WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground test simulation

  1. Task-Specific Asteroid Simulants for Ground Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will design, prototype, and test a variety of asteroid simulants needed to validate most aspects of asteroid ISRU processes. These include physical simulants for...

  2. Task-Specific Asteroid Simulants for Ground Testing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will produce at least four asteroid simulants at high fidelity for mineral content and particle size, created through standardized inputs and documented...

  3. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  4. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  5. Status of the Correlation Process of the V-HAB Simulation with Ground Tests and ISS Telemetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetner, P.; Roth, C.; Zhukov, A.; Czupalla, M.; Anderson, M.; Ewert, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) is a dynamic Life Support System (LSS) simulation, created for investigation of future human spaceflight missions. It provides the capability to optimize LSS during early design phases. The focal point of the paper is the correlation and validation of V-HAB against ground test and flight data. In order to utilize V-HAB to design an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) it is important to know the accuracy of simulations, strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, simulations of real systems are essential. The modeling of the International Space Station (ISS) ECLSS in terms of single technologies as well as an integrated system and correlation against ground and flight test data is described. The results of the simulations make it possible to prove the approach taken by V-HAB.

  6. Topography and structural heterogeneities in surface ground deformation: a simulation test for Somma-Vesuvius volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Umberto; Riccardi, Umberto; Romano, Vittorio; Meo, Michele; Capuano, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Through a 3D finite element code we simulate, the deformation of Somma-Vesuvius volcano caused by some overpressure sources. Under the assumption of linear elastic isotropic material behavior, the volcano deformation sources are located at various depths and their geometry (shape and lateral extension) is mainly constrained by the results of recent seismic tomography studies. These simulations have the objective to inquire about the influence of topography and structural heterogeneity on ground deformation. Structural heterogeneities have been modeled in terms of dynamical elastic parameters (Young's modulus) accounting for previous seismic tomography and gravity studies. Topography of Somma-Vesuvius is taken into account, using a digital terrain model. The main outcomes of this study is a strong deviation from axially symmetric pattern of the displacement field, which is quietly unaccounted by simplistic Mogi modeling in homogeneous medium with simplified topography. These results demonstrate that real topography and structural heterogeneities are key factors controlling the pattern of ground deformations, i.e. one of the most relevant problem in volcano monitoring. Moreover, an improved knowledge of deformation patterns can significantly help in the location of monitoring sensors as well as in the design of an efficient geodetic network.

  7. Identification of Soil Models by Simulation of Ground Anchor Tests, Using FEM

    OpenAIRE

    Aliciuc, Constantin-Lucian; Muşat, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    Several types of soil models have been developed during time in order to simulate the soil behavior in finite element (FEM) analysis, so choosing the right soil model has a great importance on results. This study presents a method to establish the most suitable soil model used in FEM in order to calculate a temporary anchored retaining structure, method which is based on field tests. The test fields are simulated with FEM and are used several types of soil models, taken into consideration the...

  8. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  9. Study of the Pierre Auger Observatory ground detectors: tests, simulation and calibration; Etude des detecteurs de surface de l'observatoire Pierre Auger: tests, simulation et etalonnage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creusot, A

    2004-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is intended to the ultra high energy cosmic rays study. This study is realized through the particles showers coming from the interaction between the cosmic rays and the atmosphere. The ground detection of these showers requires a comprehensive understanding of the detectors. Several test tanks have been elaborated for this purpose, especially the Orsay one. The first chapter is dedicated to the presentation of the cosmic rays and of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The second one describes the detectors used for the Observatory surface array. The Orsay test tank is then presented and detailed. We study the results we have got with the Orsay test tank in the fourth chapter and compare these results with those of the Observatory detectors in the fifth chapter. The sixth chapter is dedicated to the validation of the results set through the simulation (GEANT4 software). Finally, the first detected particles showers are presented in the seventh chapter. The data acquisition has begun this year. The construction will be finished by end of 2005. From this moment, The Pierre Auger Observatory will allow us to contribute to solving the cosmic rays puzzle. (author)

  10. The Performance of Silicon Solar Cells Exposed to a Simulated Low Earth Orbit Plasma Environment: Laboratory Ground Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hameed, Afaf M.; Sabry, M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; El-Tokhy, Fatma S.; Schlosser, Viktor

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the effects of a low earth orbit (LEO) plasma environment on the performance of solar cells. Laboratory ground tests were used to simulate the properties of a low-energy LEO plasma. A Penning plasma source was used to generate plasma from an argon (Ar) gas flow at low pressure (˜10-5 torr) through a vacuum chamber. Diagnostic tools were used to investigate the plasma conditions and their effects on six silicon (Si) solar cells located in the chamber. Alternating current conditions for both biased and unbiased monocrystalline Si solar cells produced from n/ p terrestrial cells with deep junctions were investigated after exposure to plasma fluence for different times up to 14 h. The results obtained confirmed variation of the performance of the cells samples as a consequence of exposure to the plasma.

  11. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  12. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  13. Operating function tests of the PWR type RHR pump for engineering safety system under simulated strong ground excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uga, Takeo; Shiraki, Kazuhiro; Homma, Toshiaki; Inazuka, Hisashi; Nakajima, Norifumi.

    1979-08-01

    Results are described of operating function verification tests of a PWR RHR pump during an earthquake. Of the active reactor components, the PWR residual heat removal pump was chosen from view points of aseismic classification, safety function, structural complexity and past aseismic tests. Through survey of the service conditions and structure of this pump, seismic test conditions such as acceleration level, simulated seismic wave form and earthquake duration were decided for seismicity of the operating pump. Then, plans were prepared to evaluate vibration chracteristics of the pump and to estimate its aseismic design margins. Subsequently, test facility and instrumentation system were designed and constructed. Experimental results could thus be acquired on vibration characteristics of the pump and its dynamic behavior during different kinds and levels of simulated earthquake. In conclusion: (1) Stiffeners attached to the auxiliary system piping do improve aseismic performance of the pump. (2) The rotor-shaft-bearing system is secure unless it is subjected to transient disturbunces having high frequency content. (3) The motor and pump casing having resonance frequencies much higher than frequency content of the seismic wave show only small amplifications. (4) The RHR pump possesses an aseismic design margin more than 2.6 times the expected ultimate earthquake on design basis. (author)

  14. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  15. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  16. Reactor Simulator Integration and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfield, M. P.; Webster, K. L.; Pearson, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator (RxSim) test loop was designed and built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing were to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V because the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This Technical Memorandum summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained, which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature, indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  17. Simulator testing system (STS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, V.N.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a greater demand placed on the capabilities and time usage of real-time nuclear plant simulators due to NRC, INPO and utilities requirements. The requirements applied to certification, new simulators, upgrades, modifications, and maintenance of the simulators vary; however, they all require the capabilities of the simulator to be tested whether it is for NRC 10CFR55.45b requirements, ATP testing of new simulators, ATP testing of upgrades with or without panels, adding software/hardware due to plant modifications, or analyzing software/hardware problems on the simulator. This paper describes the Simulator Testing System (STS) which addresses each one of these requirements placed on simulators. Special attention will be given to ATP testing of upgrades without the use of control room panels. The capabilities and applications of the four parts of STS which are the Display Control Software (DCS), Procedure Control Software (PCS), Display Generator Software (DGS) and the Procedure Generator Software (PGS) will be reviewed

  18. Commissioning of the Ground Test Accelerator RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Brown, S.; Connolly, R.; Garnett, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Little, C.; Lohson, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Saadatmand, K.; Sandoval, D.P.; Stevens, R.R.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Weiss, R.; Yuan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on-line. The commissioning stages are the 35 key H - injector, the 2.5 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), the Intertank Matching Section (IMS), the 3.2 MeV first 2βγ Drift Tube Linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7 MeV 2βγ DTL (modules 1--5), and the 24 MeV GTA; all 10 DTL modules. Commissioning results from the RFQ beam experiments will be presented along with comparisons to simulations

  19. Commissioning of the ground test accelerator RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Brown, S.; Garnott, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Sandoval, D.P.; Saadatmand, K.; Stevens, R.R.Jr.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Yuan, V.; Connolly, R.; Weiss, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on line. The commissioning stages are the 35-keV H - injector, the 2.5-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), the intertank matching section (IMS), the 3.2-MeV first 2-βλ drift tube linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7-MeV 2-βλDTL (modules 1-5), and the 24-MeV GTA (all 10 DTL modules). Commissioning results from the RFQ beam experiments are presented along with comparisons with simulations. (Author) 8 refs., 9 figs

  20. Toroidal simulation magnet tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.; Domm, T.C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of different schemes for testing superconducting coils in a simulated tokamak environment are analyzed for their merits relative to a set of test criteria. Two of the concepts are examined in more detail: the so-called cluster test scheme, which employs two large background field coils, one on either side of the test coil, and the compact torus, a low-aspect ratio toroidal array of a small number of coils in which all of the coils are essentially test coils. Simulation of the pulsed fields of the tokamak is discussed briefly

  1. Phase-scan analysis results for the first drift tube linac module in the ground test accelerator: Data reproducibility and comparison to simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Bolme, G.O.

    1995-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) had the objective of producing a high-brightness, high-current H- beam. The major accelerator components were a 35 keV injector, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole, an intertank matching section, and a drift tube linac (DTL), consisting of 10 modules. This paper discusses the phase-scan technique which was used to experimentally determine the rf operating parameters for the commissioning and routine operation of the first DTL module

  2. Creating and Testing Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinich, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to learn about the software development process, specifically the process to test and fix components of the software. The paper will cover the techniques of testing code, and the benefits of using one style of testing over another. It will also discuss the overall software design and development lifecycle, and how code testing plays an integral role in it. Coding is notorious for always needing to be debugged due to coding errors or faulty program design. Writing tests either before or during program creation that cover all aspects of the code provide a relatively easy way to locate and fix errors, which will in turn decrease the necessity to fix a program after it is released for common use. The backdrop for this paper is the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI), a project whose goal is to simulate a launch using simulated models of the ground systems and the connections between them and the control room. The simulations will be used for training and to ensure that all possible outcomes and complications are prepared for before the actual launch day. The code being tested is the Programmable Logic Controller Interface (PLCIF) code, the component responsible for transferring the information from the models to the model Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), basic computers that are used for very simple tasks.

  3. Nuclear system test simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, S.D.; Hill, W.D.; Wilson, P.A.; Steiner, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    A transportable test simulator is described for a nuclear power plant. The nuclear power plant includes a control panel, a reactor having actuated rods for moving into and out of a reactor for causing the plant to operate, and a control rod network extending between the control panel and the reactor rods. The network serially transmits command words between the panel and rods, and has connecting interfaces at preselected points remote from the control panel between the control panel and rods. The test simulator comprises: a test simulator input for transport to and connection into the network at at least one interface for receiving the serial command words from the network. Each serial command includes an identifier portion and a command portion; means for processing interior of the simulator for the serial command words for identifying that portion of the power plant designated in the identifier portion and processing the word responsive to the command portion of the word after the identification; means for generating a response word responsive to the command portion; and output means for sending and transmitting the response word to the nuclear power plant at the interface whereby the control panel responds to the response word

  4. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  5. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Ehrnsten, U.; Saario, T.

    1996-05-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  6. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    During test and verification planning for the Altair lunar lander project, a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) study team identified several ground transportation and test issues related to the large payload diameter. Although the entire Constellation Program-including Altair-has since been canceled, issues identified by the Altair project serve as important lessons learned for payloads greater than 7 m diameter being considered for NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS). A transportation feasibility study found that Altair's 8.97 m diameter Descent Module would not fit inside available aircraft. Although the Ascent Module cabin was only 2.35 m diameter, the long reaction control system booms extended nearly to the Descent Module diameter, making it equally unsuitable for air transportation without removing the booms and invalidating assembly workmanship screens or acceptance testing that had already been performed. Ground transportation of very large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted by most states, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 66 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA's Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  7. Comparison between tests and analyses for ground-foundation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Ken-ichi; Hibino, Hirosi; Izumi, Masanori; Kiya, Yukiharu.

    1991-01-01

    The laboratory tests were carried out on two ground models made of silicone rubber (hard and soft ground models) and a foundation model made of aluminum in order to confirm the embedment effects on soil-structure interaction system experimentally. The detail of the procedure and the results of the test are described in the companion paper. Up till now, the analytical studies on the embedment effect on seismic response of buildings have been performed in recent years and the analysis tools have been used in the seismic design procedure of the nuclear power plant facilities. The embedment effects on soil-structure interaction system are confirmed by the simulation analysis and the verification of analysis tools are investigated through the simulation analysis in this paper. The following conclusions can be drawn from comparison between laboratory test results and analysis results. (1) The effects of embedment, such as increase in the impedance functions and the rotational component of foundation input motions, were clarified by the simulation analyses and laboratory tests. (2) The analysis results of axisymmetric FEM showed good agreement with processed test results by means of the transient response to eliminate the reflected waves and the analysis tools were confirmed experimentally. (3) The excavated portion of the soil affected the foundation input motion rather than the impedance function since there was little difference between the impedance functions obtained by wave propagation theory and those obtained by the axisymmetric FEM and the rotational component of the foundation input motions increased significantly. (J.P.N.)

  8. Inclusion in the simulation of air pollutants recorded over the borders of test areas in Niedersachsen and forecasting of local ground level concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Reissmann, K.F.; Schaffner, J.

    1991-08-01

    In 1987-1989 an emission-ground level concentration-model (conversion of emission into ground level concentration) was established for the pollutant sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) by the ISP (Hannover) in cooperation with GEOS (Berlin) and was with emission data of the environs of Braunschweig for 1987 subjected to different trial runs. The pollution sources were devided into four groups: - Large Emitters (particularly power plants) - medium emitters (particularly industry) - space heating and small consumers - traffic. The pollution emitters of the first two groups were considered as point sources and the last two groups as surface sources, their emissions being evently distributed over squares of 1 km x 1 km, each surface unit of one km 2 being represented by 400 point sources in a distance of 50 m from each other. The conversion of emissions into ground level concentration is based on the Gaussian dispersion model on which also the dispersion calculation of the TA Luft (technical regulation about air pollution) is based. (orig./KW) [de

  9. Ground test facility for nuclear testing of space reactor subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Watts, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two major reactor facilities at the INEL have been identified as easily adaptable for supporting the nuclear testing of the SP-100 reactor subsystem. They are the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) and the Loss of Fluid Test Reactor (LOFT). In addition, there are machine shops, analytical laboratories, hot cells, and the supporting services (fire protection, safety, security, medical, waste management, etc.) necessary to conducting a nuclear test program. This paper presents the conceptual approach for modifying these reactor facilities for the ground engineering test facility for the SP-100 nuclear subsystem. 4 figs

  10. Simulation of aquifer tests and ground-water flowpaths at the local scale in fractured shales and sandstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has constructed and calibrated models of local-scale ground-water flow in and near Lansdale, Pa., where numerous sources of industrial contamination have been consolidated into the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site. The local-scale models incorporate hydrogeologic structure of northwest-dipping beds with uniform hydraulic properties identified in previous studies. Computations associated with mapping the dipping-bed structure into the three-dimensional model grid are handled by a preprocessor using a programmed geographic information system (GIS). Hydraulic properties are identified by calibration of the models using measured water levels during pumping and recovery from aquifer tests at three sites. Reduced flow across low-permeability beds is explicitly simulated. The dipping high-permeability beds are extensive in the strike direction but are of limited extent in the dip direction. This model structure yields ground-water-flow patterns characteristic of anisotropic aquifers; preferred flow is in the strike direction. The transmissivities of high-permeability beds in the local-scale models range from 142 to 1,900 ft2/d (feet squared per day) (13 to 177 m2/d). The hydraulic conductivities of low-permeability parts of the aquifer range from 9.6 x 10-4 to 0.26 ft/d (feet per day) (2.9 x 10-4 to 0.079 m/d). Storage coefficients and specific storage are very low, indicating the confined nature of the aquifer system. The calibrated models are used to simulate contributing areas of wells under alternative, hypothetical ground-water-management practices. Predictive contributing areas indicate the general characteristics of ground-water flow towards wells in the Lansdale area. Recharge to wells in Lansdale generally comes from infiltration near the well and over an area that extends upgradient from the well. The contributing areas for two wells pumping at 10 gal

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits LPVEx dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  12. New Temperature-Insensitive Electronically-Tunable Grounded Capacitor Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti; Muhammad Haroon Khan

    1996-01-01

    A new circuit for simulating a grounded capacitor is presented. The circuit uses one operationalamplifier (OA), three operational-transconductance amplifiers (OTAs), and one capacitor. The realized capacitor is temperature-insensitive and electronically tunable. Experimental results are included.

  13. Simulant Development for LAWPS Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schonewill, Philip P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report describes simulant development work that was conducted to support the technology maturation of the LAWPS facility. Desired simulant physical properties (density, viscosity, solids concentration, solid particle size), sodium concentrations, and general anion identifications were provided by WRPS. The simulant recipes, particularly a “nominal” 5.6M Na simulant, are intended to be tested at several scales, ranging from bench-scale (500 mL) to full-scale. Each simulant formulation was selected to be chemically representative of the waste streams anticipated to be fed to the LAWPS system, and used the current version of the LAWPS waste specification as a formulation basis. After simulant development iterations, four simulants of varying sodium concentration (5.6M, 6.0M, 4.0M, and 8.0M) were prepared and characterized. The formulation basis, development testing, and final simulant recipes and characterization data for these four simulants are presented in this report.

  14. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  15. 30 CFR 56.12028 - Testing grounding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing grounding systems. 56.12028 Section 56.12028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12028 Testing grounding systems. Continuity and resistance of grounding systems shall be tested...

  16. Experimental simulation of ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.; Chao, A.W.; Dutt, S.; Yan, Y.T.; Zhang, P.L.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.; Budnick, J.; Caussyn, D.D.; Collins, J.; Derenchuk, V.; East, G.; Ellison, M.; Ellison, T.; Friesel, D.; Hamilton, B.; Huang, H.; Jones, W.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Li, D.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pei, X.; Rondeau, G.; Sloan, T.; Minty, M.G.; Gabella, W.; Ng, K.Y.; Teng, L.; Tepikian, S.

    1993-05-01

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 ∼ 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c

  17. Experimental simulation of ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M.J.; Chao, A.W.; Dutt, S.; Yan, Y.T.; Zhang, P.L. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Ball, M.; Brabson, B.; Budnick, J.; Caussyn, D.D.; Collins, J.; Derenchuk, V.; East, G.; Ellison, M.; Ellison, T.; Friesel, D.; Hamilton, B.; Huang, H.; Jones, W.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Li, D.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pei, X.; Rondeau, G.; Sloan, T. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States); Minty, M.G. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gabella, W.; Ng, K.Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Teng, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 {approximately} 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c.

  18. Experimental Simulation of Ground Motion Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-07-11

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 {approx} 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c.

  19. High Resolution Imaging Ground Penetrating Radar Design and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders II, Charles Phillip

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and simulation of a microwave band, high resolution imaging ground penetrating radar. A conceptual explanation is given on the mechanics of wave-based imaging, followed by the governing radar equations. The performance specifications for the imaging system are given as inputs to the radar equations, which output the full system specifications. Those specifications are entered into a MATLAB simulation, and the simulation results are discussed with respect to bot...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12028 - Testing grounding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing grounding systems. 57.12028 Section 57.12028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12028 Testing grounding systems. Continuity and resistance of grounding...

  1. 14 CFR 23.726 - Ground load dynamic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.726 Ground load dynamic tests. (a) If compliance with the ground load requirements of...

  2. Orion Ground Test Article Water Impact Tests: Photogrammetric Evaluation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    The Ground Test Article (GTA) is an early production version of the Orion Crew Module (CM). The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. As part of the process of confirming the accuracy of LS-DYNA water landing simulations, the GTA water impact test series was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to gather data for comparison with simulations. The simulation of the GTA water impact tests requires the accurate determination of the impact conditions. To accomplish this, the GTA was outfitted with an array of photogrammetry targets. The photogrammetry system utilizes images from two cameras with a specialized tracking software to determine time histories for the 3-D coordinates of each target. The impact conditions can then be determined from the target location data.

  3. Cerenkov radiation simulation in the Auger water ground detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Ngoc; Vo Van Thuan; Dang Quang Thieu

    2003-01-01

    The simulation of response of the Auger water Cerenkov ground detector to atmospheric shower muons in practically needed for the experimental research of cosmic rays at extreme energies. We consider here a simulation model for the process of emission and diffusion of Cerenkov photons concerned with muons moving through the detector volume with the velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in the water on purpose to define photons producing signal in the detector. (author)

  4. The ShakeOut earthquake source and ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.W.; Houston, Douglas B.; Hudnut, K.W.

    2011-01-01

    The ShakeOut Scenario is premised upon the detailed description of a hypothetical Mw 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault and the associated simulated ground motions. The main features of the scenario, such as its endpoints, magnitude, and gross slip distribution, were defined through expert opinion and incorporated information from many previous studies. Slip at smaller length scales, rupture speed, and rise time were constrained using empirical relationships and experience gained from previous strong-motion modeling. Using this rupture description and a 3-D model of the crust, broadband ground motions were computed over a large region of Southern California. The largest simulated peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) generally range from 0.5 to 1.0 g and 100 to 250 cm/s, respectively, with the waveforms exhibiting strong directivity and basin effects. Use of a slip-predictable model results in a high static stress drop event and produces ground motions somewhat higher than median level predictions from NGA ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs).

  5. Digital Focusing Schlieren for Hypervelocity Ground Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to adapt a revolutionary digital focusing schlieren imaging technology to hypervelocity ground testing. Spectabit's digital focusing schlieren approach...

  6. Simulation Testing of Embedded Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, Mohammad; Reinholtz, William

    2004-01-01

    Virtual Real Time (VRT) is a computer program for testing embedded flight software by computational simulation in a workstation, in contradistinction to testing it in its target central processing unit (CPU). The disadvantages of testing in the target CPU include the need for an expensive test bed, the necessity for testers and programmers to take turns using the test bed, and the lack of software tools for debugging in a real-time environment. By virtue of its architecture, most of the flight software of the type in question is amenable to development and testing on workstations, for which there is an abundance of commercially available debugging and analysis software tools. Unfortunately, the timing of a workstation differs from that of a target CPU in a test bed. VRT, in conjunction with closed-loop simulation software, provides a capability for executing embedded flight software on a workstation in a close-to-real-time environment. A scale factor is used to convert between execution time in VRT on a workstation and execution on a target CPU. VRT includes high-resolution operating- system timers that enable the synchronization of flight software with simulation software and ground software, all running on different workstations.

  7. Absorbed Heat-flux Method for Ground Simulation of On-orbit Thermal Environment of Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Soo Kim

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available An absorbed heat-flux method for ground simulation of on-orbit thermal environment of satellite is addressed in this paper. For satellite ground test, high vacuum and extremely low temperature of deep space are achieved by space simulation chamber, while spatial environmental heating is simulated by employing the absorbed heat-flux method. The methodology is explained in detail with test requirement and setup implemented on a satellite. Developed heat-load control system is presented with an adjusted PID-control logic and the system schematic realized is shown. A practical and successful application of the heat simulation method to KOMPSAT(Korea Multi-purpose Satellitethermal environmental test is demonstrated, finally.

  8. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, Jospeh A.; Hughes, Stephen; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology readiness levels have been incrementally matured by NASA over the last thirteen years, with most recent support from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). Recently STMD GCDP has authorized funding and support through fiscal year 2015 (FY15) for continued HIAD ground developments which support a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) study. The Mars study will assess the viability of various EDL architectures to enable a Mars human architecture pathfinder mission planned for mid-2020. At its conclusion in November 2014, NASA's first HIAD ground development effort had demonstrated success with fabricating a 50 W/cm2 modular thermal protection system, a 400 C capable inflatable structure, a 10-meter scale aeroshell manufacturing capability, together with calibrated thermal and structural models. Despite the unquestionable success of the first HIAD ground development effort, it was recognized that additional investment was needed in order to realize the full potential of the HIAD technology capability to enable future flight opportunities. The second HIAD ground development effort will focus on extending performance capability in key technology areas that include thermal protection system, lifting-body structures, inflation systems, flight control, stage transitions, and 15-meter aeroshell scalability. This paper presents an overview of the accomplishments under the baseline HIAD development effort and current plans for a follow-on development effort focused on extending those critical technologies needed to enable a Mars Pathfinder mission.

  9. General and Localized corrosion of Austenitic and Borated Stainless Steels in Simulated Concentrated Ground Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, D.; Estill, J.; Wong, L.; Rebak, R.

    2004-01-01

    Boron containing stainless steels are used in the nuclear industry for applications such as spent fuel storage, control rods and shielding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion resistance of three borated stainless steels with standard austenitic alloy materials such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels. Tests were conducted in three simulated concentrated ground waters at 90 C. Results show that the borated stainless were less resistant to corrosion than the witness austenitic materials. An acidic concentrated ground water was more aggressive than an alkaline concentrated ground water

  10. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    , soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over this control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft which contained onboard a payload constituted......). Together with the ground SM measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements from the VAS area, kindly provided by other institutions, are currently been used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature to obtain satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test the retrieval...... algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel is carried out by using the SURFace EXternalisee (SURFEX) model from Meteo France. Output data, particularly SM, are then used to simulate L-band surface emission through the use of the L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission...

  11. Australia - a nuclear weapons testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, Michael.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1958 Britain conducted five separate nuclear weapons trials in Australia. Australia had the uninhabited wide open spaces and the facilities which such tests need and Britain was able to use its special relationship with Australia to get agreement to conduct atomic tests in Australia and establish a permanent test site at Maralinga. Other non-nuclear tests were conducted between 1953-1963. The story of Britain's involvement in atomic weapons testing in Australia is told through its postal history. Both official and private covers are used to show how the postal communications were established and maintained throughout the test years. (UK)

  12. BUSTED BUTTE TEST FACILITY GROUND SUPPORT CONFIRMATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonabian, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to confirm the validity of the ground support design for Busted Butte Test Facility (BBTF). The highwall stability and adequacy of highwall and tunnel ground support is addressed in this analysis. The design of the BBTF including the ground support system was performed in a separate document (Reference 5.3). Both in situ and seismic loads are considered in the evaluation of the highwall and the tunnel ground support system. In this analysis only the ground support designed in Reference 5.3 is addressed. The additional ground support installed (still work in progress) by the constructor is not addressed in this analysis. This additional ground support was evaluated by the A/E during a site visit and its findings and recommendations are addressed in this analysis

  13. Ground Vibration Testing Options for Space Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Alan; Smith, Robert K.; Goggin, David; Newsom, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    New NASA launch vehicles will require development of robust systems in a fiscally-constrained environment. NASA, Department of Defense (DoD), and commercial space companies routinely conduct ground vibration tests as an essential part of math model validation and launch vehicle certification. Although ground vibration testing must be a part of the integrated test planning process, more affordable approaches must also be considered. A study evaluated several ground vibration test options for the NASA Constellation Program flight test vehicles, Orion-1 and Orion-2, which concluded that more affordable ground vibration test options are available. The motivation for ground vibration testing is supported by historical examples from NASA and DoD. The approach used in the present study employed surveys of ground vibration test subject-matter experts that provided data to qualitatively rank six test options. Twenty-five experts from NASA, DoD, and industry provided scoring and comments for this study. The current study determined that both element-level modal tests and integrated vehicle modal tests have technical merits. Both have been successful in validating structural dynamic math models of launch vehicles. However, element-level testing has less overall cost and schedule risk as compared to integrated vehicle testing. Future NASA launch vehicle development programs should anticipate that some structural dynamics testing will be necessary. Analysis alone will be inadequate to certify a crew-capable launch vehicle. At a minimum, component and element structural dynamic tests are recommended for new vehicle elements. Three viable structural dynamic test options were identified. Modal testing of the new vehicle elements and an integrated vehicle test on the mobile launcher provided the optimal trade between technical, cost, and schedule.

