely to confirm the dielectric integrity of the spray wand components. A two stage inspection/trouble report is completed on every job. Use of this technology eliminates power interruptions to customers, improves system reliability and safety, reduces cleaning time to a minimum, and eliminated the need for reclamation of grit or solvent containment.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY – DIMENSIONS AND ACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Stefanica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism and the increase in the number of travellers at the level of certain areas of touristic interest brings socio-economic benefits and also leads to the damaging of the quality of the environment. Transportation, as component of the tourism industry, has many side effects on the environment due to carbon dioxide emissions, pollution, etc. The work mainly emphasizes the way in which air, road, rail and water transportation influences the quality of the environment, contributing to global warming at the same time. Climate change, a consequence of global warming, is perhaps the biggest problem of the beginning of the millennium, representing one of the most prodigious forces that will affect the progress of humanity in the 21st century and later. In this sense, our paper tries to draw attention to the adaptation measures meant to diminish the vulnerability of climate change at the level of tourism, in general and transportation, in particular.

  20. Effects of Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground on the Seismic Response of Transportation Infrastructure Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This interdisciplinary project combined seismic data recorded at bridge sites with computer models to identify how highway bridges built on permanently and seasonally frozen ground behave during an earthquake. Two sites one in Anchorage and one in...

  1. First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R A; Gardiner, T D; Innocenti, F; Finlayson, A; Woods, P T; Few, J F M

    2014-08-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources is one of the main anthropogenic contributors to the greenhouse effect. Direct remote sensing of CO2 emissions using optical methods offers the potential for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. We report the development and demonstration of a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) able to measure the mass emission rate of CO2 in the plume from a power station. To our knowledge DIAL has not previously been successfully applied to the measurement of emission plumes of CO2 from industrial sources. A significant challenge in observing industrial CO2 emission plumes is the ability to discriminate and observe localised concentrations of CO2 above the locally observed background level. The objectives of the study were to modify our existing mobile infrared DIAL system to enable CO2 measurements and to demonstrate the system at a power plant to assess the feasibility of the technique for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. The results of this preliminary study showed very good agreement with the expected emissions calculated by the site. The detection limit obtained from the measurements, however, requires further improvement to provide quantification of smaller emitters of CO2, for example for the detection of fugitive emissions. This study has shown that in principle, remote optical sensing technology will have the potential to provide useful direct data on CO2 mass emission rates.

  2. Computer-model analysis of ground-water flow and simulated effects of contaminant remediation at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rene A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2000-01-01

    In June 1993, the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command (SOUTHDIV), began a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP) in north-central Texas. The RFI has found trichloroethene, dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, as well as chromium, lead, and other metallic residuum in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying NWIRP. These findings and the possibility of on-site or off-site migration of contaminants prompted the need for a ground-water-flow model of the NWIRP area. The resulting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model: (1) defines aquifer properties, (2) computes water budgets, (3) delineates major flowpaths, and (4) simulates hydrologic effects of remediation activity. In addition to assisting with particle-tracking analyses, the calibrated model could support solute-transport modeling as well as help evaluate the effects of potential corrective action. The USGS model simulates steadystate and transient conditions of ground-water flow within a single model layer.The alluvial aquifer is within fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, which unconformably overlie the relatively impermeable Eagle Ford Shale of Late Cretaceous age. Over small distances and short periods, finer grained parts of the aquifer are separated hydraulically; however, most of the aquifer is connected circuitously through randomly distributed coarser grained sediments. The top of the underlying Eagle Ford Shale, a regional confining unit, is assumed to be the effective lower limit of ground-water circulation and chemical contamination.The calibrated steady-state model reproduces long-term average water levels within +5.1 or –3.5 feet of those observed; the standard error of the estimate is 1.07 feet with a mean residual of 0.02 foot. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.75 to 7.5 feet per day, and average about 4 feet per day. Specific yield values range from 0

  3. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model For Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kelkar; H. Viswanathan; A. Eddebbarrh; M. Ding; P. Reimus; B. Robinson; B. Arnold; A. Meijer

    2006-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated Kd distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions for colloid filtration. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from 14 C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficient and matrix diffusion coefficients. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters

  4. On-line NIR analysis of fat, water and protein in industrial scale ground meat batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøgersen, G; Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Bakker, E A; Hildrum, K I

    1999-01-01

    Fat, water and protein contents in industrial scale meat batches were determined on-line by near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. The NIR instrument was mounted at the outlet of a large meat grinder, and the measurements were performed in an industrial environment. Beef and pork samples, with chemical compositions of 7-26% fat, 58-75% water and 15-21% protein, were processed with hole diameters of 13mm in the grinder plate. Calibrations were made both for a combined set of beef and pork samples, and for separate sets of beef and pork samples. Validations were either done by full cross validation of the calibration set, or by bias corrected prediction of a test set. Prediction errors for the two sample sets, expressed as root mean square errors of cross validation or standard error of prediction, were in the ranges 0.82-1.49% fat, 0.94-1.33% water and 0.35-0.70% protein, depending of sample set and species of animal. The presented application is an improvement to the existing manual meat standardisation procedure, and has been implemented for regular use in a Norwegian meat manufacturing plant.

  5. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  6. Strategic Transport Management Models—The Case Study of an Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Dimić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the need to preserve the environment and establish sustainable development evolved as the result of the development of the world economy and society. Transport plays a very important role in this process. It is recognized as one of the main factors in sustainable development strategy. Strategic transport management model is presented in this paper. It represents a comprehensive and complete strategic management process, beginning from the strategic analysis, then strategy formulation and its implementation to strategic control. What makes this model specific is the development of its phases using contemporary strategic management methods and MCDM (Multicriteria Decision Making techniques. In this way, subjectivity is avoided and the decision-making process is impartial. To formulate sustainable transport strategy, the authors use a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats and the fuzzy Delphi method as the basis to evaluate impact factors. Fuzzy SWOT analysis is applied to formulate strategic options and the selection of optimal option is realized through DEMATEL (Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory-based ANP (Analytic Network Process. The strategic transport management model is applied to Serbian Oil Industry (NIS as a company engaged in the production and transport of oil and oil derivatives. The results presented in this paper have shown that this model can be successfully implemented in profit organizations. It also can be used to formulate strategies on the basis of scientific principles and create conditions for successful sustainable strategies implementation.

  7. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2017-07-01

    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (Pproblems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Instilling safety culture in the passenger rail transport industry within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulumane (John Maluleke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has two major rail operators that constitute the rail transport industry. These are Transnet Freight Rail (TFR, which operates freight and the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA. Although the Railway Safety Regulator (2011:29 reported the year on year declining trend of collisions, the main concern is that the costs incurred for each year’s incidents is escalating. This article is concerned with the declining safety standards of these operators as evidenced by 742 collisions recorded during the 2011/2012 financial year for both operators. The focus is mainly on collisions during the movement of rolling stock within the PRASA environment. The analysis of the occurrences is narrowed down, with the emphasis on the province of Gauteng. In the analysis of the causes of these collisions, the problems that led to the root causes of these collisions is reported. Of critical importance is that every transport operator is faced with the challenges of how to effectively respond to the basic transport needs and requirements of the travelling public. The transport users’ need is to travel between the two geographical points. During the journey between these geographical points, the operator has safety and security requirements and must provide a reliable, accessible and affordable transport system. As the travelling public becomes more affluent, the transport needs become open ended and require much more rational public choices. The rail transport system remains a vital or indispensable business sector of the economy. By investing in new technology, rolling stock and infrastructure, we woud see an increase in innovation, competitiveness, and an elevated standard of living.

  9. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Norford, Leslie K.; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Entekhabi, Dara

    2012-02-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street canyon of aspect ratio 2 and 0.5, while only the street canyon of aspect ratio 0.5 showed a change in flow regime (from wake interference flow to skimming flow). The street canyon of aspect ratio 1 does not show any significant change in the flow field. Ground heating generated strong mixing of heat and pollutant; the normalized temperature inside street canyons was approximately spatially uniform and somewhat insensitive to the aspect ratio and heating intensity. This study helps elucidate the combined effects of urban geometry and thermal stratification on the urban canyon flow and pollutant dispersion.

  10. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  11. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails

  12. Ground based measurements of particulate emissions from supersonic transports. Concorde olympus engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitefield, Ph D; Hagen, D E [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H V [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The application of a mobile aerosol monitoring facility, the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (MASS) is described to characterize engine aerosol emissions from the Rolls Royce Olympus Engine. The multi-configurational MASS has been employed in both ground and airborne field operations. It has been successfully flown on research aircrafts. In ground tests the MASS has participated in numerous jet engine related ground tests, and has been deployed to resolve aerosol generation problems in a high power chemical laser system. In all cases the measurements were made on samples taken from a harsh physical and chemical environment, with both high and low temperature and pressure, and in the presence of highly reactive gases. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  13. Ground based measurements of particulate emissions from supersonic transports. Concorde olympus engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitefield, Ph.D.; Hagen, D.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The application of a mobile aerosol monitoring facility, the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (MASS) is described to characterize engine aerosol emissions from the Rolls Royce Olympus Engine. The multi-configurational MASS has been employed in both ground and airborne field operations. It has been successfully flown on research aircrafts. In ground tests the MASS has participated in numerous jet engine related ground tests, and has been deployed to resolve aerosol generation problems in a high power chemical laser system. In all cases the measurements were made on samples taken from a harsh physical and chemical environment, with both high and low temperature and pressure, and in the presence of highly reactive gases. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  14. Health initiatives to target obesity in surface transport industries: Review and implications for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Naweed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle-related chronic diseases pose a considerable burden to the individual and the wider society, with correspondingly negative effects on industry. Obesity is a particular problem for the Australasian road and rail industries where it is associated with specific cardiac and fatigue-related safety risks, and levels are higher than those found in the general population. Despite this recognition, and the introduction of National Standards, very little consensus exists regarding approaches to preventative health for surface transport workers. A review of evidence regarding effective health promotion initiatives is urgently needed to inform best practice in this cohort. This review draws together research informing the scope and effectiveness of health promotion programs, initiatives and interventions targeting overweight and obesity in safety critical surface transport domains including the truck, bus and rail industries. A number of health interventions demonstrated measurable successes, including incentivising, peer mentoring, verbal counselling, development of personalised health profiles, and offer of healthier on-site food choices – some of which also resulted in sizeable return on investment over the long term.

  15. Consistent treatment of ground deposition together with species growth and decay during atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.D.; Nelson, C.B.; Ohr, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the adaptation of a trajectory model to an initial pollutant species and a series of successor species at mesoscale distances. The effect of source height is discussed since it is important in determining close-in ground level concentration, which influences plume depletion due to dry deposition. A scheme is outlined which handles deposition and species decay in a consistent manner and which does so for an arbitrary number of successor pollutant species. This scheme is discussed in terms of a Lagrangian trajectory model which accounts for initial source height and which calculates ground-level concentrations out to mesoscale distances

  16. Evaluation of select trade-offs between ground-water remediation and waste minimization for petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, C.D.; McTernan, W.F.; Willett, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation comparing environmental remediation alternatives and attendant costs for a hypothetical refinery site located in the Arkansas River alluvium was completed. Transport from the land's surface to and through the ground water of three spill sizes was simulated, representing a base case and two possible levels of waste minimization. Remediation costs were calculated for five alternative remediation options, for three possible regulatory levels and alternative site locations, for four levels of technology improvement, and for eight different years. It is appropriate from environmental and economic perspectives to initiate significant efforts and expenditures that are necessary to minimize the amount and type of waste produced and disposed during refinery operations; or conversely, given expected improvements in technology, is it better to wait until remediation technologies improve, allowing greater environmental compliance at lower costs? The present work used deterministic models to track a light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) spill through the unsaturated zone to the top of the water table. Benzene leaching from LNAPL to the ground water was further routed through the alluvial aquifer. Contaminant plumes were simulated over 50 yr of transport and remediation costs assigned for each of the five treatment options for each of these years. The results of these efforts show that active remediation is most cost effective after a set point or geochemical quasi-equilibrium is reached, where long-term improvements in technology greatly tilt the recommended option toward remediation. Finally, the impacts associated with increasingly rigorous regulatory levels present potentially significant penalties for the remediation option, but their likelihood of occurrence is difficult to define

  17. Impact of agricultural and industrial activities on ground water quality in Kasur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasneem, M.A.; Latif, Z.; Butt, S.; Afzal, M.; Ali, M.; Afzal, M.; Khan, I.H.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of agricultural and industrial activities on groundwater quality. Kasur area was selected to study the influence of chemical fertilizers and tannery effluents on groundwater with the help of /sup 15/N of water nitrates. Bremner and keeney methods with certain modifications ware adopted for extraction of nitrate nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions. Ammonium concentrates were converted to nitrogen gas using potassium hypo bromide solution and analyzed on GD-150 mass spectrometer. /sup 15/N of nitrates from groundwater (n=14), pond water and Kisan urea were determined. There is a pronounced difference in the /sup 15/N values of nitrates from various sources. /sup 15/N of pond water (mixture of tannery effluents, sewerage and rainwater) was found to be +31.99% and +21.26% for the first and the second samplings respectively. /sup 15/N of Kisan urea sample was determined to be - 1.00%. The nitrate concentration of groundwater ranged from 1-171 ppm and / sup 15/N was found to be -0.40 to WHO permissible limits (45 ppm). Temporal variation was also observed but the values were still above the WHO limits. It is concluded that the major source of nitrates pollution in the Kasur area is due to chemical fertilizers and +37.10%. Out of 14 drinking water samples six have nitrate contents above biological wastes but not due to the tannery effluents. (author)

  18. Green Logistics in South Africa : A study of the managerial perceptions in the road transportation industry in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sandén Gustafsson, Henrik; Göransson, Hampus

    2014-01-01

    The role of logistics has, over the last decade, evolved into a significant determinant in the operations of businesses. Increased efficiency and reduced operational costs can be established through a well-operated transportation system. Due to societies increased awareness for environmental issues, the logistics industry has been affected, which has led to a demand for development. Therefore, the concept of green logistics has become more common in the transportation industry. However, in So...

  19. Earth sciences contribution to the safe development of ground transportation systems in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Kouteva, M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper looks at land transport safety aspects paying main attention to natural disaster analysis in the context of the Central European Initiative. It highlights mainly seismicity issues and proposes to build a geodynamic model as a crucial necessity. This model combined with credible hazard scenarios, and with seismic microzonation studies represent the base for the realistic definition, including the energetic aspects, of the peak perturbations that can be experienced by different transportation systems

  20. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  1. Profit, productivity, and price differential: an international performance comparison of the natural gas transportation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Dong Lee; Sung-Bae Park; Tai-Yoo Kim

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of natural gas transportation utilities, focusing on the three-key strategic performance measures of profit, productivity, and price differential. We propose a methodology that expresses the three performance measures in a unified single equation using the Edgeworth index. The proposed methodology is applied to an international comparison of the performance of 28 natural gas transportation utilities operating in eight countries in which the business environments differ greatly. The empirical results show the possible causes of performance differences and may shed some light on the direction of regulatory policy, especially for developing countries that have relatively short histories in the natural gas industry, such as Korea. (author)

  2. Risk-based approach in valuation of workplace injury rate for transportation and construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pykhtin, Kirill; Simankina, Tatiana; Sharmanov, Vladimir; Kopytova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The danger of injuries and accidents in various industries such as transportation and construction urges the government to control the occupational health and safety more strictly. However, in order to do so with the minimal costs modern risk management tools, have to be implemented. Risk-based approach is an essential tool for competent risk- assessment and used in a great variety of other countries, demonstrating great results in providing of safe working environment. The article describes the problems that the implementation of the method faces in Russia and suggests certain ways to resolve them.

  3. Industrial & Engineering Systems Career Cluster ITAC for Career-Focused Education: Transportation Sub-Cluster. Integrated Technical & Academic Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Designed for Ohio educators responsible for planning programs to prepare high school students for careers in transportation, this document presents an overview of Ohio's Integrated Technical and Academic Competencies (ITAC) system of career-focused education and specific information about the transportation subcluster of the industrial and…

  4. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the maintenance of industrial transport and handling equipment

    CERN Document Server

    European Organization for Nuclear Research

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the maintenance of industrial transport and handling equipment. Following a market survey carried out among 145 firms in sixteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3049/ST) was sent on 8 May 2002 to two firms and four consortia, one consortium consisting of three firms and three consortia consisting of two firms, in three Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders from six consortia in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium CEGELEC (FR), SPIE-TRINDEL (FR), ELECTRON (NL) and FENWICK-LINDE (FR), the lowest bidder after alignment, for the maintenance of industrial transport and handling equipment for a total amount of 2 973 280 euros (4 346 900 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of three years starting on 1 October 2002, subject to revision for inflation from 1 October 2005. The contract will include an option for two further one-year extensions beyond t...

  6. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Libo; Huo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  7. Conference delegate package of the oilfield transportation conference and trade show: steering the industry into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The transportation component of the petroleum service industry was the focus of this conference. The human factors that play a role in oilfield trucking accidents were discussed. The industry has set standards and has taken the initiative to establish training programs in which basic criteria for transporting dangerous goods will be met. The principal themes addressed by the conference included an overall approach to industry compliance, new technologies, minimum safety requirements, forming partnerships with the Workers' Compensation Board, drug and alcohol policies and testing, oilfield driver training program, and risk management of human capital

  8. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

    2014-05-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

  9. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  10. Harvesting and transport operations to optimise biomass supply chain and industrial biorefinery processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Matindi

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, Bioenergy plays an important role in modern power systems, where many biomass resources provide greenhouse gas neutral and electricity at a variety of scales. By 2050, the Biomass energy is projected to have a 40-50 % share as an alternative source of energy. In addition to conversion of biomass, barriers and uncertainties in the production, supply may hinder biomass energy development. The sugarcane is an essential ingredient in the production of Bioenergy, across the whole spectrum ranging from the first generation to second generation, e.g., production of energy from the lignocellulosic component of the sugarcane initially regarded as waste (bagasse and cane residue. Sustainable recovery of the Lignocellulosic component of sugarcane from the field through a structured process is largely unknown and associated with high capital outlay that have stifled the growth of bioenergy sector. In this context, this paper develops a new scheduler to optimise the recovery of lignocellulosic component of sugarcane and cane, transport and harvest systems with reducing the associated costs and operational time. An Optimisation Algorithm called Limited Discrepancy Search has been adapted and integrated with the developed scheduling transport algorithms. The developed algorithms are formulated and coded by Optimization Programming Language (OPL to obtain the optimised cane and cane residues transport schedules. Computational experiments demonstrate that high-quality solutions are obtainable for industry-scale instances. To provide insightful decisions, sensitivity analysis is conducted in terms of different scenarios and criteria.

  11. Helicopter vs. ground transportation of patients bound for primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Rasmussen, L S; Siersma, V

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation of the first Danish helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) was associated with reduced time from first medical contact to treatment at a specialized centre for patients with suspected ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to investigate effects of HEMS...... was 22.1% (HEMS) vs. 21.2% (adjusted OR = 1.10, 0.64-1.90, P = 0.73). CONCLUSION: In an observational study of patients with suspected STEMI in eastern Denmark, no significant beneficial effect of helicopter transport could be detected on mortality, premature labour market exit or work ability. Only...... a study with random allocation to one system vs. another, along with a large sample size, will allow determination of superiority of helicopter transport....

  12. Uncertainty characteristics of EPA's ground-water transport model for low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Man-Sung

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment is an essential step either in design or in licensing processes to ensure the safety of any proposed radioactive waste disposal facilities. Since performance assessment requires the use of computer codes, understanding the characteristics of computer models used and the uncertainties of the estimated results is important. The PRESTO-EPA code, which was the basis of the Environmental Protection Agency's analysis for low-level-waste rulemaking, is widely used for various performance assessment activities in the country with no adequate information available for the uncertainty characteristics of the results. In this study, the groundwater transport model PRESTO-EPA was examined based on the analysis of 14 C transport along with the investigation of uncertainty characteristics

  13. Modelling of an industrial environment, part 1.: Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Meckbach, R.; Voigt, G.

    2002-01-01

    After a nuclear accident releasing radioactive material into the environment the external exposures may contribute significantly to the radiation exposure of the population (UNSCEAR 1988, 2000). For urban populations the external gamma exposure from radionuclides deposited on the surfaces of the urban-industrial environments yields the dominant contributions to the total dose to the public (Kelly 1987; Jacob and Meckbach 1990). The radiation field is naturally influenced by the environment around the sources. For calculations of the shielding effect of the structures in complex and realistic urban environments Monte Carlo methods turned out to be useful tools (Jacob and Meckbach 1987; Meckbach et al. 1988). Using these methods a complex environment can be set up in which the photon transport can be solved on a reliable way. The accuracy of the methods is in principle limited only by the knowledge of the atomic cross sections and the computational time. Several papers using Monte Carlo results for calculating doses from the external gamma exposures were published (Jacob and Meckbach 1987, 1990; Meckbach et al. 1988; Rochedo et al. 1996). In these papers the Monte Carlo simulations were run in urban environments and for different photon energies. The industrial environment can be defined as such an area where productive and/or commercial activity is carried out. A good example can be a factory or a supermarket. An industrial environment can rather be different from the urban ones as for the types and structures of the buildings and their dimensions. These variations will affect the radiation field of this environment. Hence there is a need to run new Monte Carlo simulations designed specially for the industrial environments

  14. Simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Glen Canyon aquifer, East-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.; Stolp, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of methane from coal beds in the Ferron coal trend in central Utah started in the mid-1980s. Beginning in 1994, water from the extraction process was pressure injected into the Glen Canyon aquifer. The lateral extent of the aquifer that could be affected by injection is about 7,600 square miles. To address regional-scale effects of injection over a decadal time frame, a conceptual model of ground-water movement and transport of dissolved solids was formulated. A numerical model that incorporates aquifer concepts was then constructed and used to simulate injection.The Glen Canyon aquifer within the study area is conceptualized in two parts—an active area of ground-water flow and solute transport that exists between recharge areas in the San Rafael Swell and Desert, Waterpocket Fold, and Henry Mountains and discharge locations along the Muddy, Dirty Devil, San Rafael, and Green Rivers. An area of little or negligible ground-water flow exists north of Price, Utah, and beneath the Wasatch Plateau. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water occurs in this area where dissolved-solids concentrations can be more than 100,000 milligrams per liter. Injection has the potential to increase hydrologic interaction with the active flow area, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally less than 3,000 milligrams per liter.Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water in 1994 initiated a net addition of flow and mass of solutes into the Glen Canyon aquifer. To better understand the regional scale hydrologic interaction between the two areas of the Glen Canyon aquifer, pressurized injection was numerically simulated. Data constraints precluded development of a fully calibrated simulation; instead, an uncalibrated model was constructed that is a plausible representation of the conceptual flow and solute-transport processes. The amount of injected water over the 36-year simulation period is about 25,000 acre-feet. As a result

  15. A Decolorization Technique with Spent “Greek Coffee” Grounds as Zero-Cost Adsorbents for Industrial Textile Wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the decolorization of industrial textile wastewaters was studied in batch mode using spent “Greek coffee” grounds (COF) as low-cost adsorbents. In this attempt, there is a cost-saving potential given that there was no further modification of COF (just washed with distilled water to remove dirt and color, then dried in an oven). Furthermore, tests were realized both in synthetic and real textile wastewaters for comparative reasons. The optimum pH of adsorption was acidic (pH = 2) for synthetic effluents, while experiments in free pH (non-adjusted) were carried out for real effluents. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) models. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) for total dye (reactive) removal at 25 °C was 241 mg/g (pH = 2) and 179 mg/g (pH = 10). Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated (ΔH0, ΔG0, ΔS0). Kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-first, -second and -third order model. The optimum pH for desorption was determined, in line with desorption and reuse analysis. Experiments dealing the increase of mass of adsorbent showed a strong increase in total dye removal.