  14. DC-10 composite vertical stabilizer ground test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J. M., Jr.; Stephens, C. O.; Sutton, J. O.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the structural configuration and ground test program is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the testing of a full-scale stub box test subcomponent and full span ground test unit. The stub box subcomponent was tested in an environmental chamber under ambient, cold/wet, and hot/wet conditions. The test program included design limit static loads, fatigue spectrum loading to approximately two service lifetimes (with and without damage), design limit damage tolerance tests, and a final residual strength test to a structural failure. The first full-scale ground test unit was tested under ambient conditions. The test unit was to have undergone static, fatigue, and damage tolerance tests but a premature structural failure occurred at design limit load during the third limit load test. A failure theory was developed which explains the similarity in types of failure and the large load discrepancy at failure between the two test articles. The theory attributes both failures to high stress concentrations at the edge of the lower rear spar access opening. A second full-scale ground test unit has been modified to incorporate the various changes resulting from the premature failure. The article has been assembled and is active in the test program.

  15. 118-B-1 burial ground excavation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This treatability investigation focused on the feasibility of excavating, analytical screening, and handling waste materials from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground located in the 100 B/C Area of the Hanford Site. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground consists of approximately 24 trenches on a 7-acre parcel. Solid low-level radioactive wastes and other debris and trash associated with reactor operations were disposed in 28 burial grounds in the 100 Area between 1944 and 1973. The majority of waste generated from routine reactor operations was placed in seven primary burial grounds, including 118-B-1. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground was selected as the location to perform this treatability test based on the availability of historical data for this site, and because it was thought to be representative of other primary-use burial grounds in the 100 Area. Geophysical surveys were conducted over the burial ground to map the concentrations of waste and aid in the selection of test pit excavation locations. The test plan developed for this study integrated the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER), a US Department of Energy (DOE) initiative based on both the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach. This treatability test is the first one at the Hanford Site to use the SAFER approach. The purpose of this study was (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision, which would identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. The results of the treatability test can be used to determine the feasibility of performing excavation, analytical screening, and handling of burial ground materials from similar burial grounds

  16. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code to Simulate the Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter to Assist and Aid Our Understanding of Ground Based Accelerator Testing, Space Hardware Design, and Secondary Space Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Designing hardware to operate in the space radiation environment is a very difficult and costly activity. Ground based particle accelerators can be used to test for exposure to the radiation environment, one species at a time, however, the actual space environment cannot be duplicated because of the range of energies and isotropic nature of space radiation. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is an integrated physics package based at CERN that has been under development for the last 40+ years and includes the most up-to-date fundamental physics theory and particle physics data. This work presents an overview of FLUKA and how it has been used in conjunction with ground based radiation testing for NASA and improve our understanding of secondary particle environments resulting from the interaction of space radiation with matter.

  17. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  18. Path planning and Ground Control Station simulator for UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, A.; Balmat, J.; Gauthier, J.-P.; Maillot, T.

    In this paper we present a Universal and Interoperable Ground Control Station (UIGCS) simulator for fixed and rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and all types of payloads. One of the major constraints is to operate and manage multiple legacy and future UAVs, taking into account the compliance with NATO Combined/Joint Services Operational Environment (STANAG 4586). Another purpose of the station is to assign the UAV a certain degree of autonomy, via autonomous planification/replanification strategies. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we describe the non-linear models of the fixed and rotary wing UAVs that we use in the simulator. In Section 3, we describe the simulator architecture, which is based upon interacting modules programmed independently. This simulator is linked with an open source flight simulator, to simulate the video flow and the moving target in 3D. To conclude this part, we tackle briefly the problem of the Matlab/Simulink software connection (used to model the UAV's dynamic) with the simulation of the virtual environment. Section 5 deals with the control module of a flight path of the UAV. The control system is divided into four distinct hierarchical layers: flight path, navigation controller, autopilot and flight control surfaces controller. In the Section 6, we focus on the trajectory planification/replanification question for fixed wing UAV. Indeed, one of the goals of this work is to increase the autonomy of the UAV. We propose two types of algorithms, based upon 1) the methods of the tangent and 2) an original Lyapunov-type method. These algorithms allow either to join a fixed pattern or to track a moving target. Finally, Section 7 presents simulation results obtained on our simulator, concerning a rather complicated scenario of mission.

  19. GVT-Based Ground Flutter Test without Wind Tunnel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc (ZONA) and Arizona State University (ASU) propose a R&D effort to develop a ground flutter testing system without wind tunnel, called the...

  20. GVT-Based Ground Flutter Test without Wind Tunnel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc (ZONA) and Arizona State University (ASU) propose a R&D effort to further develop the ground flutter testing system in place of a wind...

  1. Test Generator for MATLAB Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Joel

    2011-01-01

    MATLAB Automated Test Tool, version 3.0 (MATT 3.0) is a software package that provides automated tools that reduce the time needed for extensive testing of simulation models that have been constructed in the MATLAB programming language by use of the Simulink and Real-Time Workshop programs. MATT 3.0 runs on top of the MATLAB engine application-program interface to communicate with the Simulink engine. MATT 3.0 automatically generates source code from the models, generates custom input data for testing both the models and the source code, and generates graphs and other presentations that facilitate comparison of the outputs of the models and the source code for the same input data. Context-sensitive and fully searchable help is provided in HyperText Markup Language (HTML) format.

  2. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Kuo, Calvin; Jain, Abhi; Grip, Havard; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Overholt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative project between U.S. Army TARDEC and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) simulation model using the ROAMS vehicle modeling framework. Besides modeling the physical suspension of the vehicle, the sensing and navigation of the HMMWV vehicle are simulated. Using models of urban and off-road environments, the HMMWV simulation was tested in several ways, including navigation in an urban environment with obstacle avoidance and the performance of a lane change maneuver.

  3. Ground/Flight Test Techniques and Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    4A-9 .2 K Fig. 12 Fig. 13 E -vu~ P,-r 1. Fio T l i[ ~ I Ett..tu. ttPI.t: iq .... .. .. . .. .... .t -- ’-I -2t Fig. 14 Fig. 15 F%. fAt ~~S,- -lr R oCt...cand fat ihque test,, de- ’sonrs t ra to tha t the a i rc t ft is Jdoed Ute for t he di1 f fe rent des 1i unl ad L ud It 1 ohs rho ,e IOc:t ion of... excercise , the flight trials allow also an assessment of the fu-tioning of the arma- ment system, e.g. arming sequences, mechanical and electrical interfaces

  4. Solar Array at Very High Temperatures: Ground Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Solar array design for any spacecraft is determined by the orbit parameters. For example, operational voltage for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is limited by significant differential charging due to interactions with low temperature plasma. In order to avoid arcing in LEO, solar array is designed to generate electrical power at comparatively low voltages (below 100 volts) or to operate at higher voltages with encapsulation of all suspected discharge locations. In Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) differential charging is caused by energetic electrons that produce differential potential between the coverglass and the conductive spacecraft body in a kilovolt range. In such a case, the weakly conductive layer over coverglass, indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the possible measures to eliminate dangerous discharges on array surface. Temperature variations for solar arrays in both orbits are measured and documented within the range of minus150 degrees Centigrade to plus 1100 degrees Centigrade. This wide interval of operational temperatures is regularly reproduced in ground tests with radiative heating and cooling inside a shroud with flowing liquid nitrogen. The requirements to solar array design and tests turn out to be more complicated when planned trajectory crosses these two orbits and goes closer to the Sun. The conductive layer over coverglass causes a sharp increase in parasitic current collected from LEO plasma, high temperature may cause cracks in encapsulating (Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) material; radiative heating of a coupon in vacuum chamber becomes practically impossible above 1500 degrees Centigrade; conductivities of glass and adhesive go up with temperature that decrease array efficiency; and mechanical stresses grow up to critical magnitudes. A few test arrangements and respective results are presented in current paper. Coupons were tested against arcing in simulated LEO and GEO environments under elevated temperatures up to 2000 degrees

  5. Testing philosophy and simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtbecker, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews past and present testing philosophies and simulation techniques in the field of structure loading and response studies. The main objective of experimental programmes in the past was to simulate a hypothetical energy release with explosives and to deduce the potential damage to a reactor from the measured damage to the model. This approach was continuously refined by improving the instrumentation of the models, by reproducing the structures as faithful as possible and by developing new explosive charges. This paper presents an analysis of the factors which are expected to have an influence on the validity of the results e.g. strain rate effects and the use of water instead of sodium. More recently the discussion of a whole series of accidents in the probabilistic accident analysis and the intention to compare different reactor designs has revealed the need to develop and validate computer codes. Consequently experimental programmes have been started in which the primary aim is not to test a specific reactor but to validate codes. This paper shows the principal aspects of this approach and discusses first results. (Auth.)

  6. Ground Simulator Studies of the Effects of Valve Friction, Stick Friction, Flexibility, and Backwash on Power Control System Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B Porter

    1958-01-01

    Report presents results of tests made on a power control system by means of a ground simulator to determine the effects of various combinations of valve friction and stick friction on the ability of the pilot to control the system. Various friction conditions were simulated with a rigid control system, a flexible system, and a rigid system having some backlash. For the tests, the period and damping of the simulated airplane were held constant.

  7. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through

  8. Vessel grounding in entrance channels: case studies and physical model tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tulsi, K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available off the channel slope and back into the entrance channel. The tests were conducted at the Coastal & Hydraulics Laboratory, of the CSIR in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Simulated vessel grounding was modelled in a hydraulic basin at a scale of 1:100. Over...

  9. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, T. K.; Cline, J. A.; Braunstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fast, pulsed atomic oxygen sources are a key tool in ground-based investigations of spacecraft contamination and surface erosion effects. These technically challenging ground-based studies provide a before and after picture of materials under low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. It would be of great interest to track in real time the pulsed flux from the source to the surface sample target and beyond in order to characterize the population of atoms and molecules that actually impact the surface and those that make it downstream to any coincident detectors. We have performed simulations in order to provide such detailed descriptions of these ground-based measurements and to provide an assessment of their correspondence to the actual LEO environment. Where possible we also make comparisons to measured fluxes and erosion yields. To perform the calculations we use a detailed description of a measurement beam and surface geometry based on the W, pulsed apparatus at Montana State University. In this system, a short pulse (on the order of 10 microseconds) of an O/O2 beam impacts a flat sample about 40 cm downstream and slightly displaced &om the beam s central axis. Past this target, at the end of the beam axis is a quadrupole mass spectrometer that measures the relative in situ flux of 0102 to give an overall normalized erosion yield. In our simulations we use the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and track individual atoms within the atomic oxygen pulse. DSMC techniques are typically used to model rarefied (few collision) gas-flows which occur at altitudes above approximately 110 kilometers. These techniques are well suited for the conditions here, and multi-collision effects that can only be treated by this or a similar technique are included. This simulation includes collisions with the surface and among gas atoms that have scattered from the surface. The simulation also includes descriptions of the velocity spread and spatial profiles of the O/O2 beam

  10. The Challenge of Grounding Planning in Simulation with an Interactive Model Development Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Frank, Jeremy D.; Chachere, John M.; Smith, Tristan B.; Swanson, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    A principal obstacle to fielding automated planning systems is the difficulty of modeling. Physical systems are modeled conventionally based on specification documents and the modeler's understanding of the system. Thus, the model is developed in a way that is disconnected from the system's actual behavior and is vulnerable to manual error. Another obstacle to fielding planners is testing and validation. For a space mission, generated plans must be validated often by translating them into command sequences that are run in a simulation testbed. Testing in this way is complex and onerous because of the large number of possible plans and states of the spacecraft. Though, if used as a source of domain knowledge, the simulator can ease validation. This paper poses a challenge: to ground planning models in the system physics represented by simulation. A proposed, interactive model development environment illustrates the integration of planning and simulation to meet the challenge. This integration reveals research paths for automated model construction and validation.

  11. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  12. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  13. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  14. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  15. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed

  16. Pre-flight physical simulation test of HIMES reentry test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Yonemoto, Koichi; Hosokawa, Shigeru

    ISAS is now developing a small reentry test vehicle, which is 2m long with a 1.5m wing span and weighs about 170 kg, for the purpose of exploring high angle-of-attack aerodynamic attitude control issue in supersonic and hypersonic speed. The flight test, employing 'Rockoon' launch system, is planned as a preliminary design verification for a fully reusable winged rocket named HIMES (Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space) vehicle. This paper describes the results of preflight ground test using a motion table system. This ground system test is called 'physical simulation' aimed at: (1) functional verification of side-jet system, aerodynamic surface actuators, battery and onboard avionics; and (2) guidance and control law evaluation, in total hardware-in-the-loop system. The pressure of side-jet nozzles was measured to provide exact thrust characteristics of reaction control. The dynamics of vehicle motion was calculated in real-time by the ground simulation computer.

  17. Construction and testing of the simulation polygon for the protection of critical information resources

    OpenAIRE

    Корнієнко, Б. Я.; Галата, Л.П.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the process of constructing an imitation polygon as a method for studying the behavior of the system of protection of critical information resources is considered. The graphical network simulator application is used to construct the simulation polygon. The functionality of the GNS3 package is explored. The main properties of the simulation ground of protection of critical information resources are considered. The testing of a built-up simulation ground for protecting critical...

  18. Advanced stellar compass deep space navigation, ground testing results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2006-01-01

    . Nevertheless, up to now, ground navigation has been the only possible solution. The technological breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the micro-advanced stellar compass (mu ASC) might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method...... to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, on-board and without any a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust, elegant and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performances obtained during the ground tests. The results are very positive and encouraging....

  19. Simulating lightning tests to radar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The risk of destruction due to lightning makes simulating the effects of lightning strikes a necessity. We modeled a radar enclosure and simulated the effect of a lightning strike. The results have been validated using full threat lightning current tests.

  20. Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research using Ground Based Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis

    Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20 percents accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.

  1. A rolling constraint reproduces ground reaction forces and moments in dynamic simulations of walking, running, and crouch gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Samuel R; Seth, Ajay; Steele, Katherine M; Delp, Scott L

    2013-06-21

    Recent advances in computational technology have dramatically increased the use of muscle-driven simulation to study accelerations produced by muscles during gait. Accelerations computed from muscle-driven simulations are sensitive to the model used to represent contact between the foot and ground. A foot-ground contact model must be able to calculate ground reaction forces and moments that are consistent with experimentally measured ground reaction forces and moments. We show here that a rolling constraint can model foot-ground contact and reproduce measured ground reaction forces and moments in an induced acceleration analysis of muscle-driven simulations of walking, running, and crouch gait. We also illustrate that a point constraint and a weld constraint used to model foot-ground contact in previous studies produce inaccurate reaction moments and lead to contradictory interpretations of muscle function. To enable others to use and test these different constraint types (i.e., rolling, point, and weld constraints) we have included them as part of an induced acceleration analysis in OpenSim, a freely-available biomechanics simulation package. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahoshi, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Schmauder, S.; Ludwig, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes an impact test by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to evaluate embrittlement of bcc Fe at different temperatures. A new impact test model is developed for MD simulation. The typical fracture behaviors show transition from brittle to ductile fracture, and a history of the impact loads also demonstrates its transition. We conclude that the impact test by MD could be feasible. (orig.)

  3. Testing cooperative systems with the MARS simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, B.D.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of cooperative systems makes the use of high fidelity simulation essential in the development and testing of cooperative applications and their interactions with other cooperative systems. In SAFESPOT a simulator test bench is setup to test the safety margin applications running on

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahoshi, Y.; Schmauder, S.; Ludwig, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an impact test by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to evaluate embrittlement of bcc Fe at different temperatures. A new impact test model is developed for MD simulation. The typical fracture behaviors show transition from brittle to ductile fracture, and a history of the impact loads also demonstrates its transition. We conclude that the impact test by MD could be feasible. (orig.)

  5. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  6. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  7. Design of ground testing systems which are compatible with two kinds of communication terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jian-jun; Yang, Ming-dong; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jin-cai

    2013-08-01

    Space laser communication and space quantum communication are all space optical communication, they are similar in communication links, high accuracy tracking and pointing, ground testing etc. The characters of space optical communication determine the necessity of testing and verifying communication terminals, for example, the laser beam reach diffraction limit in space laser communication, weak light detection or single photon detection should be carried out in space quantum communication, communication terminals are relatively moving refer to the ground station, and the terminals should have high quality in tracking target and pointing laser beam, so good system should be used in testing and verifying communication terminals. In this paper we did research on ground testing and verifying systems, we developed optical paths and two ground testing and verifying systems which are compatible with space laser communication and space quantum communication, the two systems contain one laboratory used system and one portable outfield used system. The laboratory used system mainly contains optical communication terminal, two dimensional (2D) simulation turntable, collimator and rear optical path, it can simulate the moving environment, transmission channel and relative motion of the satellite to ground or inter-satellite optical communication, it can also fully test the condition and performance of the optical communication terminals. The portable outfield used system mainly contains opto-mechanical subsystem, 2D turntable, electronic cabinet. The opto-mechanical subsystem is installed on the 2D turntable, it contains front and rear optical path. Electronic cabinet contains industry computer, turntable controller, GPS radio and optical controller, it mainly executes data acquisition, receiving and transmitting command. The portable outfield used system can be used in outfield, to help testing and verifying space-borne equipment. The design breaks through several

  8. Simulation of Test Case B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This report shows the results of the simulations given in research item 1.19 (isothermal forced convection) within the work of International Energy Agency (lEA), Annex 20 subtask 1. The title of this work is "Air Flow within Buildings" and the working title for subtask 1 is "Room Air...

  9. Flight-and ground-test evaluation of pyrrone foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclain, A. G.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Two Pyrrone materials, pure Pyrrone foam with a density of 481 kg/cu m and hollow glass microsphere-Pyrrone composite with a density of 962 kg/cu m, were tested in the Langley 20-inch hypersonic arc heated tunnel at pressure levels from 0.06 to 0.27 atm and heating rates from 1.14 to 11.4 MW/sq m. The 481-kg/cu m Pyrrone foam was also flight tested as an experiment aboard a Pacemaker test vehicle. The results of the ground tests indicated that the thermal effectiveness of the 481-kg/cu m Pyrrone foam was superior to the 962-kg/cu m glass sphere-Pyrrone composite. The 481-kg/cu m Pyrrone foam had approximately one-half the thermal effectiveness of low density phenolic nylon. The 481-kg/cu m Pyrrone foam experienced random mechanical char removal over the entire range of test conditions. Char thermal property inputs for an ablation computer program were developed from the ground test data of the 481-kg/cu m Pyrrone foam. The computer program using these developed char thermal properties, as well as the measured uncharred material properties, adequately predicted the in-depth temperature histories measured during the Pacemaker flight.

  10. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  11. Factors Contributing to Cognitive Absorption and Grounded Learning Effectiveness in a Competitive Business Marketing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David Scott; Underwood, James, III; Thakur, Ramendra

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a pedagogical positioning of a business marketing simulation as a grounded learning teaching tool and empirically assess the dimensions of cognitive absorption related to grounded learning effectiveness in an iterative business simulation environment. The method/design and sample consisted of a field study survey…

  12. Innovative Approach to Use Air Bearings in Cubesat Ground Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilovich, Irina; Krut, Sébastien; Gouttefarde, Marc; Pierrot, François; Dusseau, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In the fast-growing society of CubeSat developers, the necessity of CubeSat ground tests is apparent. One of the more complex and discussed system-level tests is the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) examination. It requires motions of the CubeSat and environment conditions close to space. Most of the ADCS testbeds involve an air bearing as one of the main component of a rotating table since it allows reducing the friction between the moving CubeSat and ...

  13. CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed Ground Test Article Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryk, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Walls, Laurie; Stopnitzky, Benny; Rhys, Noah; Wollen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor thermal and fluid system models to CRYOTE ground test data. The CRYOTE ground test artide was jointly developed by Innovative Engineering Solutions, United Launch Alliance and NASA KSC. The test article was constructed out of a titanium alloy tank, Sapphire 77 composite skin (similar to G10), an external secondary payload adapter ring, thermal vent system, multi layer insulation and various data acquisition instrumentation. In efforts to understand heat loads throughout this system, the GTA (filled with liquid nitrogen for safety purposes) was subjected to a series of tests in a vacuum chamber at Marshall Space Flight Center. By anchoring analytical models against test data, higher fidelity thermal environment predictions can be made for future flight articles which would eventually demonstrate critical cryogenic fluid management technologies such as system chilldown, transfer, pressure control and long term storage. Significant factors that influenced heat loads included radiative environments, multi-layer insulation performance, tank fill levels and pressures and even contact conductance coefficients. This report demonstrates how analytical thermal/fluid networks were established and includes supporting rationale for specific thermal responses.

  14. Simulation of Aquifer Tests and Ground-Water Flowpaths at the Local Scale in Fractured Shales and Sandstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goode, Daniel J; Senior, Lisa A

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has constructed and calibrated models of local-scale ground-water flow in and near Lansdale, Pa...

  15. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C

    2009-11-04

    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  16. Ground test program for a full-size solar dynamic heat receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Kaufmann, K. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Kerslake, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures were developed to conduct ground testing of a full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver in a partially simulated, low earth orbit environment. The heat receiver was designed to supply 102 kW of thermal energy to a helium and xenon gas mixture continuously over a 94 minute orbit, including up to 36 minutes of eclipse. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber using liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate. Special test equipment was designed to provide the required ranges in interface boundary conditions that typify those expected or required for operation as part of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. The support hardware includes an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones and a closed-Brayton cycle engine simulator to circulate and condition the helium-xenon gas mixture. The test article, test support hardware, facilities, and instrumentation developed to conduct the ground test program are all described.

  17. Cross flow tests of APR+ core simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kih Wan; Chu, In Cheol; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong Jin; Kwon, Tae Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    An accurate prediction of an APR+ core flow is in demand since the APR+ has 257 fuel assemblies, unlike in the APR1400. The APR+ reactor flow distribution test facility, which was named ACOP (APR+ Core Flow and Pressure Test Facility), was developed to conduct various hydraulic tests. The 257 core simulators were installed in the ACOP to measure the hydraulic characteristics at the inlet and outlet of the fuel assemblies. The simulator was designed with a linear reduced scale of 1/5 to preserve a geometrically similar flow without hindering the dynamic similarity. The cross flow characteristic of the simulator may be regarded as of major importance to evaluate the pressure distribution at the outlet of the fuel assembly. This paper shows a cross flow test for each core simulator which are arranged in a row. The results are also compared with those of the HIPER and core simulators obtained from the CFD code, and are carefully examined.

  18. Simulation-based Testing of Control Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Ozgur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olama, Mohammed M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-10

    It is impossible to adequately test complex software by examining its operation in a physical prototype of the system monitored. Adequate test coverage can require millions of test cases, and the cost of equipment prototypes combined with the real-time constraints of testing with them makes it infeasible to sample more than a small number of these tests. Model based testing seeks to avoid this problem by allowing for large numbers of relatively inexpensive virtual prototypes that operate in simulation time at a speed limited only by the available computing resources. In this report, we describe how a computer system emulator can be used as part of a model based testing environment; specifically, we show that a complete software stack including operating system and application software - can be deployed within a simulated environment, and that these simulations can proceed as fast as possible. To illustrate this approach to model based testing, we describe how it is being used to test several building control systems that act to coordinate air conditioning loads for the purpose of reducing peak demand. These tests involve the use of ADEVS (A Discrete Event System Simulator) and QEMU (Quick Emulator) to host the operational software within the simulation, and a building model developed with the MODELICA programming language using Buildings Library and packaged as an FMU (Functional Mock-up Unit) that serves as the virtual test environment.

  19. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements. Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken. This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  20. Investigating Ground Swarm Robotics Using Agent Based Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Sze-Tek T

    2006-01-01

    The concept of employing ground swarm robotics to accomplish tasks has been proposed for future use in humanitarian de-mining, plume monitoring, searching for survivors in a disaster site, and other hazardous activities...

  1. AEROTAXI ground static test and finite element model validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BISCA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation, we will concentrate on typical Ground Static Test (GST and Finite Element (FE software comparisons. It is necessary to note, that standard GST are obligatory for any new aircraft configuration. We can mention here the investigations of the AeroTAXITM, a small aircraft configuration, using PRODERA® equipment. A Finite Element Model (FEM of the AeroTAXITM has been developed in PATRAN/NASTRAN®, partly from a previous ANSYS® model. FEM can be used to investigate potential structural modifications or changes with realistic component corrections. Model validation should be part of every modern engineering analysis and quality assurance procedure.

  2. Soil Moisture Characterization of the Valencia Anchor Station. Ground, Aircraft Measurements and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.; Antolin, M. C.; Balling, J.; Belda, F.; Bouzinac, C.; Camacho, F.; Cano, A.; Carbo, E.; Delwart, S.; Domenech, C.; Ferreira, A. G.; Fidalgo, A.; Juglea, S.; Kerr, Y.; Marco, J.; Millan-Scheiding, C.; Narbon, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Saleh, K.; Sanchis, J.; Skou, N.; Sobjaerg, S.; Soriano, P.; Tamayo, J.; Tauriainen, S.; Torre, E.; Velazquez-Blazquez, A.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Wursteisen, P.

    In the framework of ESA SMOS Mission, the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) has been selected as a core validation site. Its reasonable homogeneous characteristics make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products before attempting other more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch (2nd Nov. 2009), ESA defined the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the aim of testing the readiness, ensemble coordination and speed of operations, to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns.For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April - May 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the VAS study area where a network of ground soil moisture (SM) measuring stations is being set up based on an original definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over this control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft which contained onboard a payload constituted of the following instruments: (i) L-band EMIRAD radiometer (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) L-band HUT-2D imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish Institute of Maritime Research, FIMR).Together with the ground SM measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements from the VAS area, kindly provided by other institutions, are currently been used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature to obtain satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test the retrieval algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel is carried out by using the SURFace EXternalisée (SURFEX) model from Météo France

  3. Backflashover simulation of HV transmission lines with enhanced counterpoise groundings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatta, F.M.; Geri, A.; Lauria, S.; Maccioni, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Via Eudossiana no. 18, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with the backflashover phenomenon in HV overhead transmission lines (TLs) with towers grounded by means of long counterpoises, typically used in high resistivity soils. Although long counterpoises are effective in reducing the grounding impedance at power frequency, their impulse response may affect negatively the TL backflashover rate. The study is focused on the enhancement of TL lightning performance obtainable by adding a small number of vertical grounding rods to horizontal counterpoises. An extensive ATP-EMTP parametric analysis, based on a detailed 161 kV TL model including the leader progression model (LPM) of line insulations and the non-linear transient behaviour of grounding systems, has been carried out taking into account several different values of soil resistivity as well as varying numbers, locations and lengths of additional vertical rods. Critical lightning current ranges causing backflashover have been then predicted for several lightning waveforms, of different severity. The paper shows that the addition of a few vertical grounding rods significantly improves TL lightning performance by increasing critical lightning current values, even if their influence is negligible at power frequency. The authors have ascertained an increment of average critical backflashover current up to {proportional_to}55% for some typical TL grounding system configurations and lightning waveshapes. (author)

  4. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2017-04-03

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω−2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  5. Component design challenges for the ground-based SP-100 nuclear assembly test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, R.A.; Disney, R.K.; Brown, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 ground engineering system (GES) program involves a ground test of the nuclear subsystems to demonstrate their design. The GES nuclear assembly test (NAT) will be performed in a simulated space environment within a vessel maintained at ultrahigh vacuum. The NAT employs a radiation shielding system that is comprised of both prototypical and nonprototypical shield subsystems to attenuate the reactor radiation leakage and also nonprototypical heat transport subsystems to remove the heat generated by the reactor. The reactor is cooled by liquid lithium, which will operate at temperatures prototypical of the flight system. In designing the components for these systems, a number of design challenges were encountered in meeting the operational requirements of the simulated space environment (and where necessary, prototypical requirements) while also accommodating the restrictions of a ground-based test facility with its limited available space. This paper presents a discussion of the design challenges associated with the radiation shield subsystem components and key components of the heat transport systems

  6. The microelectronics and photonics test bed (MPTB) space, ground test and modeling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the MPTB (microelectronics and photonics test bed) experiment, a combination of a space experiment, ground test and modeling programs looking at the response of advanced electronic and photonic technologies to the natural radiation environment of space. (author)

  7. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-15

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  8. A Hydrogen Containment Process for Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new total hydrogen containment process to enable the testing required for NTP engine development. This H2 removal process comprises of two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger. This new process is demonstrated by simulation of the steady state operation of the engine firing at nominal conditions.

  9. Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New Mexico. Shane used this configuration as the ground control station to remotely pilot the Proteus aircraft during a NASA sponsored series of test flights. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  10. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  11. Orbit-to-ground Wireless Power Transfer test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsrud, C.; Noghanian, S.; Straub, J.; Whalen, D.; Fevig, R.

    Since the 1970s the concept of transferring power from orbit for use on Earth has had a great deal of consideration for future energy and environmental sustainability here on Earth. The cost, size and complexity of a production-grade system are extremely large, and have many environmental considerations. There has never been a publicly disclosed orbit-to-ground power transfer test mission. A proposed project provides an opportunity to test the conceptual operation of such a system, albeit at a much lower power level than the `grand' or `real scale' system. During this test, a small Solar Powered (SP) 6-U CubSat will be deployed into Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) (225 or 325 km) to collect and store 1 KW of power from solar energy as the satellite is orbiting. The goal is to transmit 1 KW of wireless power at a microwave frequency of 5.8 or 10 GHz to a ground antenna array system. This paper presents the architecture for the proposed mission and discusses the regulatory, legal, and environmental issues that such a mission poses. Furthermore, the gain of the transmitter is analyzed at 20 and 30 dB as well as the gain of the receiver is analyzed at 30, 40, and 50 dB. A SP 6-U CubeSat will have a Lithium Ion (LIon) battery capable of storing enough energy for 83.33 Whr charge to run the satellites controls, and 1 KW necessary for a 5-minute demonstration and test (in addition to power required for its own operational requirements). Once charged, the satellite will use highly accurate position and attitude knowledge provided by an onboard star-tracker, Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and inertial measurement unit to determine the proper orientation for the power transfer test. The onboard Attitude Determination and Control (ADCS) will be utilized to achieve and maintain this orientation during the test period. A cold-gas propulsion system will be available to de-spin the reaction wheels to ensure that sufficient ADCS capabilities exist for attitude-stabilization use during

  12. Using sport psychology in simulator testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primeau, T. [Bruce Power, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chandler, K. [Sport and Exercise Psychology Consulting, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The paper will cover the methods of simulator testing at Bruce Power and the recent trial of using a sport psychology consultant to help candidates deal with the mental, physiological and emotional responses to simulator examinations. Previous research has shown that mental skills training can enhance the performance of both cognitive and physical skills. As such, it was hypothesized that a structured mental skills program would assist candidates in achieving optimal performance during simulator testing. The paper will be written as a descriptive piece. The paper will offer insight into the benefits of using mental skills training in preparation for simulator testing and the drawbacks as experienced by the Authorized Nuclear Operator (ANO). (author)

  13. Using sport psychology in simulator testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primeau, T.; Chandler, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper will cover the methods of simulator testing at Bruce Power and the recent trial of using a sport psychology consultant to help candidates deal with the mental, physiological and emotional responses to simulator examinations. Previous research has shown that mental skills training can enhance the performance of both cognitive and physical skills. As such, it was hypothesized that a structured mental skills program would assist candidates in achieving optimal performance during simulator testing. The paper will be written as a descriptive piece. The paper will offer insight into the benefits of using mental skills training in preparation for simulator testing and the drawbacks as experienced by the Authorized Nuclear Operator (ANO). (author)

  14. Numerical simulations of rubber bearing tests and shaking table tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, K.; Matsuda, A.; Yabana, S.

    2002-01-01

    Test data concerning rubber bearing tests and shaking table tests of base-isolated model conducted by CRIEPI are provided to the participants of Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Intercomparison of Analysis Methods for predicting the behaviour of Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structure', which is organized by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for the comparison study of numerical simulation of base-isolated structure. In this paper outlines of the test data provided and the numerical simulations of bearing tests and shaking table tests are described. Using computer code ABAQUS, numerical simulations of rubber bearing tests are conducted for NRBs, LRBs (data provided by CRIEPI) and for HDRs (data provided by ENEA/ENEL and KAERI). Several strain energy functions are specified according to the rubber material test corresponding to each rubber bearing. As for lead plug material in LRB, mechanical characteristics are reevaluated and are made use of. Simulation results for these rubber bearings show satisfactory agreement with the test results. Shaking table test conducted by CRIEPI is of a base isolated rigid mass supported by LRB. Acceleration time histories, displacement time histories of the isolators as well as cyclic loading test data of the LRB used for the shaking table test are provided to the participants of the CRP. Simulations of shaking table tests are conducted for this rigid mass, and also for the steel frame model which is conducted by ENEL/ENEA. In the simulation of the rigid mass model test, where LRBs are used, isolators are modeled either by bilinear model or polylinear model. In both cases of modeling of isolators, simulation results show good agreement with the test results. In the case of the steel frame model, where HDRs are used as isolators, bilinear model and polylinear model are also used for modeling isolators. The response of the model is simulated comparatively well in the low frequency range of the floor response, however, in

  15. Results from the Cold Atom Laboratory's ground test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ethan; CAL Team

    2017-04-01

    We describe validation and development of critical technologies in the Cold Atom Laboratory's (CAL) ground test bed, including the demonstration of the first microwave evaporation and generation of dual-species quantum gas mixtures on an atom chip. CAL is a multi-user facility developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide the first persistent quantum gas platform in the microgravity environment of space. The CAL instrument will be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and utilize a compact atom chip trap loaded from a dual-species magneto optical trap of rubidium and potassium. In the unique environment of microgravity, the confining potentials necessary to the process of cooling atoms can be arbitrarily relaxed, enabling production of gases down to pikoKelvin temperatures and ultra-low densities. Complete removal of the confining potential allows for ultracold clouds that can float virtually fixed relative to the CAL apparatus. This new parameter regime enables ultracold atom research with broad applications in fundamental physics and inertial sensing. Results from the Cold Atom Laboratory's ground testbed.

  16. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits C3VP dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits MC3E dataset is available in the Orbital database , which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS TWP-ICE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits TWP-ICE dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  20. Hemodynamic effects of microgravity and their ground-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobachik, V. I.; Abrosimov, S. V.; Zhidkov, V. V.; Endeka, D. K.

    Hemodynamic effects of simulated microgravity were investigated, in various experiments, using radioactive isotopes, in which 40 healthy men, aged 35 to 42 years, took part. Blood shifts were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Simulation studies included bedrest, head-down tilt (-5° and -15°), and vertical water immersion, it was found that none of the methods could entirely simulate hemodynamic effects of microgravity. Subjective sensations varied in a wide range. They cannot be used to identify reliably the effects of real and simulated microgravity. Renal fluid excretion in real and simulated microgravity was different in terms of volume and time. The experiments yielded data about the general pattern of circulation with blood displaced to the upper body.

  1. A controlled monitoring study of simulated clandestine graves using 3D ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Schoor, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface Geophysics, vol. 15(3): 274-284 A controlled monitoring study of simulated clandestine graves using 3D ground penetrating radar Van Schoor M Nienaber WC Marais-Werner A ABSTRACT: A controlled three-dimensional ground penetrating...

  2. An EMTP Comprehensive Model of Tower Grounding and its Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zicheng; Zhang, Yadong; Guo, Jin; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    For the purpose of designing the grounding device of the poles and towers an improved EMTP model is put forward in this paper. The impulse characteristics of the tower grounding under impulse currents are simulated and analysed based on circuit theory. Only the non-linear effects caused by soil ionization are considered in the current studies. And the interactions deriving from the coexistence of segmented grounding electrodes have been neglected. Consequently, the calculated results of the impulse grounding resistance of the complex grounding device such as the tower grounding are not enough accurate using the traditional models. The soil ionization effects are simulated through the non-linear resistance. The current-controlled voltage sources are introduced in the model to take into account the interactions of the segmented grounding electrodes. Then the comprehensive model of the tower grounding is established. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data implies that the tower grounding model proposed in this paper is more accurate and effective than the traditional model.

  3. Overview of Ground-Motion Issues for Cascadia Megathrust Events: Simulation of Ground-Motions and Earthquake Site Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghofrani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground motions for earthquakes of M7.5 to 9.0 on the Cascadia subduction interface are simulated based on a stochastic finite-fault model and used to estimate average response spectra for reference firm soil conditions. The simulations are first validated by modeling the wealth of ground-motion data from the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of Japan. Adjustments to the calibrated model are then made to consider average source, attenuation and site parameters for the Cascadia region. This includes an evaluation of the likely variability in stress drop for large interface earthquakes and an assessment of regional attenuation and site effects. We perform best-estimate simulations for a preferred set of input parameters. Typical results suggest mean values of 5%-damped pseudoacceleration in the range from about 100 to 200 cm/s2, at frequencies from 1 to 4 Hz, for firm-ground conditions in Vancouver. Uncertainty in most-likely value of the parameter representing stress drop causes variability in simulated response spectra of about ±50%. Uncertainties in the attenuation model produce even larger variability in response spectral amplitudes—a factor of about two at a closest distance to the rupture plane (Rcd of 100 km, becoming even larger at greater distances. It is thus important to establish the regional attenuation model for ground-motion simulations and to bound the source properties controlling radiation of ground motion. We calculate theoretical one-dimensional spectral amplification estimates for four selected Fraser River Delta sites to show how the presence of softer sediments in the region may alter the predicted ground motions. The amplification functions are largely consistent with observed spectral amplification at Fraser River delta sites, suggesting amplification by factors of 2.5–5 at the peak frequency of the site; we note that deep sites in the delta have a low peak frequency, ∼0.3 Hz. This work will aid in seismic hazard

  4. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    damage mechanics.The paper describes how continuum damage mechanics may be used with a finite element program to explain the progressive deterioration of asphalt mixes under laboratory fatigue testing. Both constant stress and constant strain testing are simulated, and compared to the actual results from...

  5. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Using Scenario Earthquakes for the Istanbul Area

    KAUST Repository

    Reshi, Owais A.

    2016-04-13

    Seismic design, analysis and retrofitting of structures demand an intensive assessment of potential ground motions in seismically active regions. Peak ground motions and frequency content of seismic excitations effectively influence the behavior of structures. In regions of sparse ground motion records, ground-motion simulations provide the synthetic seismic records, which not only provide insight into the mechanisms of earthquakes but also help in improving some aspects of earthquake engineering. Broadband ground-motion simulation methods typically utilize physics-based modeling of source and path effects at low frequencies coupled with high frequency semi-stochastic methods. I apply the hybrid simulation method by Mai et al. (2010) to model several scenario earthquakes in the Marmara Sea, an area of high seismic hazard. Simulated ground motions were generated at 75 stations using systematically calibrated model parameters. The region-specific source, path and site model parameters were calibrated by simulating a w4.1 Marmara Sea earthquake that occurred on November 16, 2015 on the fault segment in the vicinity of Istanbul. The calibrated parameters were then used to simulate the scenario earthquakes with magnitudes w6.0, w6.25, w6.5 and w6.75 over the Marmara Sea fault. Effects of fault geometry, hypocenter location, slip distribution and rupture propagation were thoroughly studied to understand variability in ground motions. A rigorous analysis of waveforms reveal that these parameters are critical for determining the behavior of ground motions especially in the near-field. Comparison of simulated ground motion intensities with ground-motion prediction quations indicates the need of development of the region-specific ground-motion prediction equation for Istanbul area. Peak ground motion maps are presented to illustrate the shaking in the Istanbul area due to the scenario earthquakes. The southern part of Istanbul including Princes Islands show high amplitudes

  6. Commissioning of the Ground Test Accelerator Intertank Matching Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Cole, R.; Connolly, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Ingalls, W.B.; Kersteins, D.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lysenko, W.P.; Mottershead, C.T.; Power, J.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sandoval, D.P.; Stevens, R.R.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Weiss, R.; Yuan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on-line. The commissioning stages are the 35 keV H - injector, the 2.5 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), the Intertank Matching Section (IMS), the 3.2 MeV first 2βγ Drift Tube Linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7 MeV 2βγ DTL (modules 1--5), and the 24 MeV GTA; all 10 DTL modules. Commissioning results from the IMS beam experiments will be presented

  7. Commissioning of the ground test accelerator intertank matching section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Cole, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Ingalls, W.B.; Kersteins, D.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lysenko, W.P.; Mottershead, C.T.; Power, J.; Rushoi, D.P.; Sandoval, D.P.; Stevens, R.R.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Yuan, V.; Connelly, R.; Weiss, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on-line. The commissioning stages are the 35-KeV H - injector, the 2.5-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ); the intertank matching section (IMS), the 3.2-MeV first 2-βλ drift-tube linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7-MeV 2-βλ DTL (modules 1-5), and the 24-MeV GTA (all 10 DTL modules). Commissioning results from the IMS beam experiments are presented. (Author) 10 refs., 6 figs

  8. Development of Partial Discharging Simulation Test Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Xue; Genghua, Liu; Yan, Jia; Ziqi, Chai; Jian, Lu

    2017-12-01

    In the case of partial discharge training for recruits who lack of on-site work experience, the risk of physical shock and damage of the test equipment may be due to the limited skill level and improper operation by new recruits. Partial discharge simulation tester is the use of simulation technology to achieve partial discharge test process simulation, relatively true reproduction of the local discharge process and results, so that the operator in the classroom will be able to get familiar with and understand the use of the test process and equipment.The teacher sets up the instrument to display different partial discharge waveforms so that the trainees can analyze the test results of different partial discharge types.

  9. Dynamic Time Warping Distance Method for Similarity Test of Multipoint Ground Motion Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability of artificial multi-point ground motions and the identification of abnormal records in seismic array observations, are two important issues in application and analysis of multi-point ground motion fields. Based on the dynamic time warping (DTW distance method, this paper discusses the application of similarity measurement in the similarity analysis of simulated multi-point ground motions and the actual seismic array records. Analysis results show that the DTW distance method not only can quantitatively reflect the similarity of simulated ground motion field, but also offers advantages in clustering analysis and singularity recognition of actual multi-point ground motion field.

  10. NASA Boeing 757 HIRF test series low power on-the-ground tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio, A.J.; Pennock, S.T.; Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley AFB, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1996-08-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transports; for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs; and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/ Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants in this project were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. The tests were performed over a five week period during September through November, 1994. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. This report and the associated test plan that is included as an appendix represent a definition of the overall on-the-ground test program. They include descriptions of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. In this report, a detailed description of each executed test is provided, as is the data identification (data id) relating the specific test with its relevant data files. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation are also presented. The test plan which guided the execution of the tests, a test report by UIE Inc., and the report describing the concrete pad characterization are included as appendices.

  11. Investigating Ground Swarm Robotics Using Agent Based Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    interesting to see how alternatives like MANA (and even Pythagoras 3 ) measure up to the calling. If indeed MANA has rarely been dedicated to model swarm... Pythagoras is an agent based simulation package developed by Northrop Grumman 5 Figure 2. Simulation packages used to models robot swarms... Pythagoras , an agent based software platform developed by Northrop Grumman. 93 As mentioned before, the model is not complete without modeling the

  12. Private ground infrastructures for space exploration missions simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchier, Alain

    2010-06-01

    The Mars Society, a private non profit organisation devoted to promote the red planet exploration, decided to implement simulated Mars habitat in two locations on Earth: in northern Canada on the rim of a meteoritic crater (2000), in a US Utah desert, location of a past Jurassic sea (2001). These habitats have been built with large similarities to actual planned habitats for first Mars exploration missions. Participation is open to everybody either proposing experimentations or wishing only to participate as a crew member. Participants are from different organizations: Mars Society, Universities, experimenters working with NASA or ESA. The general philosophy of the work conducted is not to do an innovative scientific work on the field but to learn how the scientific work is affected or modified by the simulation conditions. Outside activities are conducted with simulated spacesuits limiting the experimenter abilities. Technology or procedures experimentations are also conducted as well as experimentations on the crew psychology and behaviour.

  13. On a test to resolve issues related to earthquake response of nuclear structures and the ground motions used for the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes new test methodology to obtain the data available to evaluate ultimate seismic behavior of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures. The paper firstly reviews the existing test data of Soil Structure Interaction (SSI). Secondary, the paper points out the issues in the existing data regarding their applicability to the evaluation of behavior of NPP structures when a big earthquake ground motion strikes them. Then the paper proposes new test methodology to evaluate ultimate behavior of NPP structures against a strong earthquake ground motion. The proposed methodology employs ground motions generated in a surface coal mine that has a large acceleration up to 2 g. The simulation analysis is carried out by applying an observed large ground motion at the coal mine to a scaled NPP building model. The results are promising and encourage the application of the methodologies to evaluate ultimate earthquake response behavior of the NPP structures. (author)

  14. Simulation of regional ground-water flow in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a numerical model that simulates regional ground-water flow in the upper Deschutes Basin of central Oregon. Ground water and surface water are intimately connected in the upper Deschutes Basin and most of the flow of the Deschutes River is supplied by ground water. Because of this connection, ground-water pumping and reduction of artificial recharge by lining leaking irrigation canals can reduce the amount of ground water discharging to streams and, consequently, streamflow. The model described in this report is intended to help water-management agencies and the public evaluate how the regional ground-water system and streamflow will respond to ground-water pumping, canal lining, drought, and other stresses. Ground-water flow is simulated in the model by the finite-difference method using MODFLOW and MODFLOWP. The finite-difference grid consists of 8 layers, 127 rows, and 87 columns. All major streams and most principal tributaries in the upper Deschutes Basin are included. Ground-water recharge from precipitation was estimated using a daily water-balance approach. Artificial recharge from leaking irrigation canals and on-farm losses was estimated from diversion and delivery records, seepage studies, and crop data. Ground-water pumpage for irrigation and public water supplies, and evapotranspiration are also included in the model. The model was calibrated to mean annual (1993-95) steady-state conditions using parameter-estimation techniques employing nonlinear regression. Fourteen hydraulic-conductivity parameters and two vertical conductance parameters were determined using nonlinear regression. Final parameter values are all within expected ranges. The general shape and slope of the simulated water-table surface and overall hydraulic-head distribution match the geometry determined from field measurements. The fitted standard deviation for hydraulic head is about 76 feet. The general magnitude and distribution of ground-water discharge to

  15. Large-Scale Cryogenic Testing of Launch Vehicle Ground Systems at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E. W.; Sass, J. P.; Lobemeyer, D. A.; Sojourner, S. J.; Hatfield, W. H.; Rewinkel, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new launch vehicle to support NASA's future exploration plans requires significant redesign and upgrade of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) launch pad and ground support equipment systems. In many cases, specialized test equipment and systems will be required to certify the function of the new system designs under simulated operational conditions, including propellant loading. This paper provides an overview of the cryogenic test infrastructure that is in place at KSC to conduct development and qualification testing that ranges from the component level to the integrated-system level. An overview of the major cryogenic test facilities will be provided, along with a detailed explanation of the technology focus area for each facility

  16. Wideband simulation of earthquake ground motion by a spectrum-matching, multiple-pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.; Pavlov, V.

    2006-04-01

    To simulate earthquake ground motion, we combine a multiple-point stochastic earthquake fault model and a suite of Green functions. Conceptually, our source model generalizes the classic one of Haskell (1966). At any time instant, slip occurs over a narrow strip that sweeps the fault area at a (spatially variable) velocity. This behavior defines seismic signals at lower frequencies (LF), and describes directivity effects. High-frequency (HF) behavior of source signal is defined by local slip history, assumed to be a short segment of pulsed noise. For calculations, this model is discretized as a grid of point subsources. Subsource moment rate time histories, in their LF part, are smooth pulses whose duration equals to the rise time. In their HF part, they are segments of non-Gaussian noise of similar duration. The spectral content of subsource time histories is adjusted so that the summary far-field signal follows certain predetermined spectral scaling law. The results of simulation depend on random seeds, and on particular values of such parameters as: stress drop; average and dispersion parameter for rupture velocity; rupture nucleation point; slip zone width/rise time, wavenumber-spectrum parameter defining final slip function; the degrees of non-Gaussianity for random slip rate in time, and for random final slip in space, and more. To calculate ground motion at a site, Green functions are calculated for each subsource-site pair, then convolved with subsource time functions and at last summed over subsources. The original Green function calculator for layered weakly inelastic medium is of discrete wavenumber kind, with no intrinsic limitations with respect to layer thickness or bandwidth. The simulation package can generate example motions, or used to study uncertainties of the predicted motion. As a test, realistic analogues of recorded motions in the epicentral zone of the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake were synthesized, and related uncertainties were

  17. 2.5D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effects of basin-edge and soil velocity on the ground motion characteristics have been simulated using 2.5D modeling. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5D simulation is that 3D radiation pattern can be generated in a 2D numerical grid using double-couple shear dislocation source. Further, 2.5D ...

  18. 2.5 D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effects of basin-edge and soil velocity on the ground motion characteristics have been simulated using 2.5D modeling. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5D simulation is that 3D radiation pattern can be generated in a 2D numerical grid using double-couple shear dislocation source. Further, 2.5D ...

  19. Validation of simulated earthquake ground motions based on evolution of intensity and frequency content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Zhong, Peng; Hartzell, Stephen; Zareian, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Simulated earthquake ground motions can be used in many recent engineering applications that require time series as input excitations. However, applicability and validation of simulations are subjects of debate in the seismological and engineering communities. We propose a validation methodology at the waveform level and directly based on characteristics that are expected to influence most structural and geotechnical response parameters. In particular, three time-dependent validation metrics are used to evaluate the evolving intensity, frequency, and bandwidth of a waveform. These validation metrics capture nonstationarities in intensity and frequency content of waveforms, making them ideal to address nonlinear response of structural systems. A two-component error vector is proposed to quantify the average and shape differences between these validation metrics for a simulated and recorded ground-motion pair. Because these metrics are directly related to the waveform characteristics, they provide easily interpretable feedback to seismologists for modifying their ground-motion simulation models. To further simplify the use and interpretation of these metrics for engineers, it is shown how six scalar key parameters, including duration, intensity, and predominant frequency, can be extracted from the validation metrics. The proposed validation methodology is a step forward in paving the road for utilization of simulated ground motions in engineering practice and is demonstrated using examples of recorded and simulated ground motions from the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake.

  20. Non-Stationary Modelling and Simulation of Near-Source Earthquake Ground Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fouskitakis, G. N.

    This paper is concerned with modelling and simulation of near-source earthquake ground motion. Recent studies have revealed that these motions show heavy non-stationary behaviour with very low frequencies dominating parts of the earthquake sequence. Modelling and simulation of this behaviour...... by an epicentral distance of 16 km and measured during the 1979 Imperial valley earthquake in California (USA). The results of the study indicate that while all three approaches can succesfully predict near-source ground motions, the Neural Network based one gives somewhat poorer simulation results....

  1. Non-Stationary Modelling and Simulation of Near-Source Earthquake Ground Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fouskitakis, G. N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with modelling and simulation of near-source earthquake ground motion. Recent studies have revealed that these motions show heavy non-stationary behaviour with very low frequencies dominating parts of the earthquake sequence. Modeling and simulation of this behaviour...... by an epicentral distance of 16 km and measured during the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake in California (U .S .A.). The results of the study indicate that while all three approaches can successfully predict near-source ground motions, the Neural Network based one gives somewhat poorer simulation results....

  2. Embracing Safe Ground Test Facility Operations and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven C.; Green, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting integrated operations and maintenance in wind tunnel ground test facilities requires a balance of meeting due dates, efficient operation, responsiveness to the test customer, data quality, effective maintenance (relating to readiness and reliability), and personnel and facility safety. Safety is non-negotiable, so the balance must be an "and" with other requirements and needs. Pressure to deliver services faster at increasing levels of quality in under-maintained facilities is typical. A challenge for management is to balance the "need for speed" with safety and quality. It s especially important to communicate this balance across the organization - workers, with a desire to perform, can be tempted to cut corners on defined processes to increase speed. Having a lean staff can extend the time required for pre-test preparations, so providing a safe work environment for facility personnel and providing good stewardship for expensive National capabilities can be put at risk by one well-intending person using at-risk behavior. This paper documents a specific, though typical, operational environment and cites management and worker safety initiatives and tools used to provide a safe work environment. Results are presented and clearly show that the work environment is a relatively safe one, though still not good enough to keep from preventing injury. So, the journey to a zero injury work environment - both in measured reality and in the minds of each employee - continues. The intent of this paper is to provide a benchmark for others with operational environments and stimulate additional sharing and discussion on having and keeping a safe work environment.

  3. 2-d Simulations of Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham......One of the main obstacles for the further development of self-compacting concrete is to relate the fresh concrete properties to the form filling ability. Therefore, simulation of the form filling ability will provide a powerful tool in obtaining this goal. In this paper, a continuum mechanical...... approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when...

  4. Steam generator tube denting simulation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, P.J.; Singley, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    Tube denting has been reported in steam generators in a number of commercial nuclear power plants in recent years. In order to aid in understanding of the mechanism leading to tube denting in the steam generators, a Bettis laboratory test program was initiated to attempt to reproduce tube denting and to investigate the effects of chemistry, design, and temperature. The results of the tests indicate that denting can be reproduced in the small model steam generator test apparatus devised for this testing. Denting was observed under carbon steel support plates in seawater-contaminated secondary water in a test with hydrazine-ammonia chemistry and a primary water inlet temperature of 590 0 F and in a test with hydrazine-morpholine chemistry and a primary water inlet temperature of 545 0 F. The parameters of these two tests simulate conditions in a typical commercial steam generator and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station steam generators, respectively

  5. End-to-end simulation and verification of GNC and robotic systems considering both space segment and ground segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Heike; Rems, Florian; Risse, Eicke; Brunner, Bernhard; Stelzer, Martin; Krenn, Rainer; Reiner, Matthias; Stangl, Christian; Gnat, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of a project called on-orbit servicing end-to-end simulation, the final approach and capture of a tumbling client satellite in an on-orbit servicing mission are simulated. The necessary components are developed and the entire end-to-end chain is tested and verified. This involves both on-board and on-ground systems. The space segment comprises a passive client satellite, and an active service satellite with its rendezvous and berthing payload. The space segment is simulated using a software satellite simulator and two robotic, hardware-in-the-loop test beds, the European Proximity Operations Simulator (EPOS) 2.0 and the OOS-Sim. The ground segment is established as for a real servicing mission, such that realistic operations can be performed from the different consoles in the control room. During the simulation of the telerobotic operation, it is important to provide a realistic communication environment with different parameters like they occur in the real world (realistic delay and jitter, for example).

  6. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CRAWFORD, B.A.

    2000-01-05

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.