  16. Radon transport model into a porous ground layer of finite capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parovik, Roman

    2017-10-01

    The model of radon transfer is considered in a porous ground layer of finite power. With the help of the Laplace integral transformation, a numerical solution of this model is obtained which is based on the construction of a generalized quadrature formula of the highest degree of accuracy for the transition to the original - the function of solving this problem. The calculated curves are constructed and investigated depending on the diffusion and advection coefficients.The work was a mathematical model that describes the effect of the sliding attachment (stick-slip), taking into account hereditarity. This model can be regarded as a mechanical model of earthquake preparation. For such a model was proposed explicit finite- difference scheme, on which were built the waveform and phase trajectories hereditarity effect of stick-slip.

  17. Digestion of biogenic wastes from households, industry and wastes harvested on public grounds. Vergaerung biogener Abfaelle aus Haushalt, Industrie und Landschaftspflege; Schlussbericht: Band A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The mass and biogas potentials of organic municipal and industrial solid wastes, as well as of wastes harvested on public grounds, have been determined. The mass potential was found to be around 285'000 tons of digestible organic matter per year. By digesting all this matter, theoretically, about 130'000'000 m[sup 3] of biogas or 3 PJ of energy could be generated yearly. The practical realizable potential is estimated to be nearly 2 PJ/a, including the savings by substituting the energy needed nowadays for the importation of peat and for the production of artificial fertilizers. Considering the fact, that the incineration of organic wastes costs more than biological treatment, the potential is relatively easy to realize. More than 50% of the humus losses of Swiss soils could be compensated by the application of digestion and composting technology. The different technologies for anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes are compared: the thermophilic, one-stage digestion seems to be further advanced in development than (mesophilic) two-stage digestion. Co-digestion of sludges of municipal waste water treatment plants and solid organic wastes may be advantageous for rural areas. An appropriate marketing strategy for the application of the solid product, however, has to be looked at. Because the two-stage process seems to have some advantages regarding the rate of organic matter breakdown, the product quality and the hygienic conditions, a mesophilic two-stage experimental plant has been constructed. The results of the first experiment of a simple combination of a percolated hydrolytic step with a pulsating, dynamic anaerobic filter are presented. Data on the quality of the solid product from anaerobic digestion of biogenic solid wastes are given. (author) 9 figs., 11 tabs., 75 refs.

  18. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  19. Issues of geothermal and biomass energy efficiency in agriculture, industry, transports and domestic consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy efficiency should be a concern for both the firm managers and any leader at any level, given that energy efficiency significantly reduce production costs. An important aspect of this is the use of renewable energy sources, in different types of activities, depending on the possibilities to produce it on favorable terms, to supply at relatively low costs and to efficiently consume it both in the producing units and the households. A skilful and powerful leader will seek and support, through its influence, all the means that determine the reduction of the production costs and obtain a profit as high as possible. Wider use of renewable energy promotes concern for the environment through clean energy, for reducing pollution and for facilitate, in some cases, even the increase of the production with the same costs or lower costs. In agriculture, industry, transports and household consumption, a high importance presents the geothermal energy and the biomass as source of energy.

  20. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for transport and handling services

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an industrial support contract for transport and handling services. Following a market survey carried out among 49 firms in nine Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2395/ST/Revised) was sent on 7 April 1999 to two firms and six consortia in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium DELATTRE-LEVIVIER (FR) ? BELLELI (IT) ? SETROVA (PT) the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for an initial period of three years, from 1st May 2000, for a total amount not exceeding 22 000 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 30 April 2003. The contract will include an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  1. Radiation transport in earth for neutron and gamma ray point sources above an air-ground interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-03-01

    Two-dimensional discrete ordinates methods were used to calculate the instantaneous dose rate in silicon and neutron and gamma ray fluences as a function of depth in earth from point sources at various heights (1.0, 61.3, and 731.5 meters) above an air--ground interface. The radiation incident on the earth's surface was transported through an earth-only and an earth--concrete model containing 0.9 meters of borated concrete beginning 0.5 meters below the earth's surface to obtain fluence distributions to a depth of 3.0 meters. The inclusion of borated concrete did not significantly reduce the total instantaneous dose rate in silicon and, in all cases, the secondary gamma ray fluence and corresponding dose are substantially larger than the primary neutron fluence and corresponding dose for depths greater than 0.6 meter. 4 figures, 4 tables

  2. Uranium-series isotopes transport in surface, vadose and ground waters at San Marcos uranium bearing basin, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo Montúfar, Juan Carlos; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Reyes Cortés, Ignacio Alfonso; Espino Valdez, Ma. Socorro; Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio Raúl; Nevárez Ronquillo, Diana Pamela; Herrera Peraza, Eduardo; Rentería Villalobos, Marusia; Montero Cabrera, María Elena

    2012-01-01

    In the U deposit area at San Marcos in Chihuahua, Mexico, hydrogeological and climatic conditions are very similar to the Nopal I, Peña Blanca U deposit, 50 km away. The physicochemical parameters and activity concentrations of several 238 U-series isotopes have been determined in surface, vadose and ground waters at San Marcos. The application of some published models to activity ratios of these isotopes has allowed assessing the order of magnitude of transport parameters in the area. Resulting retardation factors in San Marcos area are R f238 ≈ 250–14,000 for the unsaturated zone and ≈110–1100 for the saturated zone. The results confirm that the mobility of U in San Marcos is also similar to that of the Nopal I U deposit and this area can be considered as a natural analog of areas suitable for geologic repositories of high-level nuclear waste.

  3. Radiation transport in earth for neutron and gamma-ray point sources above an air-ground interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Santoro, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional discrete-ordinates methods have been used to calculate the instantaneous dose rate in silicon and neutron and gamma-ray fluences as a function of depth in earth from point sources at various heights (1.0, 61.3, and 731.5 m) above an air-ground interface. The radiation incident on the earth's surface was transported through an earth-only and an earth-concrete model containing 0.9 m of borated concrete beginning 0.5 m below the earth's surface to obtain fluence distributions to a depth of 3.0 m. The inclusion of borated concrete did not significantly reduce the total instantaneous dose rate in silicon, and in all cases, the secondary gamma-ray fluence and corresponding dose are substantially larger than the primary neutron fluence and corresponding dose for depths > 0.6 m

  4. Towards A Genetic Business Code For Growth in the South African Transport Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Vermeulen

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available As with each living organism, it is proposed that an organisation possesses a genetic code. In the fast-changing business environment it would be invaluable to know what constitutes organisational growth and success in terms of such a code. To identify this genetic code a quantitative methodological framework, supplemented by a qualitative approach, was used and the views of top management in the Transport Industry were solicited. The Repertory Grid was used as the primary data-collection method. Through a phased data-analysis process an integrated profile of first- and second-order constructs, and opposite poles, was compiled. By utilising deductive and inductive strategies three strands of a Genetic Business Growth Code were identified, namely a Leadership Strand, Organisational Architecture Strand and Internal Orientation Strand. The study confirmed the value of a Genetic Business Code for growth in the Transport Industry. Opsomming Daar word voorgestel dat ’n organisasie, soos elke lewende organisme, oor ’n genetiese kode beskik. In die snelveranderende sake-omgewing sal dit onskatbaar wees om te weet wat organisasiegroei en –sukses veroorsaak. ’n Kwantitatiewe metodologie-raamwerk, aangevul deur ’n kwalitatiewe benadering is gebruik om hierdie genetiese kode te identifiseer, en die menings van topbestuur in die Vervoerbedryf is ingewin met behulp van die “Repertory Grid" as die vernaamste metode van data-insameling. ’n Geïntegreerde profiel van eerste- en tweedeordekonstrukte, met hulle teenoorgestelde pole, is opgestel. Drie stringe van ’n Genetiese Sakegroeikode, nl. ’n Leierskapstring, die Organisasieargitektuur-string en die Innerlike-ingesteldheidstring is geïdentifiseer deur deduktiewe en induktiewe strategieë te gebruik. Die studie bevestig die waarde van ’n Genetiese Sakekode vir groei in die Vervoerbedryf.

  5. Transport in arrays of submicron Josephson junctions over a ground plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Teressa Rae [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) arrays of Al islands linked by submicron Al/AlxOy/Al tunnel junctions were fabricated on an insulating layer grown on a ground plane. The arrays were cooled to temperatures as low as 20 mK where the Josephson coupling energy EJ of each junction and the charging energy EC of each island were much greater than the thermal energy kBT. The capacitance Cg between each island and the ground plane was much greater than the junction capacitance C. Two classes of arrays were studied. In the first class, the normal state tunneling resistance of the junctions was much larger than the resistance quantum for single electrons, RN>> RQe≡ h/e2 ~ 25.8 kΩ, and the islands were driven normal by an applied magnetic field such that EJ = 0 and the array was in the Coulomb blockade regime. The arrays were made on degenerately-doped Si, thermally oxidized to a thickness of approximately 100 nm. The current-voltage (I - V) characteristics of a 1D and a 2D array were measured and found to display a threshold voltage VT below which little current flows. In the second class of arrays, the normal state tunneling resistance of the junctions was close to the resistance quantum for Cooper pairs, RN≈RQ≡h/4e2≈6.45kΩ, such that EJ/EC≈1. The arrays were made on GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas approximately 100 nm below the surface. One array displayed superconducting behavior at low temperature. Two arrays displayed insulating behavior at low temperature, and the size of the Coulomb gap increased with increasing Rg.

  6. Ecological transport and radiation doses from ground water borne radioactive matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Bergstroem, U.; Evans, S.

    1978-12-01

    Turnover of radioactive matter entering the biosphere with ground water has been studied with regard to exposure and dose to critical groups and populations. The main alternatives considered for outflow of radioactive effluents to the biosphere are: outflow in a valley containing wells, outflow to a fresh-water lake, and outflow in a coastal region of the Baltic Sea. Mathematical models of a set of coupled ecosystems on local, regional- intermediate- and global levels have been used for calculations of doses. The intermediate system refers to the Baltic Sea. The mathematical analysis, based on first order kinetics for the exchange of matter in a system according to compartment principles, also includes products in decay chains, i.e. daughter nuclides generated by decay of nuclides under ecological cycling. The time dependent exposures have been studied for certain long-lived nuclides of radiological interest in waste from reprosessed fuel. Dose and dose commitment have been calculted for different release patterns comprising idealised episodes for outflow to the biosphere during short periods and outflow governed by constant leakage from a source on the border between geosphere and biosphere. (author)

  7. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  8. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, X. F.; Saunders, S. M.; Fan, S. J.; Zuo, H. C.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities - Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site downwind of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv), while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in situ production. The O3 production was in a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-limited regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2) on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO), were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of radioactive material transport in the nuclear industry in China over the past 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Wang, X.X.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is given of the transport of radioactive material in the nuclear industry in China over the past 30 years (1955-1985) (excluding Taiwan). During 1955-1985, the freight volume of packages of radioactive material was some 4.50x10 6 items. The total activity was about 4.64x10 5 TBq. The total transport distance was 2.10x10 8 km. The available results show that annual individual doses to transport workers are rather low. Much attention has been paid to the safe transport of the radioactive material. Hence, no accident with serious radiological effects on transport workers and the public has ever happened during the past 30 years. The paper also discusses how to strengthen the surveillance and administration, and the radiation protection of radioactive material transport, etc. (author)

  10. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  11. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  12. Adapting transport modes to supply chains classified by the uncertainty supply chain model: A case study at Manaus Industrial Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lucena Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses transport modes supporting Uncertainty Supply Chain Model (USCM in the case of Manaus Industrial Pole (PIM, an industrial cluster in the Brazilian Amazon that hosts six hundred factories with diverse logistics and supply chain managerial strategies. USCM (Lee, 2002; Fisher, 1997develops a dot matrix classification of the supply chains considering several attributes (e.g., agility, cost, security, responsiveness and argues that emergent economies industrial clusters, in the effort to keep attractiveness for technological frontier firms, need to adapt supply chain strategies according to USCM attributes. The paper takes a further step, discussing which transport modes are suitable to each supply chain classified at the USCM in PIM´s case. The research´s methods covered the use of PIM´s statistical official database (secondary data, interviews with the main logistical services providers of PIM and phone survey with a sample of firms (primary data. Findings confirm the theoretical argument that different supply chains will demand different transport modes running at the same time in the same industrial cluster (Oliveira, 2009. In the case of PIM, this implies investments on port and airport infrastructure and a strategic focus on air transport mode, due to (1 short life cycle of products, (2 distance from suppliers, (3 quick response to demand and (4 the fact that even PIM´s standard products use, in average, forty per cent of air transport at inbound logistics.

  13. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  14. Evaluation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Lompoc area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Daniel J.; Nash, David B.; Martin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the Lompoc area, especially in the Lompoc plain, is only marginally acceptable for most uses. Demand for ground water has increased for municipal use since the late 1950's and has continued to be high for irrigation on the Lompoc plain, the principal agricultural area in the Santa Ynez River basin. As use has increased, the quality of ground water has deteriorated in some areas of the Lompoc plain. The dissolved-solids concentration in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath most of the central and western plains has increased from less than 1,000 milligrams per liter in the 1940's to greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter in the 1960's. Dissolved- solids concentration have remained relatively constant since the 1960's. A three-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow in the Lompoc area and a two-dimensional finite-element model was used to simulate solute transport to gain a better understanding of the ground-water system and to evaluate the effects of proposed management plans for the ground-water basin. The aquifer system was simulated in the flow model as four horizontal layers. In the area of the Lompoc plain, the layers represent the shallow, middle, and main zones of the upper aquifer, and the lower aquifer. For the Lompoc upland and Lompoc terrace, the four layers represent the lower aquifer. The solute transport model was used to simulate dissolved-solids transport in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath the Lompoc plain. The flow and solute-transport models were calibrated to transient conditions for 1941-88. A steady-state simulation was made to provide initial conditions for the transient-state simulation by using long-term average (1941-88) recharge rates. Model- simulated hydraulic heads generally were within 5 feet of measured heads in the main zone for transient conditions. Model-simulated dissolved- solids concentrations for the main zone generally differed less than 200milligrams

  15. Comparison of the energy efficiency to produce agroethanol between various industries and processes: The transport stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The different modes of transport used in the agroethanol industry and their energy efficiencies have been studied. Their specific consumption of fuels t trans in MJ (t load km) -1 is assessed from raw data and from friction force laws. t trans depends on the mode characteristics, fuel/engine performance, velocity, geometry, total mass, actual load... Lack of precision on them increases the uncertainty on t trans (variation by a factor up to 8 for pipeline depending on the flow velocity). From t trans is deduced the consumption of the mode in the industry R trans in J for 100 J of the energy content of ethanol E etoh produced from the load. R trans takes also into account the distance of shipment d and the weight of the load in E etoh , w load . Trucks, t trans from 7 to 1.4 MJ(t load .km) -1 , can present the best R trans, lower than 0.5 J for 100 J of ethanol, because of trips over small d (less than 100 km) and of low w load (less than 0.04 t load .GJ etoh -1 for farm inputs and ethanol). R trans of the plant transport to the factory by trucks ranges to 3 J due to larger w load (up to 0.56 t load .GJ etoh -1 for sugar cane). Large part of the ethanol is moved from the factory to the local storages over 1000 km more or less depending on the proximity of consumption centers. Efficient modes such as pipeline and sea ships, t trans as low as 0.05 MJ (t load .km) -1 when optimized, can compensate for these distances with R trans around 1 J. R trans to export ethanol from Brazil to France would represent less than 5 J, much lower than the difference of consumptions R between sugar cane and sugar beet based ethanol productions. -- Highlights: → Local and global consumption rates (t and R) to carry inputs, plants or agroethanol. → t in J per km and ton of shipment, and its dependences from data and friction laws. → t from 7 for light trucks to 0.05 MJ (t load .km) -1 for optimized pipe or ship. → R in J for 100 J ethanol from t, distance and mass of load for 100

  16. Type B package for the transport of large medical and industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Darrell Dwaine; Noss, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    AREVA Federal Services LLC, under contract to the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Offsite Source Recovery Project, is developing a new Type B(U)-96 package for the transport of unwanted or abandoned high activity gamma and neutron radioactive sealed sources (sources). The sources were used primarily in medical or industrial devices, and are of domestic (USA) or foreign origin. To promote public safety and mitigate the possibility of loss or misuse, the Offsite Source Recovery Project is recovering and managing sources worldwide. The package, denoted the LANL-B, is designed to accommodate the sources within an internal gamma shield. The sources are located either in the IAEA's Long Term Storage Shield (LTSS), or within intact medical or industrial irradiation devices. As the sources are already shielded separately, the package does not include any shielding of its own. A particular challenge in the design of the LANL-B has been weight. Since the LTSS shield weighs approximately 5,000 lb (2,270 kg), and the total package gross weight must be limited to 10,000 lb (4,540 kg), the net weight of the package was limited to 5,000 lb, for an efficiency of 50% (i.e., the payload weight is 50% of the gross weight of the package). This required implementation of a light-weight bell-jar concept, in which the containment takes the form of a vertical bell which is bolted to a base. A single impact limiter is used on the bottom, to protect the elastomer seals and bolted joint. A top-end impact is mitigated by the deformation of a tori spherically-shaped head. Impacts in various orientations on the bottom end are mitigated by a cylindrical, polyurethane foam-filled impact limiter. Internally, energy is absorbed using honeycomb blocks at each end, which fill the torispherical head volumes. As many of the sources are considered to be in normal form, the LANL-B package offers leak-tight containment using an elastomer seal at the joint between the bell and the base, as well as on the

  17. New technologies in Islamic countries. Power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharipova, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The published proceedings contain brief presentations concerning new technologies in power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies presented to the International scientific and technical conference: New technologies in Islamic countries, which was organized within frame work of 6 General Assembly of Federation of engineering Institutes of Islamic countries (FEIIC). (author)

  18. New technologies in Islamic countries. Power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharipova, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    This issue contains papers, which reflect the most important achievements of new technologies in power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies presented to the International Scientific and Technical Conference: New technologies in Islamic countries, which was organized within frame work of 6 General Assembly of Federation of Engineering Institutes of Islamic Countries (FEIIC). (author)

  19. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  20. Effect of high pressure on the ground state of low doped manganite: a neutron diffraction and transport property study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Barnali; Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Siruguri, V.; Chatterji, Tapan; Thomas, Hansen; Mukovskii, Ya.M.

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the doping level x the hole-doped perovskite manganites, like La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 exhibit a wide variety of physical properties. These compounds lead their high sensitivity to thermodynamic variables like temperature, magnetic field and pressure. The structure can be modified by application of high pressure and it can be quantitative that changes the Mn-O bond length and increases the Mn-O-Mn bond angle. In some cases the pressure can bring about qualitative changes in the structure like change in the lattice structure or its symmetry. These structural factors can contribute to the effective electron transfer integral between Mn ions, which in turn can change the magnetic exchanges like the double-exchange as well as the super exchange. For low hole doping (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.2), the low temperature ground state is Ferromagnetic insulator (FMI). The ground state of the low doped manganite La 0.79 Ca 0.21 MnO 3 (LCMO) can be destabilized by external hydrostatic pressure. We have done electrical transport measurement under magnetic field and under high pressure for understanding the nature of the resulting phase(s) that arise from the applied hydrostatic pressure. We find that the metallic phase so created under pressure has no appreciable magnetoresistance (MR). The Neutron powder diffraction measurement done on D20 diffractometer (λ=1.3Å) at ILL, Grenoble, France under high hydrostatic pressure up to 10GPa shows that the pressure leads to a change in the crystal structure from orthorhombic to rhombohedral and leading to a change in magnetic structure also; and most importantly collapse of the magnetic moment to a low value that leads to absence of any MR under pressure induced metallization. (author)

  1. Invariant protection of high-voltage electric motors of technological complexes at industrial enterprises at partial single-phase ground faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, B. N.; Sychev, Yu A.; Pelenev, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    Development results of invariant protection of high-voltage motors at incomplete single-phase ground faults are observed in the article. It is established that current protections have low action selectivity because of an inadmissible decrease in entrance signals during the shirt circuit occurrence in the place of transient resistance. The structural functional scheme and an algorithm of protective actions where correction of automatic zero sequence currents signals of the protected accessions implemented according to the level of incompleteness of ground faults are developed. It is revealed that automatic correction of zero sequence currents allows one to provide the invariance of sensitivity factor for protection under the variation conditions of a transient resistance in the place of damage. Application of invariant protection allows one to minimize damages in 6-10 kV electrical installations of industrial enterprises for a cause of infringement of consumers’ power supply and their system breakdown due to timely localization of emergency of ground faults modes.

  2. Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David; Herring, J. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation

  3. Long-range transport of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian region – A case study using satellite data and ground-based measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badarinath, K.V.S.; Kharol, S.K.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Sharma, A; Ramaswamy, V.; Kambezidis, H.D.

    The present study addresses an intense dust storm event over the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea (AS) region and its transport over the Indian subcontinent using multi-satellite observations and ground-based measurements. A time series of Indian...

  4. Comparative analysis of hydraulic crane-manipulating installations transport and technological machines and industrial robots hydraulic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of comparative analysis of hydraulic crane-manipulator installations of mobile transport and technological machines and hydraulic manipulators of industrial robots. The comparative analysis is based on consid-eration of a wide range of types and sizes indicated technical devices of both domestic and foreign production: 1580 structures of cranes and more than 450 structures of industrial robots. It was performed in the following areas: func-tional purpose and basic technical characteristics; a design; the loading conditions of the model and failures in operation process; approaches to the design, calculation methods and mathematical modeling. The conclusions about the degree of similarity and the degree of difference hydraulic crane-manipulator installations of transport and technological ma-chines and hydraulic industrial robot manipulators from the standpoint of their design and modeling occurring in them during operation of dynamic and structural processes.