  7. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRAWFORD, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis

  8. Lessons learned on the Ground Test Accelerator control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, A.J.; Weiss, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    When we initiated the control system design for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), we envisioned a system that would be flexible enough to handle the changing requirements of an experimental project. This control system would use a developers` toolkit to reduce the cost and time to develop applications for GTA, and through the use of open standards, the system would accommodate unforeseen requirements as they arose. Furthermore, we would attempt to demonstrate on GTA a level of automation far beyond that achieved by existing accelerator control systems. How well did we achieve these goals? What were the stumbling blocks to deploying the control system, and what assumptions did we make about requirements that turned out to be incorrect? In this paper we look at the process of developing a control system that evolved into what is now the ``Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System`` (EPICS). Also, we assess the impact of this system on the GTA project, as well as the impact of GTA on EPICS. The lessons learned on GTA will be valuable for future projects.

  9. Platform for Testing Robotic Vehicles on Simulated Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Randel

    2006-01-01

    The variable terrain tilt platform (VTTP) is a means of providing simulated terrain for mobility testing of engineering models of the Mars Exploration Rovers. The VTTP could also be used for testing the ability of other robotic land vehicles (and small vehicles in general) to move across terrain under diverse conditions of slope and surface texture, and in the presence of obstacles of various sizes and shapes. The VTTP consists mostly of a 16-ft-(4.88-m)-square tilt table. The tilt can be adjusted to any angle between 0 (horizontal) and 25 . The test surface of the table can be left bare; can be covered with hard, high-friction material; or can be covered with sand, gravel, and/or other ground-simulating material or combination of materials to a thickness of as much as 6 in. (approx. 15 cm). Models of rocks, trenches, and other obstacles can be placed on the simulated terrain. For example, for one of the Mars- Rover tests, a high-friction mat was attached to the platform, then a 6-in.- ( 15 cm) deep layer of dry, loose beach sand was deposited on the mat. The choice of these two driving surface materials was meant to bound the range of variability of terrain that the rover was expected to encounter on the Martian surface. At each of the different angles at which tests were performed, for some of the tests, rocklike concrete obstacles ranging in height from 10 to 25 cm were placed in the path of the rover (see figure). The development of the VTTP was accompanied by development of a methodology of testing to characterize the performance and modes of failure of a vehicle under test. In addition to variations in slope, ground material, and obstacles, testing typically includes driving up-slope, down-slope, cross-slope, and at intermediate angles relative to slope. Testing includes recording of drive-motor currents, wheel speeds, articulation of suspension mechanisms, and the actual path of the vehicle over the simulated terrain. The collected data can be used to

  10. Effects of earthquake rupture shallowness and local soil conditions on simulated ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsel, Randy J.; Hadley, David M.; Hart, Robert S.

    1983-03-01

    The paucity of strong ground motion data in the Eastern U.S. (EUS), combined with well recognized differences in earthquake source depths and wave propagation characteristics between Eastern and Western U.S. (WUS) suggests that simulation studies will play a key role in assessing earthquake hazard in the East. This report summarizes an extensive simulation study of 5460 components of ground motion representing a model parameter study for magnitude, distance, source orientation, source depth and near-surface site conditions for a generic EUS crustal model. The simulation methodology represents a hybrid approach to modeling strong ground motion. Wave propagation is modeled with an efficient frequency-wavenumber integration algorithm. The source time function used for each grid element of a modeled fault is empirical, scaled from near-field accelerograms. This study finds that each model parameter has a significant influence on both the shape and amplitude of the simulated response spectra. The combined effect of all parameters predicts a dispersion of response spectral values that is consistent with strong ground motion observations. This study provides guidelines for scaling WUS data from shallow earthquakes to the source depth conditions more typical in the EUS. The modeled site conditions range from very soft soil to hard rock. To the extent that these general site conditions model a specific site, the simulated response spectral information can be used to either correct spectra to a site-specific environment or used to compare expected ground motions at different sites. (author)

  11. Hunter standoff killer team (HSKT) ground and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Balinda; Ennis, Mark; Yeates, Robert; Condon, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    Warfighter's Associate (WA) which was integrated onto the Apache Longbow, and the Mobile Commanders Associate (MCA) which was integrated onto the Army Airborne Command and Control System (A2C2S) UH-60 Blackhawk. In this paper we will discuss what WA and MCA provided to the warfighter, and the results of the HSKT ground and flight testing.

  12. Cardiovascular responses to weightlessness and ground-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    Mission experience, from NASA and Soviet programs, on human cardiovascular responses to weightlessness, and the ability of bed rest studies to simulate these are discussed. In-flight effects include fluid shift to the upper body, decreased heart size, bone demineralization, orthostatic intolerance, and loss of exercise tolerance. All the cardiovascular changes that occur with weightlessness also occur with prolonged bed rest. They are most manifest when subjects stand suddenly, or undergo tilting or lower body negative pressure. The mechanisms which control these responses, e.g., the role of the central nervous system, are unclear.

  13. Prototyping a robotic dental testing simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemzadeh, K; Hyde, R A; Gao, J

    2007-05-01

    A parallel robot based on the Stewart platform is being developed to simulate jaw motion and investigate its effect on jaw function to test the wearing away of dental components such as individual teeth, crowns, bridges, full set of dentures, and implant-supported overdentures by controlling chewing motion. The current paper only describes the comparison between an alternative configuration proposed by Xu and the Stewart platform configuration. The Stewart platform was chosen as an ideal structure for simulating human mastication as it is easily assembled, has high rigidity, high load-carrying capacity, and accurate positioning capability. The kinematics and singularities of the Stewart platform have been analysed and software developed to (a) test the control algorithms/strategy of muscle movement for the six degree of freedom of mastication cycle and (b) simulate and observe various design options to be able to make the best judgement in product development. The human replica skull has been analysed and reverse engineered with further simplification before integration with the Stewart platform computer-aided design (CAD) to develop the robotic dental testing simulator. Assembly modelling of the reproduced skull was critically analysed for good occlusion in CAD environment. A pulse-width modulation (PWM) circuit plus interface was built to control position and speed of the chosen actuators. A computer numerical control (CNC) machine and wire-electro-discharge machining (wire EDM) were used to manufacture the critical parts such as lower mandible, upper maxilla, and universal joints.

  14. Physical simulation and theoretical evolution for ground fissures triggered by underground coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Hu; Yu, Xiang; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zeng-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Underground coal mining activities are prone to cause movement and breakage in geological strata and also lead to mining subsidence and even ground fissures. Along the direction working panel advancing, ground fissures may occur in roof in front and/or behind working panel. However, the investigations of previous similarity tests in lab only emphasize on the region behind working panel. By improving strata material property in construction and mounting artificial pressure devices, two physical simulation tests were conducted and successfully investigated the simulated results. Then, the mechanical model of "cantilever beam and elastic foundation beam" was proposed to calculate the stress distribution and the crack initiation angle in overlying strata and it well explains the mechanisms of ground fissures generation and propagation. Results show that, the maximum internal force in roof always occurred in front of working panel. However, because the void space in gob due to excavation is large enough to cause the bend and rotation of roof strata, compare to the triaxially compressed region in front of working panel, the roof always broke off at some positions above gob since the stress concentration resulting from such bend and rotation of strata could easily reach the limit strength of strata rocks. Also, the length of cantilever beam changed dynamically as respect to the panel advancing and the breakage intervals. Thus, the breakage position where the internal force first reached the limit tensile strength is not fixed and there will be two different kinds of relative positions between the crack initiation point and the working panel. The crack initiation direction is always perpendicular to the internal force, and the crack propagation direction is affected by the initiation angle, overburden-separation degree and the position of the hydraulic shields. If there is no overburden-separation or less, the roofs will break off as a composite beam and the propagation

  15. Physical simulation and theoretical evolution for ground fissures triggered by underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zeng-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Underground coal mining activities are prone to cause movement and breakage in geological strata and also lead to mining subsidence and even ground fissures. Along the direction working panel advancing, ground fissures may occur in roof in front and/or behind working panel. However, the investigations of previous similarity tests in lab only emphasize on the region behind working panel. By improving strata material property in construction and mounting artificial pressure devices, two physical simulation tests were conducted and successfully investigated the simulated results. Then, the mechanical model of “cantilever beam and elastic foundation beam” was proposed to calculate the stress distribution and the crack initiation angle in overlying strata and it well explains the mechanisms of ground fissures generation and propagation. Results show that, the maximum internal force in roof always occurred in front of working panel. However, because the void space in gob due to excavation is large enough to cause the bend and rotation of roof strata, compare to the triaxially compressed region in front of working panel, the roof always broke off at some positions above gob since the stress concentration resulting from such bend and rotation of strata could easily reach the limit strength of strata rocks. Also, the length of cantilever beam changed dynamically as respect to the panel advancing and the breakage intervals. Thus, the breakage position where the internal force first reached the limit tensile strength is not fixed and there will be two different kinds of relative positions between the crack initiation point and the working panel. The crack initiation direction is always perpendicular to the internal force, and the crack propagation direction is affected by the initiation angle, overburden-separation degree and the position of the hydraulic shields. If there is no overburden-separation or less, the roofs will break off as a composite beam and the

  16. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  17. Geotechnical Tests on Asteroid Simulant Orgueil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander D'marco

    2017-01-01

    In the last 100 years, the global population has more than quadrupled to over seven billion people. At the same time, the demand for food and standard of living has been increasing which has amplified the global water use by nearly eight times from approximately 500 to 4000 cu km per yr from 1900 to 2010. With the increasing concern to sustain the growing population on Earth it is necessary to seek other approaches to ensure that our planet will have resources for generations to come. In recent years, the advancement of space travel and technology has allowed the idea of mining asteroids with resources closer to becoming a reality. During the duration of the internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center, several geotechnical tests were conducted on BP-1 lunar simulant and asteroid simulant Orgueil. The tests that were conducted on BP-1 was to practice utilizing the equipment that will be used on the asteroid simulant and the data from those tests will be omitted from report. Understanding the soil mechanics of asteroid simulant Orgueil will help provide basis for future technological advances and prepare scientists for the conditions they may encounter when mining asteroids becomes reality in the distant future. Distinct tests were conducted to determine grain size distribution, unconsolidated density, and maximum density. Once the basic properties are known, the asteroid simulant will be altered to different levels of compaction using a vibrator table to see how compaction affects the density. After different intervals of vibration compaction, a miniature vane shear test will be conducted. Laboratory vane shear testing is a reliable tool to investigate strength anisotropy in the vertical and horizontal directions of a very soft to stiff saturated fine-grained clayey soil. This test will provide us with a rapid determination of the shear strength on the undisturbed compacted regolith. The results of these tests will shed light on how much torque is necessary to drill

  18. Feasibility study of a nonequilibrium MHD accelerator concept for hypersonic propulsion ground testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ying-Ming; Simmons, G.A.; Nelson, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funded research study to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) body force accelerators to produce true air simulation for hypersonic propulsion ground testing is discussed in this paper. Testing over the airbreathing portion of a transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) hypersonic flight regime will require high quality air simulation for actual flight conditions behind a bow shock wave (forebody, pre-inlet region) for flight velocities up to Mach 16 and perhaps beyond. Material limits and chemical dissociation at high temperature limit the simulated flight Mach numbers in conventional facilities to less than Mach 12 for continuous and semi-continuous testing and less than Mach 7 for applications requiring true air chemistry. By adding kinetic energy directly to the flow, MHD accelerators avoid the high temperatures and pressures required in the reservoir region of conventional expansion facilities, allowing MHD to produce true flight conditions in flight regimes impossible with conventional facilities. The present study is intended to resolve some of the critical technical issues related to the operation of MHD at high pressure. Funding has been provided only for the first phase of a three to four year feasibility study that would culminate in the demonstration of MHD acceleration under conditions required to produce true flight conditions behind a bow shock wave to flight Mach numbers of 16 or greater. MHD critical issues and a program plan to resolve these are discussed

  19. Estimating the ground-state probability of a quantum simulation with product-state measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce eYoshimura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available .One of the goals in quantum simulation is to adiabatically generate the ground state of a complicated Hamiltonian by starting with the ground state of a simple Hamiltonian and slowly evolving the system to the complicated one. If the evolution is adiabatic and the initial and final ground states are connected due to having the same symmetry, then the simulation will be successful. But in most experiments, adiabatic simulation is not possible because it would take too long, and the system has some level of diabatic excitation. In this work, we quantify the extent of the diabatic excitation even if we do not know {it a priori} what the complicated ground state is. Since many quantum simulator platforms, like trapped ions, can measure the probabilities to be in a product state, we describe techniques that can employ these simple measurements to estimate the probability of being in the ground state of the system after the diabatic evolution. These techniques do not require one to know any properties about the Hamiltonian itself, nor to calculate its eigenstate properties. All the information is derived by analyzing the product-state measurements as functions of time.

  20. Digital Channel Simulator Developed and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, Thomas P.

    2000-01-01

    The Digital Channel Simulator (DCS) is a real-time test set developed in-house by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field that simulates the characteristics of the modulator, demodulator, and transmission medium in a typical communications system to enable controlled laboratory testing of codec pairs. The DCS can support data rates up to 100 megasymbols per second (Msymbols/sec) with symbol sizes up to 10 bits and is compatible with both TTL (transistor transistor logic) and ECL (emitter coupled logic) interfaces. Because of its use of digital integrated circuits (IC's), the DCS offers the user accurate and repeatable testing while maintaining a simple reconfiguration of the modulation scheme and noise characteristics. The PC-based graphical user interface (GUI) assures user friendly operation for configuring, controlling, and monitoring the DCS and system during tests. In a typical communications system, the modulator places a symbol in constellation space and puts it on a carrier to be sent to the demodulator. Because of noise on the channel, the I and Q position in constellation space cannot be recovered exactly, and the received coordinates shift. To mimic this process in the laboratory, the DCS uses a mapper to place the symbol in constellation space. It simulates the shift in coordinates by digitally adding "noise" to the I and Q values. The mapper and noise source are implemented in lookup tables. Modulation schemes and noise characteristics are set by the values loaded in these tables. The mapper also has a pass-through mode to facilitate modulator testing, allowing noise to be added to 8-bit I and Q values of modulated data without a second mapping. To achieve high symbol rates, eight processing circuits are placed in parallel between an ECL demultiplexer and multiplexer. A graphical user interface was developed to calculate, load, and verify the values for the lookup tables. This interface can also be used to debug and verify proper operation of the

  1. Electromagnetic simulators for Ground Penetrating Radar applications developed in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Warren, Craig; Antonijevic, Sinisa; Doric, Vicko; Poljak, Dragan

    2017-04-01

    Founded in 1971, COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) is the first and widest European framework for the transnational coordination of research activities. It operates through Actions, science and technology networks with a duration of four years. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (4 April 2013 - 3 October 2017) is to exchange and increase knowledge and experience on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe a wider use of this technique. Research activities carried out in TU1208 include all aspects of the GPR technology and methodology: design, realization and testing of radar systems and antennas; development and testing of surveying procedures for the monitoring and inspection of structures; integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing approaches; advancement of electromagnetic-modelling, inversion and data-processing techniques for radargram analysis and interpretation. GPR radargrams often have no resemblance to the subsurface or structures over which the profiles were recorded. Various factors, including the innate design of the survey equipment and the complexity of electromagnetic propagation in composite scenarios, can disguise complex structures recorded on reflection profiles. Electromagnetic simulators can help to understand how target structures get translated into radargrams. They can show the limitations of GPR technique, highlight its capabilities, and support the user in understanding where and in what environment GPR can be effectively used. Furthermore, electromagnetic modelling can aid the choice of the most proper GPR equipment for a survey, facilitate the interpretation of complex datasets and be used for the design of new antennas. Electromagnetic simulators can be employed to produce synthetic radargrams with the purposes of testing new data-processing, imaging and inversion algorithms, or assess

  2. A CT simulator phantom for geometrical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Chul Kee; Yi, Byong Yong; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chang, Hye Sook

    2000-01-01

    To design and test the CT simulator phantom for geometrical test. The PMMA phantom was designed as a cylinder which is 20 cm in diameter and 24 cm in length, along with a 25x25x31 cm 3 rectangular parallelepiped. Radio-opaque wires of which diameter is 0.8 mm are attached on the other surface of the phantom as a spiral. The rectangular phantom was made of four 24x24xO.5 cm 3 square plates and each plate had a 24x24 cm 2 . 12x12 cm 2 , 6x6 cm 2 square line. The squares were placed to face the cylinder at angles 0 .deg., 15 .deg., 30 .deg., respectively. The rectangular phantom made it possible to measure the field size, couch angle, the collimator angle, the isocenter shift and the SSD, the measurements of the gantry angle from the cylindrical part. A virtual simulation Software, AcQSim TM , offered various conditions to perform virtual simulations and these results were used to perform the geometrical quality assurance of CT simulator. A 0.3-0.5 mm difference was found on the 24 cm field size which was created with the DRR measurements obtained by scanning of the rectangular phantom. The isocenter shift, the collimator rotation, the couch rotation, and the gantry rotation test showed 0.5-1 mm, 0.5-1 .deg. 0.5-1 .deg. , and 0.5-1 .deg. differences, respectively. We could not find any significant differences between the results from the two scanning methods. The geometrical test phantom developed in the study showed less than 1 mm (or 1 .deg. ) differences. The phantom could be used as a routine geometrical QC/OA tools, since the differences are within clinically acceptable ranges

  3. Gravity-Off-loading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Olyvia; Kienholz, David; Janzen, Paul; Kidney, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-off-loading of deployable spacecraft mechanisms during ground testing is a long-standing problem. Deployable structures which are usually too weak to support their own weight under gravity require a means of gravity-off-loading as they unfurl. Conventional solutions to this problem have been helium-filled balloons or mechanical pulley/counterweight systems. These approaches, however, suffer from the deleterious effects of added inertia or friction forces. The changing form factor of the deployable structure itself and the need to track the trajectory of the center of gravity also pose a challenge to these conventional technologies. This paper presents a novel testing apparatus for high-fidelity zero-gravity simulation for special application to deployable space structures such as solar arrays, magnetometer booms, and robotic arms in class 100,000 clean room environments

  4. Robust Cryogenic Cavitation Modeling for Propulsion Systems Ground Test Facilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rigorous ground testing mitigates space propulsion system risk by enabling advanced component and system level rocket propulsion development and by demonstrating...

  5. Flow Quality Analysis of Shape Morphing Structures for Hypersonic Ground Testing Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Background: Shape morphing, high temperature, ceramic structural materials are now becoming available and can revolutionize ground testing by providing dynamic flow...

  6. A superellipsoid-plane model for simulating foot-ground contact during human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D S; Neptune, R R; Ambrósio, J A; Silva, M T

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal models and forward dynamics simulations of human movement often include foot-ground interactions, with the foot-ground contact forces often determined using a constitutive model that depends on material properties and contact kinematics. When using soft constraints to model the foot-ground interactions, the kinematics of the minimum distance between the foot and planar ground needs to be computed. Due to their geometric simplicity, a considerable number of studies have used point-plane elements to represent these interacting bodies, but few studies have provided comparisons between point contact elements and other geometrically based analytical solutions. The objective of this work was to develop a more general-purpose superellipsoid-plane contact model that can be used to determine the three-dimensional foot-ground contact forces. As an example application, the model was used in a forward dynamics simulation of human walking. Simulation results and execution times were compared with a point-like viscoelastic contact model. Both models produced realistic ground reaction forces and kinematics with similar computational efficiency. However, solving the equations of motion with the surface contact model was found to be more efficient (~18% faster), and on average numerically ~37% less stiff. The superellipsoid-plane elements are also more versatile than point-like elements in that they allow for volumetric contact during three-dimensional motions (e.g. rotating, rolling, and sliding). In addition, the superellipsoid-plane element is geometrically accurate and easily integrated within multibody simulation code. These advantages make the use of superellipsoid-plane contact models in musculoskeletal simulations an appealing alternative to point-like elements.

  7. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  8. A novel floating simulation topology composed of only grounded passive components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Erkan

    2010-03-01

    In this article, a novel simulator circuit using two differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs) and three grounded passive components is suggested. Depending on the passive component selection, the developed topology can realise synthetic floating inductors, floating capacitors and floating frequency dependent negative resistors. It does not suffer from passive component matching constraints. As an application example of the proposed simulation circuit, a voltage-mode multifunction filter for simultaneously providing low-pass, band-pass, high-pass and notch responses from the same structure is given. The suggested filter example is composed of only grounded passive components without requiring critical matching conditions, which is suitable for integration. Further, signal limitations of the simulator circuits are discussed. In order to show the performance of the introduced circuit and verify the claimed ideas, we perform simulations using SPICE.

  9. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  10. Long term corrosion tests of OFHC-coppers in simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Varis, P.

    1993-03-01

    This research program 'long term corrosion tests of OFHC-coppers in simulated repository conditions' was planned to provide an experimental evaluation with respect to the theoretical calculations and forecasts made for the corrosion behaviour of OFHC-coppers in bentonite ground water environments at temperatures between 20-80 deg C. The aim of this study in the first place was to evaluate the effects of ground water composition, bentonite and temperature on the equilibrium and possible corrosion reactions between OFHC coppers and the simulated repository environment. The tests were started in 1987 and this final report includes the results obtained after 72 months exposure time. (orig.)

  11. The development and testing of pulsed detonation engine ground demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Philip Koshy

    2008-10-01

    The successful implementation of a PDE running on fuel and air mixtures will require fast-acting fuel-air injection and mixing techniques, detonation initiation techniques such as DDT enhancing devices or a pre-detonator, an effective ignition system that can sustain repeated firing at high rates and a fast and capable, closed-loop control system. The control system requires high-speed transducers for real-time monitoring of the PDE and the detection of the detonation wave speed. It is widely accepted that the detonation properties predicted by C-J detonation relations are fairly accurate in comparison to experimental values. The post-detonation flow properties can also be expressed as a function of wave speed or Mach number. Therefore, the PDE control system can use C-J relations to predict the post-detonation flow properties based on measured initial conditions and compare the values with those obtained from using the wave speed. The controller can then vary the initial conditions within the combustor for the subsequent cycle, by modulating the frequency and duty cycle of the valves, to obtain optimum air and fuel flow rates, as well as modulate the energy and timing of the ignition to achieve the required detonation properties. Five different PDE ground demonstrators were designed, built and tested to study a number of the required sub-systems. This work presents a review of all the systems that were tested, along with suggestions for their improvement. The PDE setups, ranged from a compact PDE with a 19 mm (3/4 in.) i.d., to two 25 mm (1 in.) i.d. setups, to a 101 mm (4 in.) i.d. dual-stage PDE setup with a pre-detonator. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in the smaller PDEs. In the dual-stage PDE, propane-oxygen was used in the pre-detonator, while propane-air mixtures were used in the main combustor. Both rotary valves and solenoid valve injectors were studied. The rotary valves setups were tested at 10 Hz, while the solenoid valves were tested at up to 30 Hz

  12. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  13. Simulation Facilities and Test Beds for Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarmann, Bernhard Kl.; Leonard, Arian

    2002-01-01

    Galileo is the European satellite navigation system, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission (EC). The Galileo System, currently under definition phase, will offer seamless global coverage, providing state-of-the-art positioning and timing services. Galileo services will include a standard service targeted at mass market users, an augmented integrity service, providing integrity warnings when fault occur and Public Regulated Services (ensuring a continuity of service for the public users). Other services are under consideration (SAR and integrated communications). Galileo will be interoperable with GPS, and will be complemented by local elements that will enhance the services for specific local users. In the frame of the Galileo definition phase, several system design and simulation facilities and test beds have been defined and developed for the coming phases of the project, respectively they are currently under development. These are mainly the following tools: Galileo Mission Analysis Simulator to design the Space Segment, especially to support constellation design, deployment and replacement. Galileo Service Volume Simulator to analyse the global performance requirements based on a coverage analysis for different service levels and degrades modes. Galileo System Simulation Facility is a sophisticated end-to-end simulation tool to assess the navigation performances for a complete variety of users under different operating conditions and different modes. Galileo Signal Validation Facility to evaluate signal and message structures for Galileo. Galileo System Test Bed (Version 1) to assess and refine the Orbit Determination &Time Synchronisation and Integrity algorithms, through experiments relying on GPS space infrastructure. This paper presents an overview on the so called "G-Facilities" and describes the use of the different system design tools during the project life cycle in order to design the system with respect to

  14. Synthetic Ground-Motion Simulation Using a Spatial Stochastic Model with Slip Self-Similarity: Toward Near-Source Ground-Motion Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-fault ground motion is a key to understanding the seismic hazard along a fault and is challenged by the ground motion prediction equation approach. This paper presents a developed stochastic-slip-scaling source model, a spatial stochastic model with slipped area scaling toward the ground motion simulation. We considered the near-fault ground motion of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, the most massive near-fault disastrous earthquake, proposed by Ma et al. (2001 as a reference for validation. Three scenario source models including the developed stochastic-slip-scaling source model, mean-slip model and characteristic-asperity model were used for the near-fault ground motion examination. We simulated synthetic ground motion through 3D waveforms and validated these simulations using observed data and the ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE for Taiwan earthquakes. The mean slip and characteristic asperity scenario source models over-predicted the near-fault ground motion. The stochastic-slip-scaling model proposed in this paper is more accurately approximated to the near-fault motion compared with the GMPE and observations. This is the first study to incorporate slipped-area scaling in a stochastic slip model. The proposed model can generate scenario earthquakes for predicting ground motion.

  15. Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A

    2008-01-16

    In this report we describe the data sets used to evaluate ground motion hazards in Las Vegas from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. This analysis is presented in Rodgers et al. (2005, 2006) and includes 13 nuclear explosions recorded at the John Blume and Associates network, the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and a temporary deployment of broadband station in Las Vegas. The data are available in SAC format on CD-ROM as an appendix to this report.

  16. Water Leak Detection by Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Synthetic Simulation and Four-Dimensional Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shukri, H.; Eyuboglu, S.; Mahdi, H.

    2005-12-01

    Many geophysical techniques have been suggested as candidates for detecting water leakage in water distribution system, including ground penetrating radar (GPR), acoustic devices, and gas sampling devices. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the validity and effectiveness of GPR in detecting water leakage in metal and plastic PVC pipes. The goal was to derive a practical and robust procedure for detecting such leakage. Initially, prototype laboratory experiments were designed to simulate leaks in both PVC and metal pipe. The experiments were very well controlled and results obtained indicate that GPR is effective in detecting subsurface water leaks. This was followed by an outdoor life size experiments. 50 feet by 30 feet by 5 feet test bed was constructed using local soil and commercial water distribution pipes. A 400 MHz antenna was used to collect three-dimensional GPR data as a function of time for a number of experiments using different type of pipes. Advanced imaging and visualization technology was used to further analyze the data. The UALR Virtual Reality Center CAVE facilities were utilized to accomplish this test. Results obtained indicate that GPR is effective in detecting subsurface water leaks in both pipes. Synthetic models of the GPR signals based on Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) were built to help select an appropriate equipment configuration (frequency band, type of antenna, and real-time imaging software) prior to data acquisition. The simulation software was used to determine the near-field radiation characteristics of the GPR antenna. Different experimental models were adapted for which observational GPR data was previously collected. Matlab regression analysis was used to generate the incident waves for each model to ensure highly accurate and controlled experiments.

  17. Advanced integrated battery testing and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Bethune, Keith P.; Yang, Xiao Guang

    The recent rapid expansion in the use of portable electronics, computers, personal data assistants, cellular phones, power tools, and even electric and hybrid vehicles creates a strong demand on fast deployment of battery technologies at an unprecedented rate. To facilitate such a development integrated battery testing and simulation (IBTS) using computer modeling is an effective tool to improve our capability of rapid prototyping battery technology and facilitating concurrent product development. In this paper, we will present a state-of-the-art approach to use IBTS for improvements in battery cell design, operation optimization, and even charge control for advanced batteries.