  5. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  6. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  7. Evaluation of potential hazards presented by the nearby industrial environment and transportation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to define methods for determining risks created by potential hazards represented by the industrial environment and transportation routes in the vicinity of a PWR, in order to verify design criteria acceptability with regard to such hazards

  8. Evaluation of the matrix exponential for use in ground-water-flow and solute-transport simulations; theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, A.M.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to obtain analytic solutions to the groundwater flow and solute transport equations if space variables are discretized but time is left continuous. From these solutions, hydraulic head and concentration fields for any future time can be obtained without ' marching ' through intermediate time steps. This analytical approach involves matrix exponentiation and is referred to as the Matrix Exponential Time Advancement (META) method. Two algorithms are presented for the META method, one for symmetric and the other for non-symmetric exponent matrices. A numerical accuracy indicator, referred to as the matrix condition number, was defined and used to determine the maximum number of significant figures that may be lost in the META method computations. The relative computational and storage requirements of the META method with respect to the time marching method increase with the number of nodes in the discretized problem. The potential greater accuracy of the META method and the associated greater reliability through use of the matrix condition number have to be weighed against this increased relative computational and storage requirements of this approach as the number of nodes becomes large. For a particular number of nodes, the META method may be computationally more efficient than the time-marching method, depending on the size of time steps used in the latter. A numerical example illustrates application of the META method to a sample ground-water-flow problem. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Comparative economic efficiency, operating costs and fuel consumption rates of freight transport modes between the largest industrial cities and seaports in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J (Wessel Pienaar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with aspects of efficiency within the five modes of freight transport, with special reference to the operating cost and fuel consumption rates between South Africa’s largest industrial cities and seaports. In particular, the paper deals with (a the opportunities that exist for the achievement of efficiency in freight transport; (b the subgroups of economies that can enhance efficiency attainment in the freight transport industry; (c prevailing cost structures, operating cost and fuel consumption rates within the five modes of freight transport; and (d the salient economic features of the freight transport market. The research approach and methodology combine (a a literature survey; (b empiric research, (c an analysis of the cost structures of freight transport operators from different modes of transport; and (d interviews conducted with specialists in the freight transport industry.

  10. Distribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef: Assessing the clustering intensity for an industrial-scale grinder and a low and localized initial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukiadis, Estelle; Bièche-Terrier, Clémence; Malayrat, Catherine; Ferré, Franck; Cartier, Philippe; Augustin, Jean-Christophe

    2017-06-05

    Undercooked ground beef is regularly implicated in food-borne outbreaks involving pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. The dispersion of bacteria during mixing processes is of major concern for quantitative microbiological risk assessment since clustering will influence the number of bacteria the consumers might get exposed to as well as the performance of sampling plans used to detect contaminated ground beef batches. In this study, batches of 25kg of ground beef were manufactured according to a process mimicking an industrial-scale grinding with three successive steps: primary grinding, mixing and final grinding. The ground beef batches were made with 100% of chilled trims or with 2/3 of chilled trims and 1/3 of frozen trims. Prior grinding, one beef trim was contaminated with approximately 10 6 -10 7 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 on a surface of 0.5cm 2 to reach a concentration of 10-100cells/g in ground beef. The E. coli O157:H7 distribution in ground beef was characterized by enumerating 60 samples (20 samples of 5g, 20 samples of 25g and 20 samples of 100g) and fitting a Poisson-gamma model to describe the variability of bacterial counts. The shape parameter of the gamma distribution, also known as the dispersion parameter reflecting the amount of clustering, was estimated between 1.0 and 1.6. This k-value of approximately 1 expresses a moderate level of clustering of bacterial cells in the ground beef. The impact of this clustering on the performance of sampling strategies was relatively limited in comparison to the classical hypothesis of a random repartition of pathogenic cells in mixed materials (purely Poisson distribution instead of Poisson-gamma distribution). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. A Feasibility Study on Hydrate-Based Technology for Transporting CO2 from Industrial to Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Matsuo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change caused by global warming has become a serious issue in recent years. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the above system to quantitatively supply CO2 or CO2 hydrate from industrial to agricultural areas. In this analysis, several transportation methods, namely, truck, hydrate tank lorry, and pipeline, were considered. According to this analysis, the total CO2 supply costs including transportation ranged from 15 to 25 yen/kg-CO2 when the transportation distance was 50 km or less. The cost of the hydrate-based method increased with the transport distance in contrast to the liquefied CO2 approach. However, the technology of supplying CO2 hydrate had merit by using a local cooling technique for cooling specific parts of agricultural products.

  13. Inventory and Policy Reduction Potential of Greenhouse Gas and Pollutant Emissions of Road Transportation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emissions from the road transportation industry in China have been increasing rapidly. To evaluate the reduction potential of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of the industry in China, its emission inventory was calculated and scenario analysis was created for the period between 2012 and 2030 in this paper. Based on the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP model, the development of China’s road transportation industry in two scenarios (the business-as-usual (BAU scenario and the comprehensive-mitigation (CM scenario was simulated. In the Comprehensive Mitigation scenario, there are nine various measures which include Fuel Economy Standards, Auto Emission Standards, Energy-saving Technology, Tax Policy, Eco-driving, Logistics Informatization, Vehicle Liquidation, Electric Vehicles, and Alternative Fuels. The cumulative energy and emission reductions of these specific measures were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that China’s road transportation produced 881 million metric tons of CO2 and emitted 1420 thousand tons of CO, 2150 thousand tons of NOx, 148 thousand tons of PM10, and 745 thousand tons of HC in 2012. The reduction potential is quite large, and road freight transportation is the key mitigation subsector, accounting for 85%–92% of the total emission. For energy conservation and carbon emission mitigation, logistics informatization is the most effective method, potentially reducing 1.80 billion tons of coal equivalent and 3.83 billion tons of CO2 from 2012 to 2030. In terms of air pollutant emission mitigation, the auto emission standards measure performs best with respect to NOx, PM10, and HC emission mitigation, and logistic informatization measure is the best in CO emission reduction. In order to maximize the mitigation potential of China’s road transportation industry, the government needs to implement various measures in a timely and strict fashion.

  14. Transport month is a time to tackle issues in the industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-10-09

    Full Text Available October marls National Transport month, giving rise to opportunities to focus on and draw attention to a variety of aspects associated with transport. Everyone in the country is affected by transport in one way or another, with those in metropolitan...

  15. Meeting Skills Needs in a Market-Based Training System: A Study of Employer Perceptions and Responses to Training Challenges in the Australian Transport and Logistics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekara, Victor O.; Snell, Darryn; Chhetri, Prem; Manzoni, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are adopting market-based training systems to address industry skills needs. This paper examines the marketisation of Australia's training system and the implications for training provision and outcomes in the Transport and Logistics industry. Drawing on qualitative interviews from industry employers and training providers, we…

  16. The Pricing Evolution in the Air Transportation Industry. Implication for the Romanian Tourism Sector in the Era of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The globalization process involves the liberalization of the services and the air transportation industry is responsive to this reality. There is a developing tendency for global alliances and strategies in major airline companies. The globalization implies extending service networks in the whole world. Currently we are witnessing lower prices for domestic and foreign airline flights with benefits for the tourists’ business and leisure activities. The last minute offers and early booking prices provide a win-win situation, for the airline companies on one side and for the customers on the other side. The positive online reviews influence people buying decision because customers are more sensitive than ever to the services prices. Under this condition it is very interesting to see the evolution of pricing in the air transportation industry and the implication for the Romanian tourism sector.

  17. Development of a Model-Based Systems Engineering Application for the Ground Vehicle Robotics Sustainment Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering Technology Symposium HC Human Capital HIIT Helsinki Institute of Information Technology UNCLASSIFIED vii...Technology (TKK), and the Helsinki Institute of Information Technology ( HIIT ), the report introduced the concept and the state-of-the-art in the market

  18. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs

  19. Study on Contaminant Transportation of a Typical Chemical Industry Park Based on GMS Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, LinXian; Liu, GuoZhen; Xing, LiTing; Liu, BenHua; Xu, ZhengHe; Yang, LiZhi; Zhu, HebgHua

    2018-03-01

    The groundwater solute transport model can effectively simulated the transport path, the transport scope, and the concentration of contaminant which can provide quantitative data for groundwater pollution repair and groundwater resource management. In this study, we selected biological modern technology research base of Shandong province as research objective and simulated the pollution characteristic of typicalcontaminant cis-1, 3-dichloropropene under different operating conditions by using GMS software.

  20. The Tournemire industrial analogue: reactive-transport modelling of cement-clay interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.; Wilson, J.; Benbow, S.; Savage, D.; Walker, C.; Norris, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In a number of concepts for geological disposal facilities (GDFs) for radioactive waste, cement-based materials are used for a variety of purposes including mechanical support, backfilling of cavities, grouting of fractures in the host rock, and immobilisation of radionuclides in waste-forms. Such facilities will ultimately re-saturate with encroaching groundwater, at which point leaching of the cement components is likely to give rise to an alkaline pore fluid, regardless of cement type. This pore fluid will be in disequilibrium with both the host rock and other engineered barrier system (EBS) materials used in the construction of the facility, such as bentonite. The interaction of the pore fluid could lead, for example, to the reduction in the swelling capacity of the clay, alteration of porosity and permeability both in the host rock and in EBS materials, and reduction of sorption capacities. Analogue systems can provide information about hyper-alkaline alteration that it is not possible to obtain from short-term experimental studies alone, because they have evolved in situ over many tens, hundreds or thousands of years. These systems can be used to improve scientific understanding and consequently mathematical models, which in turn can be used to simulate the performance of the engineered and natural materials over the lifetime of the GDF. Industrial analogues provide a kind of 'halfway house' between natural analogues and laboratory experimental studies; the initial and boundary conditions are often better understood than natural analogues, and the timescales involved, whilst much shorter than natural analogues, are generally of much greater duration than laboratory studies. One such analogue can be found at Tournemire, southern France, where a tunnel excavated in the 1880's had several exploration boreholes drilled into its basement in the 1990's. These boreholes were then filled with concrete and cement

  1. Development and prospects in the transport and conveying technology in the German mining industry; Entwicklungen und Perspektiven in der Transport- und Foerdertechnik im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikhoff, J. [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany)

    2008-04-17

    The German coal mining industry is undergoing standard-setting radical changes. On the basis of political decisions in February 2007 the strategic management development was re-aligned. Increase in productivity to reduce costs remains the first aim. Over 50% of underground shifts are required in infrastructure areas, i.e. in coal production and material transport. Continuous work is being undertaken to improve transport technology with technical innovations such as the automated diesel trolley. In addition the entire logistics chain is being made increasingly transparent by the use of new information technology (e.g. PDAs in conjunction with WLAN) and can thus be controlled efficiently on the basis of this process data. Technical innovations are being introduced in the conveyance of bulk materials. The entire conveyance in a mine is always realistically simulated by measurement of the individual volumetric flows. Optimised process control is possible on this basis. (orig.)

  2. The influence of wind speed on airflow and fine particle transport within different building layouts of an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dan; Wen, Meng; Xu, Xuemei; Zhu, Yuzheng; Xing, Futang

    2018-04-20

    In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5). Profiles of stream functions and turbulence intensity were used to examine the effect of various building layouts on atmospheric airflow. Here, concepts of particle suspension fraction and concentration distribution were used to evaluate the effect of wind speed on fine particle transport. These parameters showed that step-up building layouts accelerated top airflow and diffused more particles into street canyons, likely having adverse effects on resident health. In renewal old industry areas, the step-down building arrangement which can hinder PM dispersion from high-level stacks should be constructed preferentially. High turbulent intensity results in formation of a strong vortex that hinders particles into the street canyons. It is found that an increase in wind speed enhanced particle transport and reduced local particle concentrations, however, it did not affect the relative location of high particle concentration zones, which are related to building height and layout. This study has demonstrated the height variation and layout of urban architecture affect the local concentration distribution of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere and for the first time that wind velocity has particular effects on PM transport in various building groups. The findings may have general implications in optimization

  3. Hospital survival upon discharge of ill‐neonates transported by ground or air ambulance to a tertiary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Alvarado‐Socarras

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Mode of transport was not associated with the outcome. In Colombia, access to medical services through air transport is a good option for neonates in critical condition. Further studies would determine the optimum distance (time of transportation to obtain good clinical outcomes according type of ambulance.

  4. Transport Refrigeration Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Transport Refrigeration Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) to diagnose repair, maintain and operate transport refrigeration equipment used to heat or cool the load as well as of diesel engines, APUs and other prime movers; (2) to use tools and equipment in order to carry out…

  5. Opportunity Structure for Gambling and Problem Gambling among Employees in the Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revheim, Tevje; Buvik, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Working conditions for employees in the transport sector might present an opportunity structure for gambling by providing access to gambling during the workday. This study investigates connections between opportunity structure, gambling during the workday, and gambling problems among employees in the transport sector. Data has been collected from…

  6. Long-term outlook for Alberta's primary petrochemical industry : panel discussion : sustainability, feedstocks, infrastructure, transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauzon, D.

    1997-01-01

    The long-term outlook for Dow Chemical's involvement in Alberta's petrochemical industry was discussed. Dow Chemical Canada is a company with annual sales of more than $20 billion that manufactures and supplies chemicals, plastics, energy, agricultural products, consumer goods and environmental services in 157 countries in the world. Alberta is the centre of growth and development for the Canadian petrochemical industry because of the proximity to feedstocks. Alberta is seen as a good, long-term source of ethane. Dow Chemical intends to continue being a major player in the further development of the industry in Alberta. As proof of that confidence, there are 11 capital projects in progress at Dow's Western Canada Operation, totaling $600 million. An important ingredient of the continuing success of the petrochemical industry in Alberta will be the willingness and ability of the federal and provincial governments to work in partnership with industry to develop support infrastructure and policies

  7. Comparison of flying qualities derived from in-flight and ground-based simulators for a jet-transport airplane for the approach and landing pilot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective was to provide information to the flight controls/flying qualities engineer that will assist him in determining the incremental flying qualities and/or pilot-performance differences that may be expected between results obtained via ground-based simulation (and, in particular, the six-degree-of-freedom Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS)) and flight tests. Pilot opinion and performance parameters derived from a ground-based simulator and an in-flight simulator are compared for a jet-transport airplane having 32 different longitudinal dynamic response characteristics. The primary pilot tasks were the approach and landing tasks with emphasis on the landing-flare task. The results indicate that, in general, flying qualities results obtained from the ground-based simulator may be considered conservative-especially when the pilot task requires tight pilot control as during the landing flare. The one exception to this, according to the present study, was that the pilots were more tolerant of large time delays in the airplane response on the ground-based simulator. The results also indicated that the ground-based simulator (particularly the Langley VMS) is not adequate for assessing pilot/vehicle performance capabilities (i.e., the sink rate performance for the landing-flare task when the pilot has little depth/height perception from the outside scene presentation).

  8. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  9. Hydrochemical assessments of surface Nile water and ground water in an industry area – South West Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El-Sayed

    2015-09-01

    The data obtained were used for mathematical calculations of some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, sodium percentage (Na%, and the suitability of water samples for drinking, domestic, and irrigation purposes was evaluated. The results indicate that most studied surface Nile water samples show excellent to good categories and are suitable for drinking and irrigation. Most studied ground water samples are not suitable for drinking and need treatment for irrigation; few samples are not suitable for any purpose because of pollution from different sources in this area.

  10. The utility industry's perspective on OCRWM's plans for developing the system for transporting spent fuel under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodnick, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry has a vital interest in the transport program to be developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The industry's interest stems in part from the fact that the DOE's transportation program is financed by the Nuclear Waste Fund which is made up of ratepayer funds. However, the industry is also vitally interested in the DOE's transportation program because it could impact the ongoing transportation operations of all nuclear utilities, and, perhaps most importantly, without the utility industry's input, DOE is not able to develop an optimal transportation program. The NWPA contemplates that the DOE conducts its transportation program in accordance with the existing federal and state regulatory structure. DOE has significant discretion, however, in creating and implementing the business, operational and institutional aspects of its NWPA transportation program. The utility industry intends to ensure that the DOE meets the challenge to develop a safe, efficient and economically sound program to transport spent fuel and high-level waste to the appropriate federal facilities

  11. Structural and geographic shifts in the Washington warehousing industry : transportation impacts for the Green River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Establishment level employment data indicate that the warehousing industry has experienced rapid growth and : restructuring since 1998. This restructuring has resulted in geographic shifts at the national, regional, and local scales. : Uneven growth ...

  12. The ARIPAR project: analysis of the major accident risks connected with industrial and transportation activities in the Ravenna area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, Demetrio; Foraboschi, Franco P.; Spadoni, Gigliola; Amendola, Aniello

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the ARIPAR project aimed at the assessment of the major accident risks connected with storage, process and transportation of dangerous substances in the densely populated Ravenna area in Italy, which includes a large complex of chemical and petrochemical plants and minor industries, essentially distributed around an important commercial port. Large quantities of dangerous goods are involved in various transportation forms connected with the industrial and commercial activity of the port. The project started by making a complete inventory of fixed installations and transportation activities capable of provoking major fire, explosion and toxic release events; then relevant accident scenarios were developed for the single hazard sources; probabilities were assigned to the events and consequences were evaluated; finally iso-risk contours and F-N diagrams were evaluated both for the single sources and for the overall area. This required the development of a particular methodology for analysis of area risk and of associated software packages which allowed examination of the relative importance of the different activities and typologies of materials involved. The methodological approach and the results have proved to be very useful for the priority-ranking of risk mitigating interventions and physical planning in a complex area

  13. The transport of plutonium industry in France. A high risk activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Hazemann, J.; Marignac, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2003-02-01

    According to the estimations of the report more than 450 transport of materials including about 40 tons of plutonium circulate in France during one year. The nuclear matters transported are a source of danger. The risks in relation with the handling and transport of plutonium touch the criticality risk, its great toxicity, and the problem of proliferation. To these risks it is necessary to add terrorists attacks. Three scenarios of accidents have been developed to illustrate the risk potential. A scenario of train accident, with derailment in a tunnel then crash with an other train; a simple scenario occurring to a lorry of plutonium powder; then a scenario of an accident following a terrorist act. These scenarios should be studied by I.R.S.N and the results should be given to the public and to elected people confronted to the transport of plutonium. (N.C.)

  14. Utilization of Activated Carbon Prepared from Aceh Coffee Grounds as Bio-sorbent for Treatment of Fertilizer Industrial Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, M.; Mahidin, M.; Mulana, F.; Aman, F.

    2018-05-01

    The people of Aceh are well known as coffee drinkers. Therefore, a lot of coffee shops have been established in Aceh in the past decade. The growing of coffee shops resulting to large amounts of coffee waste produced in Aceh Province that will become solid waste if not wisely utilized. The high carbon content in coffee underlined as background of this research to be utilized those used coffee grounds as bio-sorbent. The preparation of activated carbon from coffee grounds by using carbonization method that was initially activated with HCl was expected to increase the absorption capacity. The prepared activated carbon with high reactivity was applied to adsorb nitrite, nitrate and ammonia in wastewater outlet of PT. PIM wastewater pond. Morphological structure of coffee waste was analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The result showed that the adsorption capacity of iodine was equal to 856.578 mg/g. From the characterization results, it was concluded that the activated carbon from coffee waste complied to the permitted quality standards in accordance with the quality requirements of activated carbon SNI No. 06-3730-1995. Observed from the adsorption efficiency, the bio-sorbent showed a tendency of adsorbing more ammonia than nitrite and nitrate of PT. PIM wastewater with ammonia absorption efficiency of 56%.

  15. Route planning of raw materials transportation in the industrial hub of Mariupol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Вікторівна Булгакова

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-modal freight transportation routes planning problem is viewed in this paper. The case study of iron ore deliveries to the metallurgical enterprises of Mariupol from Kryvyi Rih is presented. Based on the analysis of Ukrainian railroads and sea ports infrastructures six possible routes of multi-modal iron ore transportation are built. The paper presents a short review of route planning problem in multi-modal freight transportations, which are use sea and land parts together, regarding decision support methods of routes evaluation and selection. The lack of studies dedicated to fuzzy logic theory application for solving the stated problems is identified. The relevance of fuzzy set application to the route planning problem is proved. Taking into account the peculiarities of iron ore transportations technology, the following criterions of routes evaluation are chosen: «transportation costs», «delivery times», «transportation risks». The model of multicriterion decision-making of routes evaluation and the optimal route selection, based on fuzzy logic theory, is developed. Criteria of routes evaluation are set by three terms Gaussian and sigmoidal membership functions. The approach to each function construction is practice-based and executed together with iron ore supply chain manager. The model is created in MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Tool Box environment using Mamdani’s fuzzy inference

  16. Profile of the horizontal wind variance near the ground in near neutral flow – K-theory and the transport of the turbulent kinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of the atmospheric turbulent flow in the vicinity of the ground, and particularly with the profile of the horizontal wind variance. The study is based on experimental measurements performed with fast cup anemometers located near the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. The experiment was carried over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The results of this study reveal that near the ground surface and under moderate wind, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, in direct relationship with the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. A theoretical development has allowed us to link this behaviour to the modeling of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE transport through the eddy diffusivity. Thus, the study proposes a formulation of the similarity universal function of the horizontal wind variance. Besides, the formulation offers a new method for the determination of the friction velocity and the roughness length scale and can be used for the evaluation of the TKE transport rate.

  17. Integrating Efficiency of Industry Processes and Practices Alongside Technology Effectiveness in Space Transportation Cost Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents past and current work in dealing with indirect industry and NASA costs when providing cost estimation or analysis for NASA projects and programs. Indirect costs, when defined as those costs in a project removed from the actual hardware or software hands-on labor; makes up most of the costs of today's complex large scale NASA space/industry projects. This appears to be the case across phases from research into development into production and into the operation of the system. Space transportation is the case of interest here. Modeling and cost estimation as a process rather than a product will be emphasized. Analysis as a series of belief systems in play among decision makers and decision factors will also be emphasized to provide context.

  18. Survey of radiation protection, radiation transport, and shielding information needs of the nuclear power industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; McGill, B.L.

    1976-04-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) is engaged in a program to seek out, organize, and disseminate information in the area of radiation transport, shielding, and radiation protection. This information consists of published literature, nuclear data, and computer codes and advanced analytical techniques required by ERDA, its contractors, and the nuclear power industry to improve radiation analysis and computing capability. Information generated in this effort becomes a part of the RSIC collection and/or data base. The purpose of this report on project 219-1 is to document the results of the survey of information and computer code needs of the nuclear power industry in the area of radiation analysis and protection

  19. Survey of radiation protection, radiation transport, and shielding information needs of the nuclear power industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; McGill, B.L.

    1976-04-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) is engaged in a program to seek out, organize, and disseminate information in the area of radiation transport, shielding, and radiation protection. This information consists of published literature, nuclear data, and computer codes and advanced analytical techniques required by ERDA, its contractors, and the nuclear power industry to improve radiation analysis and computing capability. Information generated in this effort becomes a part of the RSIC collection and/or data base. The purpose of this report on project 219-1 is to document the results of the survey of information and computer code needs of the nuclear power industry in the area of radiation analysis and protection.

  20. Methodical approaches to providing sustainable development of the transport industry management system based on self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyantseva, Oksana; Panenkov, Andrey; Safonova, Nataliya

    2017-10-01

    Current conditions of the cognitive economy formation demand to take into account the leading role of information, knowledge and human capital in the development of the transport industry management system. The article substantiates the conceptual approach to the self-organization of a management system on the basis of innovative changes. Human capital is the key aspect of self-organization, so the directions of improving the workforce quality are justified. Basing on the information-innovative genesis of the process of self-organization, the authors justified the necessity of preventing asymmetric information. For this pupose the actions against the resistance to innovations were proposed. The implementation of certain measures contributes to the effective development of the transport management system.

  1. Analysis of the mitigation and adaptation strategies of the transport industry in the city of Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelia Melero Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an analysis of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the transport sector in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Based on the methodology of the Programs of Action on Climate Change (PACC, we analyzed the Mexicali emissions inventory and generated a diagnosis. Once we analyzed the current situation, we studied mitigation strategies such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT, the smog check, new importation legislation for used cars, biofuel production, the promotion of lower–emission vehicles and urban planning. On adaptation strategies vehicle recycling and the use of non–motorized transport were studied as an alternative of sustainable mobility.

  2. Viability of the ground of Shithatha, western Iraqi plateau, for industrial and commercial uses via hydrochemistry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaraghuli, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    Iraqi western plateau is considered as one of the most resourceful areas of the middle east, that is not yet well explored, due to the many political disturbances and security issues. The viability of underground water for the various industrial, municipal, commercial and agricultural uses is examined for Shithatha, Karbala governorates as a representative for the western plateau via chemical and physical analysis of water samples that are taken from 9 wells and 3 springs all-around the study area during the wet and dry periods. Hydro chemical and statistical analysis for the field samples have proved that groundwater of the studied area is classified as slightly-brackish water and water hardness is very high. Also, the results of the analyses of trace elements in the groundwater of the study area have confirmed the contamination of groundwater with some elements such as (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni) in concentrations that have exceeded the WHO and Iraqi national standards IQS, permissible limits. The application of Hydro-chemical formulae of Kurlouv and Piper, Schoeller, Stiff classifications have demonstrated that most samples of the study area have water type of (Na2SO4) while other samples have ranged between (MgSO4), and (NaCl) water type. The quality of groundwater is unsuitable for drinking and industrial purposes and it is almost suitable for irrigation purposes, but it is suitable for livestock, building and agricultural purposes because the salinity of the water is within the permissible limits when considering the nature of the soil.

  3. Hydrogeologic controls on the transport and fate of nitrate in ground water beneath riparian buffer zones: Results from thirteen studies across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been growing interest in the capacity of riparian buffer zones to remove nitrate from ground waters moving through them. Riparian zone sediments often contain organic carbon, which favors formation of reducing conditions that can lead to removal of nitrate through denitrification. Over the past decade the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has investigated the transport and fate of nitrate in ground and surface waters in study areas across the United States. In these studies riparian zone efficiency in removing nitrate varied widely as a result of variations in hydrogeologic factors. These factors include (1) denitrification in the up-gradient aquifer due to the presence of organic carbon or other electron donors, (2) long residence times (>50 years) along ground-water flow paths allowing even slow reactions to completely remove nitrate, (3) dilution of nitrate enriched waters with older water having little nitrate, (4) bypassing of riparian zones due to extensive use of drains and ditches, and (5) movement of ground water along deep flow paths below reducing zones. By developing a better understanding of the hydrogeologic settings in which riparian buffer zones are likely to be inefficient we can develop improved nutrient management plans. ?? US Government 2004.

  4. Deployment pathways for decarbonising industry and electricity generation : System analysis of the techno-economic feasibility and implementation of CO2 capture and transport for different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to assess promising deployment pathways for CO2 capture and transport in industry and the electricity generation sector. To meet this objective, the following three research questions were formulated: I. What are cost effective CO2 capture and transport

  5. Green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) and ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) mortality attributed to inland brevetoxin transportation at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, Danielle E.; Walker, Alicia; Huang, I-Shuo; Flewelling, Leanne; Lankton, Julia S.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Clapp, Travis; Lindsay, James; Zimba, Paul V.

    2018-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30–40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues. Tissue brevetoxin was also found in two dead or dying spotted ground squirrels (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) and a coyote (Canis latrans). Rainwater collected from the location of the mortality event contained brevetoxin. Mortality of green tree frog and ground squirrel mortality has not been previously attributed to brevetoxin exposure and such mortality suggested that inland toxin transport, possibly through aerosols, rainfall, or insects, may have important implications for coastal species.

  6. Food animal transport: A potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Rule

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula. Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, CAFO, Bioaerosol, Food animal transport, Air sampling, Surface sampling

  7. Ergonomics of mining machinery and transport in the South African mining industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available this background, a study was conducted to assess the ergonomics of a number of mining machines and transport systems to identify the ergonomics-related hazards that could impact on the operators’ ability to work safely and efficiently....

  8. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  9. Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code

  10. MASCOT user's guide--Version 2.0: Analytical solutions for multidimensional transport of a four-member radionuclide decay chain in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1988-07-01

    The MASCOT code computes the two- and three-dimensional space-time dependent convective-dispersive transport of a four-member radionuclide decay chain in unbounded homogeneous porous media, for constant and radionuclide-dependent release, and assuming steady- state isothermal ground-water flow and parallel streamlines. The model can handle a single or multiple finite line source or a Gaussian distributed source in the two-dimensional case, and a single or multiple patch source or bivariate-normal distributed source in the three-dimensional case. The differential equations are solved by Laplace and Fourier transforms and a Gauss-Legendre integration scheme. 33 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  13. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater.

  14. Behavior and transport of industrially derived plutonium in the Great Miami River, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, R N; Sprugel, D G; Wayman, C W; Bartelt, G E; Bobula, C M [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)

    1977-11-01

    Periodic discharges of industrial waste water containing small amounts of plutonium (/sup 238/Pu) into the Great Miami River of southwestern Ohio were studied to characterize the behavior of industrially derived plutonium in a flowing aquatic system. After entering this river, the plutonium rapidly separates into two components, one smaller than 0.45..mu..m (filterable) and one associated with larger suspended sediments (non-filterable). At any point downstream during the passage of a pulse, the ratio of filterable to non-filterable plutonium is about 1.0, while between pulses this ratio is in the range of 0.05-0.35. Mass balance calculations for one of these pulses showed that at moderate flow conditions (approximately 1000cf/s) about 60% of the effluent plutonium is lost through sedimentation within 9.7 km of the discharge point, but that continual resuspension of riverbed sediment results in a consistently high background plutonium flux between pulses.

  15. Integrated and sustainable transport systems to support industrial development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlabisa, C

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Civil Aviation Authority (SACAA) South Africa Civil Aviation Authority Act, 1998 (Act no. 40 of 1998) Transfer payments To control and regulate civil aviation safety and security within the Republic Air Traffic and Navigational Services... • Agencies founding legislation and nature of business • Road • Rail • Civil Aviation • Maritime • Dot Projects with Industrial Development Potential per Mode • Road • Rail • Civil Aviation • Maritime • DOT Collaboration with other Departments...

  16. Ohio River Denial as a Transportation Corridor and Its Economic Impacts on the Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    of freight transport market demand elasiticities, and mode choice probability elasticities of rail and full truck load carriers in the intercity ...obvious that under real conditions, travel demand would alter if time and duration of delay could be anticipated. First, cost of delay was defined...replication was expressed in terms of duration of the simulation interval, simulated travel time for this interval time, and expected travel time. Then

  17. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  18. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

    2014-09-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

  19. Planning, implementation and analysis of an assessment method of an industrial engineering course grounded on problem based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive market, companies need increasingly skilled human resources, especially when it comes to engineering. Universities, therefore, play an important role in this scenario, while training future professionals of the country. However, in this task, the institutions are faced with the challenge of attracting and working with young people of Generation Y, which have characteristics and needs that are not met by traditional teaching methods. Problem-Based Learning (PBL is an approach evolved in order to study and develop educational alternatives that meet the needs of businesses as well as the new student profile. In addition, actively teaching is not a simple task and becomes more complex when it refers to assess the knowledge gained through this method. Thus, this paper presents the planning, implementation and the assessment method adopted in a course of Industrial Engineering at the Federal University of Itajubá based on PBL. For this study it was adopted the action research method, in which the authors actively participated in all stages of the course, acting as facilitators in the course planning, implementation and monitoring. As a result, it is highlighted in this article, the benefits achieved by all involved through active learning, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the method. Moreover, improvements are proposed for future courses.

  20. Management of ground water and evolving hydrogeologic studies in New Jersey : a heavily urbanized and industrialized state in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P. Patrick

    1985-01-01

    New Jersey is the most densely populated and one of the most industrialized states in the United States. An abundance of freshwater and proximity to major northeastern metropolitan centers has facilitated this development. Pumpage of freshwater from all aquifers in the State in 1980 was 730 million gallons per day (2.76 million cubic meters per day).Management and efficient development of the ground-water resources of the State are the responsibility of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Laws have been enacted and updated by the State legislature to manage water allocation and to control the disposal of hazardous wastes. Present resource management is guided by the New Jersey Water-Supply Master Plan of 1981. Funding for management activities is partially derived from the sale of state-approved bonds.Effective planning and regional management require accurate and up-to-date hydrologic information and analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Geological Survey, is conducting three intensive ground-water studies involving the collection and interpretation of hydrologic data to meet the urgent water-management needs of New Jersey. These studies are part of a long-term cooperative program and are funded through the Water-Supply Bond Act of 1981. They began in 1983 and are scheduled to be completed in 1988.The project areas are situated in the New Jersey part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in and near Atlantic City, Camden, and South River. They range in size from 400 to 1,200 mil (1,040 to 3,120 km2). The studies are designed to define the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the local ground-water systems. The results of these studies will enable the State to address more effectively major problems in these areas such as declining water levels, overpumping, saltwater intrusion, and ground-water contamination resulting from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes.Specific objectives of these studies by the U

  1. Analyzing ground ozone formation regimes using a principal axis factoring method: A case study of Kladno (Czech Republic) industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec, L.; Skacel, F. [Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: Lukas.Malec@vscht.cz; Fousek, T. [Institute of Public Health, District of Central Czech Republic, Kladno (Czech Republic); Tekac, V. [Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, (Czech Republic); Kral, P. [Institute of Public Health, District of Central Czech Republic, Kladno (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-15

    Tropospheric ozone is a secondary air pollutant, changes in the ambient content of which are affected by both, the emission rates of primary pollutants and the variability of meteorological conditions. In this paper, we use two multivariate statistical methods to analyze the impact of the meteorological conditions associated with pollutant transformation processes. First, we evaluated the variability of the spatial and temporal distribution of ozone precursor parameters by using discriminant analysis (DA) in locations close to the industrial area of Kladno (a city in the Czech Republic). Second, we interpreted the data set by using factor analysis (FA) to examine the differences between ozone formation processes in summer and in winter. To avoid temperature dependency between the variables, as well as to describe tropospheric washout processes, we used water vapour content rather than the more commonly employed relative humidity parameter. In this way, we were able to successfully determine and subsequently evaluate the various processes of ozone formation, together with the distribution of ozone precursors. High air temperature, radiation and low water content relate to summer pollution episodes, while radiation and wind speed prove to be the most important parameters during winter. [Spanish] El ozono troposferico es un contaminante fotoquimico secundario cuyos contenidos estan influidos tanto por las razones de emision de las sustancias contaminantes primarias como por la variabilidad de las condiciones meteorologicas. En este trabajo utilizamos dos metodos estadisticos multivariados para el analisis de la influencia de las condiciones meteorologicas relacionadas con los procesos de transformacion de las sustancias contaminantes. Primero, estimamos la variabilidad de la descomposicion espacial y temporal de los precursores de ozono mediante el analisis discriminante (DA) en las areas cercanas a la zona industrial de Kladno (una ciudad de la Republica Checa

  2. Two-dimensional transport of dust from an infinite line source at ground level: non-zero roughness height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    1992-07-01

    The previous study (Eltayeb and Hassan, 1992) of the two-dimensional diffusion equation of dust over a rough ground surface, which acts as a dust source of variable strength, under the influence of horizontal wind and gravitational attraction is here extended to all finite values of the roughness height Z 0 . An analytic expression is obtained for the concentration of dust for a general strength of the source. The result reduces to the previously known solutions as special cases. The expression for the concentration has been evaluated for some representative example of the source strength g(X). It is found that the concentration decreases with roughness height at any fixed point above ground level. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  3. Hydrogeologic Settings and Ground-Water Flow Simulations for Regional Studies of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to Public-Supply Wells - Studies Begun in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2007-01-01

    This study of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells (TANC study) is being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and was designed to increase understanding of the most important factors to consider in ground-water vulnerability assessments. The seven TANC studies that began in 2001 used retrospective data and ground-water flow models to evaluate hydrogeologic variables that affect aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability at a regional scale. Ground-water flow characteristics, regional water budgets, pumping-well information, and water-quality data were compiled from existing data and used to develop conceptual models of ground-water conditions for each study area. Steady-state regional ground-water flow models were used to represent the conceptual models, and advective particle-tracking simulations were used to compute areas contributing recharge and traveltimes from recharge to selected public-supply wells. Retrospective data and modeling results were tabulated into a relational database for future analysis. Seven study areas were selected to evaluate a range of hydrogeologic settings and management practices across the Nation: the Salt Lake Valley, Utah; the Eagle Valley and Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada; the San Joaquin Valley, California; the Northern Tampa Bay region, Florida; the Pomperaug River Basin, Connecticut; the Great Miami River Basin, Ohio; and the Eastern High Plains, Nebraska. This Professional Paper Chapter presents the hydrogeologic settings and documents the ground-water flow models for each of the NAWQA TANC regional study areas that began work in 2001. Methods used to compile retrospective data, determine contributing areas of public-supply wells, and characterize oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions also are presented. This Professional Paper Chapter provides the foundation for future susceptibility and vulnerability analyses in the TANC

  4. Energy-Saving Automation and LED Lighting Systems in Industry, Transport, Building and Municipal Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Klimenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protocol of diverse technological data unification providing the ability to scale with a minimal increase in auxiliary information volume that allows its usage, ranging from the simplest microcontrollers to integration of automation equipment in global systems was designed for industrial automation systems. Basic technical solutions implemented in development of LED lighting systems of salon subway cars, including a schematic diagram of the lamp, the main technical characteristics of the lamp power supply, the peculiarities of developed design of LED modules are described.

  5. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  6. Approach for delineation of contributing areas and zones of transport to selected public-supply wells using a regional ground-water flow model, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal

  7. Solutions for the disposal of industrial and rain wastewater of transport enterprises in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varyushina Galina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives results of the surveys water management systems, auto repair companies, bus compamies, taxis, fleets of trucks, production and technical enterprises. Studied technological processes of primary production: cleaning engines, flushing of radiators and parts of batteries, testing of fuel tanks, cleaning of parts and units, exterior washing and painting of motor vehicles. There were carried out field examinations of local industrial wastewater treatment facilities industrial wastewater and onsite construction runoff, the laboratory-production work to identify quantitative and qualitative indicators of the incoming and treated effluents, including petroleum products, suspended matter, salinity, synthetic surfactants, heavy metals etc. Proposed sustainable solutions for the improvement of the work of treatment facilities of rain sewage by mechanical and physical and chemical methods, including horizontal sand catchers, septic tanks – oil separator, a cascade of pressure filters with granular mineral over-loading and high-performance sorption materials, the effectiveness of treatment meets the requirements of water for its re-use for technical needs, and discharge to water bodies.

  8. Use of CFD for calculation of dispersion of LPG along rail transport routes situated above or below ground level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijssenaar-Buhre, I.J.M.; Reinders, J.E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The use and transport of dangerous substances may pose a risk to people present in the vicinity. Well known examples of dangerous substances are the very toxic chemical chlorine and the extremely flammable Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). The adverse effects of accidental releases of such materials

  9. 2001 Industry Studies: Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervone, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... has maintained its economic strength in traditional services industries such as transportation, tourism, public utilities, finance and insurance, accounting, engineering, architecture, medical, legal...

  10. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  11. Application of ozonated dry ice (ALIGAL™ Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Juneja, Vijay; Annous, Bassam A; Rasanayagam, Vasuhi; Sundar, M; Braithwaite, David; Fisher, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation. ALIGAL™ Blue Ice (ABI), which combines the antimicrobial effect of ozone (O(3)) along with the high cooling capacity of dry ice, was investigated for its effect on bacterial reduction in air, in liquid, and on food and glass surfaces. Through proprietary means, O(3) was introduced to produce dry ice pellets to a concentration of 20 parts per million (ppm) by total weight. The ABI sublimation rate was similar to that of dry ice pellets under identical conditions, and ABI was able to hold the O(3) concentration throughout the normal shelf life of the product. Challenge studies were performed using different microorganisms, including E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria, that are critical to food safety. ABI showed significant (P Food Technologists®

  12. Energy supply options for a sustainable road transport in the 21st century - the views of the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempest, P.

    1998-01-01

    In the longer term, the oil industry has now focussed its attention on the new sociological and cultural changes in store for us. Yes, more and more individuals will demand personal mobility worldwide with quantum leaps (from a very low base) likely in China, India, Brasil and many new developing countries, all motivated by the increased expectations engendered by worldwide US-dominated television and vastly expanded new telecommunications networks. Yes, road-building will accelerate to provide many new trans-continental freight arteries. Yet continuing urbanisation and suburbanisation is bound to engender traffic-free city centres, further emission control and, wherever possible, the diversion of commuters out of single-occupancy vehicles and into new public transport services. Concern about global warming is seen widely as an exaggerated risk and a passing fad. (orig.)

  13. Development of suitability maps for ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hikari; Itoi, Ryuichi [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Inatomi, Tadasuke [YBM Co. Ltd., Kishiyama 589-10 Kitahata, Karatsu 847-1211 (Japan); Uchida, Youhei [Geological Survey of Japan, AIST Tsukuba Central 7, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    The thermophysical properties of subsurface materials (soils, sediments and rocks) and groundwater flow strongly affect the heat exchange rates of ground heat exchangers (GHEs). These rates can be maximized and the installation costs of the ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems reduced by developing suitability maps based on local geological and hydrological information. Such maps were generated for the Chikushi Plain (western Japan) using field-survey data and a numerical modeling study. First, a field-wide groundwater model was developed for the area and the results matched against measured groundwater levels and vertical temperature profiles. Single GHE models were then constructed to simulate the heat exchange performance at different locations in the plain. Finally, suitability maps for GCHP systems were prepared using the results from the single GHE models. Variations in the heat exchange rates of over 40% revealed by the map were ascribed to differences in the GHE locations, confirming how important it is to use appropriate thermophysical data when designing GCHP systems. (author)

  14. Efficiency and productivity analysis of the interstate bus transportation industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G.N. Novaes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Productivity analysis is an important policy making and managerial control tool for assessing the degree to which inputs are utilized in the process of obtaining desired outputs. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is a non-parametric method based on piecewise linear frontiers estimated with the aid of mathematical programming techniques and used, in this paper, to investigate technical, scale and managerial efficiencies associated with interstate bus companies in Brazil (ISBT. Data has been obtained from the web-site of the Brazilian National Agency of Land Transportation (ANTT. Since production factors in the application are constrained by technical and operational reasons, weight restrictions were introduced into the DEA models. The analysis has shown three groups of non-efficient bus firms, with clear differences in productivity. The relative managerial efficiencies of the firms in the non-efficient groups were also computed and analyzed. Finally, an example of benchmarking a non-efficient firm with DEA is presented.A análise de produtividade é ferramenta importante para a tomada de decisão e para a gestão de organizações, possibilitando avaliar os efeitos dos inputs na obtenção de níveis desejados de outputs. A Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA é um método não paramétrico baseado em fronteiras lineares por partes ajustadas através de programação matemática e utilizada para analisar as eficiências técnica, de escala e de gestão de empresas de ônibus que operam nas ligações interestaduais no Brasil (ISBT. Os dados foram obtidos no web-site da Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT. Como os fatores de produção são restritos por razões técnicas e operacionais, restrições de pesos foram introduzidas nos modelos. A análise mostrou três grupos de empresas não eficientes, com claras diferenças de produtividade. Também são calculadas as eficiências de gestão relativas a esses três grupos. Finalmente

  15. Determination of transport parameters in polymeric systems for industrial wastewater treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caracciolo, Nestor; Vazquez, Cristina; Boeykens, Susana P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the influence of dispersed macromolecules in the process of selective mass transfer through aqueous systems was studied in order to apply this knowledge in the design of reactors for industrial wastewater treatments. The application of biomass, usually composed of biopolymers production accessible, is currently in great development. Particularly, their use in case of retention of heavy metals in liquids. The discovery of these retention phenomena provides the foundation of new technologies for remediation and the recovery of these metals. To evaluate the retention capacity or the mobility of charged species in TAD (stirred tank batch) and TUB (tubular) reactors, we studied the behavior of metal ions in media of different ionic strength with scleroglucan (polar polymer), xanthan (anionic polyelectrolyte) and polyoxyethylene (virtually non-polar). The study using anions and cations of varying mass and charge in the aforementioned systems, was done by Synchrotron Radiation micro X-Ray Fluorescence (SRμXRF). A double cell that allow determining concentrations at different times and positions was designed. (author)

  16. Demand Forecast of Petroleum Product Consumption in the Chinese Transportation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyang Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, petroleum product (mainly petrol and diesel consumption in the transportation sector of China is analyzed. This was based on the Bayesian linear regression theory and Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC, establishing a demand-forecast model of petrol and diesel consumption introduced into the analytical framework with explanatory variables of urbanization level, per capita GDP, turnover of passengers (freight in aggregate (TPA, TFA, and civilian vehicle number (CVN and explained variables of petrol and diesel consumption. Furthermore, we forecast the future consumer demand for oil products during “The 12th Five Year Plan” (2011–2015 based on the historical data covering from 1985 to 2009, finding that urbanization is the most sensitive factor, with a strong marginal effect on petrol and diesel consumption in this sector. From the viewpoint of prediction interval value, urbanization expresses the lower limit of the predicted results, and CVN the upper limit of the predicted results. Predicted value from other independent variables is in the range of predicted values which display a validation range and reference standard being much more credible for policy makers. Finally, a comparison between the predicted results from autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA and others is made to assess our task.