  18. Eurobot Ground Prototype Control System Overview & Tests Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Andrea; Martelli, Andrea; Pensavalle, Emanuele; Ferraris, Simona; Didot, Frederic

    2010-08-01

    In the planned missions on Moon and Mars, robotics can play a key role, as robots can both assist astronauts and, above all, relieve them of dangerous or too difficult tasks. To this aim, both cooperative capabilities and a great level of autonomy are needed: the robotic crew assistant must be able to work on its own, without supervision by humans, and to help astronauts to accomplish tasks otherwise unfeasible for them. Within this context, a project named Eurobot Ground Prototype, conducted in conjunction with ESA and Thales Alenia Space, is presented. EGP is a dual-arm mobile manipulator and exploits both stereo cameras and force/torque sensors in order to rely on visual and force feedback. This paper provides an overview of the performed and on going activities within the Eurobot Ground Prototype project.

  19. Evolution of a test article handling system for the SP-100 ground engineering system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.; Schweiger, L.J.; Miller, W.C.; Gluck, R.; Devies, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A simulated space environment test of a flight prototypic SP-100 reactor, control system, and flight shield will be conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The flight prototypic components and the supporting primary heat removal system are collectively known as the Nuclear Assembly Test Article (TA). The unique configuration and materials of fabrication for the Test Article require a specialized handling facility to support installation, maintenance, and final disposal operations. Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Test Site Operator, working in conjunction with General Electric Company, the Test Article supplier, developed and evaluated several handling concepts resulting in the selection of a reference Test Article Handling System. The development of the reference concept for the handling system is presented

  20. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  1. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper

  2. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper.

  3. Performance report on the ground test accelerator radio-frequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Brown, S.; Cole, R.; Connolly, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Garnett, R.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) uses a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to bunch and accelerate a 35 keV input beam to a final energy of 2.5 MeV. Most measured parameters of the GTA RFQ agreed with simulated predictions. The relative shape of the transmission versus the vane-voltage relationship and the Courant-Snyder (CS) parameters of the output beam's transverse and longitudinal phase spaces agreed well with predictions. However, the transmission of the RFQ was significantly lower than expected. Improved simulation studies included image charges and multipole effects in the RFQ. Most of the predicted properties of the RFQ, such as input matched-beam conditions and output-beam shapes were unaffected by these additional effects. However, the comparison of measured with predicted absolute values of transmitted beam was much improved by the inclusion of these effects in the simulations. The comparison implied a value for the input emittance that is consistent with measurements

  4. Effects of Accretionary Prisms on 3-D Long-Period Ground Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2014-12-01

    The accretionary prism along the subduction zones such as the Middle America trench or the Nankai trough is considered as an important factor affecting the generation and propagation of long-period ground motions. In Japan, the great earthquake along the Nankai subduction zone which is expected to occur in the near future can generate large long-period ground motions in the metropolitan areas such as Osaka, Nagoya and Tokyo. To investigate the effect of accretionary prism on long-period ground motions, we performed simulations of long-period ground motions for the event (Mw 7.1) that occurred off the Kii peninsula, Japan, at 10:07 on 5 September 2004 (UTC). Our simulation model ranged from the Kinki region to the Kanto region, and included the Osaka, Nobi and Kanto basin. We calculated long-period ground motions for four types of 3-D velocity structure models: (a) model with the accretionary prism (reference model), (b) model where accretionary prism has different 3-D geometry from the reference model, (c) model with the accretionary prism whose velocity, density and Q-value are shifted, (d) model without the accretionary prism. We compared the waveforms calculated for these models and concluded that the accretionary prism along the Nankai subduction zone plays roles in reducing the amplitude of direct waves and extending the duration of coda waves. This is attributed to the trap effect of accretionary prism. Our simulation also suggested that, the edge geometry along the landward side of accretionary prism has major effects on the processes of generation and propagation of long-period ground motions.

  5. Space Shuttle Damper System for Ground Wind Load Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G. D.; Holt, J. R.; Chang, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    An active damper system which was originally developed for a 5.5% Saturn IB/Skylab Ground Winds Model was modified and used for similar purposes in a Space Shuttle model. A second damper system which was originally used in a 3% Saturn V/Dry Workshop model was also modified and made compatible with the Space Shuttle model to serve as a back-up system. Included in this final report are descriptions of the modified damper systems and the associated control and instrumentation.

  6. Verification of the Performance of a Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger Applied to a Test House in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Beng Ooi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ground heat exchanger is traditionally used as a heat source or sink for the heat pump that raises the temperature of water to about 50 °C to heat houses. However, in winter, the heating thermostat (temperature at which heating begins in the Australian Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS is only 20 °C during daytime and 15 °C at night. In South-East Melbourne, the temperature at the bottom of a 50-meter-deep borehole has been recorded with an Emerson™ recorder at 17 °C. Melbourne has an annual average temperature of 15 °C, so the ground temperature increases by 2 °C per 50-m depth. A linear projection gives 23 °C at 200-m of depth, and as the average undisturbed temperature of the ground for a 400-m-deep vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHE. This study, by simulation and experimentation, aims to verify that the circulation of water in the VGHE’s U-tube to low-temperature radiators (LTRs could heat a house to thermal comfort. A literature review is included in the introduction. A simulation, using a model of a 60-m2 experimental house, shows that the daytime circulation of water in this VGHE/LTR-on-opposite-walls system during the 8-month cold half of the year, heats the indoors to NatHERS settings. Simulation for the cold half shows that this VGHE-LTR system could cool the indoors. Instead, a fan creating a cooling sensation of up to 4 °C is used so that the VGHE is available for the regeneration of heat extracted from the ground during the cold portion. Simulations for this hot portion show that a 3.4-m2 flat plate solar collector can collect more than twice the heat extracted from the ground in the cold portion. Thus, it can thus replenish the ground heat extracted for houses double the size of this 60-m2 experimental house. Therefore, ground heat is sustainable for family-size homes. Since no heat pump is used, the cost of VGHE-LTR systems could be comparable to systems using the ground source heat pump. Water

  7. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  8. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, Stephen [VJ Technologies Inc, 89 Carlough Road, Bohemia, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  9. Ground penetrating radar and direct current resistivity evaluation of the desiccation test cap, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a variety of waste units that may be temporarily or permanently stabilized by closure using an impermeable cover to prevent groundwater infiltration. The placement of an engineered kaolin clay layer over a waste unit is an accepted and economical technique for providing an impermeable cover but the long term stability and integrity of the clay in non-arid conditions is unknown. A simulated kaolin cap has been constructed at the SRA adjacent to the Burial Ground Complex. The cap is designed to evaluate the effects of desiccation on clay integrity, therefore half of the cap is covered with native soil to prevent drying, while the remainder of the cap is exposed. Measurements of the continuing impermeability of a clay cap are difficult because intrusive techniques may locally compromise the structure. Point measurements made to evaluate clay integrity, such as those from grid sampling or coring and made through a soil cover, may miss cracks, joints or fissures, and may not allow for mapping of the lateral extent of elongate features. Because of these problems, a non-invasive technique is needed to map clay integrity, below a soil or vegetation cover, which is capable of moderate to rapid investigation speeds. Two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, direct current resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been successful at the SRS in geologically mapping shallow subsurface clay layers. The applicability of each technique in detecting the clay layer in the desiccation test cap and associated anomalies was investigated

  10. Testing a ground-based canopy model using the wind river canopy crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Van Pelt; Malcolm P. North

    1999-01-01

    A ground-based canopy model that estimates the volume of occupied space in forest canopies was tested using the Wind River Canopy Crane. A total of 126 trees in a 0.25 ha area were measured from the ground and directly from a gondola suspended from the crane. The trees were located in a low elevation, old-growth forest in the southern Washington Cascades. The ground-...

  11. Motor operated valves problems tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinier, D.; Haas, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the two refusals of operation of the EAS recirculation shutoff valves enabled two distinct problems to be identified on the motorized valves: the calculation methods for the operating torques of valves in use in the power plants are not conservative enough, which results in the misadjustement of the torque limiters installed on their motorizations, the second problem concerns the pressure locking phenomenon: a number of valves may entrap a pressure exceeding the in-line pressure between the disks, which may cause a jamming of the valve. EDF has made the following approach to settle the first problem: determination of the friction coefficients and the efficiency of the valve and its actuator through general and specific tests and models, definition of a new calculation method. In order to solve the second problem, EDF has made the following operations: identification of the valves whose technology enables the pressure to be entrapped: the tests and numerical simulations carried out in the Research and Development Division confirm the possibility of a open-quotes boilerclose quotes effect: determination of the necessary modifications: development and testing of anti-boiler effect systems

  12. Motor operated valves problems tests and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinier, D.; Haas, J.L.

    1996-12-01

    An analysis of the two refusals of operation of the EAS recirculation shutoff valves enabled two distinct problems to be identified on the motorized valves: the calculation methods for the operating torques of valves in use in the power plants are not conservative enough, which results in the misadjustement of the torque limiters installed on their motorizations, the second problem concerns the pressure locking phenomenon: a number of valves may entrap a pressure exceeding the in-line pressure between the disks, which may cause a jamming of the valve. EDF has made the following approach to settle the first problem: determination of the friction coefficients and the efficiency of the valve and its actuator through general and specific tests and models, definition of a new calculation method. In order to solve the second problem, EDF has made the following operations: identification of the valves whose technology enables the pressure to be entrapped: the tests and numerical simulations carried out in the Research and Development Division confirm the possibility of a {open_quotes}boiler{close_quotes} effect: determination of the necessary modifications: development and testing of anti-boiler effect systems.

  13. A simulation test of the impact on soil moisture by agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the impact by agricultural machinery on changes in soil moisture, we used a simulated test method employing round iron plate based on the ground pressure ratio between the front and rear wheels of wheeled tractors and crawler tractors. We conducted soil compactions with five pressure loads (35, 98, 118, 196 ...

  14. Software Development and Test Methodology for a Distributed Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Guillebeau, Pat; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes in an effort to minimize unnecessary overhead while maximizing process benefits. The Software processes that have evolved still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Processes have evolved, highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project.

  15. Simulation of olive grove gross primary production by the combination of ground and multi-sensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, L.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Moriondo, M.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Zaldei, A.; Bindi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We developed and tested a methodology to estimate olive (Olea europaea L.) gross primary production (GPP) combining ground and multi-sensor satellite data. An eddy-covariance station placed in an olive grove in central Italy provided carbon and water fluxes over two years (2010-2011), which were used as reference to evaluate the performance of a GPP estimation methodology based on a Monteith type model (modified C-Fix) and driven by meteorological and satellite (NDVI) data. A major issue was related to the consideration of the two main olive grove components, i.e. olive trees and inter-tree ground vegetation: this issue was addressed by the separate simulation of carbon fluxes within the two ecosystem layers, followed by their recombination. In this way the eddy covariance GPP measurements were successfully reproduced, with the exception of two periods that followed tillage operations. For these periods measured GPP could be approximated by considering synthetic NDVI values which simulated the expected response of inter-tree ground vegetation to tillages.

  16. Plenoptic Flow Imaging for Ground Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Instantaneous volumetric flow imaging is crucial to aerodynamic development and testing. Simultaneous volumetric measurement of flow parameters enables accurate...

  17. Ground-Motion Simulations of Scenario Earthquakes on the Hayward Fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Graves, R; Larsen, S; Ma, S; Rodgers, A; Ponce, D; Schwartz, D; Simpson, R; Graymer, R

    2009-03-09

    We compute ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area for 35 Mw 6.7-7.2 scenario earthquake ruptures involving the Hayward fault. The modeled scenarios vary in rupture length, hypocenter, slip distribution, rupture speed, and rise time. This collaborative effort involves five modeling groups, using different wave propagation codes and domains of various sizes and resolutions, computing long-period (T > 1-2 s) or broadband (T > 0.1 s) synthetic ground motions for overlapping subsets of the suite of scenarios. The simulations incorporate 3-D geologic structure and illustrate the dramatic increase in intensity of shaking for Mw 7.05 ruptures of the entire Hayward fault compared with Mw 6.76 ruptures of the southern two-thirds of the fault. The area subjected to shaking stronger than MMI VII increases from about 10% of the San Francisco Bay urban area in the Mw 6.76 events to more than 40% of the urban area for the Mw 7.05 events. Similarly, combined rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults in a Mw 7.2 event extends shaking stronger than MMI VII to nearly 50% of the urban area. For a given rupture length, the synthetic ground motions exhibit the greatest sensitivity to the slip distribution and location inside or near the edge of sedimentary basins. The hypocenter also exerts a strong influence on the amplitude of the shaking due to rupture directivity. The synthetic waveforms exhibit a weaker sensitivity to the rupture speed and are relatively insensitive to the rise time. The ground motions from the simulations are generally consistent with Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion prediction models but contain long-period effects, such as rupture directivity and amplification in shallow sedimentary basins that are not fully captured by the ground-motion prediction models.

  18. Numerical simulations of laminated rubber bearing tests and shaking table tests of base-isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report includes the following numerical simulation of rubber bearing tests: Simulation of NRB test (data provided by CRIEPI, Japan); Simulation of LRB test (data provided by CRIEPI, Japan); Simulation of HDR test by (data provided by KAERI, Japan); Simulation of HDR test by (data provided by ENEL, Italy). Numerical simulation of shaking table test for base-isolated steel frame was conducted by ENEL/ISMES/ENEA/EC Numerical simulation of shaking table test for base-isolated rigid mass was conducted by CRIEP1/MIT1

  19. An Approach for the Simulation of Ground and Honed Technical Surfaces for Training Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rief

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Training of neural networks requires large amounts of data. Simulated data sets can be helpful if the data required for the training is not available. However, the applicability of simulated data sets for training neuronal networks depends on the quality of the simulation model used. A simple and fast approach for the simulation of ground and honed surfaces with predefined properties is being presented. The approach is used to generate a diverse data set. This set is then applied to train a neural convolution network for surface type recognition. The resulting classifier is validated on the basis of a series of real measurement data and a classification rate of >85% is achieved. A possible field of application of the presented procedure is the support of measurement technicians in the standard-compliant evaluation of measurement data by suggestion of specific data processing steps, depending on the recognized type of manufacturing process.

  20. Electrophysiological potentials reveal cortical mechanisms for mental imagery, mental simulation, and grounded (embodied cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haline E. Schendan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grounded cognition theory proposes that cognition, including meaning, is grounded in sensorimotor processing. The mechanism for grounding cognition is mental simulation, which is a type of mental imagery that re-enacts modal processing. To reveal top-down, cortical mechanisms for mental simulation of shape, event-related potentials were recorded to face and object pictures preceded by mental imagery of a picture. Mental imagery of the identical face or object (congruous condition facilitated not only categorical perception (VPP/N170 but also later visual knowledge (N3[00] complex and linguistic knowledge (N400 for faces more than objects, and strategic semantic analysis (late positive complex between 200 and 700 ms. The later effects resembled semantic congruity effects with pictures. Mental imagery also facilitated category decisions, as a P3(00 peaked earlier for congruous than incongruous (other category pictures, resembling the case when identical pictures repeat immediately. Thus mental imagery mimics semantic congruity and immediate repetition priming processes with pictures. Perception control results showed the opposite for faces and were in the same direction for objects: Perceptual repetition adapts (and so impairs processing of perceived faces from categorical perception onwards, but primes processing of objects during categorical perception, visual knowledge processes, and strategic semantic analysis. For both imagery and perception, differences between faces and objects support domain-specificity and indicate that cognition is grounded in modal processing. Altogether, this direct neural evidence reveals that top-down processes of mental imagery sustain an imagistic representation that mimics perception well enough to prime subsequent perception and cognition. This also suggests that automatic mental simulation of the visual shape of faces and objects operates between 200 and 400 ms, and strategic mental simulation operates between

  1. Ground and surface water for drinking: a laboratory study on genotoxicity using plant tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Feretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L. These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia. No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water.

  2. Numerical implementation of Voigt and Maxwell models for simulation of waves in the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshenin Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of papers have been dedicated to simulation of dynamic processes in soil and underground structures. For example, some authors considered wave distribution in underground water pipes for creation of vibration monitoring system, others considered theoretical and algorithm aspects of efficient implementation of realistic seismic wave attenuation due to viscosity development with the help of Finite Difference Method, etc. The paper describes the numerical simulation, designed for simulation of the stress-strain state in the ground subjected to wave processes. We consider the ground with a concrete structure immersed in. The purpose of the work is the description of small vibrations in hard soil, which can nevertheless make undesirable impact on the objects in the ground or on the surface. Explicit Wilkins type scheme is used for time integration. It has proven to be successful, including the use in a well-known LS-DYNA code. As a result we created our own computer code based on the finite element method (FEM. An example of its practical usage is given.

  3. Single-shell tank riser resistance to ground test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiewert, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Test Procedure provides the general directions for conducting Single-Shell Tank Riser to Earth Measurements which will be used by engineering as a step towards providing closure for the Lightning Hazard Issue

  4. RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing is DLR’s rail simulation and testing laboratory (see Figure 1. It is the implementation of a fully modular concept for the simulation of on-board and trackside control and safety technology. The RailSiTe® laboratory additionally comprises the RailSET (Railway Simulation Environment for Train Drivers and Operators human-factors laboratory, a realistic environment containing a realistic train mockup including 3D simulation.

  5. Vent System Analysis for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage Transfer Ground Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A

    2013-01-01

    To test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots, NASA is leading the efforts to develop and design the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) payload. The primary objectives of CPST payload are to demonstrate: 1) in-space storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration applications; and 2) in-space transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Ground Test Article (GTA) is a technology development version of the CPST payload. The GTA consists of flight-sized and flight-like storage and transfer tanks, liquid acquisition devices, transfer, and pressurization systems with all of the CPST functionality. The GTA is designed to perform integrated passive and active thermal storage and transfer performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a vacuum environment. The GTA storage tank is designed to store liquid hydrogen and the transfer tank is designed to be 5% of the storage tank volume. The LH2 transfer subsystem is designed to transfer propellant from one tank to the other utilizing pressure or a pump. The LH2 vent subsystem is designed to prevent over-pressurization of the storage and transfer tanks. An in-house general-purpose computer program was utilized to model and simulate the vent subsystem operation. The modeling, analysis, and the results will be presented in the final paper.

  6. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures. The admini......In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures....... The administration of groundwater resources has been based on simulations using regional scale groundwater models. However, regional scale models have difficulties with accurately resolving the complex geology of the buried valleys, which bears the risk of poor model predictions of local scale effects of groundwater...... abstraction. To enable effective administration of the groundwater resources new methods need to be investigated to improve simulation of local scale flow in buried valleys that interact with surrounding regional groundwater systems. The purpose of this synthetic case study is to test the Local Grid Re...

  7. Using contraband simulators for portal metal detector testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Because contraband materials or items are either too dangerous or too expensive, contraband simulators have been widely used to test contraband detection equipment. Very realistic bomb simulators have been used to test x-ray scanners, and common radioactive sources have been used successfully to test the operation of special nuclear material (SNM) radiation detectors. The simulators used to test early metal detectors were also reasonably successful; however, these simulators were rapidly outdated by the introduction of modern active field metal detectors. This paper describes some of the earlier attempts to develop metal detector test simulators. A successful highly enriched uranium (HEU) simulator for metal detector testing is described that has duplicated all the characteristics modern equipment is capable of detecting. The paper also describes the development needed to produce handgun simulators that could be used effectively for metal detector performance testing.

  8. Using contraband simulators for portal metal detector testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Because contraband materials or items are either too dangerous or too expensive, contraband simulators have been widely used to test contraband detection equipment. Very realistic bomb simulators have been used to test x-ray scanners, and common radioactive sources have been used successfully to test the operation of special nuclear material (SNM) radiation detectors. The simulators used to test early metal detectors were also reasonably successful; however, these simulators were rapidly outdated by the introduction of modern active field metal detectors. This paper describes some of the earlier attempts to develop metal detector test simulators. A successful highly enriched uranium (HEU) simulator for metal detector testing is described that has duplicated all the characteristics modern equipment is capable of detecting. The paper also describes the development needed to produce handgun simulators that could be used effectively for metal detector performance testing.

  9. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGaast, Brian W.; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) identified a requirement for inert simulants to act as improvised, or homemade, explosives (IEs) when training on, or evaluating, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems commonly used in the detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In response, Defence R and D Canada (DRDC) initiated a project to develop IE simulant formulations using commonly available inert materials. These simulants are intended to approximate the expected GPR response of common ammonium nitrate-based IEs, in particular ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) and ammonium nitrate/aluminum (ANAl). The complex permittivity over the range of electromagnetic frequencies relevant to standard GPR systems was measured for bulk quantities of these three IEs that had been fabricated at DRDC Suffield Research Centre. Following these measurements, published literature was examined to find benign materials with both a similar complex permittivity, as well as other physical properties deemed desirable - such as low-toxicity, thermal stability, and commercial availability - in order to select candidates for subsequent simulant formulation. Suitable simulant formulations were identified for ANFO, with resulting complex permittivities measured to be within acceptable limits of target values. These IE formulations will now undergo end-user trials with CAF operators in order to confirm their utility. Investigations into ANAl simulants continues. This progress report outlines the development program, simulant design, and current validation results.

  10. An Improved Ground Vibration Test Method. Volume 1. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    peak value with very short duration. This causes the force to overdrive (i.e., excite the nonlinearities) the system while putting very little total...Stiffness and Mass Matrices from Experimental Vibration Modes" Ross , R. G., Jr. SAE Paper No. 710787 19/1, 9 pp. 177. "Vibroacoustic Testing of Space

  11. Joint ACE ground penetrating radar antenna test facility at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter; Sarri, A.

    2005-01-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility, established within the ACE network at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is described. Examples of results from the facility obtained from measurements of eight different GPR antennas are presented.......A ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility, established within the ACE network at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is described. Examples of results from the facility obtained from measurements of eight different GPR antennas are presented....

  12. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  13. Simulation of the effects of ground-water withdrawals and recharge on ground-water flow in Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket Island basins, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Barlow, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of changing patterns of ground-water pumping and aquifer recharge on the surface-water and ground-water hydrologic systems were determined for the Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket Island Basins. Three-dimensional, transient, ground-water-flow modelS that simulate both freshwater and saltwater flow were developed for the f1ow cells of Cape Cod which currently have large-capacity public-supply wells. Only the freshwater-flow system was simulated for the Cape Cod flow cells where public-water supply demands are satisfied by small-capacity domestic wells. Two- dimensional, finite-difference, change models were developed for Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island to determine the projected drawdowns in response to projected in-season pumping rates for 180 days of no aquifer recharge. Results of the simulations indicate very little change in the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface from predevelopment flow conditions to projected ground-water pumping and recharge rates for Cape Cod in the year 2020. Results of change model simulations for Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island indicate that the greatest impact in response to projected in-season ground-water pumping occurs at the pumping centers and the magnitude of the drawdowns are minimal with respect to the total thickness of the aquifers.

  14. Guidance on the Stand Down, Mothball, and Reactivation of Ground Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Gregrey T.; Dunn, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of aerospace and aeronautics products typically requires three distinct types of testing resources across research, development, test, and evaluation: experimental ground testing, computational "testing" and development, and flight testing. Over the last twenty plus years, computational methods have replaced some physical experiments and this trend is continuing. The result is decreased utilization of ground test capabilities and, along with market forces, industry consolidation, and other factors, has resulted in the stand down and oftentimes closure of many ground test facilities. Ground test capabilities are (and very likely will continue to be for many years) required to verify computational results and to provide information for regimes where computational methods remain immature. Ground test capabilities are very costly to build and to maintain, so once constructed and operational it may be desirable to retain access to those capabilities even if not currently needed. One means of doing this while reducing ongoing sustainment costs is to stand down the facility into a "mothball" status - keeping it alive to bring it back when needed. Both NASA and the US Department of Defense have policies to accomplish the mothball of a facility, but with little detail. This paper offers a generic process to follow that can be tailored based on the needs of the owner and the applicable facility.

  15. Application of constrained k-means clustering in ground motion simulation validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, N.; Taborda, R.

    2017-12-01

    The validation of ground motion synthetics has received increased attention over the last few years due to the advances in physics-based deterministic and hybrid simulation methods. Unlike for low frequency simulations (f ≤ 0.5 Hz), for which it has become reasonable to expect a good match between synthetics and data, in the case of high-frequency simulations (f ≥ 1 Hz) it is not possible to match results on a wiggle-by-wiggle basis. This is mostly due to the various complexities and uncertainties involved in earthquake ground motion modeling. Therefore, in order to compare synthetics with data we turn to different time series metrics, which are used as a means to characterize how the synthetics match the data on qualitative and statistical sense. In general, these metrics provide GOF scores that measure the level of similarity in the time and frequency domains. It is common for these scores to be scaled from 0 to 10, with 10 representing a perfect match. Although using individual metrics for particular applications is considered more adequate, there is no consensus or a unified method to classify the comparison between a set of synthetic and recorded seismograms when the various metrics offer different scores. We study the relationship among these metrics through a constrained k-means clustering approach. We define 4 hypothetical stations with scores 3, 5, 7, and 9 for all metrics. We put these stations in the category of cannot-link constraints. We generate the dataset through the validation of the results from a deterministic (physics-based) ground motion simulation for a moderate magnitude earthquake in the greater Los Angeles basin using three velocity models. The maximum frequency of the simulation is 4 Hz. The dataset involves over 300 stations and 11 metrics, or features, as they are understood in the clustering process, where the metrics form a multi-dimensional space. We address the high-dimensional feature effects with a subspace-clustering analysis

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques for ground test monitoring of rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moonis; Gupta, U. K.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed which can detect anomalies in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) sensor data significantly earlier than the redline algorithm currently in use. The training of such an expert system focuses on two approaches which are based on low frequency and high frequency analyses of sensor data. Both approaches are being tested on data from SSME tests and their results compared with the findings of NASA and Rocketdyne experts. Prototype implementations have detected the presence of anomalies earlier than the redline algorithms that are in use currently. It therefore appears that these approaches have the potential of detecting anomalies early eneough to shut down the engine or take other corrective action before severe damage to the engine occurs.

  17. Aerosol tests conducted at Aberdeen Proving Grounds MD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

    2012-06-01

    Test data are reported that demonstrate the deposition from a spray dispersion system (Illinois Tool Works inductively charging rotary atomization nozzle) for application of decontamination solution to various surfaces in the passenger cabin of a Boeing 737 aircraft. The decontamination solution (EnviroTru) was tagged with a known concentration of fluorescein permitting determination of both airborne decontaminant concentration and surface deposited decontaminant solution so that the effective deposition rates and surface coverage could be determined and correlated with the amount of material sprayed. Six aerosol dispersion tests were conducted. In each test, aluminum foil deposition coupons were set out throughout the passenger area and the aerosol was dispersed. The aerosol concentration was measured with filter samplers as well as with optical techniques Average aerosol deposition ranged from 3 to 15 grams of decontamination solution per square meter. Some disagreement was observed between various instruments utilizing different measurement principles. These results demonstrate a potentially effective method to disperse decontaminant to interior surfaces of a passenger aircraft.