  17. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  18. Chemical mechanisms of /sup 60/Co transport in ground water from intermediate-level liquid waste trench 7: progress report for period ending June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Means, J.L.; Crerar, D.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1976-11-01

    A seep approximately 50 meters east of trench 7 within the ORNL restricted area contains /sup 60/Co in concentrations of 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 6/ dpm/g in the soil and 10/sup 3/ dpm/ml in the water. Traces of /sup 125/Sb and various transuranics have also been detected in the soil. However, because the volume of water discharge from the seep is small, the total radionuclide contribution from the trench 7 area to White Oak Creek and the Clinch River is insignificant. The /sup 60/Co is transported in the ground-water from the trench to the seep as organic complexes and is absorbed by manganese oxides and to a lesser extent by iron sesquioxides in the shale and soil. In the absence of these organic complexing agents, /sup 60/Co mobilization would be negligible because the sediment absorption capacity for inorganic forms of /sup 60/Co is extremely high. The primary objective of this study has been to investigate /sup 60/Co transport and absorption mechanisms as observed in the study area. Because the organic complexing characteristics of transition metals and transuranics are similar, the mechanisms of /sup 60/Co transport determined in this study may also apply to plutonium and other alpha-emitters. Also the experimental and analytical methods employed in this study apply to the identification of other migrating radionuclide complexes from other disposal trenches and pits at ORNL. The increased knowledge of transport and adsorption mechanisms will provide insight into methods of controlling the movement of radionuclides from these and future disposal areas.

  19. Chemical mechanisms of 60Co transport in ground water from intermediate-level liquid waste trench 7: progress report for period ending June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.L.; Crerar, D.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1976-11-01

    A seep approximately 50 meters east of trench 7 within the ORNL restricted area contains 60 Co in concentrations of 10 4 to 10 6 dpm/g in the soil and 10 3 dpm/ml in the water. Traces of 125 Sb and various transuranics have also been detected in the soil. However, because the volume of water discharge from the seep is small, the total radionuclide contribution from the trench 7 area to White Oak Creek and the Clinch River is insignificant. The 60 Co is transported in the ground-water from the trench to the seep as organic complexes and is absorbed by manganese oxides and to a lesser extent by iron sesquioxides in the shale and soil. In the absence of these organic complexing agents, 60 Co mobilization would be negligible because the sediment absorption capacity for inorganic forms of 60 Co is extremely high. The primary objective of this study has been to investigate 60 Co transport and absorption mechanisms as observed in the study area. Because the organic complexing characteristics of transition metals and transuranics are similar, the mechanisms of 60 Co transport determined in this study may also apply to plutonium and other alpha-emitters. Also the experimental and analytical methods employed in this study apply to the identification of other migrating radionuclide complexes from other disposal trenches and pits at ORNL. The increased knowledge of transport and adsorption mechanisms will provide insight into methods of controlling the movement of radionuclides from these and future disposal areas

  20. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  1. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  2. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    assumed throughout the simulation domain. Comparisons among simulated results with different mesh systems of nested meshes and non-nested meshes and considerations of multiphase reactive transport and physical transport were demonstrated in this study. Preliminary results of injection CO2 for 50 years are: (1) about 7 wt.% of injected CO2 was trapped as carbonate minerals mainly as ankerite; (2) porosities were decreased by 0.014 % and increased by 0.102 % at the injection point and beneath the cap rock, respectively, and were subsequently decreased with time due to minerals precipitation mostly as illite and ankerite; (3) differences of simulated aquifer responses between reactive transport and physical transport were insignificant; and (4) projected CO2 plumes with the nested meshes was smaller than those by the non-nested meshes after cease of CO2 injection. Keywords: CO2-Saline-Mineral Interaction, Reactive Geochemical Transport, TOUGHREACT, Mineral Trapping Assessment, Changhua Costal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan Reference: Marini, L., 2006, Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide, Volume 11: Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Reaction Path Modeling, Elsevier Science, pp.470. Xu, T., J. A. Apps and K. Pruess, 2004, Numerical simulation of CO2 disposal by mineral trapping in deep aquifers, Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 19:917-936.

  3. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs

  5. Transportability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    and dump trucks are exceptions and may be tested at a curb weight or weight less than the gross weight. Consult with SDDCTEA for these types of...will be provided by a hydraulic actuator system. Accomplish the provision loading for the durations specified in MIL-STD-209K. Measure the loads...to flight testing. (b) Once rigged, attach the sling set apex to the cargo hook of a mobile or overhead crane and hoist the item from the ground

  6. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Buchhorn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI. The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS, and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  7. Quasi-three-dimensional analysis of ground water flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport in saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yi.

    1991-01-01

    A computational procedure was developed in this study to provide flexibility needed in the application of three-dimensional groundwater flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport simulations. In the first part of this study, analytical solutions were proposed for the dissolved single-component solute transport problem. These closed form solutions were developed for homogeneous but stratified porous media. This analytical model took into account two-dimensional diffusion-advection in the main aquifer layer and one-dimensional diffusion-advection in the adjacent aquitards, as well as first order radioactive decay and linear adsorption isotherm in both aquifer and aquitards. The associated analytical solutions for solute concentration distributions in the aquifer and aquitards were obtained using Laplace Transformation and Method of Separation of Variables techniques. Next, in order to analyze the problem numerically, a quasi-three-dimensional finite element algorithm was developed based on the multilayer aquifer concept. In this phase, advection, dispersion, adsorption and first order multi-species chemical reaction terms were included to the analysis. Employing this model, without restriction on groundwater flow pattern in the multilayer aquifer system, one may analyze the complex behavior of the groundwater flow and solute movement pattern in the system. These numerical models may be utilized as calibration tools in site characterization studies, or as predictive models during the initial stages of a typical site investigation study. Through application to several test and field problems, the usefulness, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed models were demonstrated. Comparison of results with analytical solution, experimental data and other numerical methods were also discussed

  8. Seasonal variation of spherical aerosols distribution in East Asia based on ground and space Lidar observation and a Chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y.; Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Ohara, T.

    2009-12-01

    The anthropogenic aerosols largely impact on not only human health but also global climate system, therefore air pollution in East Asia due to a rapid economic growth has been recognized as a significant environmental problem. Several international field campaigns had been conducted to elucidate pollutant gases, aerosols characteristics and radiative forcing in East Asia. (e.g., ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, ADEC, EAREX 2005). However, these experiments were mainly conducted in springtime, therefore seasonal variation of aerosols distribution has not been clarified well yet. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been constructing a lidar networks by automated dual wavelength / polarization Mie-lidar systems to observe the atmospheric environment in Asian region since 2001. Furthermore, from June 2006, space-borne backscatter lidar, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), onboard NASA/CALIPSO satellite, measures continuous global aerosol and cloud vertical distribution with very high spatial resolution. In this paper, we will show the seasonal variation of aerosols distribution in East Asia based on the NIES lidar network observation, Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) chemical transport model simulation and CALIOP observation over the period from July 2006 to December 2008. We found that CMAQ result explains the typical seasonal aerosol characteristics by lidar observations. For example, CMAQ and ground lidar showed a summertime peak of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at Beijing, an autumn AOT peak at Guangzhou and summertime AOT trough at Hedo, Okinawa. These characteristics are mainly controlled by seasonal variations of Asian summer/winter monsoon system. We also examined the CMAQ seasonal average aerosol extinction profiles with ground lidar and CALIOP extinction data. These comparisons clarified that the CMAQ reproduced the observed aerosol layer depth well in the downwind region. Ground lidar and CALIOP seasonal

  9. Development of Information Support of the Automated System for Monitoring the State of the Gas Transportation System’s Industrial Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Skrynkovskyy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to developing the information security of the automated system for monitoring the state of industrial safety of the gas transportation system within the framework of the safety management system, which will enable timely and objective detection of adverse accident hazards (hazardous events and taking the necessary specific measures to eliminate them and operate the gas transport system safely. It is proved that the basis of the information provision of the automated system for monitoring the state of the industrial safety of the gas transmission system is a methodology that includes the following basic procedures: identifying hazards; qualitative and quantitative assessment of emergencies; establishing of unacceptable (unallowable risks and their introduction to the information base (register of unacceptable risks of objects of the gas transportation system; comprehensive assessment and certification of the state of industrial safety of objects of the gas transportation system; identification of effective, productive (efficient risk management measures. The prospect of further research in this area is the development and implementation of an automated system for monitoring the state of industrial safety of the objects of the gas transmission system based on the results of the research (of the submitted information provision.

  10. Ground-water flow and transport modeling of the NRC-licensed waste disposal facility, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes a simulation study of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport from disposal at the NRC licensed waste disposal facility in West Valley, New York. A transient, precipitation driven, flow model of the near-surface fractured till layer and underlying unweathered till was developed and calibrated against observed inflow data into a recently constructed interceptor trench for the period March--May 1990. The results suggest that lateral flow through the upper, fractured till layer may be more significant than indicated by previous, steady state flow modeling studies. A conclusive assessment of the actual magnitude of lateral flow through the fractured till could however not be made. A primary factor contributing to this uncertainty is the unknown contribution of vertical infiltration through the interceptor trench cap to the total trench inflow. The second part of the investigation involved simulation of the migration of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239 from the one of the fuel hull disposal pits. A first-order radionuclide leach rate with rate coefficient of 10 -6 /day was assumed to describe radionuclide release into the disposal pit. The simulations indicated that for wastes buried below the fractured till zone, no significant migration would occur. However, under the assumed conditions, significant lateral migration could occur for radionuclides present in the upper, fractured till zone. 23 refs., 68 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Removal of heavy-metal pollutants from ground water using a reverse-osmosis/coupled-transport hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Ray, R.J.; Scholfield, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two membrane processes - reverse osmosis (RO) and coupled transport (CT) - are useful in removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions and producing purified water. Each process has advantages. RO produces clean water reliably and relatively inexpensively. However, the pollutants are removed nonselectively and cannot be appreciably concentrated. CT removes pollutants selectively and can concentrate them by several orders of magnitude, but CT suffers from limited reliability and performs poorly at low pollutant concentrations. By combining these two unit processes in a hybrid process, it is possible to capitalize on the advantages of each process and to minimize their disadvantages. The RO/CT hybrid process the authors are developing removes more than 98% of the uranium and chromium in a contaminated groundwater stream - reducing concentrations of each pollutant to less than 100 ppb. These pollutants are simultaneously recovered as a concentrate at metal-ion concentrations greater than 1 wt% in relatively pure form. The hybrid process promises to be reliable and to reduce treatment costs below that for costs if either CT or RO were used alone. Even more importantly, the high selectivity of the hybrid process minimizes the volume of waste requiring disposal

  12. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors; L'evolution de la demande energetique en France dans les secteurs industriel, residentiel, et des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  13. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

  14. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Malik, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  15. Cultural Conditions in Diversity Management: The Case Study of the Corporation Operating in the Transportation and Logistics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Czerniachowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present selected aspects of organi­sational culture and human capital management, and indicate the deter­minants of cultural conditions in diversity management based on the corporation A. A modern enterprise, in order to remain competitive, poses challenges to its employees to encourage their need for learning, explora­tion of knowledge and the change along with the changing environment. In order to achieve the aim of the paper, the following operational objec­tives have been formulated: (1 to discuss the concepts of organisational culture and cultural factors of changes in the organisation on the example of the corporation operating in the transportation and logistics industry; (2 to identify mutual correlations between organisational culture and diversity management; (3 to assess the impact of cultural factors related to the base of diversity management in the corporation A. The analysis is based on the findings from questionnaire surveys, detailed interviews with the top management and source materials collected from the corporation.

  16. Effect of the proposed adoption of the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations, 1985 revision, on the U.S. radioactive waste transportation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, G.A.; Lewis, M.S.; Allen, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing changes to 10CFR 71 transportation regulations to achieve compatibility with the 1985 IAEA regulations. The intent of these changes is to be more compatible with the international standard on shipping containers, package requirements, and performance criteria. The NRC has, however, modified part of its regulations to restrict the packaging of LSA by limiting the total activity rather than adopting the IAEA standard. This paper addresses how the proposed regulations will affect the low-level radioactive waste transportation industry. It describes the impacts on the transportation industry in three major areas-IAEA consistency, economic impact, and risk assessment. Available transport data from the Barnwell disposal site was used in the analysis of the proposed changes. The impacts addressed include possible increased radiation exposures, transportation risks and liability, transportation and processing costs, and waste disposal costs resulting in little health and safety benefit. Although the health and safety benefits of any change to the current regulations are minimal, suggested alternatives to the proposed regulations are discussed that more closely conform with the international standards while still maintaining health and safety

  17. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  18. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  19. Biogas from organic municipal and industrial wastes and wastes harvested on public grounds. Final report. Volume A: report; Vergaerung biogener Abfaelle aus Haushalt, Industrie und Landschaftspflege. Schlussbericht. Band A: Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie, Maschwanden (CH); Pfirter, A [PROBAG Umwelttechnik AG, Dietikon (CH)

    1992-12-31

    The mass and biogas potentials of organic municipal and industrial solid wastes, as well as of wastes harvested on public grounds, have been determined. The mass potential was found to be around 285`000 tons of digestible organic matter per year. By digesting all this matter, about 130`000`000 m{sup 3} of biogas or 3 PJ of energy could be generated yearly. The practical realizable potential is estimated to be nearly 2 PJ/a, including the savings by substituting the energy needed nowadays for the importation of peat and for the production of artificial fertilizers. Considering the fact, that the incineration of organic wastes costs more than biological treatment, the potential is relatively easy to realize. More than 50% of the humus losses of Swiss soils could be compensated by the application of digestion and composting technology. The different technologies for anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes are compared: the thermophilic, one-stage digestion seems to be further advanced in development than mesophilic two-stage digestion. Co-digestion of sludges of municipal waste water treatment plants and solid organic wastes may be advantageous for rural areas. An appropriate marketing strategy for the application of the solid product, however, has to be looked at. Because the two-stage process seems to have some advantages regarding rate of organic matter breakdown, product quality and hygienic conditions, a mesophilic two-stage experimental plant has been constructed. The results of the first experiment of a simple combination of a percolated hydrolytic step with a pulsating, dynamic anaerobic filter ar presented. Data on the quality of the solid product from anaerobic digestion of biogenic solid wastes and an economic comparison of composting vs. digestion are given. (author) 9 figs., 11 tabs., 75 refs.

  20. The Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar to Transportation Engineering: Recent Advances and New Perspectives (GI Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.

    2017-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the most acknowledged and established non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques within the context of the health monitoring and assessment of transportation infrastructures. GPR is being increasingly used for the effective management of infrastructural assets as it weakens the case for using other destructive monitoring methods, such as digging holes, and allows for rapid and reliable detection of many causes of the subsurface damage. Thereby, its usage favours the optimisation of the economical expenditure for the effective maintenance of great infrastructures as well as it improves the public safety by preventing or not raising the risk of accidents. GPR has been used in highway, railway and airfield engineering as well as for the monitoring of critical infrastructures, such as bridges and tunnels. It has found established use in the assessment of the geometric properties of the subsurface, such as in the case of the evaluation of the pavement layer thicknesses, or the size of the rebars in concrete-made structural components. Major physical-based investigations have been focused on the evaluation of the moisture ingress in flexible road pavements and in concrete structures, as well as on the detection of the rebars corrosion caused by the ingress of chloride. The majority of these parameters are evaluated using methods of signal analysis and data processing based on the signal in the time domain. The sophistication of the hardware and software of the GPR systems over the last few years as well as the recent advances achieved in the research have contributed to raise the high potential of this non-destructive technique and paved the way towards new application areas in transportation engineering. In particular, GPR is nowadays finding major application when used with complementary non-destructive testing techniques, although it has still proved to provide reliable results in various self-standing applications. This work

  1. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  2. Proposal for the award of an industrial service contract for stores operations and relatedlogistics, in-house mail distribution and transport services on the CERN site

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an industrial support contract for stores operations and related logistics, in-house mail distribution and transport services on the CERN site. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ISS (CH) - ISS (ES), for stores operations and related logistics, in-house mail distribution and transport services on the CERN site for a period of three years for a total amount not exceeding 10 312 028 Swiss francs not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  3. Assessing the Impacts of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation on the Dynamics of Urban Growth: A Case Study of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although China has promoted the construction of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation (CSGT to guide sustainable development, it may create substantial challenges, such as rapid urban growth and land limitations. This research assessed the effects of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge on impervious surface growth in Cixi County, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Changes in impervious surfaces were mapped based on Landsat images from 1995, 2002, and 2009 using a combination of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA and landscape metrics. The results indicated that the area and density of impervious surfaces increased significantly during construction of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge (2002–2009. Additionally, the bridge and connected road networks promoted urban development along major roads, resulting in compact growth patterns of impervious surfaces in urbanized regions. Moreover, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge promoted the expansion and densification of impervious surfaces in Hangzhou Bay District, which surrounds the bridge. The bridge also accelerated socioeconomic growth in the area, promoting rapid urban growth in Cixi County between 2002 and 2009. Overall, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge is an important driver of urban growth in Cixi County, and policy suggestions for sustainable urban growth should be adopted in the future.

  4. A 10-year Ground-Based Radar Climatology of Convective Penetration of Stratospheric Intrusions and Associated Large-Scale Transport over the CONUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Deep convection reaching the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and its impact on atmospheric composition through rapid vertical transport of lower troposphere air and stratosphere-troposphere exchange has received increasing attention in the past 5-10 years. Most efforts focused on convection have been directed toward storms that reach and/or penetrate the coincident environmental lapse-rate tropopause. However, convection has also been shown to reach into large-scale stratospheric intrusions (depressions of stratospheric air lying well below the lapse-rate tropopause on the cyclonic side of upper troposphere jet streams). Such convective penetration of stratospheric intrusions is not captured by studies of lapse-rate tropopause-penetrating convection. In this presentation, it will be shown using hourly, high-quality mergers of ground-based radar observations from 2004 to 2013 in the contiguous United States (CONUS) and forward large-scale trajectory analysis that convective penetration of stratospheric intrusions: 1) is more frequent than lapse-rate tropopause-penetrating convection, 2) occurs over a broader area of the CONUS than lapse-rate tropopause-penetrating convection, and 3) can influence the composition of the lower stratosphere through large-scale advection of convectively influenced air to altitudes above the lapse-rate tropopause, which we find to occur for about 8.5% of the intrusion volumes reached by convection.

  5. Budget, fiscal and monetary policy in Poland and demand for transport – forwarding – logistics industry services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic policy of a country does not always have an effect on the demand for transport. The lack of a clear relation between the nature of macroeconomic policy and changes in demand for transport services is a consequence of the overall complexity of the economic system. It can also be a result of the lack of consistency between budget and monetary policy. Macroeconomic policy as a tool to control global demand only indirectly affects the changes in demand for transport. Transport activity is in fact determined by changes in the real economy, which directly influence the increase or decrease in demand for transport services.

  6. Installation of the product transport system and control system for the Co-60 irradiator at the Institute of Investigations of the Alimentary Industry (IIIA), La Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An; Le Minh Tuan; Pham Thi Thu Hong; Nguyen Thanh Cuong; Huynh Dong Phuong; Ha Thanh Viet; Truong Vu Thanh Nhan

    2016-01-01

    Under the protocol of international cooperation in science and technology between Vietnam and Cuba - “Installation of the product transport system and control system for the Cobalt-60 irradiator at the Institute of Investigations of the Alimentary Industry (IIIA)”, the renovation of the irradiator has been started since 2012 and carried out by Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA). The renovation work comprises the installation of the tote box transport system that was designed and constructed by Isotope Institute Budapest, Hungary, the installation of the PLC based control system which were designed and constructed by VINAGAMMA, installations of technological systems and training Cuban irradiator operators. The project has been successfully implemented and the industrial Co-60 irradiator with new control system has been put into operation. (author)

  7. A discussion on the interpretation of the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations for the transport of NORM associated with the South African mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichsen, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    South Africa has an extensive mining industry, with total mineral sales in 2002 being R140 billion and total mineral exports being R110 billion. In this same year, the industry employed over 400 000 workers. When the International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1 [ST-1 Revised]) (the Regulations), was adopted by the regulatory body, the National Nuclear Regulator (NNR), in June 2001, the Industry requested the drafting of a guide on the interpretation of these regulations for NORM. This paper has arisen from the drafting of such a guide, drafted with the end-user in mind, giving an interpretation of the application of the Regulations to NORM. The paper is more ''Qualitative'' than ''Quantitative'' and raises a number of ''peculiar'' aspects of the application of the Regulations to NORM

  8. .: Risk sharing in the paper ticket distribution system on the example of municipal transport union of the upper Silesian industrial district in Katowice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna URBANEK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Properly organized ticket distribution is a crucial tool to realize tariff policy of public passenger transport provider in the given area, as well as the factor influencing the ticket sale profits. Providing the proper accessibility of public communication ticket sale network requires signing contracts with third parties, which is consequently connected with the necessity to divide the tasks and responsibilities among them, which generates certain risk for each of the parties. In the article the types of risks have been discussed, as well as the methods of its sharing in case of agreements concerning public communication paper ticket distribution. Based on the example of the Municipal Transport Union of the Upper Silesian Industrial District in Katowice, the types of such agreements have been presented as well as their influence on organizing urban communication ticket distribution system in Silesian agglomeration. The paper presents a new approach to risk management as an important part of integration strategy of urban transport organizer.

  9. SutraGUI, a graphical-user interface for SUTRA, a model for ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Richard B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes SutraGUI, a flexible graphical user-interface (GUI) that supports two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) SUTRA ground-water-flow and transport model (Voss and Provost, 2002). SutraGUI allows the user to create SUTRA ground-water models graphically. SutraGUI provides all of the graphical functionality required for setting up and running SUTRA simulations that range from basic to sophisticated, but it is also possible for advanced users to apply programmable features within Argus ONE to meet the unique demands of particular ground-water modeling projects. SutraGUI is a public-domain computer program designed to run with the proprietary Argus ONE? package, which provides 2D Geographic Information System (GIS) and meshing support. For 3D simulation, GIS and meshing support is provided by programming contained within SutraGUI. When preparing a 3D SUTRA model, the model and all of its features are viewed within Argus 1 in 2D projection. For 2D models, SutraGUI is only slightly changed in functionality from the previous 2D-only version (Voss and others, 1997) and it provides visualization of simulation results. In 3D, only model preparation is supported by SutraGUI, and 3D simulation results may be viewed in SutraPlot (Souza, 1999) or Model Viewer (Hsieh and Winston, 2002). A comprehensive online Help system is included in SutraGUI. For 3D SUTRA models, the 3D model domain is conceptualized as bounded on the top and bottom by 2D surfaces. The 3D domain may also contain internal surfaces extending across the model that divide the domain into tabular units, which can represent hydrogeologic strata or other features intended by the user. These surfaces can be non-planar and non-horizontal. The 3D mesh is defined by one or more 2D meshes at different elevations that coincide with these surfaces. If the nodes in the 3D mesh are vertically aligned, only a single 2D mesh is needed. For nonaligned

  10. The transport of plutonium industry in France. A high risk activity; Les transports de l'industrie du plutonium en France. Une activite a haut risque. Resume de l'etude et rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Hazemann, J.; Marignac, Y.; Schneider, M

    2003-02-15

    According to the estimations of the report more than 450 transport of materials including about 40 tons of plutonium circulate in France during one year. The nuclear matters transported are a source of danger. The risks in relation with the handling and transport of plutonium touch the criticality risk, its great toxicity, and the problem of proliferation. To these risks it is necessary to add terrorists attacks. Three scenarios of accidents have been developed to illustrate the risk potential. A scenario of train accident, with derailment in a tunnel then crash with an other train; a simple scenario occurring to a lorry of plutonium powder; then a scenario of an accident following a terrorist act. These scenarios should be studied by I.R.S.N and the results should be given to the public and to elected people confronted to the transport of plutonium. (N.C.)

  11. Evaluation of New Chemical Entities as Substrates of Liver Transporters in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Response to Regulatory Requirements and Future Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of drug candidates as hepatic transporter substrates. Recently, research on the applications of hepatic transporters in the pharmaceutical industry has improved to meet the requirements of the regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of drug interactions. To identify the risk of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions at an early stage of drug development, we used a strategy of reviewing the in vivo animal pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution data obtained in the discovery stage together with the in vitro data obtained for regulatory submission. In the context of nonclinical evaluation of new chemical entities as medicines, we believe that transporter studies are emerging as a key strategy to predict their pharmacological and toxicological effects. In combination with the recent progress in systems approaches, the estimation of effective concentrations in the target tissues, by using mathematical models to describe the transporter-mediated distribution and elimination, has enabled us to identify promising compounds for clinical development at the discovery stage. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Industry of petroleum and its by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of petroleum industry and its by-products is presented. Petroleum, since its origin and all steps of its industry including its detection, production and transportation is described. A historical description of the production and formation of fuels under the ground strates through million of years, as well as its chemical composition are presented. A full description of refining petrol and all by-products derived is given. Pictures and tables enhance the explanation

  13. Radiological protection stakes and improvement in the radiopharmaceutical industry and transport: The example of Cis Bio International in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirson, L.; Ratsrahorana, A.

    2002-01-01

    The company CIS BIO International is located on the site of the nuclear research centre of Saclay and is the only company in France producing radioisotopes for medical use. Since January 2002 CIS BIO International became a subsidiary of the SCHERING group (100% of the share holdings). CIS BIO International has two nuclear facilities. the main one is making conception, manufacturing, packaging and trading of radioactive materials for medical (radiopharmaceutical) or industrial use. Regarding the huge amount of radioactive material circulating and being manipulated in the dispatching room, the workers in charge of packaging and the drives in charge of loading those packages into their vehicles are the most exposed to radiation hazards. Them the highest individual dose recorded by dosimeters film, over 12 months in the row, for workers in charge of jobs in the dispatching room, increased from 10.5 mSv in 2000 to 12,7 mSv in January 2002. In the new decree related to radiological protection of workers, in application of the 1996 Euratom directive, the whole body dose limit should decrease. In that context and regarding the dosimetric stakes, an ALARA study has been carried out in the dispatching room. This ALARA study is aimed to reach an optima value of the exposure of the workers in the dispatching room and, indirectly of the exposure of the drivers. In order to take into account all external constraints towards activities carried out in the dispatching room and to insure coherency and an exhaustive list of improvement options related to exposure, a description of all the input/output processes was realised, in addition to those concerning the dispatching room. As a matter of fact, those constraints due to the specific nature of the company are various. They are on the one hand related to regulations applied to the nuclear facilities, to the radioactive materials transportation in countries of transit and in the recipient countries and on the other hand, related to

  14. Conceptualising the management of packaging within new product development:a grounded investigation in the UK fast moving consumer goods industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simms, Chris; Trott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose- The purpose of this study is to: (i) contribute to existing models of new product development (NPD), and provide new understanding of how a new product’s packaging is managed and integrated into the NPD process of fast moving consumer goods firms; and (ii) build on prior research suggesting that firms lack a pipeline of new packaging innovations by uncovering the factors that influence this pipeline issue. Design/methodology/approach- A grounded theory methodology was adopted. Resear...

  15. Regional-scale modeling of near-ground ozone in the Central East China, source attributions and an assessment of outflow to East Asia The role of regional-scale transport during MTX2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, Z.; Akimoto, H.; Yamaji, K.; Takigawa, M.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Kanaya, Y.

    2008-07-01

    A 3-D regional chemical transport model, the Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System (NAQPMS), with an on-line tracer tagging module was applied to study the source of the near-ground (pollutants. In particular, the model captured highly polluted and clean cases well. The simulated near-ground ozone over CEC is 60 85 ppbv (parts per billion by volume), higher than those (20 50 ppbv) in Japan and over the North Pacific. The simulated tagged tracer indicates that the regional-scale transport of chemically produced ozone over other areas in CEC contributes to the most fractions (49%) of the near-ground mean ozone at Mt. Tai in June, rather than the in-situ photochemistry (12%). Due to high anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, the contributions of the ground ozone from the southern part of CEC plays the most important role (32.4 ppbv, 37.9% of total ozone) in the monthly mean ozone concentration at Mt. Tai, which even reached 59 ppbv (62%) on 6 7 June 2006. The monthly mean horizontal distribution of chemically produced ozone from various source regions indicates that the spatial distribution of O3 over CEC is controlled by the photochemical reactions. In addition, the regional-scale transport of pollutants also plays an important role in the spatial and temporal distribution of ozone over CEC. The chemically produced ozone from the southern part of the study region can be transported northeastwardly to the northern rim of CEC. The mean contribution is 5 10 ppbv, and it can reach 25 ppbv during high ozone events. This work also studied the outflow of CEC ozone and its precursors, as well as their influences and contributions to the ozone level over adjacent regions/countries. It shows that the contribution of CEC ozone to mean ozone mixing ratios over Korea Peninsula and Japan is 5 15 ppbv, of which about half was due to the direct transport of ozone from CEC and half was contributed by the ozone produced locally by the transported ozone precursors from CEC.

  16. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements. ...

  17. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  18. Investigation on the Relationship owth of Agricultural Sector’s Growth with Growth of Industrial and Service Sectors (Commerce, Transportation, Telecommunication in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yaghoob zeraatkish

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has always been considerd as one of the important sectors in domestic and international economy .Based on the Central Bank Statistics; agriculture’s share in the Iranian GDP at the constant price of the year 1998 was 13 percent of the GDP in the year 2007. Therefore, studies on the role of agriculture in an economy and its interactions with other economic sectors should be considered with a special attention. This paper aimed at surveying the effects of growth of value-added in agriculture on the value-added of different sectors of industry, services as well as subordinate sectors of transportation, communication and commerce. In this regard, the status of the period between 1967 to 2009 is used. To determine the relationship among the study variables, some econometric techniques such as VAR were used. The results of VAR technique proves that there is a positive relation among the growth of value-added in the agricultural sector with the growth of industrial sector and the growth of sub-sectors of communication, transportation and commerce. Among the mentioned sectors and sub-sectors, the growth of commerce has maximum effect on the agricultural growth. Furthermore, in the short term, the growth variant of trading sector presented the largest share in explaining the variants of the agriculture sector . The growth variant of communication sector is trivial

  19. Influence of trees and shrubs on microclimate and sanitary state of air layers close to the ground surface at industrial sites of metallurgical works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, M L; Filatova, R Ya

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trees and shrubs on working conditions was investigated at metallurgical works in the Ukraine. Indices used included air temperature and humidity, sulfuric anhydride, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide content. Indices were measured at varying distances from the sources of the industrial waste. In areas with trees and shrubs, air temperature was 3 to 5 degrees lower and relative humidity 8 to 10 degrees higher than out in the open. The level of industrial waste given off as gas was consistently less prevalent in areas with trees and shrubs than out in the open. Trees and shrubs were concluded to be essential for the health and well-being of the workers.

  20. Application of the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material to bulk shipments of materials in minerals industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, Nick; Hinrichsen, Paul John; Omar, M.; Fernandes, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The following discussion is based on the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (T S -R-1,2005)[1] and Advisory Material for these Regulations (T S -G-1.1,2003)[2]. There were many amendments to the first issue of T S -R-1 (1996-2000) [3], several changes were also made when the Regulations were adopted in Australia [4]. The marks [->] or [->?] have been used in the text to indicate where a change has occurred between the references [1, 2, 3 and 4]. The mark [->] indicates that there is a difference in wording between 2000 and 2005 editions, the mark indicates that if in a particular jurisdiction 1996-2000 Transport Regulations are in force, additional consultation with an appropriate regulatory authority is required.

  1. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  2. Influence of industrial exhalations on the fertility of ground and on the yields of agricultural plants: a recapitulation of the attained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J; Maly, V

    1964-01-01

    Deposition of dust and ambient concentrations of SO2 were measured around industrial areas in Czechoslovakia in 1961 and 1962. The amount of surface-adhered material and the SO3 content of plant ashes was also measured. Chemical analyses of soils in the areas were also carried out. Dimunition of agricultural productivity was documented. Maize and beans were the crops most affected by air pollution, followed by sugar beets, cereals, (wheat, oats and barley) in order of decreasing effect. 24 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Breaking down the barriers to commercialization of fuel cells in transportation through Government - industry R&D programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S.G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Venkateswaran, S.R. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    PEM fuel cell technology is rapidly emerging as a viable propulsion alternative to the internal combustion engine. Fuel cells offer the advantages of low emissions, high efficiency, fuel flexibility, quiet and continuous operation, and modularity. Over the last decade, dramatic advances have been achieved in the performance and cost of PEM fuel cell technologies for automotive applications. However, significant technical barriers remain to making fuel cell propulsion systems viable alternatives to the internal combustion engine. This paper focuses on the progress achieved and remaining technical barriers while highlighting Government-industry R&D efforts that are accelerating fuel cell technology toward commercialization.

  4. GRASP [GRound-Water Adjunct Sensitivity Program]: A computer code to perform post-SWENT [simulator for water, energy, and nuclide transport] adjoint sensitivity analysis of steady-state ground-water flow: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.L.; RamaRao, B.S.; McNeish, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    GRASP (GRound-Water Adjunct Senstivity Program) computes measures of the behavior of a ground-water system and the system's performance for waste isolation, and estimates the sensitivities of these measures to system parameters. The computed measures are referred to as ''performance measures'' and include weighted squared deviations of computed and observed pressures or heads, local Darcy velocity components and magnitudes, boundary fluxes, and travel distance and time along travel paths. The sensitivities are computed by the adjoint method and are exact derivatives of the performance measures with respect to the parameters for the modeled system, taken about the assumed parameter values. GRASP presumes steady-state, saturated grondwater flow, and post-processes the results of a multidimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) finite-difference flow code. This document describes the mathematical basis for the model, the algorithms and solution techniques used, and the computer code design. The implementation of GRASP is verified with simple one- and two-dimensional flow problems, for which analytical expressions of performance measures and sensitivities are derived. The linkage between GRASP and multidimensional finite-difference flow codes is described. This document also contains a detailed user's manual. The use of GRASP to evaluate nuclear waste disposal issues has been emphasized throughout the report. The performance measures and their sensitivities can be employed to assist in directing data collection programs, expedite model calibration, and objectively determine the sensitivity of projected system performance to parameters

  5. Innovation of the Process of Inventorying of the Selected Transport Units: Case Study in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chocholáč Jan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation, highly competitive time when the emphasis is on shortening delivery schedules, streamlining the production cycle and, ultimately, reducing the total cost businesses are forced to optimizations and innovations. The article deals with the inventory of the selected transport units in warehouses. The inventory is currently being carried out through manual labor of employees. This paper proposes a possible implementation of new and innovative approach to inventory control, with the help of an automated inventory realized by the drones.

  6. SOAC - State-of-the-Art Car Engineering Tests at Department of Transportation High Speed Ground Test Center : Volume 2. Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The six-volume report presents the technical methodology, data samples, and results of tests conducted on the SOAC on the Rail Transit Test Track at the High Speed Ground Test Center in Pueblo, Colorado during the period April to July 1973. The Test ...

  7. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  8. Possible employment of food industry residues in animal feeding: first report on the chemical and bromatological composition of coffee grounds and suggestions for their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarra, C

    1976-01-01

    The relatively low levels of tannins and caffeine (average 0.36% and 0.191 mg/g, respecitvely) in coffee grounds suggest their possible use as feed. The proximate analysis of 8 samples (average and range given) was: moisture 61.07, 53.91 to 65.25; crude fat 17.78, 14.64 to 23.51; ash 1.66, 1.43 to 1.89; crude fiber 16.62, 14.98 to 17.45; and non-N ext. 51.31, 44.67 to 56.71%. The ash contained an average of 0.14% of both Ca and P. The amino acid component is tabulated; only traces of methionine were found. The major fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic, average 43.89 and 30.99%, respectively, and values for other fatty acids C/sub 12:0/-C/sub 22:0/ are tabulated.

  9. Wind uplift of radioactive dust from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'ko, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Near nuclear power plants the recontamination of the atmosphere near the ground becomes dangerous, if a radioactive zone has formed at the site. Wind can easily carry toxic dust from the polluted territory of neighboring industrial enterprises. Moreover, wind erosion of the soil during the summer or transport of radioactive snow by a snowstorm during the winter can displace the boundaries of the contaminated radioactive zone. In Russia the investigation of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground began after a radiation accident occurred at a storage facility in the Southern Urals in 1957, as a result of which a contaminated zone formed in the area. Since the direct mechanism of detachment of dust particles from the ground is not important in studying the results of the raising of radioactive dust into the atmosphere by wind, the authors do not distinguish between wind pickup and wind erosion, and the entire process wind pickup of radioactivity from the ground. After the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant a new generation of investigators began to study wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground, and the process under consideration was sometimes referred to as wind uplift. The intensity of the process of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized by the wind pickup coefficient α, which is the coefficient of proportionality between the upward flux Q of radioactivity from the ground and the density A of radioactive contamination of the ground: α = Q/A. Physically, the coefficient α is the upward flux of the impurity from the ground with unit contamination density, i.e., the intensity of dust contamination or the fraction of radioactivity picked up by the wind from the ground per unit time. The greatest difficulty in determining α experimentally under dusty conditions is measuring correctly the upward radioactivity flux Q. The author discusses three methods for determining this quantity

  10. Environmental Factors' Consideration at Industrial Transportation Organization in the «Seaport - Dry port» System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravev, Dmitri; Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr

    2016-11-01

    Currently, container shipping development is directly associated with an increase of warehouse areas for containers' storage. One of the most successful types of container terminal is an intermodal terminal called a dry port. Main pollution sources during the organization of intermodal transport are considered. A system of dry port parameters, which are recommended for the evaluation of different scenarios for a seaport infrastructure development at the stage of its strategic planning, is proposed in this paper. The authors have developed a method for determining the optimal values of the main dry port parameters by simulation modeling in the programming software Any- Logic. Dependencies thatwere obtained as a result of modeling experiments prove the adequacy of main selected dry port parameters for the effective scenarios' evaluation of throughput and handling capacity at existing seaports at the stage of strategic planning and a rational dry port location, allowed ensuring the improvement of the ecological situation in a port city.

  11. 49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding fuel tanks. 229.97 Section 229.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically grounded. ...

  12. Transport infrastructure monitoring: A ground based optical displacement monitoring system, field tests on a bridge, the Musmeci's bridge in Potenza, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagene, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    A gound based optical displacement monitoring system, "NIODIM", is being developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk in the framework of the activities of the European project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), funded in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The optical displacement monitoring system has now participated in two real life field campaigns one in Switzerland and one in Italy. The latter, the tests in Potenza, Italy, will be presented in the following. The NIODIM system has undergone some development during the last year to adopt it for use in a somewhat higher frequency domain by changing the camera sensor part. This to make it more useful for monitoring of structures with oscillation frequencies tens of Hz. The original system was intended to a large extent to monitor land slides, quick clay and rock slides and similar phenomena typically having a relatively slow time response. The system has been significantly speeded up from the original 12 Hz. Current tests have been performed at a frame rate of 64 Hz i.e., the camera part and data processing unit have been running on 64Hz. In connection with the tests in Italy the data processing has been upgraded to include sub-pixel resolution i.e., the measurement results are no longer limited by pixel borders or single pixels. The main part of the NIODIM system is a camera capable of operating at a sufficiently high frame rate. This camera will typically be mounted on firm ground and will depict and monitor a reference point, typically a light emitting diode, LED, which will be mounted on the object susceptible to move. A processing unit will acquire the images from the camera part and find the position of the LED in the image and compare that to threshold values and if required raise a warning or an alarm. The NIODIM system can either be a standalone system or be an integrated part of the overall ISTIMES system, the ISTIMES system

  13. Radionuclide migration in ground water at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predicted radionuclide transport modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), in Ontario, Canada, a number of LLW shallow-land burial facilities have existed for 25-30 years. These facilities are useful for testing the concept of site modelability. In 1984, CRNL and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) established a cooperative research program to examine two disposal sites having plumes of slightly contaminated ground water for study. This report addresses the LLW Nitrate Disposal Pit site, which received liquid wastes containing approximately 1000-1500 curies of mixed fission products during 1953-54. The objective of this study is to test the regulatory requirement that a site be modeled and to use the Nitrate Disposal Pit site as a field site for testing the reliability of models in predicting radionuclide movement in ground water. The study plan was to approach this site as though it were to be licensed under the requirements of 10 CFR 61. Under the assumption that little was known about this site, a characterization plan was prepared describing the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information needed to assess site performance. After completion of the plan, site data generated by CRNL were selected to fill the plan data requirements. This paper describes the site hydrogeology, modeling of ground water flow, the comparison of observed and predicted radionuclide movement, and summarizes the conclusions and recommendations. 3 references, 10 figures

  14. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiu; Yu, Jian; Li, Li; Li, Linlin; Li, Long; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Quan

    2018-01-01

    Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI). The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011–2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules. PMID:29677160

  15. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiu Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI. The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011–2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules.

  16. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiu; Yu, Jian; Li, Li; Li, Linlin; Li, Long; Zhou, Jie; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chen, Quan

    2018-04-20

    Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI). The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011⁻2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules.

  17. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing

    2003-01-01

    SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

  18. Concentration Analysis in the Turkish Domestic Air Transportation Industry using with CRm and Herfindahl-Hirschman Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım KİRACI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentration means that economic activities are dominated or owned by a small number of firms in any market. Accordingly, there is a negative relationship between concentration ratio in the market and level of competition. In other words, as the concentration rate increases, level of competition decreases and vice-versa. The low market concentration ratio and imperfect competition are common occurences in the emerging countries such as Turkey. In this study, concentration ratio and level of competition of the top five airports in Turkey will be examined by years. In this context, the airlines’ (using these top five airports number of passengers and cargo volumes between 2012 and 2015 will be used to analyse. This study is significant as it is the first study to investigate airport market concentration and market structure in Turkey. In this context, the relationship between domestic air transportation concentration ratio and market structure will be demonstrated with using M-Firm Concentration Ratio (CRm and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI analysis methods. After the analyses, our results justified that market structure is far from competition. In addition, there are recommendations and determinations to what to do for ensuring competition and maintaining it truly in this study.

  19. Accident investigation practices in Europe--main responses from a recent study of accidents in industry and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed-Larsen, Sverre; Valvisto, T; Harms-Ringdahl, L; Kirchsteiger, C

    2004-07-26

    Europe has during recent years been shocked by disasters from natural events and technical breakdowns. The consequences have been comprehensive, measured by lost lives, injuries, and material and environmental damage. ESReDA wanted in 2000--by setting up a special expert group on accident investigation--to clarify the state of art of accident investigation practices and to map the use of thoroughly accident investigation in order to learn lessons from past disasters and prevent new ones. The scope was to cover three sectors in the society: transport, production processes and storage of hazardous materials, and energy production. The main method used was a questionnaire, which was sent in 2001 to about 150 organisations. About 50 replies were analysed. The replies showed great variations but also similarities, among others in definition of accident and incident, the objectives of the investigation team, criteria used to start an investigation, the status of the investigation organisation, the flow of information, the composition of the investigation team, and the use of internal or international procedures or rules. Several methods (in total 14 different methods were mentioned) were used for carrying out accident /incident investigations. Most of the respondents were willing to co-operate in one or another way with ESReDA. Although there are important biases in the material, the results from questionnaire are important inputs to the future work of ESReDA Expert group in this field. 3 safety approaches have been identified.

  20. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  1. Simulation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) transport to ground water from immobile sources of gasoline in the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Rehmann, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    The mathematical model, R-UNSAT, developed to simulate the transport of benzene and MTBE in representative sand and clay hydrogeologic systems was evaluated. The effects on groundwater were simulated for small, chronic-, and single-volume releases of gasoline trapped in unsaturated soil. Hydrocarbon biodegradation was simulated by using a dual Monod-type kinetics model that includes oxygen and the reactive constituents. MTBE was assumed to be non-reactive. For MTBE, infiltration had the greatest effect on transport to groundwater. Infiltration also affected mass losses of MTBE to the atmosphere, particularly, in fine-grained soils. Depth to groundwater and soil type primarily affected travel times of MTBE to groundwater, but could affect mass-loading rates to groundwater if infiltration is insignificant. For benzene, transport to groundwater was significant only if the depth to the water table was groundwater were generally smaller for benzene than for MTBE by more than two orders of magnitude. Thus, water that recharges an aquifer beneath a spill can be enriched in MTBE relative to benzene when compared to the composition of water in equilibrium with gasoline.

  2. High-speed civil transport issues and technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1992-01-01

    A strawman program plan is presented, consisting of technology developments and demonstrations required to support the construction of a high-speed civil transport. The plan includes a compilation of technology issues related to the development of a transport. The issues represent technical areas in which research and development are required to allow airframe manufacturers to pursue an HSCT development. The vast majority of technical issues presented require flight demonstrated and validated solutions before a transport development will be undertaken by the industry. The author believes that NASA is the agency best suited to address flight demonstration issues in a concentrated effort. The new Integrated Test Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility is considered ideally suited to the task of supporting ground validations of proof-of-concept and prototype system demonstrations before night demonstrations. An elaborate ground hardware-in-the-loop (iron bird) simulation supported in this facility provides a viable alternative to developing an expensive fill-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator. Drygen's SR-71 assets, modified appropriately, are a suitable test-bed for supporting flight demonstrations and validations of certain transport technology solutions. A subscale, manned or unmanned flight demonstrator is suitable for flight validation of transport technology solutions, if appropriate structural similarity relationships can be established. The author contends that developing a full-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator is the best alternative to ensuring that a positive decision to develop a transport is reached by the United States aerospace industry.