  18. Simulation of selected ground-water pumping scenarios at Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    A regional MODFLOW ground-water flow model of parts of coastal Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina was used to evaluate the effects of current and hypothetical groundwater withdrawal, and the relative effects of pumping in specific areas on ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield (HAAF), coastal Georgia. Simulation results for four steady-state pumping scenarios were compared to each other and to a Base Case condition. The Base Case represents year 2000 pumping rates throughout the model area, with the exception that permitted annual average pumping rates for the year 2005 were used for 26 production wells at Fort Stewart and HAAF. The four pumping scenarios focused on pumping increases at HAAF resulting from projected future demands and additional personnel stationed at the facility and on reductions in pumping at Fort Stewart. Scenarios A and B simulate 1- and 2-million-gallon-perday (Mgal/d) increases, respectively, at HAAF. Simulated water-level change maps for these scenarios indicate an area of influence that extends into parts of Bryan, Bulloch, Chatham, Effingham, and Liberty Counties, Ga., and Beaufort and Jasper Counties, S.C., with maximum drawdowns from 0.5 to 4 feet (ft) for scenario A and 1 to 8 ft for Scenario B. For scenarios C and D, increases in pumping at HAAF were offset by decreases in pumping at Fort Stewart. Scenario C represents a 1-Mgal/d increase at HAAF and a 1-Mgal/d decrease at Fort Stewart; simulated water-level changes range from 0.4 to -4 ft. Scenario D represents a 2-Mgal/d increase at HAAF and 2-Mgal/d decrease at Fort Stewart; simulated water-level changes range from 0.04 to -8 ft. The simulated water-level changes indicate an area of influence that extends into parts of Bryan, Bulloch, Chatham, Effingham, Liberty, and McIntosh Counties, Ga., and Jasper and Beaufort Counties, S.C. In general, decreasing pumping at Fort Stewart by an equivalent amount to pumping increases at HAAF

  19. Simulation of Strong Ground Motion of the 2009 Bhutan Earthquake Using Modified Semi-Empirical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep; Joshi, A.; Lal, Sohan; Kumar, Parveen; Sah, S. K.; Vandana; Kamal

    2017-12-01

    On 21st September 2009 an earthquake of magnitude ( M w 6.1) occurred in the East Bhutan. This earthquake caused serious damage to the residential area and was widely felt in the Bhutan Himalaya and its adjoining area. We estimated the source model of this earthquake using modified semi empirical technique. In the rupture plane, several locations of nucleation point have been considered and finalised based on the minimum root mean square error of waveform comparison. In the present work observed and simulated waveforms has been compared at all the eight stations. Comparison of horizontal components of actual and simulated records at these stations confirms the estimated parameters of final rupture model and efficacy of the modified semi-empirical technique (Joshi et al., Nat Hazards 64:1029-1054, 2012b) of strong ground motion simulation.

  20. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xin; Feng, Sizhao; Liu, Kangzhi; Wang, Libin; Chen, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results. PMID:27941602

  1. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xin; Feng, Sizhao; Liu, Kangzhi; Wang, Libin; Chen, Weishan

    2016-12-07

    GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results.

  2. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results.

  3. Remote-sensing satellite ground station evaluation using QPSK emulator with test pattern and PRBS generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, R.; Nithyanandan, L.; Umadevi, G.; Padmavathi, C. S.; Nayani, Radha

    2015-12-01

    In order to validate the performance of X-band (8000-8400 MHz) remote-sensing satellite receive chain, when the satellite is not in the vicinity of ground station, local loop end-end evaluation tests are mandatory to certify the RF downlink and base band receive chain performance. A customised test patterns compatible to IRS satellite series and PRBS sequence are generated, which are modulated using QPSK emulator to check and verify the satellite downlink chain performance. The design and implementation are done using novel digital techniques, and QPSK modulator is integrated with Test pattern and PRBS generator using state-of-art FPGAs. The QPSK emulator output is connected to high-speed fibre optic link which transfers the signal to near field bore-site antenna system. The test signal is thus up converted from 2557.5 MHz (S-band) frequency to required satellite carrier frequency of 8212.5 MHz; the emulated test signal is radiated from bore-site antenna, which simulates real-time satellite data transmission from space. Thus, the signal received by the parabolic dish antenna is down converted to 720 MHz, demodulated, bit synchronized, clock recovered, and frame synchronized. The evaluation of frame sync errors is done for good video data quality check. Also in the QPSK emulator, there is option of PRBS mode. Hence, using this option, the RF downlink and receive chain are evaluated for good Bit error rate (BER). The BER requirement is 1 error (tolerable) in 106 Million bits. The QPSK emulator has the provision to support different frequencies and data rates corresponding to all IRS satellite missions.

  4. Simulation-Based Testing of Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutherford, Matthew J; Carzaniga, Antonio; Wolf, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    .... Typically written using an imperative programming language, these simulations capture basic algorithmic functionality at the same time as they focus attention on properties critical to distribution...

  5. Distribution of radioiodine in soil column experiments with simulations of varying ground water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachse, R.; Paetzold, G.

    1993-01-01

    Results of long-term experiments with 129 I-labelling under field conditions show faster migration of iodine in deeper soil layers for an orthi-eutric fluvisol adjacent to a river as compared to an orthi-humic gleysol without river vicinity. This observation suggests a possible influence of ground water level variations on radioiodine sorption to soil constituents. To verify these findings, experiments with undisturbed soil columns are carried out with controlled moisture regimes. The soil columns are labelled with 125 I and exposed to simulated rainfall or to extreme variations in ground water levels caused by daily pumping cycles. Both watering conditions affect the migration of radioiodine into deeper soil layers. After an experimental period of 25 days it could be detected down to 10 cm below the soil surface. The highest concentrations are found in the 0-2 cm layer. However, in case of the rainfall simulation the radioiodine concentrations in this layer are remarkably higher as compared to those of the experiments with ground water variations. Only the rainfall exposed soil columns show differences between the two soils with respect to tracer depth profiles. An especially fast migration of radioiodine occurs, when the tracer is applied on a water saturated soil column and the soil water is soaked from the bottom immediately after the application. (orig.) [de

  6. How Usability Testing Resulted in Improvements to Ground Collision Software for General Aviation: Improved Ground Collision Avoidance System (IGCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarr, Michael; Chinske, Chris; Williams, Ethan; Law, Cameron; Skoog, Mark; Sorokowski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The NASA improved Ground Collision Avoidance System (iGCAS) team conducted an onsite usability study at Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) Air Venture in Oshkosh, Wisconsin from July 19 through July 26, 2015. EAA Air Venture had approximately 550,000 attendees from which the sample pool of pilots were selected. The objectives of this study were to assess the overall appropriateness and acceptability of iGCAS as a warning system for General Aviation aircraft, usability of the iGCAS displays and audio cues, test terrain avoidance characteristics, performance, functionality, pilot response time, and correlate terrain avoidance performance and pilot response time data.

  7. Testing and integrating the laser system of ARGOS: the ground layer adaptive optics for LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, C.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Borelli, J.; Deysenroth, M.; Gaessler, W.; Gemperlein, H.; Honsberg, M.; Kulas, M.; Lederer, R.; Raab, W.; Rahmer, G.; Ziegleder, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Laser Guide Star facility ARGOS will provide Ground Layer Adaptive Optics to the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system operates three pulsed laser beacons above each of the two primary mirrors, which are Rayleigh scattered in 12km height. This enables correction over a wide field of view, using the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. The ARGOS laser system is designed around commercially available, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers working at 532 nm. In preparation for a successful commissioning, it is important to ascertain that the specifications are met for every component of the laser system. The testing of assembled, optical subsystems is likewise necessary. In particular it is required to confirm a high output power, beam quality and pulse stability of the beacons. In a second step, the integrated laser system along with its electronic cabinets are installed on a telescope simulator. This unit is capable of carrying the whole assembly and can be tilted to imitate working conditions at the LBT. It allows alignment and functionality testing of the entire system, ensuring that flexure compensation and system diagnosis work properly in different orientations.

  8. Organizational culture shapes the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for.

  9. Organizational Culture Shapes the Adoption and Incorporation of Simulation into Nursing Curricula: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Taplay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n=43 with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n=13 informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n=67 were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1 leaders working in tandem, (2 information exchange, (3 physical locale, (4 shared motivators, and (5 scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for.

  10. Inclusion in the simulation of air pollutants recorded over the borders of test areas in Niedersachsen and forecasting of local ground level concentrations. Final report. Einbeziehung der ueber die Grenzen von Untersuchungsgebieten in Niedersachsen eingetragenen Luftschadstoffe in die Simulation und Prognose oertlicher Immissionssituationen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Reissmann, K.F.; Schaffner, J.

    1991-08-01

    In 1987-1989 an emission-ground level concentration-model (conversion of emission into ground level concentration) was established for the pollutant sulphur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) by the ISP (Hannover) in cooperation with GEOS (Berlin) and was with emission data of the environs of Braunschweig for 1987 subjected to different trial runs. The pollution sources were devided into four groups: - Large Emitters (particularly power plants) - medium emitters (particularly industry) - space heating and small consumers - traffic. The pollution emitters of the first two groups were considered as point sources and the last two groups as surface sources, their emissions being evently distributed over squares of 1 km x 1 km, each surface unit of one km[sup 2] being represented by 400 point sources in a distance of 50 m from each other. The conversion of emissions into ground level concentration is based on the Gaussian dispersion model on which also the dispersion calculation of the TA Luft (technical regulation about air pollution) is based. (orig./KW).

  11. PHARAO flight model: optical on ground performance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévèque, T.; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Grosjean, O.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Escande, C.; Gasc, Ph.; Ratsimandresy, A.; Béraud, S.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P.; Larivière, Ph.; Bernard, V.; Bomer, T.; Thomin, S.; Salomon, C.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, D.; Moric, I.; Laurent, Ph.

    2017-11-01

    PHARAO (Projet d'Horloge Atomique par Refroidissement d'Atomes en Orbite), which has been developed by CNES, is the first primary frequency standard specially designed for operation in space. PHARAO is the main instrument of the ESA mission ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space). ACES payload will be installed on-board the International Space Station (ISS) to perform fundamental physics experiments. All the sub-systems of the Flight Model (FM) have now passed the qualification process and the whole FM of the cold cesium clock, PHARAO, is being assembled and will undergo extensive tests. The expected performances in space are frequency accuracy less than 3.10-16 (with a final goal at 10-16) and frequency stability of 10-13 τ-1/2. In this paper, we focus on the laser source performances and the main results on the cold atom manipulation.

  12. The JPSS Ground Project Algorithm Verification, Test and Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, G. A.; Jain, P.; Chander, G.; Nguyen, V. T.; Dixon, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) is an operational system that provides services to the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Mission. It is also a unique environment for Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) and Data Quality Assessment (DQA) of the Join Polar Satellite System (JPSS) mission data products. GRAVITE provides a fast and direct access to the data and products created by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), the NASA/NOAA operational system that converts Raw Data Records (RDR's) generated by sensors on the S-NPP into calibrated geo-located Sensor Data Records (SDR's) and generates Mission Unique Products (MUPS). It also facilitates algorithm investigation, integration, checkouts and tuning, instrument and product calibration and data quality support, monitoring and data/products distribution. GRAVITE is the portal for the latest S-NPP and JPSS baselined Processing Coefficient Tables (PCT's) and Look-Up-Tables (LUT's) and hosts a number DQA offline tools that takes advantage of the proximity to the near-real time data flows. It also contains a set of automated and ad-hoc Cal/Val tools used for algorithm analysis and updates, including an instance of the IDPS called GRAVITE Algorithm Development Area (G-ADA), that has the latest installation of the IDPS algorithms running in an identical software and hardware platforms. Two other important GRAVITE component are the Investigator-led Processing System (IPS) and the Investigator Computing Facility (ICF). The IPS is a dedicated environment where authorized users run automated scripts called Product Generation Executables (PGE's) to support Cal/Val and data quality assurance offline. This data-rich and data-driven service holds its own distribution system and allows operators to retrieve science data products. The ICF is a workspace where users can share computing applications and resources and have full access to libraries and

  13. Simulation of strong ground motion parameters of the 1 June 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Mostafa

    2017-06-01

    This article aims to simulate the ground motion parameters of the moderate magnitude (ML 5.1) June 1, 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, which represents the largest instrumental earthquake to be recorded in the middle part of the Gulf of Suez up to now. This event was felt in all cities located on both sides of the Gulf of Suez, with minor damage to property near the epicenter; however, no casualties were observed. The stochastic technique with the site-dependent spectral model is used to simulate the strong ground motion parameters of this earthquake in the cities located at the western side of the Gulf of Suez and north Red Sea namely: Suez, Ain Sokhna, Zafarana, Ras Gharib, and Hurghada. The presence of many tourist resorts and the increase in land use planning in the considered cities represent the motivation of the current study. The simulated parameters comprise the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), and Peak Ground Displacement (PGD), in addition to Pseudo Spectral Acceleration (PSA). The model developed for ground motion simulation is validated by using the recordings of three accelerographs installed around the epicenter of the investigated earthquake. Depending on the site effect that has been determined in the investigated areas by using geotechnical data (e.g., shear wave velocities and microtremor recordings), the investigated areas are classified into two zones (A and B). Zone A is characterized by higher site amplification than Zone B. The ground motion parameters are simulated at each zone in the considered areas. The results reveal that the highest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Ras Gharib city (epicentral distance ∼ 11 km) as 67 cm/s2, 2.53 cm/s, and 0.45 cm respectively for Zone A, and as 26.5 cm/s2, 1.0 cm/s, and 0.2 cm respectively for Zone B, while the lowest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Suez city (epicentral distance ∼ 190 km) as 3.0 cm/s2, 0.2 cm/s, and 0.05 cm/s respectively for Zone A

  14. Analysis and monitoring of electrical grounding grid encapsulated with concrete: case study using simulation in finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Martins Pereira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work study the influence of concrete, plaster, clay and others buried structures in grounding systems. Comparison of soil characteristics between dry and rainy seasons on different grounding systems. The study includes comparison of six different grounding system on dry season and wet season. Simulations in finite element method was performed for tree layer stratified soil and the electrostatic equipotential surfaces were mapped into the region of interest.

  15. Preliminary simulation model to determine ground-water flow and ages within the Palo Duro Basin hydrogeologic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, H.; Picking, L.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins is simulated by developing a hydrogeolgic profile and applying a cross-sectional, finite-element, numerical model to the profile. The profile is 350 miles long and 2 miles deep and extends from east-central New Mexico to the Texas-Oklahoma border. It is comprised of hydrogeologic units that are identified from geophysical well logs, sample logs, and core descriptions. A hydrogeologic unit as used in this profile is a physically continuous rock sequence with hydrologic properties that are relatively consistent throughout and distinct from surrounding units. The resulting hydrogeologic profile, with the exception of the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group, is discretized into a 6000-element mesh and a 22,000-element mesh. Permeability values assigned to hydrogeologic units were, in part, calculated from drill stem tests conducted throughout the Palo Duro Basin. Ground-water age and travel paths are determined by applying Darcy's equation to selected flow lines. The 170 million-year age determined from ground-water at points within the Wolfcamp Series compares favorably with the geochemical data for this region. An age of 188 million years is determined for the Pennsylvanian granite wash

  16. A Coupled Multiphysics Approach for Simulating Induced Seismicity, Ground Acceleration and Structural Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorney, Robert; Coleman, Justin; Wilkins, Amdrew; Huang, Hai; Veeraraghavan, Swetha; Xia, Yidong; Permann, Cody

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modeling has played an important role in understanding the behavior of coupled subsurface thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes associated with a number of energy and environmental applications since as early as the 1970s. While the ability to rigorously describe all key tightly coupled controlling physics still remains a challenge, there have been significant advances in recent decades. These advances are related primarily to the exponential growth of computational power, the development of more accurate equations of state, improvements in the ability to represent heterogeneity and reservoir geometry, and more robust nonlinear solution schemes. The work described in this paper documents the development and linkage of several fully-coupled and fully-implicit modeling tools. These tools simulate: (1) the dynamics of fluid flow, heat transport, and quasi-static rock mechanics; (2) seismic wave propagation from the sources of energy release through heterogeneous material; and (3) the soil-structural damage resulting from ground acceleration. These tools are developed in Idaho National Laboratory's parallel Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment, and are integrated together using a global implicit approach. The governing equations are presented, the numerical approach for simultaneously solving and coupling the three coupling physics tools is discussed, and the data input and output methodology is outlined. An example is presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the coupled multiphysics approach. The example involves simulating a system conceptually similar to the geothermal development in Basel Switzerland, and the resultant induced seismicity, ground motion and structural damage is predicted.

  17. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol for NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2018-01-01

    questions and associated rationales, derived from these candidate architectural objectives, provide the framework by which the ground-test protocol will address the DSG stack elements and configurations, systems and subsystems, and habitation, science, and EVA functions. From these strategic questions, high-level functional requirements for the DSG were drafted and associated ground-test objectives and analysis protocols were established. Bottom-up development incorporated objectives from NASA SMEs in autonomy, avionics and software, communication, environmental control and life support systems, exercise, extravehicular activity, exploration medical operations, guidance navigation and control, human factors and behavioral performance, human factors and habitability, logistics, Mission Control Center operations, power, radiation, robotics, safety and mission assurance, science, simulation, structures, thermal, trash management, and vehicle health. Top-down and bottom-up objectives were integrated to form overall functional requirements - ground-test objectives and analysis mapping. From this mapping, ground-test objectives were organized into those that will be evaluated through inspection, demonstration, analysis, subsystem standalone testing, and human-in-the-loop (HITL) testing. For the HITL tests, mission-like timelines, procedures, and flight rules have been developed to directly meet ground test objectives and evaluate specific functional requirements. Data collected from these assessments will be analyzed to determine the acceptability of habitation element configurations and the combinations of capabilities that will result in the best habitation platform to be recommended by the test team for Phase 3.

  18. Comprehensive Software Simulation on Ground Power Supply for Launch Pads and Processing Facilities at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Victor, Elias; Vasquez, Angel L.; Urbina, Alfredo R.

    2017-01-01

    A multi-threaded software application has been developed in-house by the Ground Special Power (GSP) team at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to separately simulate and fully emulate all units that supply VDC power and battery-based power backup to multiple KSC launch ground support systems for NASA Space Launch Systems (SLS) rocket.

  19. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is vital to the livelihood of communities in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins in Nebraska, and ground water is used to irrigate most of the cropland. Concerns about the sustainability of ground-water and surface-water resources have prompted State and regional agencies to evaluate the cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation in this area. To facilitate understanding of the effects of ground-water irrigation, a numerical computer model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and assess the effects of ground-water irrigation (including ground-water withdrawals, hereinafter referred to as pumpage, and enhanced recharge) on stream base flow. The study area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and includes the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk, Nebraska, and the Loup River Basin upstream from Columbus, Nebraska. The water-table aquifer consists of Quaternary-age sands and gravels and Tertiary-age silts, sands, and gravels. The simulation was constructed using one layer with 2-mile by 2-mile cell size. Simulations were constructed to represent the ground-water system before 1940 and from 1940 through 2005, and to simulate hypothetical conditions from 2006 through 2045 or 2055. The first simulation represents steady-state conditions of the system before anthropogenic effects, and then simulates the effects of early surface-water development activities and recharge of water leaking from canals during 1895 to 1940. The first simulation ends at 1940 because before that time, very little pumpage for irrigation occurred, but after that time it became increasingly commonplace. The pre-1940 simulation was calibrated against measured water levels and estimated long-term base flow, and the 1940 through 2005 simulation was calibrated against measured water-level changes and estimated long-term base flow. The calibrated 1940 through 2005 simulation was used as the basis for analyzing hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the effects of

  20. Design of blast simulators for nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, A.; Opalka, K.O.; Kitchens, C.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-one-dimensional computational technique is used to model the flow of a large, complicated shock tube. The shock tube, or Large Blast Simulator, is used to simulate conventional or nuclear explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in the facility at Gramat, France. Such future shock tubes will include a thermal irradiation capability to better simulate a nuclear event. The computations point to the need for venting of the combustion products since the pressure history will be considerably altered as the shock propagates through these hot gases

  1. Simulated effects of climate change on the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; O'Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; San Juan, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional flow system as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. As part of the hydrologic investigation, regional, three-dimensional conceptual and numerical ground-water-flow models have been developed to assess the potential effects of past and future climates on the regional flow system. A simulation that is based on climatic conditions 21,000 years ago was evaluated by comparing the simulated results to observation of paleodischarge sites. Following acceptable simulation of a past climate, a possible future ground-water-flow system, with climatic conditions that represent a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, was simulated. The steady-state simulations were based on the present-day, steady-state, regional ground-water-flow model. The finite-difference model consisted of 163 rows, 153 columns, and 3 layers and was simulated using MODFLOWP. Climate changes were implemented in the regional ground-water-flow model by changing the distribution of ground-water recharge. Global-scale, average-annual, simulated precipitation for both past- and future-climate conditions developed elsewhere were resampled to the model-grid resolution. A polynomial function that represents the Maxey-Eakin method for estimating recharge from precipitation was used to develop recharge distributions for simulation

  2. MAN-IN-SIMULANT TEST (MIST) CHAMBER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MIST chamber uses methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) vapor as a simulant for HD agent to conduct system level evaluations of chemical protective ensembles....

  3. Hydrogeology of, and Simulation of Ground-Water Flow In, the Pohatcong Valley, Warren County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.; Gordon, Alison D.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water-flow model was constructed to simulate ground-water flow in the Pohatcong Valley, including the area within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Pohatcong Valley Ground Water Contamination Site. The area is underlain by glacial till, alluvial sediments, and weathered and competent carbonate bedrock. The northwestern and southeastern valley boundaries are regional-scale thrust faults and ridges underlain by crystalline rocks. The unconsolidated sediments and weathered bedrock form a minor surficial aquifer and the carbonate rocks form a highly transmissive fractured-rock aquifer. Ground-water flow in the carbonate rocks is primarily downvalley towards the Delaware River, but the water discharges through the surficial aquifer to Pohatcong Creek under typical conditions. The hydraulic characteristics of the carbonate-rock aquifer are highly heterogeneous. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities span nearly five orders of magnitude, from 0.5 feet per day (ft/d) to 1,800 ft/d. The maximum transmissivity calculated is 37,000 feet squared per day. The horizontal hydraulic conductivities calculated from aquifer tests using public supply wells open to the Leithsville Formation and Allentown Dolomite are 34 ft/d (effective hydraulic conductivity) and 85 to 190 ft/d (minimum and maximum hydraulic conductivity, respectively, yielding a horizontal anisotropy ratio of 0.46). Stream base-flow data were used to estimate the net gain (or loss) for selected reaches on Brass Castle Creek, Shabbecong Creek, three smaller tributaries to Pohatcong Creek, and for five reaches on Pohatcong Creek. Estimated mean annual base flows for Brass Castle Creek, Pohatcong Creek at New Village, and Pohatcong Creek at Carpentersville (from correlations of partial- and continuous-record stations) are 2.4, 25, and 45 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) (10, 10, and 11 inches per year (in/yr)), respectively. Ground-water ages estimated using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6

  4. Applying measured reflection from the ground to simulations of thermal perfromance of solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation on tilted and vertical surfaces in the Arctic is, in large parts of the year, strongly influenced by reflection from snow. In connection with planning and optimization of energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems in the Arctic, it is important to have an accurate...... and the azimuth of the surface in question. The paper will present an analysis of simulations of the thermal performance of solar collectors using the standard description of the albedo and using the albedo determined by the measurements. It will be elucidated how important an accurate description...... of the reflection from the ground is for the thermal performance of solar collectors....

  5. Simulation and Verificaiton of Flow in Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    Simulations and experimental results of L-box and slump flow test of a self-compacting mortar and a self-compacting concrete are compared. The simulations are based on a single fluid approach and assume an ideal Bingham behavior. It is possible to simulate the experimental results of both tests f...... for a given set of rheological parameters. However, it is important to include boundary conditions related to the lifting procedure in the two tests....

  6. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-546 Teleoperated Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Latency Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    anti - lock brake systems , or self-leveling systems . 2. FACILITIES AND INSTRUMENTATION. 2.1 Facilities. Testing will be conducted at the...This TOP describes procedures for measuring teleoperated system latencies of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) for the purpose of analyzing system ...discrete system components or measurements of latency in autonomous systems . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Unmanned Ground Vehicles, Basic Video Latency, End-to

  7. The Application of Voltage Transformer Simulator in Electrical Test Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Jun; Chai, Ziqi; Wang, Jingpeng; Yang, Baowei

    2018-02-01

    The voltage transformer test is an important means to monitor its operating state. The accuracy and reliability of the test data is directly related to the test skill level of the operator. However, the risk of test instruments damage, equipment being tested damage and electric shock in operator is caused by improper operation when training the transformer test. In this paper, a simulation device of voltage transformer is set up, and a simulation model is built for the most common 500kV capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), the simulation model can realize several test items of CVT by combing with teaching guidance platform, simulation instrument, complete set of system software and auxiliary equipment in Changchun. Many successful applications show that the simulation device has good practical value and wide application prospect.

  8. Calibration of semi-stochastic procedure for simulating high-frequency ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Emel; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Graves, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Broadband ground motion simulation procedures typically utilize physics-based modeling at low frequencies, coupled with semi-stochastic procedures at high frequencies. The high-frequency procedure considered here combines deterministic Fourier amplitude spectra (dependent on source, path, and site models) with random phase. Previous work showed that high-frequency intensity measures from this simulation methodology attenuate faster with distance and have lower intra-event dispersion than in empirical equations. We address these issues by increasing crustal damping (Q) to reduce distance attenuation bias and by introducing random site-to-site variations to Fourier amplitudes using a lognormal standard deviation ranging from 0.45 for Mw  100 km).

  9. Destructive Physical Analysis of Flight- and Ground-Tested Sodium-Sulfur Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasz, Margot L.; Carter, Boyd J.; Donet, Charles M.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    Destructive physical analysis (DPA) was used to study the effects of microgravity on the sulfur electrode in sodium-sulfur cells. The cells examined in this work were provided by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) from their program on sodium-sulfur technology. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) provided electrical characterization of the flight-tested and ground-tested cells.

  10. Feasibility of Ground Testing a Moon and Mars Surface Power Reactor in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheryl Morton; Carl Baily; Tom Hill; Jim Werner

    2006-01-01

    Ground testing of a surface fission power system would be necessary to verify the design and validate reactor performance to support safe and sustained human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has several facilities that could be adapted to support a ground test. This paper focuses on the feasibility of ground testing at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facility and using other INL existing infrastructure to support such a test. This brief study concludes that the INL EBR-II facility and supporting infrastructure are a viable option for ground testing the surface power system. It provides features and attributes that offer advantages to locating and performing ground testing at this site, and it could support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration schedules for human exploration of the Moon. This study used the initial concept examined by the U.S. Department of Energy Inter-laboratory Design and Analysis Support Team for surface power, a low-temperature, liquid-metal, three-loop Brayton power system. With some facility modification, the EBR-II can safely house a test chamber and perform long-term testing of the space reactor power system. The INL infrastructure is available to receive and provide bonded storage for special nuclear materials. Facilities adjacent to EBR-II can provide the clean room environment needed to assemble and store the test article assembly, disassemble the power system at the conclusion of testing, and perform post test examination. Capability for waste disposal is also available at the INL

  11. Ground tests of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutron instrument operation in the passive mode with a Martian soil model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. N.; Dubasov, P. V.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Krylov, A. R.; Krylov, V. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Sanin, A. B.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Zontikov, A. O.

    2017-07-01

    The results of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument ground tests in the passive mode of operation are presented in comparison with the numerical calculations. These test series were conducted to support the current surface measurements of DAN onboard the MSL Curiosity rover. The instrument sensitivity to detect thin subsurface layers of water ice buried at different depths in the analog of Martian soil has been evaluated during these tests. The experiments have been done with a radioisotope Pu-Be neutron source (analog of the MMRTG neutron source onboard the Curiosity rover) and the Martian soil model assembled from silicon-rich window glass pane. Water ice layers were simulated with polyethylene sheets. All experiments have been performed at the test facility built at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia).

  12. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  13. Hypersonic ground test capabilities for T and E testing above mach 8 ''a case where S and T meets T and E''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantino, M; Miles, R; Brown, G; Laster, M; Nelson, G

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of hypersonic flight in ground test and evaluation (T and E) facilities is a challenging and formidable task, especially to fully duplicate the flight environment above approximately Mach 8 for most all hypersonic flight systems that have been developed, conceived, or envisioned. Basically, and for many years, the enabling technology to build such a ground test wind tunnel facility has been severely limited in the area of high-temperature, high-strength materials and thermal protection approaches. To circumvent the problems, various approaches have been used, including partial simulation and use of similarity laws and reduced test time. These approaches often are not satisfactory, i.e. operability and durability testing for air-breathing propulsion development and thermal protection development of many flight systems. Thus, there is a strong need for science and technology (S and T) community involvement in technology development to address these problems. This paper discusses a specific case where this need exists and where significant S and T involvement has made and continues to make significant contributions. The case discussed will be an Air Force research program currently underway to develop enabling technologies for a Mach 8-15 hypersonic true temperature wind tunnel with relatively long run time. The research is based on a concept proposed by princeton University using radiant or beamed energy into the supersonic nozzle flow

  14. Simulation Test System of Non-Contact D-dot Voltage Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Jingang; Luo, Ruixi; Gao, Can; Songnong, Li; Kongjun, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    The development trend of future voltage transformer in smart grid is non-contact measurement, miniaturization and intellectualization. This paper proposes one simulation test system of non-contact D-dot transformer for voltage measurement. This simulation test system consists of D-dot transformer, signal processing circuit and ground PC port. D-dot transformer realizes the indirect voltage measurement by measuring the change rate of electric displacement vector, a non-contact means (He et al. 2004, Principles and experiments of voltage transformer based on self-integrating D-dot probe. Proc CSEE 2014;15:2445-51). Specific to the characteristics of D-dot transformer signals, signal processing circuits with strong resistance to interference and distortion-free amplified sensor output signal are designed. WIFI wireless network is used to transmit the voltage detection to LabVIEW-based ground collection port and LabVIEW technology is adopted for signal reception, data processing and analysis and other functions. Finally, a test platform is established to simulate the performance of the whole test system of single-phase voltage transformer. Test results indicate that this voltage transformer has sound real-time performance, high accuracy and fast response speed and the simulation test system is stable and reliable and can be a new prototype of voltage transformers.

  15. Thermal and Fluid Modeling of the CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) Ground Test Article (GTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryk, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Walls, Laurie; Stopnitzky, Benny; Rhys, Noah; Wollen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor thermal and fluid system models to data acquired from a ground test article (GTA) for the CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed - CRYOTE. To accomplish this analysis, it was broken into four primary tasks. These included model development, pre-test predictions, testing support at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC} and post-test correlations. Information from MSFC facilitated the task of refining and correlating the initial models. The primary goal of the modeling/testing/correlating efforts was to characterize heat loads throughout the ground test article. Significant factors impacting the heat loads included radiative environments, multi-layer insulation (MLI) performance, tank fill levels, tank pressures, and even contact conductance coefficients. This paper demonstrates how analytical thermal/fluid networks were established, and it includes supporting rationale for specific thermal responses seen during testing.

  16. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Gabriele; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Stolorz, Martin; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo

    2009-11-23

    Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS-) model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT-) and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI-) data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s) on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction) calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in silico development and testing of hip prostheses.

  17. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  18. Coalbed gas content simulation test and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. [New Star Petroleum Company, Zhengzhou (China). North China Petroleum Bureau

    2002-10-01

    With a high-pressure canister and accurate thermoregulation system of IS-100 isotherm instrument and an electronic flow meter, a coalbed gas content simulation method is established. A control program is combined with it to control data acquisition. The method simulates the whole process of gas content measurement from coring to the completion of desorption. It enables the understanding of gas desorption regularities, and for obtaining the volume of gas loss at any one time. The study would be useful for comparing the various approaches of calculating gas loss volume. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Reactor numerical simulation and hydraulic test research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L. S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the computer hardware was improved on the numerical simulation on flow field in the reactor. In our laboratory, we usually use the Pro/e or UG commercial software. After completed topology geometry, ICEM-CFD is used to get mesh for computation. Exact geometrical similarity is maintained between the main flow paths of the model and the prototype, with the exception of the core simulation design of the fuel assemblies. The drive line system is composed of drive mechanism, guide bush assembly, fuel assembly and control rod assembly, and fitted with the rod level indicator and drive mechanism power device

  20. Feasibility of Ground Testing a Moon and Mars Surface Power Reactor in EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheryl Morton; Carl Baily; Tom Hill; Jim Werner

    2006-02-01

    Ground testing of a surface fission power system would be necessary to verify the design and validate reactor performance to support safe and sustained human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has several facilities that could be adapted to support a ground test. This paper focuses on the feasibility of ground testing at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facility and using other INL existing infrastructure to support such a test. This brief study concludes that the INL EBR-II facility and supporting infrastructure are a viable option for ground testing the surface power system. It provides features and attributes that offer advantages to locating and performing ground testing at this site, and it could support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration schedules for human exploration of the Moon. This study used the initial concept examined by the U.S. Department of Energy Inter-laboratory Design and Analysis Support Team for surface power, a lowtemperature, liquid-metal, three-loop Brayton power system. With some facility modification, the EBR-II can safely house a test chamber and perform long-term testing of the space reactor power system. The INL infrastructure is available to receive and provide bonded storage for special nuclear materials. Facilities adjacent to EBR-II can provide the clean room environment needed to assemble and store the test article assembly, disassemble the power system at the conclusion of testing, and perform posttest examination. Capability for waste disposal is also available at the INL.

  1. Feasibility of Ground Testing a Moon and Mars Surface Power Reactor in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, Sheryl L.; Baily, Carl E.; Hill, Thomas J.; Werner, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Ground testing of a surface fission power system would be necessary to verify the design and validate reactor performance to support safe and sustained human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has several facilities that could be adapted to support a ground test. This paper focuses on the feasibility of ground testing at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facility and using other INL existing infrastructure to support such a test. This brief study concludes that the INL EBR-II facility and supporting infrastructure are a viable option for ground testing the surface power system. It provides features and attributes that offer advantages to locating and performing ground testing at this site, and it could support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration schedules for human exploration of the Moon. This study used the initial concept examined by the U.S. Department of Energy Inter-laboratory Design and Analysis Support Team for surface power, a low-temperature, liquid-metal, three-loop Brayton power system. With some facility modification, the EBR-II can safely house a test chamber and perform long-term testing of the space reactor power system. The INL infrastructure is available to receive and provide bonded storage for special nuclear materials. Facilities adjacent to EBR-II can provide the clean room environment needed to assemble and store the test article assembly, disassemble the power system at the conclusion of testing, and perform posttest examination. Capability for waste disposal is also available at the INL

  2. Simulation model study of limitation on the locating distance of a ground penetrating radar; Chichu tansa radar no tansa kyori genkai ni kansuru simulation model no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakauchi, T.; Tsunasaki, M.; Kishi, M.; Hayakawa, H. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Various simulations were carried out under various laying conditions to obtain the limitation of locating distance for ground penetrating radar. Recently, ground penetrating radar has been remarked as location technology of obstacles such as the existing buried objects. To enhance the theoretical model (radar equation) of a maximum locating distance, the following factors were examined experimentally using pulse ground penetrating radar: ground surface conditions such as asphalt pavement, diameter of buried pipes, material of buried pipes, effect of soil, antenna gain. The experiment results well agreed with actual field experiment ones. By adopting the antenna gain and effect of the ground surface, the more practical simulation using underground models became possible. The maximum locating distance was more improved by large antenna than small one in actual field. It is assumed that large antenna components contributed to improvement of gain and reduction of attenuation during passing through soil. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Neutral Simulator Buoyancy Simulator-Test NB32

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. Construction methods had to be efficient due to the limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Pictured is a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) student working in a spacesuit on the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) project which was developed as a joint effort between MFSC and MIT. The EASE experiment required that crew members assemble small components to form larger components, working from the payload bay of the space shuttle. The MIT student in this photo is assembling two six-beam tetrahedrons.

  4. Determination of the Overheating Degree of Moulding Sand with Bentonite - on the Grounds of Simulation Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Żymankowska-Kumon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A determination of the heating degree of the moulding sand with bentonite on the grounds of simulating investigations with the application of the MAGMA program, constitutes the contents of the paper. To this end the numerical simulation of the temperature distribution in the virtual casting mould was performed. It was assumed that the mould cavity was filled with a moulding sand with bentonite of a moisture content 3,2 % and bentonite content 8 %. A computer simulation can be used for predicting the heating degree of moulding sands with bentonite. Thus, prediction of the active bentonite (montmorillonite content in individual layers of the overheated moulding sand can be done by means of the simulation. An overheating degree of a moulding sand with bentonite, and thus the bentonite deactivation depends on a temperature of a casting alloy, casting mass, ratio of: masssand : masscasting, moulding sand amount in the mould and contact area: metal – mould (geometry of the casting shape. Generally it can be stated, that the bentonite deactivation degree depends on two main factors: temperature of moulding sand heating and time of its operation.

  5. Determination of the Overheating Degree of Moulding Sand with Bentonite - on the Grounds of Simulation Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymankowska-Kumon S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A determination of the heating degree of the moulding sand with bentonite on the grounds of simulating investigations with the application of the MAGMA program, constitutes the contents of the paper. To this end the numerical simulation of the temperature distribution in the virtual casting mould was performed. It was assumed that the mould cavity was filled with a moulding sand with bentonite of a moisture content 3,2 % and bentonite content 8 %. A computer simulation can be used for predicting the heating degree of moulding sands with bentonite. Thus, prediction of the active bentonite (montmorillonite content in individual layers of the overheated moulding sand can be done by means of the simulation. An overheating degree of a moulding sand with bentonite, and thus the bentonite deactivation depends on a temperature of a casting alloy, casting mass, ratio of: mass : masscasting, moulding sand amount in the mould and contact area: metal - mould (geometry of the casting shape. Generally it can be stated, that the bentonite deactivation degree depends on two main factors: temperature of moulding sand heating and time of its operation.

  6. Leveling the playing field: Grounding learning with embedded simulations in geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Allison J; Wiley, Jennifer; Moher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although desktop simulations can be useful in representing scientific phenomena during inquiry activities, they do not allow students to embody or contextualize the spatial aspects of those phenomena. One learning technology that does attempt to combine embodiment and grounded experience to support learning in science is Embedded Phenomena. The objective of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of a classroom-based Embedded Phenomena activity for learning in geoscience, and to investigate whether individual differences in spatial skills had an impact on the effectiveness. The simulated scientific phenomenon was earthquakes, and 44 fifth grade (10-year old) students learned from a unit containing both content instruction and simulations. In the embedded condition, 15 earthquake events were simulated within the classroom space and students enacted the computation of epicenters with strings and their bodies. Students in the non-embedded condition received the same content instruction and did the same activities, but the epicenter computations were done with maps instead of with students' bodies. Students in the embedded condition showed greater learning gains overall. Further, the Embedded Phenomena activity attenuated the effect of individual differences in spatial skills on learning in science such that low spatial individuals performed as well as high spatial individuals in the embedded condition.

  7. Variations in radon-222 in soil and ground water at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Straume, T.; Smith, A.; King, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To help evaluate the applicability of variations of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas as a possible earthquake predictor, measurements were conducted in conjunction with underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radon fluctuations in ground water have been observed during a sequence of aftershocks following the Oroville, California earthquake of 1 August 1975. The NTS measurements were designed to show if these fluctuations were in response to ground shaking; if not, they could be attributed to changes in earth strain prior to the aftershocks. Well waters were periodically sampled and soil-gas 222 Rn monitored prior to and following seven underground explosions of varying strength and distance from sampling and detector locations. Soil-gas 222 Rn contents were measured by the alpha-track method; well water 222 Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearly identifiable correlation between well-water radon fluctuations and individual underground tests. One prominent variation in soil-gas radon corresponded to ground shaking from a pair of underground tests in alluvium; otherwise, there was no apparent correlation between radon emanation and other explosions. Markedly lower soil-gas radon contents following the tests were probably caused by consolidation of alluvium in response to ground shaking

  8. Sensitivity study on hydraulic well testing inversion using simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Najita, J.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    1997-11-01

    For environmental remediation, management of nuclear waste disposal, or geothermal reservoir engineering, it is very important to evaluate the permeabilities, spacing, and sizes of the subsurface fractures which control ground water flow. Cluster variable aperture (CVA) simulated annealing has been used as an inversion technique to construct fluid flow models of fractured formations based on transient pressure data from hydraulic tests. A two-dimensional fracture network system is represented as a filled regular lattice of fracture elements. The algorithm iteratively changes an aperture of cluster of fracture elements, which are chosen randomly from a list of discrete apertures, to improve the match to observed pressure transients. The size of the clusters is held constant throughout the iterations. Sensitivity studies using simple fracture models with eight wells show that, in general, it is necessary to conduct interference tests using at least three different wells as pumping well in order to reconstruct the fracture network with a transmissivity contrast of one order of magnitude, particularly when the cluster size is not known a priori. Because hydraulic inversion is inherently non-unique, it is important to utilize additional information. The authors investigated the relationship between the scale of heterogeneity and the optimum cluster size (and its shape) to enhance the reliability and convergence of the inversion. It appears that the cluster size corresponding to about 20--40 % of the practical range of the spatial correlation is optimal. Inversion results of the Raymond test site data are also presented and the practical range of spatial correlation is evaluated to be about 5--10 m from the optimal cluster size in the inversion.

  9. 26th Space Simulation Conference Proceedings. Environmental Testing: The Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered include: A Multifunctional Space Environment Simulation Facility for Accelerated Spacecraft Materials Testing; Exposure of Spacecraft Surface Coatings in a Simulated GEO Radiation Environment; Gravity-Offloading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms; Microscopic Shutters Controlled by cRIO in Sounding Rocket; Application of a Physics-Based Stabilization Criterion to Flight System Thermal Testing; Upgrade of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for 20 Kelvin Operations; A New Approach to Improve the Uniformity of Solar Simulator; A Perfect Space Simulation Storm; A Planetary Environmental Simulator/Test Facility; Collimation Mirror Segment Refurbishment inside ESA s Large Space; Space Simulation of the CBERS 3 and 4 Satellite Thermal Model in the New Brazilian 6x8m Thermal Vacuum Chamber; The Certification of Environmental Chambers for Testing Flight Hardware; Space Systems Environmental Test Facility Database (SSETFD), Website Development Status; Wallops Flight Facility: Current and Future Test Capabilities for Suborbital and Orbital Projects; Force Limited Vibration Testing of JWST NIRSpec Instrument Using Strain Gages; Investigation of Acoustic Field Uniformity in Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Recent Developments in Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Assembly, Integration and Test Centre in Malaysia: Integration between Building Construction Works and Equipment Installation; Complex Ground Support Equipment for Satellite Thermal Vacuum Test; Effect of Charging Electron Exposure on 1064nm Transmission through Bare Sapphire Optics and SiO2 over HfO2 AR-Coated Sapphire Optics; Environmental Testing Activities and Capabilities for Turkish Space Industry; Integrated Circuit Reliability Simulation in Space Environments; Micrometeoroid Impacts and Optical Scatter in Space Environment; Overcoming Unintended Consequences of Ambient Pressure Thermal Cycling Environmental Tests; Performance and Functionality Improvements to Next Generation

  10. 25th Space Simulation Conference. Environmental Testing: The Earth-Space Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Topics covered include: Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation; The ESA Large Space Simulator Mechanical Ground Support Equipment for Spacecraft Testing; Temperature Stability and Control Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the Aquarius Radiometer; The Liquid Nitrogen System for Chamber A: A Change from Original Forced Flow Design to a Natural Flow (Thermo Siphon) System; Return to Mercury: A Comparison of Solar Simulation and Flight Data for the MESSENGER Spacecraft; Floating Pressure Conversion and Equipment Upgrades of Two 3.5kw, 20k, Helium Refrigerators; Affect of Air Leakage into a Thermal-Vacuum Chamber on Helium Refrigeration Heat Load; Special ISO Class 6 Cleanroom for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Project; A State-of-the-Art Contamination Effects Research and Test Facility Martian Dust Simulator; Cleanroom Design Practices and Their Influence on Particle Counts; Extra Terrestrial Environmental Chamber Design; Contamination Sources Effects Analysis (CSEA) - A Tool to Balance Cost/Schedule While Managing Facility Availability; SES and Acoustics at GSFC; HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test; Virtual Shaker Testing: Simulation Technology Improves Vibration Test Performance; Estimating Shock Spectra: Extensions beyond GEVS; Structural Dynamic Analysis of a Spacecraft Multi-DOF Shaker Table; Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Manufacture of Cryoshroud Surfaces for Space Simulation Chambers; The New LOTIS Test Facility; Thermal Vacuum Control Systems Options for Test Facilities; Extremely High Vacuum Chamber for Low Outgassing Processing at NASA Goddard; Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier; The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT; Extraction of Thermal Performance Values from Samples in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar; Thermal (Silicon Diode) Data Acquisition System; Aquarius's Instrument Science Data System (ISDS) Automated

  11. SOAC - State-of-the-Art Car Engineering Tests at Department of Transportation High Speed Ground Test Center : Volume 2. Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The six-volume report presents the technical methodology, data samples, and results of tests conducted on the SOAC on the Rail Transit Test Track at the High Speed Ground Test Center in Pueblo, Colorado during the period April to July 1973. The Test ...

  12. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  13. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-09-16

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  14. Aerothermal Ground Testing of Flexible Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Ferlemann, Paul G.; Siemers, Paul M., III; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Tobin, Steven A.; Kardell, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Flexible TPS development involves ground testing and analysis necessary to characterize performance of the FTPS candidates prior to flight testing. This paper provides an overview of the analysis and ground testing efforts performed over the last year at the NASA Langley Research Center and in the Boeing Large-Core Arc Tunnel (LCAT). In the LCAT test series, material layups were subjected to aerothermal loads commensurate with peak re-entry conditions enveloping a range of HIAD mission trajectories. The FTPS layups were tested over a heat flux range from 20 to 50 W/cm with associated surface pressures of 3 to 8 kPa. To support the testing effort a significant redesign of the existing shear (wedge) model holder from previous testing efforts was undertaken to develop a new test technique for supporting and evaluating the FTPS in the high-temperature, arc jet flow. Since the FTPS test samples typically experience a geometry change during testing, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the arc jet flow field and test model were developed to support the testing effort. The CFD results were used to help determine the test conditions experienced by the test samples as the surface geometry changes. This paper includes an overview of the Boeing LCAT facility, the general approach for testing FTPS, CFD analysis methodology and results, model holder design and test methodology, and selected thermal results of several FTPS layups.

  15. Survival of B. Horneckiae Spores Under Ground-simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanche, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated habitats, spore-forming microbes are highly resistant to various physical and chemical conditions, which include ionizing and UV radiation, desiccation and oxidative stress, and the harsh environment of outer space or planetary surfaces. Recently a radiation resistant, spore forming bacterial isolate, Bacillus horneckiae, was isolated from a clean room of the Kennedy Space Center where the Phoenix spacecraft was assembled. The exceptionally high tolerance of extreme conditions demonstrated by sporeforming bacteria highlighted the need to assess the viability of these microbes in situ (in real) space. The proposed BOSS (Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space) project aims to understand the mechanisms by which biofilm forming organisms, such as B. horneckiae, will potentially be able to withstand harsh space conditions. As previously stated, the spore producing ability of these species gives them increased survivability to harsh conditions. Some of the spores will have the protective exosporium layer artificially removed before the test to determine if the existence of this layer significantly changes the survivability during the mission. In preparation for that experiment, we analyzed spores which were exposed during a ground simulation, the EXPOSE R2 Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space (BOSS). Previous to exposure, spores were deposited onto spacecraft grade aluminum coupons in a spore suspension calculated to contain between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 8) spores. This precursor series will be used to establish a baseline survivability function for comparison with the future flight tests during EXPOSE-R. For each coupon, a 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film was applied and peeled

  16. Simulation of the LHC injection kicker impedance test bench

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsui, H

    2003-01-01

    The coupling impedance measurements of the LHC injection kicker test bench are simulated by HFSS code. The simulation gives qualitatively good agreement with the measurement. In order to damp the resonances, some ferrite rings are tested in the simulation. Longitudinal resonances are damped by a ferrite ring of large tan$\\delta_{\\mu}$. The effect of the ferrite ring is small for damping the transverse impedance resonance around 30 MHz.

  17. Evaluation of Radar Vegetation Indices for Vegetation Water Content Estimation Using Data from a Ground-Based SMAP Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; O'Neill, Peggy; Cosh, Michael; Lang, Roger; Joseph, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important component of microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms. This paper aims to estimate VWC using L band active and passive radar/radiometer datasets obtained from a NASA ground-based Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) simulator known as ComRAD (Combined Radar/Radiometer). Several approaches to derive vegetation information from radar and radiometer data such as HH, HV, VV, Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI), HH/VV ratio, HV/(HH+VV), HV/(HH+HV+VV) and Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) are tested for VWC estimation through a generalized linear model (GLM). The overall analysis indicates that HV radar backscattering could be used for VWC content estimation with highest performance followed by HH, VV, MPDI, RVI, and other ratios.

  18. Unit Under Test Simulator Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Source 0 Nonlinear Elements Nonlinear Voltage-Controlled Current Source Diode Bipolar Junction Transistor ( BJT ) Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET...circuit element component levels, such as resistor, capacitor, and transistor . As such, it can provide very accurate simulation with regard to signal...Insulated- Gate Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Each model in turn contains many parameters which are used to reflect the individual device

  19. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in Cedar Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.

    2005-01-01

    sufficient to meet demand. Water levels in many areas are at or close to historic lows.In 2000, withdrawal from wells was estimated to be 36,000 acre-feet per year. About 4,000 acre-feet per year are estimated to discharge to evapotranspiration or as subsurface outflow. Prior to large-scale ground-water development, ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration and discharge to springs was much larger.Ground water along the eastern margin of the valley between Cedar City and Enoch is unsuitable for domestic use because of high dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations. The predominant ions of Ca and SO4 in this area indicate dissolution of gypsum in the Markagunt Plateau to the east. Data collected during this study were compared to historic data; there is no evidence to indicate deterioration in ground-water quality. The spatial distribution of ground water with high nitrate concentration does not appear to be migrating beyond its previously known extent. No single source can be identified as the cause for elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Low nitrogen-15 values north of Cedar City indicate a natural geologic source. Higher nitrogen-15 values toward the center of the basin and associated hydrologic data indicate probable recharge from waste-water effluent. Excess dissolved nitrogen gas and low nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water indicate that denitrification is occurring in some areas.A computer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate flow in the unconsolidated basin fill. The method of determining recharge from irrigation was changed during the calibration process to incorporate more areal and temporal variability. In general, the model accurately simulates water levels and water-level fluctuations and can be considered an adequate tool to help determine the valley-wide effects on water levels of additional ground-water withdrawals and changes in water use. The model was used to simulated water-level changes caused by projecting current

  20. Finite-element simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada-California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Waddell, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    A finite-element model of the groundwater flow system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site was developed using parameter estimation techniques. The model simulated steady-state ground-water flow occurring in tuffaceous, volcanic , and carbonate rocks, and alluvial aquifers. Hydraulic gradients in the modeled area range from 0.00001 for carbonate aquifers to 0.19 for barriers in tuffaceous rocks. Three model parameters were used in estimating transmissivity in six zones. Simulated hydraulic-head values range from about 1,200 m near Timber Mountain to about 300 m near Furnace Creek Ranch. Model residuals for simulated versus measured hydraulic heads range from -28.6 to 21.4 m; most are less than +/-7 m, indicating an acceptable representation of the hydrologic system by the model. Sensitivity analyses of the model 's flux boundary condition variables were performed to assess the effect of varying boundary fluxes on the calculation of estimated model transmissivities. Varying the flux variables representing discharge at Franklin Lake and Furnace Creek Ranch has greater effect than varying other flux variables. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Design and Test of Advanced Thermal Simulators for an Alkali Metal-Cooled Reactor Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Anne E.; Dickens, Ricky E.

    2011-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has as one of its primary missions the development and testing of fission reactor simulators for space applications. A key component in these simulated reactors is the thermal simulator, designed to closely mimic the form and function of a nuclear fuel pin using electric heating. Continuing effort has been made to design simple, robust, inexpensive thermal simulators that closely match the steady-state and transient performance of a nuclear fuel pin. A series of these simulators have been designed, developed, fabricated and tested individually and in a number of simulated reactor systems at the EFF-TF. The purpose of the thermal simulators developed under the Fission Surface Power (FSP) task is to ensure that non-nuclear testing can be performed at sufficiently high fidelity to allow a cost-effective qualification and acceptance strategy to be used. Prototype thermal simulator design is founded on the baseline Fission Surface Power reactor design. Recent efforts have been focused on the design, fabrication and test of a prototype thermal simulator appropriate for use in the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). While designing the thermal simulators described in this paper, effort were made to improve the axial power profile matching of the thermal simulators. Simultaneously, a search was conducted for graphite materials with higher resistivities than had been employed in the past. The combination of these two efforts resulted in the creation of thermal simulators with power capacities of 2300-3300 W per unit. Six of these elements were installed in a simulated core and tested in the alkali metal-cooled Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC) at a variety of liquid metal flow rates and temperatures. This paper documents the design of the thermal simulators, test program, and test results.