  3. Regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in mutual loading systems of electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of mainline and industrial transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research data are aimed to identify the regulatory principles of unbalanced electromagnetic moment of mutually loaded electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of main and industrial transport. The purpose of this study is energy efficiency increase of the testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current using the improvement methods of their mutual loading, including the principles of automatic regulation of mutual loading system. Methodology. The general theoretical provisions and principles of system approach to the theoretical electric engineering, the theory of electric machines and theoretical mechanics are the methodological basis of this research. The known methods of analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in electrical machines of direct and pulse current are used in the study. Methods analysis of loading modes regulation of traction electric machines was conducted using the generalized scheme of mutual loading. It is universal for all known methods to cover the losses of idling using the electric power. Findings. The general management principles of mutual loading modes of the traction electric machines of direct and pulse current by regulating their unbalanced electric magnetic moment were developed. Regulatory options of unbalanced electromagnetic moment are examined by changing the difference of the magnetic fluxes of mutually loaded electric machines, the current difference of electric machines anchors, the difference of the angular velocities of electric machines shafts. Originality. It was obtained the scientific basis development to improve the energy efficiency test methods of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current. The management principles of mutual loading modes of traction electric machines were formulated. For the first time it is introduced the concept and developed the principles of regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in

  4. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  5. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  6. Regulation of above-ground oil and waste containers. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, January 26, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Representatives from the petroleum industry, US EPA, National Bureau of Standards and Congress were among those testifying at a hearing to discuss one of the worst inland environmental disasters in this Nation's history. The January 2 collapse of the Ashland Oil Co.'s storage tank in Floreffe, Pennsylvania resulted in the release of some 4 million gallons of diesel fuel. Approximately a million gallons escaped the containment structures and spilled over into the Monongahela River. This spill has contaminated the drinking water sources for millions of people downstream, from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati to Louisville, and beyond. Attention is focused on the causes of this tank's collapse, the response measures taken by Ashland Oil, the Coast Guard, the EPA, and the need for tighter federal regulations of above-ground tanks used for the storage of petroleum and hazardous substances.

  7. Chlor-alkali industrial contamination and riverine transport of mercury: Distribution and partitioning of mercury between water, suspended matter, and bottom sediment of the Thur River, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Total dissolved and total particulate Hg mass balances were estimated during one hydrological period (July 2001-June 2002) in the Thur River basin, which is heavily polluted by chlor-alkali industrial activity. The seasonal variations of the Hg dynamics in the aquatic environment were assessed using total Hg concentrations in bottom sediment and suspended matter, and total and reactive dissolved Hg concentrations in the water. The impact of the chlor-alkali plant (CAP) remains the largest concern for Hg contamination of this river system. Upstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning between dissolved and particulate phases was principally controlled by the dissolved fraction due to snow melting during spring high flow, while during low flow, Hg was primarily adsorbed onto particulates. Downstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning is controlled by the concentration of dissolved organic and inorganic ligands and by the total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations. Nevertheless, the particulate fluxes were five times higher than the dissolved ones. Most of the total annual flux of Hg supplied by the CAP to the river is transported to the outlet of the catchment (total Hg flux: 70 μg m -2 a -1 ). Downstream from the CAP, the bottom sediment, mainly composed of coarse sediment (>63 μm) and depleted in organic matter, has a weak capacity to trap Hg in the river channel and the stock of Hg is low (4 mg m -2 ) showing that the residence time of Hg in this river is short

  8. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  9. Confirmation of Elevated Methane Emissions in Utah's Uintah Basin With Ground-Based Observations and a High-Resolution Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C. S.; Crosman, E. T.; Holland, L.; Mallia, D. V.; Fasoli, B.; Bares, R.; Horel, J.; Lin, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Large CH4 leak rates have been observed in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, an area with over 10,000 active and producing natural gas and oil wells. In this paper, we model CH4 concentrations at four sites in the Uintah Basin and compare the simulated results to in situ observations at these sites during two spring time periods in 2015 and 2016. These sites include a baseline location (Fruitland), two sites near oil wells (Roosevelt and Castlepeak), and a site near natural gas wells (Horsepool). To interpret these measurements and relate observed CH4 variations to emissions, we carried out atmospheric simulations using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model driven by meteorological fields simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting and High Resolution Rapid Refresh models. These simulations were combined with two different emission inventories: (1) aircraft-derived basin-wide emissions allocated spatially using oil and gas well locations, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and (2) a bottom-up inventory for the entire U.S., from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). At both Horsepool and Castlepeak, the diurnal cycle of modeled CH4 concentrations was captured using NOAA emission estimates but was underestimated using the EPA inventory. These findings corroborate emission estimates from the NOAA inventory, based on daytime mass balance estimates, and provide additional support for a suggested leak rate from the Uintah Basin that is higher than most other regions with natural gas and oil development.

  10. SutraPlot, a graphical post-processor for SUTRA, a model for ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a graphical display post-processor (SutraPlot) for the U.S. Geological Survey Saturated-Unsaturated flow and solute or energy TRAnsport simulation model SUTRA, Version 2D3D.1. This version of SutraPlot is an upgrade to SutraPlot for the 2D-only SUTRA model (Souza, 1987). It has been modified to add 3D functionality, a graphical user interface (GUI), and enhanced graphic output options. Graphical options for 2D SUTRA (2-dimension) simulations include: drawing the 2D finite-element mesh, mesh boundary, and velocity vectors; plots of contours for pressure, saturation, concentration, and temperature within the model region; 2D finite-element based gridding and interpolation; and 2D gridded data export files. Graphical options for 3D SUTRA (3-dimension) simulations include: drawing the 3D finite-element mesh; plots of contours for pressure, saturation, concentration, and temperature in 2D sections of the 3D model region; 3D finite-element based gridding and interpolation; drawing selected regions of velocity vectors (projected on principal coordinate planes); and 3D gridded data export files. Installation instructions and a description of all graphic options are presented. A sample SUTRA problem is described and three step-by-step SutraPlot applications are provided. In addition, the methodology and numerical algorithms for the 2D and 3D finite-element based gridding and interpolation, developed for SutraPlot, are described. 1

  11. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  12. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  13. Radiotracer methods for effluent transport studies. A possibility of application for coastal sea waters and underground waters in near-sea region; Metody znacznikowe w badaniach transportu zanieczyszczen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelecki, M.; Owczarczyk, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The surface and ground waters are a final receivers of industrial, agriculture and municipal effluents. The observation of their transport and deposition in environmental waters can be the expansion measure for ecological hazard estimation. The tracer methods are one of more convenient tools for studying the number of problems connecting with environmental waters protection. Among them the topics are described in the paper: transport of effluents in big water reservoirs and rivers as well as the effluent transport in aquifers. 9 refs.

  14. The Effect of Tailored Web-Based Feedback and Optional Telephone Coaching on Health Improvements: A Randomized Intervention Among Employees in the Transport Service Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solenhill, Madeleine; Grotta, Alessandra; Pasquali, Elena; Bakkman, Linda; Bellocco, Rino; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2016-08-11

    Lifestyle-related health problems are an important health concern in the transport service industry. Web- and telephone-based interventions could be suitable for this target group requiring tailored approaches. To evaluate the effect of tailored Web-based health feedback and optional telephone coaching to improve lifestyle factors (body mass index-BMI, dietary intake, physical activity, stress, sleep, tobacco and alcohol consumption, disease history, self-perceived health, and motivation to change health habits), in comparison to no health feedback or telephone coaching. Overall, 3,876 employees in the Swedish transport services were emailed a Web-based questionnaire. They were randomized into: control group (group A, 498 of 1238 answered, 40.23%), or intervention Web (group B, 482 of 1305 answered, 36.93%), or intervention Web + telephone (group C, 493 of 1333 answered, 36.98%). All groups received an identical questionnaire, only the interventions differed. Group B received tailored Web-based health feedback, and group C received tailored Web-based health feedback + optional telephone coaching if the participants' reported health habits did not meet the national guidelines, or if they expressed motivation to change health habits. The Web-based feedback was fully automated. Telephone coaching was performed by trained health counselors. Nine months later, all participants received a follow-up questionnaire and intervention Web + telephone. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, analysis of variance, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. Overall, 981 of 1473 (66.60%) employees participated at baseline (men: 66.7%, mean age: 44 years, mean BMI: 26.4 kg/m(2)) and follow-up. No significant differences were found in reported health habits between the 3 groups over time. However, significant changes were found in motivation to change. The intervention groups reported higher motivation to improve dietary habits (144 of 301 participants, 47

  15. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, e...

  16. Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M.

    2007-01-01

    A borehole testing apparatus has been designed to isolate discrete intervals of a bedrock borehole and conduct hydraulic tests or collect water samples for geochemical analyses. This borehole testing apparatus, referred to as the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3), includes two borehole packers, which when inflated can form a pressure-tight seal against smooth borehole walls; a pump apparatus to withdraw water from between the two packers; a fluid-injection apparatus to inject water between the two packers; pressure transducers to monitor fluid pressure between the two packers, as well as above and below the packers; flowmeters to monitor rates of fluid withdrawal or fluid injection; and data-acquisition equipment to record and store digital records from the pressure transducers and flowmeters. The generic design of this apparatus was originally discussed in United States Patent Number 6,761,062 (Shapiro, 2004). The prototype of the apparatus discussed in this report is designed for boreholes that are approximately 6 inches in diameter and can be used to depths of approximately 300 feet below land surface. The apparatus is designed to fit in five hard plastic boxes that can be shipped by overnight freight car-riers. The equipment can be assembled rapidly once it is removed from the shipping boxes, and the length of the test interval (the distance between the two packers) can be adjusted to account for different borehole conditions without reconfiguring the downhole components. The downhole components of the Multifunction BAT3 can be lowered in a borehole using steel pipe or a cable; a truck mounted winch or a winch and tripod can be used for this purpose. The equipment used to raise and lower the downhole components of the Multifunction BAT3 must be supplied on site, along with electrical power, a compressor or cylinders of compressed gas to inflate the packers and operate downhole valves, and the proper length of tubing to connect the

  17. A Graphical-User Interface for the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA Code using Argus ONE (for simulation of variable-density saturated-unsaturated ground-water flow with solute or energy transport)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Boldt, David; Shapiro, Allen M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a Graphical-User Interface (GUI) for SUTRA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model for saturated-unsaturated variable-fluid-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport,which combines a USGS-developed code that interfaces SUTRA with Argus ONE, a commercial software product developed by Argus Interware. This product, known as Argus Open Numerical Environments (Argus ONETM), is a programmable system with geographic-information-system-like (GIS-like) functionality that includes automated gridding and meshing capabilities for linking geospatial information with finite-difference and finite-element numerical model discretizations. The GUI for SUTRA is based on a public-domain Plug-In Extension (PIE) to Argus ONE that automates the use of ArgusONE to: automatically create the appropriate geospatial information coverages (information layers) for SUTRA, provide menus and dialogs for inputting geospatial information and simulation control parameters for SUTRA, and allow visualization of SUTRA simulation results. Following simulation control data and geospatial data input bythe user through the GUI, ArgusONE creates text files in a format required for normal input to SUTRA,and SUTRA can be executed within the Argus ONE environment. Then, hydraulic head, pressure, solute concentration, temperature, saturation and velocity results from the SUTRA simulation may be visualized. Although the GUI for SUTRA discussed in this report provides all of the graphical pre- and post-processor functions required for running SUTRA, it is also possible for advanced users to apply programmable features within Argus ONE to modify the GUI to meet the unique demands of particular ground-water modeling projects.

  18. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  19. Boron: out of the sky and onto the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    Now an accepted, engineered material for aerospace applications, boron is taking its place on the ground. Both current production applications, prototype (development) applications, and speculative applications abound. In the leisure product market, boron epoxy or boron aluminum has been used or tried in golf clubs (in combination with graphite epoxy or to reinforce aluminum or steel), in tennis racquets, in bicycles, racing shells, skis and skipoles, bows and arrows, and others. In the industrial area, boron has been used to reduce fatigue, increase stiffness, or for its abrasive properties. Textile machinery, honing tools, and cut off wheels or saws are among the applications. In the medical field, prosthetics and orthotic braces, wheel chairs, canes, and crutches are all good applications for boron. Applications for boron in transportation, construction, and heavy industry are also possible. The volume of boron used in these applications could have a major impact on prices, making boron composite parts cost competitive with conventional materials. (U.S.)

  20. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  1. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety review...

  2. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  3. 49 CFR 8.31 - Industrial security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial security. 8.31 Section 8.31.../ACCESS Access to Information § 8.31 Industrial security. (a) Background. The National Industrial Security... industrial security services for the Department of Transportation. Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of...

  4. Modelling the pressurization induced by solar radiation on above ground installations of LPG pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporini, M.; Terenzi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Giacchetta, G.; Polonara, F.; Corvaro, F.; Cocci Grifoni, R.

    2017-11-01

    Pipelining Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a mode of LPG transportation more environmentally-friendly than others due to the lower energy consumption and exhaust emissions. Worldwide, there are over 20000 kilometers of LPG pipelines. There are a number of codes that industry follows for the design, fabrication, construction and operation of liquid LPG pipelines. However, no standards exist to modelling particular critical phenomena which can occur on these lines due to external environmental conditions like the solar radiation pressurization. In fact, the solar radiation can expose above ground pipeline sections at pressure values above the maximum Design Pressure with resulting risks and problems. The present work presents an innovative practice suitable for the Oil & Gas industry to modelling the pressurization induced by the solar radiation on above ground LPG pipeline sections with the application to a real case.

  5. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  6. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  7. Atributos do Serviço de Transporte no Relacionamento Indústria-VarejoAttributes of Transport Service in Retail-Industry RelationshipAtributos del Servicio de Transporte en la Relación Industria-Ventas al por Menor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS, Ricardo Silveira

    2011-06-01

    the supply chains. In the universe of 400 manufacturing companies located in the state of Minas Gerais, 101 were selected as they had a retail account for more than 60% of their sales, which was analyzed as to the desired constructs and attributed evaluation. In general, industrial shippers seem to minimize the importance of logistics in the retail service, giving the transport merely operational functions and not strategic ones. They fail to aggregate the value of logistics to their products and services. The results forwarded to specific management issues relevant such as the relationship between orders fulfillment and problems of internal processes, structure of distribution channels, logistics networks and decisions about to internalizing/outsourcing logistics services.RESUMENEn el segmento de la distribución, las actividades logísticas se perciben más fácilmente como generadoras de valor. Entre ellas, el transporte tiene gran significado. Así, este estudio tuvo por objetivo analizar la gestión del transporte en las empresas industriales que trabajan con ventas al por menor. La motivación de los estudios se debe a que, en la literatura hay evidencias de que, la forma de gestionar el transporte en términos de atributos del servicio es diferente según el cliente; como también en lo referente al formato de la demanda de servicios de transporte y sus especificidades para atender segmentos de la cadena de suministro. Entre 400 empresas industriales instaladas en el estado de Minas Gerais, se seleccionaron 101, cuyas ventas al por menor correspondían a más del 60% de las ventas, se realizaron análisis de los constructos deseados y evaluación de atributo. En general, los embarcadores industriales parecen minimizar la importancia de la logística en los servicios al por menor y atribuyen al transporte funciones meramente operacionales, o sea, no estratégicas. Por lo tanto, dejan de agregar el valor de la logística a sus productos y servicios. Los

  8. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  9. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  10. Full Employment in Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Argues that full employment must be acceptable on both social and economic grounds. Examines profound changes in industrialized economies since the 1970s and the diversity of employment contracts. Suggests that difficult policy decisions surround full employment. (SK)

  11. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  12. Analysis of the potential of near-ground measurements of CO2 and CH4 in London, UK, for the monitoring of city-scale emissions using an atmospheric transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Alex; Broquet, Grégoire; Clifford, Deborah J.; Chevallier, Frédéric; Butterfield, David M.; Pison, Isabelle; Ramonet, Michel; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ciais, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions were measured at four near-ground sites located in and around London during the summer of 2012 with a view to investigating the potential of assimilating such measurements in an atmospheric inversion system for the monitoring of the CO2 and CH4 emissions in the London area. These data were analysed and compared with simulations using a modelling framework suited to building an inversion system: a 2 km horizontal resolution south of England configuration of the transport model CHIMERE driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) meteorological forcing, coupled to a 1 km horizontal resolution emission inventory (the UK National Atmospheric Emission Inventory). First comparisons reveal that local sources, which cannot be represented in the model at a 2 km resolution, have a large impact on measurements. We evaluate methods to filter out the impact of some of the other critical sources of discrepancies between the measurements and the model simulation except that of the errors in the emission inventory, which we attempt to isolate. Such a separation of the impact of errors in the emission inventory should make it easier to identify the corrections that should be applied to the inventory. Analysis is supported by observations from meteorological sites around the city and a 3-week period of atmospheric mixing layer height estimations from lidar measurements. The difficulties of modelling the mixing layer depth and thus CO2 and CH4 concentrations during the night, morning and late afternoon lead to focusing on the afternoon period for all further analyses. The discrepancies between observations and model simulations are high for both CO2 and CH4 (i.e. their root mean square (RMS) is between 8 and 12 parts per million (ppm) for CO2 and between 30 and 55 parts per billion (ppb) for CH4 at a given site). By analysing the gradients between the urban sites and a suburban or rural reference site, we

  13. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.

    2007-04-01

    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  14. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  15. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  16. Economic modelling of the capture-transport-sink scenario of industrial CO2 emissions: The Estonian-Latvian cross-border case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Pomeranceva, R.; Nulle, I.; Neele, F.; Hendriks, C.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial CO2 emissions and opportunities for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Region were studied within the EU GeoCapacity project supported by the European Union Framework Programme 6. Estonia produces the largest amounts of CO2 emissions in the region, due to the combustion of Estonian oil

  17. Wheelchairmanship Project. A Program to Educate Personnel in the Transportation, Hotel and Restaurant, and Entertainment Industries in Improved Techniques for Serving Disabled People. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anita P.; And Others

    In a project designed to train customer service personnel in improved methods of assisting the physically disabled, audio-visual training materials were developed and presented during 2-week courses involving 1,058 employees at transportation, hotel/restaurant, and entertainment centers in 25 cities. The participants judged the training program…

  18. The Secretary of Transportation's Report to the Congress on the Long Term Viability of the Chrysler Corporation's Involvement in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979, under Sections 12. (a) and (d) of the Act, requires the Secretary of Transportation, after consulting with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Labor, to conduct an assessment of the long-t...

  19. .: Risk sharing in the paper ticket distribution system on the example of municipal transport union of the upper Silesian industrial district in Katowice

    OpenAIRE

    Anna URBANEK

    2015-01-01

    Properly organized ticket distribution is a crucial tool to realize tariff policy of public passenger transport provider in the given area, as well as the factor influencing the ticket sale profits. Providing the proper accessibility of public communication ticket sale network requires signing contracts with third parties, which is consequently connected with the necessity to divide the tasks and responsibilities among them, which generates certain risk for each of the parties. In the article...

  20. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  1. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  2. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  3. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  4. Transbios - a unified model for assessment of the effect of noxious materials in ground water to the biosphere. Compilation of the model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejlek, G.

    1992-06-01

    This model of radionuclide propagation in the biosphere is part of the project 'Final Deposition of Low- and Medium- active Wastes from Hospitals, University Institutes and Industry'. The six parts are: a flow-and transport model in ground water, an evaporation-transpiration model, a transfer model soil-to-plant, a water cycle- and a food chain model. Solutions are designed and peculiarities of the program are outlined. Finally the individual parts are integrated into the overall model

  5. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  6. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  7. Industry and energy; Industrie et energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birules y Bertran, A.M. [Ministere des Sciences et de la Technologie (Spain); Folgado Blanco, J. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Economie, a l' Energie et aux PME du Royaume d' Espagne (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This document is the provisional version of the summary of the debates of the 2433. session of the European Union Council about various topics relative to the industry and the energy. The energy-related topics that have been debated concern: the government helps in coal industry, the internal electricity and gas market, the trans-European energy networks, the bio-fuels in transportation systems, the energy charter, the pluri-annual energy program, and the green book on the security of energy supplies. (J.S.)

  8. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  9. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  10. Environmental protection systems for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The transportation of petroleum products and other chemicals can involve spillage and leaks despite being closely controlled. Human error in the loading of road tankers or consumers refuelling their vehicles at service stations can lead to spillage accidents. Seepage through permeable concrete and its expansion joints can occur for diesel underground tanks with serious environmental consequences. This article describes methods which could be adopted by the petroleum industry to prevent these accidental incidents from causing environmental pollution. Service station forecourts could be constructed, using precast concrete hexagonal blocks with dry sand between them and then have a coating of sealant to prevent spills from seeping into ground water. Secondary containment for underground tanks should be given an elastomeric membrane coating. (UK)

  11. Statistics of gas industry in France for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Here are the summary about the data related to natural gas industry in France for 1995. Resources, production, transport, distribution are given. Tables of consumption by industrial area are detailed. The different transports or storages are shown. (N.C.)

  12. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  13. 75 FR 70347 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Regulations, notice is hereby given that the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) has... matters concerning the U.S. commercial space transportation industry. The [[Page 70348

  14. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  15. Policy study: energy conservation in transportation in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, J

    1978-09-01

    The present study is an initial effort to apply social system analysis to transportation energy conservation, in order to prepare the ground for a team effort of transportation and energy specialists, regional planners, policy analysis and generalists, and government administrators - with additional imputs from commerce, industry and the community at large. The task of this study has been to inventory the principal factors and inputs in the field of transportation energy demand and possible conservation, estimate their magnitudes and relations, and arrange in a tentative but reasoned pattern - where there were before only so many scattered data, technical studies with a limited focus, sectoral programs and decisions, and vague impressions about the serviceability, the impacts and the social value of the product.