  2. Ground motion-simulations of 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes, central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Graves, Robert; Olsen, Kim B.; Boyd, Oliver; Cramer, Chris H.; Hartzell, Stephen; Ni, Sidao; Somerville, Paul G.; Williams, Robert; Zhong, Jinquan

    2015-01-01

    We performed a suite of numerical simulations based on the 1811–1812 New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) earthquakes, which demonstrate the importance of 3D geologic structure and rupture directivity on the ground‐motion response throughout a broad region of the central United States (CUS) for these events. Our simulation set consists of 20 hypothetical earthquakes located along two faults associated with the current seismicity trends in the NMSZ. The hypothetical scenarios range in magnitude from M 7.0 to 7.7 and consider various epicenters, slip distributions, and rupture characterization approaches. The low‐frequency component of our simulations was computed deterministically up to a frequency of 1 Hz using a regional 3D seismic velocity model and was combined with higher‐frequency motions calculated for a 1D medium to generate broadband synthetics (0–40 Hz in some cases). For strike‐slip earthquakes located on the southwest–northeast‐striking NMSZ axial arm of seismicity, our simulations show 2–10 s period energy channeling along the trend of the Reelfoot rift and focusing strong shaking northeast toward Paducah, Kentucky, and Evansville, Indiana, and southwest toward Little Rock, Arkansas. These waveguide effects are further accentuated by rupture directivity such that an event with a western epicenter creates strong amplification toward the northeast, whereas an eastern epicenter creates strong amplification toward the southwest. These effects are not as prevalent for simulations on the reverse‐mechanism Reelfoot fault, and large peak ground velocities (>40  cm/s) are typically confined to the near‐source region along the up‐dip projection of the fault. Nonetheless, these basin response and rupture directivity effects have a significant impact on the pattern and level of the estimated intensities, which leads to additional uncertainty not previously considered in magnitude estimates of the 1811–1812 sequence based only on historical

  3. Simulation of Ground Winds Time Series for the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelfang, Stanley I.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of wind time series based on power spectrum density (PSD) and spectral coherence models for ground wind turbulence is described. The wind models, originally developed for the Shuttle program, are based on wind measurements at the NASA 150-m meteorological tower at Cape Canaveral, FL. The current application is for the design and/or protection of the CLV from wind effects during on-pad exposure during periods from as long as days prior to launch, to seconds or minutes just prior to launch and seconds after launch. The evaluation of vehicle response to wind will influence the design and operation of constraint systems for support of the on-pad vehicle. Longitudinal and lateral wind component time series are simulated at critical vehicle locations. The PSD model for wind turbulence is a function of mean wind speed, elevation and temporal frequency. Integration of the PSD equation over a selected frequency range yields the variance of the time series to be simulated. The square root of the PSD defines a low-pass filter that is applied to adjust the components of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of Gaussian white noise. The first simulated time series near the top of the launch vehicle is the inverse transform of the adjusted FFT. Simulation of the wind component time series at the nearest adjacent location (and all other succeeding next nearest locations) is based on a model for the coherence between winds at two locations as a function of frequency and separation distance, where the adjacent locations are separated vertically and/or horizontally. The coherence function is used to calculate a coherence weighted FFT of the wind at the next nearest location, given the FFT of the simulated time series at the previous location and the essentially incoherent FFT of the wind at the selected location derived a priori from the PSD model. The simulated time series at each adjacent location is the inverse Fourier transform of the coherence weighted FFT. For a selected

  4. Reanimation of the RICH Test Beam Simulation in GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Arzymatov, Kenenbek

    2017-01-01

    This test was originally developed by Sajan Easo (LHCb) ten years ago mostly for the purpose of testing the behavior of photomultipliers, but it wasn’t used in regression testing in Gauss/Geant4 famework. The goal of project is to revive simulation of cherenkov radiaton test by completing.

  5. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  6. Effects of effluent spray irrigation on ground water at a test site near Tarpon Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Secondary-treated effluent was applied to a 7.2-acre test site near Tarpon Springs, Fla., for about 1 year at an average rate of 0.06 million gallons per day and 3 years at 0.11 million gallons per day. Chemical fertilizer was applied periodically to the test site and adjacent areas. Periodic mounding of the water table occurred due to effluent irrigation, inducing radial flow from the test site. Physical, geochemical, biochemical processes effectively reduced total nitrogen concentration 90% and total phosphorous concentration more than 95% in the ground water of the surficial aquifer about 300 feet downgradient from the test site from that of the applied effluent. Downgradient, total nitrogen averaged 2.4 milligrams per liter and total phosphorus averaged 0.17 milligrams per liter. Substantial increases in total phosphorus were observed when the pH of the ground water increased. Total coliform bacteria in the ground water of the surficial aquifer were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters. Fecal coliform bacteria were generally less than 25 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site and were not detected downgradient or near the test site. Fecal streptococcal bacteria were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site, but were detected on three occasions near the test site. (USGS)

  7. Conceptual design for simulator of irradiation test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Ohto, Tsutomu; Magome, Hirokatsu; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko

    2012-03-01

    A simulator of irradiation test reactors has been developed since JFY 2010 for understanding reactor behavior and for upskilling in order to utilize a nuclear human resource development (HRD) and to promote partnership with developing countries which have a plan to introduce nuclear power plant. The simulator is designed based on the JMTR, one of the irradiation test reactors, and it simulates operation, irradiation tests and various kinds of accidents caused by the reactor and irradiation facility. The development of the simulator is sponsored by the Japanese government as one of the specialized projects of advanced research infrastructure in order to promote basic as well as applied researches. The training using the simulator will be started for the nuclear HRD from JFY 2012. This report summarizes the result of the conceptual design of the simulator in JFY 2010. (author)

  8. Advanced Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Above Ground Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage in borehole heat exchanger arrays is a promising technology to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. These systems usually consist of several subsystems like the heat source (e.g. solarthermics or a combined heat and power plant), the heat consumer (e.g. a heating system), diurnal storages (i.e. water tanks), the borehole thermal energy storage, additional heat sources for peak load coverage (e.g. a heat pump or a gas boiler) and the distribution network. For the design of an integrated system, numerical simulations of all subsystems are imperative. A separate simulation of the borehole energy storage is well-established but represents a simplification. In reality, the subsystems interact with each other. The fluid temperatures of the heat generation system, the heating system and the underground storage are interdependent and affect the performance of each subsystem. To take into account these interdependencies, we coupled a software for the simulation of the above ground facilities with a finite element software for the modeling of the heat flow in the subsurface and the borehole heat exchangers. This allows for a more realistic view on the entire system. Consequently, a finer adjustment of the system components and a more precise prognosis of the system's performance can be ensured.

  9. Sensitivity of Distributed Hydrologic Simulations to Ground and Satellite Based Rainfall Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaiah Chintalapudi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven precipitation products (rain gauges, NEXRAD MPE, PERSIANN 0.25 degree, PERSIANN CCS-3hr, PERSIANN CCS-1hr, TRMM 3B42V7, and CMORPH were used to force a physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The model was driven by these products to simulate the hydrologic response of a 1232 km2 watershed in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Storm events in 2007 were used to analyze the precipitation products. Comparison with rain gauge observations reveals that there were significant biases in the satellite rainfall products and large variations in the estimated amounts. The radar basin average precipitation compared very well with the rain gauge product while the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42V7 precipitation compared best with observed rainfall among all satellite precipitation products. The NEXRAD MPE simulated streamflows matched the observed ones the best yielding the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency correlation coefficient values for both the July and August 2007 events. Simulations driven by TRMM 3B42V7 matched the observed streamflow better than other satellite products for both events. The PERSIANN coarse resolution product yielded better runoff results than the higher resolution product. The study reveals that satellite rainfall products are viable alternatives when rain gauge or ground radar observations are sparse or non-existent.

  10. Ground testing of the Li-ion batteries in support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2005-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20(deg)C to +4O(deg)C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit (RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 8 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The testing performed includes, (a) performing initial characterization tests (discharge capacity at different temperatures), (b) simulating the launch conditions, (c) simulating the cruise phase conditions (including trajectory corrections), (d) simulating the entry, decent, and landing pulse load profile (if required to support the pyros) (e) simulating the Mars surface operation mission simulation conditions, as well as, (f) assessing performance capacity loss and impedance characteristics as a function of temperature and life. As will be discussed, the lithium-ion batteries (fabricated by LithiodYardney, Inc.) were demonstrated to far exceed the requirements defined by the mission, and are projected to support an extended mission (> 2 years) with margin to spare.

  11. Appropriate Arrangement of Nori Aquafarming Grounds in the Ariake Sea on the Basis of Convective Dispersion Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Toshinori; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Harada, Masayoshi; Shiraishi, Hideto; Shuto, Toshio

    This study investigated appropriate arrangement of nori aquafarming grounds from the view point of nori growth in the Ariake Sea coastal waters. Databases of the sea-bed topography and nori aquafarming grounds were constructed using GIS. Then the tidal currents and salinity in the Ariake Sea were simulated using a two-dimensional depth-integrated model, which was developed by integrating the three-dimensional continuity, momentum, and diffusion equations. The wetting and drying scheme was also introduced to account for the appearance and disappearance of tidal flats. The velocities and directions of the simulated tidal currents, salinity, and tidal land appearance were in good agreement with observed data. Five scenarios considered by the Fukuoka Prefectural Government were introduced in the simulation model to identify the most appropriate arrangement. An experimental formula for nitrogen assimilation kinetics in the nori body was introduced to evaluate the simulation results for the five scenarios. The scenarios with a reduced density of aquafarming grounds had increased nori growth, suggesting that the arrangement of the aquafarming grounds affected the nori growth. The simulation results were used to identify the most appropriate arrangement of aquafarming grounds.

  12. Ground vibration test results for Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST)/Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1R) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, T. H.; Gilyard, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    The drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) project was designed to control flutter actively at high subsonic speeds. Accurate knowledge of the structural model was critical for the successful design of the control system. A ground vibration test was conducted on the DAST vehicle to determine the structural model characteristics. This report presents and discusses the vibration and test equipment, the test setup and procedures, and the antisymmetric and symmetric mode shape results. The modal characteristics were subsequently used to update the structural model employed in the control law design process.

  13. Three-dimensional random vibration testing definition and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kurng Y.; Frydman, Abraham M.

    1990-01-01

    An approach is presented for the definition of 3D random vibration test requirements for multiaxial shaker systems. In particular, it is shown that, by utilizing coherence functions for cross-correlation effects, test requirements can be defined in a simple way and provide a more realistic environmental simulation. The method is applicable to the simulation of all field environments and can be similarly employed to develop laboratory test requirements based on field data. Example problems are presented to demonstrate the approach.

  14. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Gopal P; Jacobs, Travis W; Watts, Mark D; Ghayoomie, S Vahid; Larson, Stephen D; Gerkin, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models.

  15. Isotope Brayton ground demonstration testing and flight qualification program. Volume 1. Technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    A proposal for the demonstration, development and production of the Isotope Brayton Flight System for space vehicles is presented with details on the technical requirements for designing and testing a ground demonstration system and on the program organization and personnel. (LCL)

  16. 7th Conference Simulation and Testing for Vehicle Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riese, Jens; Rüden, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The book includes contributions on the latest model-based methods for the development of personal and commercial vehicle control devices. The main topics treated are: application of simulation and model design to development of driver assistance systems; physical and database model design for engines, motors, powertrain, undercarriage and the whole vehicle; new simulation tools, methods and optimization processes; applications of simulation in function and software development; function and software testing using HiL, MiL and SiL simulation; application of simulation and optimization in application of control devices; automation approaches at all stages of the development process.

  17. SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

  18. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    . To accomodate non-constant stress or strain, a mode factor may be introduced or the dissipated energy may be used instead of stress or strain.Cracking of asphalt (or other materials) may be described as a process consisting of three phases. In phase one diffuse microcracking is formed in the material...... tests are that the extrapolation from laboratory tests to insitu conditions is facilitated and that the gradual deterioration of the asphalt may be predicted, which is useful for pavement management purposes....

  19. The Italian Project S2 - Task 4:Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Sulmona alluvial basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupazzini, M.; Smerzini, C.; Cauzzi, C.; Faccioli, E.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.

    2009-04-01

    Recently the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in cooperation with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has promoted the 'S2' research project (http://nuovoprogettoesse2.stru.polimi.it/) aimed at the design, testing and application of an open-source code for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). The tool envisaged will likely differ in several important respects from an existing international initiative (Open SHA, Field et al., 2003). In particular, while "the OpenSHA collaboration model envisions scientists developing their own attenuation relationships and earthquake rupture forecasts, which they will deploy and maintain in their own systems", the main purpose of S2 project is to provide a flexible computational tool for SHA, primarily suited for the needs of DPC, which not necessarily are scientific needs. Within S2, a crucial issue is to make alternative approaches available to quantify the ground motion, with emphasis on the near field region. The SHA architecture envisaged will allow for the use of ground motion descriptions other than those yielded by empirical attenuation equations, for instance user generated motions provided by deterministic source and wave propagation simulations. In this contribution, after a brief presentation of Project S2, we intend to illustrate some preliminary 3D scenario simulations performed in the alluvial basin of Sulmona (Central Italy), as an example of the type of descriptions that can be handled in the future SHA architecture. In detail, we selected some seismogenic sources (from the DISS database), believed to be responsible for a number of destructive historical earthquakes, and derive from them a family of simplified geometrical and mechanical source models spanning across a reasonable range of parameters, so that the extent of the main uncertainties can be covered. Then, purely deterministic (for frequencies Journal of Seismology, 1, 237-251. Field, E.H., T.H. Jordan, and C.A. Cornell (2003

  20. Revisions to some parameters used in stochastic-method simulations of ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Thompson, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic method of ground‐motion simulation specifies the amplitude spectrum as a function of magnitude (M) and distance (R). The manner in which the amplitude spectrum varies with M and R depends on physical‐based parameters that are often constrained by recorded motions for a particular region (e.g., stress parameter, geometrical spreading, quality factor, and crustal amplifications), which we refer to as the seismological model. The remaining ingredient for the stochastic method is the ground‐motion duration. Although the duration obviously affects the character of the ground motion in the time domain, it also significantly affects the response of a single‐degree‐of‐freedom oscillator. Recently published updates to the stochastic method include a new generalized double‐corner‐frequency source model, a new finite‐fault correction, a new parameterization of duration, and a new duration model for active crustal regions. In this article, we augment these updates with a new crustal amplification model and a new duration model for stable continental regions. Random‐vibration theory (RVT) provides a computationally efficient method to compute the peak oscillator response directly from the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration. Because the correction factor used to account for the nonstationarity of the ground motion depends on the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration, we also present new RVT correction factors for both active and stable regions.

  1. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources

  3. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  4. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Test - Scientific Airlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. Construction methods had to be efficient due to the limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. With the help of the NBS, building a space station became more of a reality. Pictured is Astronaut Paul Weitz training on a mock-up of Spacelab's airlock-hatch cover. Training was also done on the use of foot restraints which had recently been developed to help astronauts maintain their positions during space walks rather than having their feet float out from underneath them while they tried to perform maintenance and repair operations. Every aspect of every space mission was researched and demonstrated in the NBS. Using the airlock hatch cover and foot restraints were

  5. Modelling, simulation and visualisation for electromagnetic non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art and the recent development of modelling, simulation and visualization for eddy current Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) technique. Simulation and visualization has aid in the design and development of electromagnetic sensors and imaging techniques and systems for Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Testing (ENDT); feature extraction and inverse problems for Quantitative Non-Destructive Testing (QNDT). After reviewing the state-of-the art of electromagnetic modelling and simulation, case studies of Research and Development in eddy current NDT technique via magnetic field mapping and thermography for eddy current distribution are discussed. (author)

  6. Reliability Testing Using the Vehicle Durability Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    length. Since force is typically a linear correlation to strain on a structure, the use of force to help cut drive file length can be used as a...response channels, Nrb, as drive channels, ND. A linear best fit approach is used when a control band is over defined (Nrb > ND). Experience and...transducers, inertial measurement units, and wheel force transducers. Actuator drive files for the test item are developed from field data collected

  7. Simulation and Test of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Golf Cart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the simulation model of fuel cell hybrid golf cart (FCHGC, which applies the non-GUI mode of the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR and the genetic algorithm (GA to optimize it. Simulation of the objective function is composed of fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic performance; the variables are the fuel cell stack power sizes and the battery numbers. By means of simulation, the optimal parameters of vehicle power unit, fuel cell stack, and battery pack are worked out. On this basis, GUI mode of ADVISOR is used to select the rated power of vehicle motor. In line with simulation parameters, an electrical golf cart is refitted by adding a 2 kW hydrogen air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack system and test the FCHGC. The result shows that the simulation data is effective but it needs improving compared with that of the real cart test.

  8. simulate_CAT: A Computer Program for Post-Hoc Simulation for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Kalender

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer software developed by the author. The software conducts post-hoc simulations for computerized adaptive testing based on real responses of examinees to paper and pencil tests under different parameters that can be defined by user. In this paper, short information is given about post-hoc simulations. After that, the working principle of the software is provided and a sample simulation with required input files is shown. And last, output files are described

  9. Simulated time for host-based testing with TTCN-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Deiß, Thomas; Ioustinova, Natalia; Kontio, Ari; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Rennoch, Axel; Sidorova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    Prior to testing embedded software in a target environment, it is usually tested in a host environment used for developing the software. When a system is tested in a host environment, its real-time behaviour is affected by the use of simulators, emulation and monitoring. In this paper, the authors

  10. Identification and simulation of strong earthquake ground motion by using pattern recognition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report deals with a schematic investigation concerning an identification of nonstationary characteristics of strong earthquake acceleration motions and those simulation technique for practical use. Pattern recognition technique is introduced in order to identify time and frequency dependent ground motion's characteristics. First the running power spectrum density (RPSD) function is estimated by dividing the whole earthquake duration into certain 'stationary' segments. This RPSD can be described as 2-dimensional pattern image onto time-frequency domain. Second thus obtained RPSD patterns are classified into several representative groups based on (1) number of dominant peaks, (2) peak shape and (3) spacial relation between the most intensive peak and the second one. Then RPSD pattern corresponding to a specific group is artificially simulated by using 'peak function' which determines evolutionary feature for an arbitrary point in time-frequency plane. Using this function 8 typical artificial standard RPSD patterns are finally proposed. Identification can be performed by Complex Threshold Method which is generally used in the field of radio graphic technology. (orig./WL)

  11. Electromagnetic Simulations of Ground-Penetrating Radar Propagation near Lunar Pits and Lava Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Carter, L. M.; Farrell, W. M.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Placing an Orion capsule at the Earth-Moon L2 point (EML2) would potentially enable telerobotic operation of a rover on the lunar surface. The Human Exploration Virtual Institute (HEVI) is proposing that rover operations be carried out near one of the recently discovered lunar pits, which may provide radiation shielding for long duration human stays as well as a cross-disciplinary, science-rich target for nearer-term telerobotic exploration. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) instrumentation included onboard a rover has the potential to reveal many details of underground geologic structures near a pit, as well as characteristics of the pit itself. In the present work we employ the full-wave electromagnetic code MEEP to simulate such GPR reflections from a lunar pit and other subsurface features including lava tubes. These simulations will feed forward to mission concepts requiring knowledge of where to hide from harmful radiation and other environmental hazards such as plama charging and extreme diurnal temperatures.

  12. Simulation for ground penetrating radar (GPR) study of the subsurface structure of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Wenzhe

    2013-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is currently within the scope of China's Chang-E 3 lunar mission, to study the shallow subsurface of the Moon. In this study, key factors that could affect a lunar GPR performance, such as frequency, range resolution, and antenna directivity, are discussed firstly. Geometrical optics and ray tracing techniques are used to model GPR echoes, considering the transmission, attenuation, reflection, geometrical spreading of radar waves, and the antenna directivity. The influence on A-scope GPR echoes and on the simulated radargrams for the Sinus Iridum region by surface and subsurface roughness, dielectric loss of the lunar regolith, radar frequency and bandwidth, and the distance between the transmit and receive antennas are discussed. Finally, potential scientific return about lunar subsurface properties from GPR echoes is also discussed. Simulation results suggest that subsurface structure from several to hundreds of meters can be studied from GPR echoes at P and VHF bands, and information about dielectric permittivity and thickness of subsurface layers can be estimated from GPR echoes in combination with regolith composition data.

  13. Cathodic protection simulation of above ground storage tank bottom: Experimental and numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Marcelo [Inspection Department, Rio de Janeiro Refinery - REDUC, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brasil, Simone L.D.C. [Chemistry School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baptista, Walmar [Corrosion Department, Research Centre - CENPES, Petrobras (Brazil); Miranda, Luiz de [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Program, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brito, Rosane F. [Corrosion Department, Research Centre, CENPES, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The deterioration history of Above ground Storage Tanks (AST) of Petrobras' refineries - shows that the great incidence of corrosion in the AST bottom is at the external side. This is a problem in the disposability of storage crude oil and other final products. At this refinery, all AST's are built over a concrete base with a lot of pile to support the structure and distribute the charge homogeneously. Because of this it is very difficult to use cathodic protection as an anti-corrosive method for each one of these tanks. This work presents an alternative cathodic protection system to protect the external side of the tank bottom using a new metallic bottom, placed at different distance from the original one. The space between the two bottoms was filled with one of two kinds of soils, sand or clay, more conductive than the concrete. Using a prototype tank it was studied the potential distributions over the new tank bottom for different system parameters, as soil resistivity, number and position of anodes localized in the old bottom. These experimental results were compared to numerical simulations, carried out using a software based on the Boundary Element Method. The computer simulation validates this protection method, confirming to be a very useful tool to define the optimized cathodic protection system configuration. (authors)

  14. Finite element simulation and testing of ISW CFRP anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Goltermann, Per; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2013-01-01

    is modelled in the 3D finite Element program ABAQUS, just as digital image correlation (DIC) testing was performed to verify the finite element simulation. Also a new optimized design was produced to ensure that the finite element simulation and anchorage behaviour correlated well. It is seen...

  15. Advanced composite rudders for DC-10 aircraft: Design, manufacturing, and ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, G. M.; Purdy, D. M.; Cominsky, A.; Hawley, A. V.; Amason, M. P.; Kung, J. T.; Palmer, R. J.; Purves, N. B.; Marra, P. J.; Hancock, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Design synthesis, tooling and process development, manufacturing, and ground testing of a graphite epoxy rudder for the DC-10 commercial transport are discussed. The composite structure was fabricated using a unique processing method in which the thermal expansion characteristics of rubber tooling mandrels were used to generate curing pressures during an oven cure cycle. The ground test program resulted in certification of the rudder for passenger-carrying flights. Results of the structural and environmental tests are interpreted and detailed development of the rubber tooling and manufacturing process is described. Processing, tooling, and manufacturing problems encountered during fabrication of four development rudders and ten flight-service rudders are discussed and the results of corrective actions are described. Non-recurring and recurring manufacturing labor man-hours are tabulated at the detailed operation level. A weight reduction of 13.58 kg (33 percent) was attained in the composite rudder.

  16. Finite element simulations of two rock mechanics tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Lott, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    Rock mechanics tests are performed to determine in situ stress conditions and material properties of an underground rock mass. To design stable underground facilities for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste, determination of these properties and conditions is a necessary first step. However, before a test and its associated equipment can be designed, the engineer needs to know the range of expected values to be measured by the instruments. Sensitivity studies by means of finite element simulations are employed in this preliminary design phase to evaluate the pertinent parameters and their effects on the proposed measurements. The simulations, of two typical rock mechanics tests, the plate bearing test and the flat-jack test, by means of the finite element analysis, are described. The plate bearing test is used to determine the rock mass deformation modulus. The flat-jack test is used to determine the in situ stress conditions of the host rock. For the plate bearing test, two finite element models are used to simulate the classic problem of a load on an elastic half space and the actual problem of a plate bearing test in an underground tunnel of circular cross section. For the flat-jack simulation, a single finite element model is used to simulate both horizontal and vertical slots. Results will be compared to closed-form solutions available in the literature

  17. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...... is performed on a glass fibre reinforced polymer composite box girder. The test serves as a pilot test for prospective real-time tests on a wind turbine blade. The Taylor basis is implemented in the test, used to perform the numerical simulations. Despite of a number of introduced errors in the real...

  18. Calibration Tests of Fuel Assembly Simulators of APR+ Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kih Wan; Chu, In Cheol; Euh, Dong Jin; Kwon, Tae Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A Reactor flow distribution is regarded to be major importance in improving the design margin of a flow distribution. The prediction of APR+ core fluid flow phenomena has been in demand, since 257 fuel assemblies are adapted in the APR+, unlike in the APR1400. The APR+ reactor flow test facility, the ACOP (APR+ Core Flow and Pressure Test Facility), was constructed to analyze the hydraulic characteristics. For the ACOP facility, the core simulator was designed with a scale analysis to simulate the real HIPER fuel assembly of an APR+. In this study, for all 257 core simulators, several calibration tests were conducted to verify their design performance before applying them to the ACOP facility. The inlet flow rate and the total pressure drop of the simulators were measured by varying flow rates to evaluate its compatibility. The discharge coefficients were also calculated from the experimental data to produce a statistical database for a further ACOP facility test.

  19. Environmental simulation testing of solar cell contamination by hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Test results for thermal vacuum and radiation environment simulation of hydrazine contamination are discussed. Solar cell performance degradation, measured by short circuit current, is presented in correlation with the variations used in environmental parameters.

  20. Simulated Field Trials Using an Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  1. Simulated Field Trials Using An Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  2. Standard Specification for Solar Simulation for Terrestrial Photovoltaic Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This specification provides means for classifying solar simulators intended for indoor testing of photovoltaic devices (solar cells or modules), according to their spectral match to a reference spectral irradiance, non-uniformity of spatial irradiance, and temporal instability of irradiance. 1.2 Testing of photovoltaic devices may require the use of solar simulators. Test Methods that require specific classification of simulators as defined in this specification include Test Methods E948, E1036, and E1362. 1.3 This standard is applicable to both pulsed and steady state simulators and includes recommended test requirements used for classifying such simulators. 1.4 A solar simulator usually consists of three major components: (1) light source(s) and associated power supply; (2) any optics and filters required to modify the output beam to meet the classification requirements in Section 4; and (3) the necessary controls to operate the simulator, adjust irradiance, etc. 1.5 A light source that does not mee...

  3. Simulation of submillimetre atmospheric spectra for characterising potential ground-based remote sensing observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Turner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The submillimetre is an understudied region of the Earth's atmospheric electromagnetic spectrum. Prior technological gaps and relatively high opacity due to the prevalence of rotational water vapour lines at these wavelengths have slowed progress from a ground-based remote sensing perspective; however, emerging superconducting detector technologies in the fields of astronomy offer the potential to address key atmospheric science challenges with new instrumental methods. A site study, with a focus on the polar regions, is performed to assess theoretical feasibility by simulating the downwelling (zenith angle = 0° clear-sky submillimetre spectrum from 30 mm (10 GHz to 150 µm (2000 GHz at six locations under annual mean, summer, winter, daytime, night-time and low-humidity conditions. Vertical profiles of temperature, pressure and 28 atmospheric gases are constructed by combining radiosonde, meteorological reanalysis and atmospheric chemistry model data. The sensitivity of the simulated spectra to the choice of water vapour continuum model and spectroscopic line database is explored. For the atmospheric trace species hypobromous acid (HOBr, hydrogen bromide (HBr, perhydroxyl radical (HO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O the emission lines producing the largest change in brightness temperature are identified. Signal strengths, centre frequencies, bandwidths, estimated minimum integration times and maximum receiver noise temperatures are determined for all cases. HOBr, HBr and HO2 produce brightness temperature peaks in the mK to µK range, whereas the N2O peaks are in the K range. The optimal submillimetre remote sensing lines for the four species are shown to vary significantly between location and scenario, strengthening the case for future hyperspectral instruments that measure over a broad wavelength range. The techniques presented here provide a framework that can be applied to additional species of interest and taken forward to simulate

  4. Ground tests with active neutron instrumentation for the planetary science missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvak, M.L.; Mitrofanov, I.G.; Sanin, A.B.; Jun, I.; Kozyrev, A.S.; Krylov, A.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Timoshenko, G.N.; Starr, R.; Zontikov, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present results of experimental work performed with a spare flight model of the DAN/MSL instrument in a newly built ground test facility at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. This instrument was selected for the tests as a flight prototype of an active neutron spectrometer applicable for future landed missions to various solid solar system bodies. In our experiment we have fabricated simplified samples of planetary material and tested the capability of neutron activation methods to detect thin layers of water/water ice lying on top of planetary dry regolith or buried within a dry regolith at different depths

  5. Study on the System Design of a Solar Assisted Ground Heat Pump System Using Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of hybrid systems using multiple heat sources in buildings to ensure a stable energy supply and improve the system performance has gained attention. Among them, a heat pump system using both solar and ground heat was developed and various system configurations have been introduced. However, establishing a suitable design method for the solar-assisted ground heat pump (SAGHP system including a thermal storage tank is complicated and there are few quantitative studies on the detailed system configurations. Therefore, this study developed three SAGHP system design methods considering the design factors focused on the thermal storage tank. Using dynamic energy simulation code (TRNSYS 17, individual performance analysis models were developed and long-term quantitative analysis was carried out to suggest optimum design and operation methods. As a result, it was found that SYSTEM 2 which is a hybrid system with heat storage tank for only a solar system showed the highest average heat source temperature of 14.81