  16. Transportation of spent fuel from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1993-01-01

    The French 'Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires' - COGEMA - is involved in the whole nuclear fuel cycle about 20 years. Among the different parts of the cycle, the Transport of Radioactive Materials, acting as a link between the differents plants has a great importance. As nuclear material transportation is the only fuel cycle step to be performed on public grounds, the industrial task has to be performed with the utmost stringent safety criteria. COGEMA and associates is now operating a fully mature commercial activity, with some 300 spent fuel shipments per year from its reprocessing customer's reactors to the LA HAGUE plant, either by rail, road or sea. The paper will review the organization of COGEMA transportation business, the level of technology with an update of the casks used for spent fuel, and the operational experience, with a particular view of the maintenance policy. (author)

  17. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  18. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  19. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  20. Contribution to investigations on trace elements transport in the Channel: spatial distribution of industrial tracers in mytilus edulis and fucus serratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Masson, M.; Baron, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of artificial tracers - gamma emitters - has been studied in biological indicator species, mussels and fucus, along the french and english Channel shores in order to gain a better knowledge of trace elements transports in the Channel coastal areas. The main conclusions are supplied by 106 Ru-Rh and 60 Co. Extension of species labelling is larger eastwards than westwards, and the differences recorded between french and english shores show weak exchanges between south and north Channel; in the norman-breton gulf and in the Seine river bay, the distribution of radioactive tracers demonstrates complex current processes. The results are compared to the hydrodynamical studies carried out through models and follow-up of radioactive tracers in sea-water. Particular processes have been observed, corresponding to areas where the decay gradient from the source term is not respected (western Cotentin shore, western Seine Bay, Caux aerea). They are discussed in relation with fresh - sea water mixing, current and physico-chemical problems [fr

  1. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface ground water: background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas and water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers examined gas and water transport between a deep tight shale gas reservoir and a shallow overlying aquifer in the two years following hydraulic fracturing, assuming a pre-existing connecting pathway.

  2. River as a part of ground battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  3. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  4. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  5. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  6. El uso y transporte del agua en la Fábrica Papelera de Peña Pobre. Un estudio de Arqueología Industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinhúe Lucas Landgrave

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos acuíferos de la zona sur del valle de México tuvieron una importante repercusión en las tempranas industrias del país que se situaron en esta vasta región delimitada naturalmente por a las serranías colindantes, esta zona fue uno de los principales protagonistas junto con algunas partes del estado de Puebla del toque de la industrialización tan anhelado para nuestro país. Muchas empresas tanto papeleras como aquellas destinadas a la producción de textiles encontraron en esta región las cantidades suficientes de agua para sus respectivos procesos productivos que así lo demandaban. Es por ello que dicha parte sureña que actualmente ocupa el Distrito Federal fue muy atractiva en términos de recursos naturales como lo son el abastecimiento de agua, producto de las escorrentías de los cerros, varios ríos tanto de corrientes permanentes como de temporal, la cercanía de diversos manantiales que existieron y algunos que aún existen en la región. Aunado a estas características, existió una nutrida fuente de recursos madereros provenientes de las zonas serranas pertenecientes a los bosques del Ajusco y demás sistemas montañosos colindantes en donde es común la presencia de Pino, Cedro y Oyamel, lo que constituyó el escenario propicio que dio la oportunidad de fincar estas factorías, y lo que es más importante aún, garantizar su crecimiento. Dicho escenario natural fue el lugar propicio para que la Fábrica Papelera de Peña Pobre, se asentara en el siglo XIX. Este Artículo presenta un estúdio de Arqueología Industrial.

  7. Efficiency Standard in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    A technological transition in the transport sector could be only be possible with a convergence of objectives of the automotive and the fuel industries, which is not very simple to obtain. Fuel economy standards could differently reduce the growing trend of CO 2 emissions in this sector but regulators should avoid capture from domestic industry. [it

  8. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  9. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  10. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1988-08-01

    This document reports progress on a study of large transport packages for decommissioning waste and is the semi-annual report for the period 1 January - 30 June 1988. The main tasks performed during the period related to the assembly of package design criteria ie those aspects of manufacture, handling, storage, transport and disposal which impose constraints on design. This work was synthesised into a design specification for packages which formed the conclusion of that task and was the entry into the final task - the development of package design concepts. The design specifications, which concentrated on the Industrial Package category of the IAEA Transport Regulations, has been interpreted for the two main concepts (a) a self-shielded package disposed of in its entirety and (b) a package with returnable shielding. Preliminary information has been prepared on the cost of providing the package as well as transport to a repository and disposal. There is considerable uncertainty about the cost of disposal and variations of over a factor of 10 are possible. Under these circumstances there is merit in choosing a design concept which is relatively insensitive to disposal cost variations. The initial results indicate that on these grounds the package with returnable shielding is preferred. (author)

  11. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  12. Farmaceutische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; van der Poel P; Etman EJ; Montfoort JA; LAE

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport over de farmaceutische industrie is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning van het overheidsbeleid op het

  13. Lessons learned from Brazilian natural gas industry reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)

  14. Formation keeping of unmanned ground vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muangmin Kamonwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling motions of an unmanned ground vehicle becomes more popular in real world practices. Its application is useful for household chores, military services, medical purposes, and industrial revolutions, etc. An analysis of motions by using the Fundamental Equations of Constrained Motion (FECM is one effective tool to determine the motions. Its conceptualization is done in three-step procedure as follows: (I Determining an unconstrained motion (II Assigning constraint equations and (III Computing a constrained motion. The equations of motion obtained are expressed as liner functions of acceleration. Then other kinematical information of the unmanned ground vehicles can be obtained by integration its acceleration. In this work, the FECM is used as a tool to analyze motions of a group of unmanned ground vehicles in various forms. The simulation results show that control forces obtained from the approach can regulate motions of unmanned ground vehicles to maneuver in desired formations.

  15. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  16. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  17. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  18. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  19. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  20. Industry and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birules y Bertran, A.M.; Folgado Blanco, J.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the provisional version of the summary of the debates of the 2433. session of the European Union Council about various topics relative to the industry and the energy. The energy-related topics that have been debated concern: the government helps in coal industry, the internal electricity and gas market, the trans-European energy networks, the bio-fuels in transportation systems, the energy charter, the pluri-annual energy program, and the green book on the security of energy supplies. (J.S.)

  1. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  3. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  4. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  5. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  6. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  8. Coordenação vertical do transporte de madeira: análise empírica dos arranjos institucionais existentes na indústria brasileira de celulose Wood transport vertical coordination: an empirical analysis of the brazilian pulp industry institutional arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Arruda Moraes Ribeiro

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata dos elementos que influenciam o processo de escolha dos distintos arranjos institucionais existentes no transporte de madeira entre florestas e fábricas de celulose. Buscou-se, a partir de análises estatísticas, detectar a influência das variáveis descritas pela Economia dos Custos de Transação - ECT - no processo de escolha dos arranjos institucionais. No processo de análise foram discutidas, sob a ótica dos custos de transação, não apenas as questões referentes à integração vertical, mas também aquelas referentes ao tamanho dos agentes envolvidos na transação.This paper presents an analysis of the elements that influence the decision process of distinct institutional arrangements for the wood transport between forest and pulp industries. It aimed, through statistical analysis, at detecting the influence of the variables described in the Transaction-Cost Economics (TCE for the decision process of institutional arrangements. The discussion includes not only vertical integration aspects, but those regarding the size of the carriers involved in the transactions.

  9. Adjusted on climate changes? Results from a company survey for the adaptation in the energy industry and transportation; Eingestellt auf Klimafolgen? Ergebnisse einer Unternehmensbefragung zur Anpassung in der Energie- und Verkehrswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechan, Anna; Rotter, Maja; Eisenack, Klaus

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study is to gain an empirical insight into the different approaches German companies from the rail transport and power supply industries are taking to deal with the impacts of cli-mate change. The study analyses the character of these approaches as well as possible endoge-nous and exogenous factors that influence the companies dealing with the issue. A survey was conducted in the course of summer 2010 within the state-funded research project ''Chameleon - Adaptation to climate change in the utility sector'' using a standardised online-questionnaire. The main result of the survey is that utility companies begin to actively deal with the impacts of cli-mate change. About two thirds of the participating companies internally discuss the issue and more than a half already incorporate it into their strategic planning. Yet, one fifth of the companies do not treat the issue at all. While approximately one quarter plan to implement concrete measures, an-other fifth of the companies indicate to have already implemented steps to deal with the impacts. However, due to a partially obvious mixing or confusion of the issues of adaptation and mitigation, the indicated steps might not exclusively be adaptation related. (orig.)

  10. The national-economic cost of reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Comparison of investments aimed towards a reduced greenhouse gas emission in power industry, agriculture, transportation sector and other essential greenhouse gas sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    For a number of years the cost of reducing CO 2 emissions in the energy sector in Denmark has been investigated in detail. The same has not been the case what concerns the cost of reducing other greenhouse gases (CH 4 and N 2 O) and especially not what concerns the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases in other sectors in the Danish economy, i.e. agriculture, transport, industry, domestic waste and forestry. Thus, the objective of this project was twofold: 1) To calculate the national economic costs related to a number of options for reducing Danish greenhouse gas emissions (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) by using the same methodology for all important sectors in the economy and 2) To compare the cost efficiency of these options not only wihtin the individual sectors but also across the sectoral boundaries to achieve an overall view of the reduction possibilities in society and the associated costs. (au) 80 refs.; Prepared by Forskningscenter Risoe and Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser. Afdeling for Systemanalyse

  11. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  12. Topics in industrial mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsya, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs

  13. Process industry properties in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing

    2005-01-01

    In this article the writer has described the definition of process industry, expounded the fact classifying nuclear industry as process industry, compared the differences between process industry and discrete industry, analysed process industry properties in nuclear industry and their important impact, and proposed enhancing research work on regularity of process industry in nuclear industry. (authors)

  14. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  15. 77 FR 10943 - Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... 14.0 Transportation. 485510 Charter Bus Industry 7.0 14.0 485991 Special Needs Transportation... NAICS Sector 48-49. That represents 0.7 percent of total firms in industries in that Sector that have... Limousine Service 14.0 485410 School and Employee Bus 14.0 Transportation. 485510 Charter Bus Industry 14.0...

  16. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  17. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  18. Industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of industrial symbiosis through a practical model for physical, organizational, and social interactions in six different cases from around the world. The results provide a framework that can be used by industrial symbiosis practitioners to facilitate the creation...

  19. Summary statement on emergency planning for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S S

    1983-08-01

    Present federal policy relies mainly on market forces for assuring adequate energy supplies. In addition to national oil stockpiles, the federal government has developed, but not yet tested, an early warning system for energy shortages, in cooperation with the Department of Defense. Primary responsibility for detailed contingency planning rests with the states. Transportation systems are undergoing general change and adaptation, which government should promote while managing its own transportation resources optimally. Government planning for emergencies of all varieties should be inter-agency directed, but constrained by full recognition of extensive remedial action taken at the local level. Industry emergency planning encompasses measures by the manufacturing sector, including optimal fuel economy for vehicles and the possible use of alternative fuels. Railroad contingency planning requires some federal and regional government regulatory reforms. The federal fuel allocation program was detrimental to all transportation modes. The appropriate degree of fuel price stabilization during shortages remains highly controversial, partly on the grounds that controls lower GNP. The prevalent view was that priority allocations at any level are worse than price allocations. Equity issues should be addressed at the local level and transfers carried out in the form of money. Field evaluations, combined with quantitative modeling of the issues raised here, would be highly desirable.

  20. Analysis of an optimal public transport structure under a carbon emission constraint: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linling; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Yang, Tong

    2018-02-01

    Along with the rapid development of the transportation industry, the problems of the energy crisis and transport emissions have become increasingly serious. The success of traffic emission reduction is related to the realization of global low-carbon goals. Placing priority on public transport is the internationally recognized traffic development model. This paper takes Shanghai, China, as an example to examine the optimal public transport structure. Five factors were selected from personal and public perspectives, including travel costs, crowding degree, occupied area, traffic emissions, and operating subsidies. The objective functions of these factors were transformed into satisfaction functions, and a multi-objective programming model was used to solve for the optimal proportions of the ground bus and rail transit, and the carbon emission reduction potential was analyzed in different scenarios. The study showed that the actual proportion of rail transit in Shanghai was slightly lower than the optimal value, and accompanied by low satisfaction with each factor relative to the optimal value. It was difficult to achieve the traffic emission reduction targets by only reducing satisfaction with other factors except carbon emissions assuming a fixed proportion of public transport. As the proportion of total travel represented by public transport increased, rail transit became the main mode of public transport and the usage trend was more obvious, but the structure of public transport gradually reached a relatively stable state after a certain level of development. Compared to reducing carbon emissions by changing satisfaction with other factors, it was easier to achieve traffic emission reduction targets by increasing the proportion of public transport. To increase the proportion of public transport travel and achieve the goal of traffic reduction in the future, further improvements are needed in the quality of public transport system services, public transport

  1. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  2. Exchange of moisture between atmosphere and ground regarding tritium transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnenberg, C.

    1980-09-01

    Two measuring equipment have been developed in the framework of this study which fulfill important conditions to avoid microclimatic interferences during measurement by using site-specific ground samples and embedding these in the ground surface. The beta-absorption lysimeter allows the detection of a minimum deposit height of 0.001 mm in a 1 mm sample layer. The conductivity moisture probe is to measure the moisture diffusion within the first 80 mm of the upper ground with a vertical spacial resolution of 2 mm. It is possible to measure a minimum water content increase of 0.02 wt% per 2 mm ground layer using this probe. The influences of single microclimatic parameter on condensation and evaporation were investigated and a transport equation was developed. Investigations in the Negev proved the application ability of the measuring equipment. The application of the transport equation showed very good agreement with the measured values. When the ground surface starts to cool in the afternoon, there is a countercurrent moisture transport from the atmosphere and the deeper ground layers which lead to a higher water content in the upper ground layer. At about 50 mm depth there is an overlapping layer of the two moisture flows which remains almost constant over the 24 h cycle. This exchange zone of atmospheric humidity and ground water must be paid great attention with regard to HTO transfer. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  4. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  5. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  6. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human,......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events....

  7. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  8. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  9. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  10. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  11. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  12. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  13. 2008 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This Public Transportation Fact Book presents statistics describing the entire United States transit industry for 1995 : through 2006 with additional detail and overview presentations for 2006. Also included are definitions of reported data : items.

  14. 2010 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Public Transportation Fact Book, published annually, contains national aggregate statistical data covering all aspects of the transit industry in the United States and Canada. Two appendices, also available, provide additional in-depth informatio...

  15. Intelligent Transportation Systems : critical standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards are industry-consensus standards that provide the details about how different systems interconnect and communicate information to deliver the ITS user services described in the National ITS Architect...

  16. Statistics of gas industry in France for 1995; Statistiques de l`industrie gaziere en France pour l`annee 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Here are the summary about the data related to natural gas industry in France for 1995. Resources, production, transport, distribution are given. Tables of consumption by industrial area are detailed. The different transports or storages are shown. (N.C.).

  17. Nuclear transport - The regulatory dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits that the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have brought to society are due in no small part to industry's capacity to transport radioactive materials safely, efficiently and reliably. The nuclear transport industry has a vital role in realising a fundamental objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as stated in its statute to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The context in which transports currently take place is complex, and rapidly changing. In many respects transport is being viewed as an integral market issue and not a subsidiary concern. The availability of carriers drives routing decisions and changes in material flows necessitate new approaches to packaging and transport scenarios. Pressures on the transport sector are not without serious consequences; they can cause delays and in some cases cancellation of planned movements. Complex routings and the necessary use of chartered carriers can push up costs and work against cost efficiency. Since the events of 11 September 2001 the security of nuclear transports has contributed an added dimension to how transports take place. Transports of radioactive material have an outstanding safety record, indeed the transport of such materials could be regarded as a model for the transport of other classes of dangerous goods. This safety record is achieved by two inter-related factors. It is due primarily to well founded regulations developed by such key intergovernmental organisations as the IAEA, with the essential contributions of the member states who participate in the implementation of regulations and the review process. It is due also to the professionalism of those in the industry. There is a necessary synergy between the two - between the regulators whose task it is to make and to enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. It

  18. Heat pipes for ground heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L

    1988-01-01

    Different versions of heat pipe ground heating and cooling devices are considered. Solar energy, biomass, ground stored energy, recovered heat of industrial enterprises and ambient cold air are used as energy and cold sources. Heat pipe utilization of air in winter makes it possible to design accumulators of cold and ensures deep freezing of ground in order to increase its mechanical strength when building roadways through the swamps and ponds in Siberia. Long-term underground heat storage systems are considered, in which the solar and biomass energy is accumulated and then transferred to heat dwellings and greenhouses, as well as to remove snow from roadways with the help of heat pipes and solar collectors.

  19. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  20. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  1. Panel 4 - applications to transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Au, J. [Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States); Bhattacharya, R. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Blunier, D. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Boardman, B. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Brombolich, L. [Compu-Tec Engineering, Chesterfield, MO (United States); Davidson, J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Graham, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hakim, N. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Harris, K. [Dubbeldee Harris Diamond Corp., Mt. Arlington, NJ (United States); Hay, R. [Norton Diamond Film, Northboro, MA (United States); Herk, L. [Southwest Research Inst., Southfield, MI (United States); Hojnacki, H.; Rourk, D. [Intelligent Structures Incorporated, Canton, MI (United States); Kamo, R. [Adiabatics, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Nieman, B. [Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); O`Neill, D. [3M, St. Paul, MN (United States); Peterson, M.B. [Wear Sciences, Arnold, MD (United States); Pfaffenberger, G. [Allison Gas Turbine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Pryor, R.W. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Russell, J. [Superconductivity Publications, Inc., Somerset, NJ (United States); Syniuta, W. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States); Tamor, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Vojnovich, T. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Yarbrough, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Yust, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this group was to compile a listing of current and anticipated future problem areas in the transportation industry where the properties of diamond and DLC films make them especially attractive and where the panel could strongly endorse the establishment of DOE/Transportation Industry cooperative research efforts. This section identifies the problem areas for possible applications of diamond/DLC technology and presents indications of current approaches to these problems.

  2. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  3. Yet Another Puzzle of Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korbmacher, J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that any predicational theory of partial ground that extends a standard theory of syntax and that proves some commonly accepted principles for partial ground is inconsistent. We suggest a way to obtain a consistent predicational theory of ground.

  4. Road safety and trade and industry.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Trade and industry mostly experience the negative consequences of crashes, but sometimes the consequences are positive. The negative consequences of road traffic crashes include loss of personnel and damage to vehicles. Some other industries, such as damage repair companies, on the other hand, derive income from road crashes. Trade and industry can also be of importance for road safety. Particularly the transport sector, the car industry and insurers take several initiatives which for example...

  5. Industrial practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Torrez, Patricia Irma

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the industrial practices carried out by the author viewing the requirements fulfilled for obtention the academic degree in chemical engineering of the San Andres University - Bolivia

  6. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginter, Michael J; Andersen, James L; Becker, John A; Belliveau, Gerald E; Eppich, Frank J; Awai, Herman T; Hanko, David J; Hughes, Bob; Jones, Douglas; Larson, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    .... area, New York State, Silicon Valley (California), Taiwan, and China. This approach provides a wide range of perspectives from which to examine the selected industry's current condition, outlook, and challenges...

  7. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet on industrial radiography aims to inform directors and managers of industrial radiography companies on the safety precautions necessary to ensure that their personnel do not exceed dose guidelines for exposure to ionizing radiation. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) require that exposure doses for radiographers are kept as low reasonably practicable. Equipment maintenance, and the employment of proper emergency procedures will help to ensure personnel safety. (UK)

  8. Industrial ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelle, Ch.

    1999-04-01

    After having given the definition of the term 'ceramics', the author describes the different manufacturing processes of these compounds. These materials are particularly used in the fields of 1)petroleum industry (in primary and secondary reforming units, in carbon black reactors and ethylene furnaces). 2)nuclear industry (for instance UO 2 and PuO 2 as fuels; SiC for encapsulation; boron carbides for control systems..)

  9. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  10. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  11. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  12. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  13. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  14. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    Modern airports are centers of transportation that service a large number of aircraft and passengers every day. To facilitate this large volume of transportation, airports are subject to many logistical and decision problems that must continuously be solved to make sure each flight and passenger ...

  15. NMHC emissions from Asia: sources and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, T.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Chan, J. C.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Takigawa, M.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    Recent rapid industrialization and economic growth in Asia changed the industrial structure, land use, and people's lifestyle resulting in a dramatic change in the amount and composition of the gas emissions from Asia. Because emissions can be transported very rapidly once convected to the free troposphere, Asian emissions can affect both local and regional air quality and climate. To access the impact of changing emission from Asia, an airborne observation campaign PEACE (the Pacific Exploration of Asian Continental Emission) phase-A and B were conducted in January and April - May 2002, respectively, sponsored by NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). The concentrations of NMHCs (nonmethanehydrocarbons) and halocarbons were obtained by whole air sampling and subsequent gas chromatography analyses in the laboratory. Quantified onboard the aircraft were CO, CO2, O3, NO, NO2, NOy, H2O, SO2, aerosols, and condensation nuclei. The experiment was conducted in the vicinity of Japan and PEACE-A and B represent the local winter and spring weather conditions. The trace gas distributions in the lower troposphere were often influenced by local pollution (i.e. from Japan, Korea) while those of the long-range transport (i.e. from Europe) were occasionally seen in the upper troposphere. This is confirmed by the airmass age estimation using the ratios of short-lived gases (i.e. C2H4) vs. more stable compounds (i.e. CO). Emissions from China were distinguished using data obtained from ground-based sampling and measurements. Transport from China was seen both in the lower troposphere and upper troposphere. Some case studies on source identification will be discussed.

  16. Techniques for assessing water resource potentials in the developing countries: with emphasis on streamflow, erosion and sediment transport, water movement in unsaturated soils, ground water, and remote sensing in hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1971-01-01

    . Nuclear methodology in hydrologic applications is generally more complex than the conventional and hence requires a high level of technical expertise for effective use. Application of nuclear techniques to hydrologic problems in the developing countries is likely to be marginal for some years to come, owing to the higher costs involved and expertise required. Nuclear techniques, however, would seem to have particular promise in studies of water movement in unsaturated soils and of erosion and sedimentation where conventional techniques are inadequate, inefficient and in some cases costly. Remote sensing offers great promise for synoptic evaluations of water resources and hydrologic processes, including the transient phenomena of the hydrologic cycle. Remote sensing is not, however, a panacea for deficiencies in hydrologic data programs in the developing countries. Rather it is a means for extending and augmenting on-the-ground observations ans surveys (ground truth) to evaluated water resources and hydrologic processes on a regionall or even continental scale. With respect to economic growth goals in developing countries, there are few identifiable gaps in existing hydrologic instrumentation and methodology insofar as appraisal, development and management of available water resources are concerned. What is needed is acceleration of institutional development and professional motivation toward more effective use of existing and proven methodology. Moreover, much sophisticated methodology can be applied effectively in the developing countries only when adequate levels of indigenous scientific skills have been reached and supportive institutional frameworks are evolved to viability.

  17. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  18. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  19. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  20. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow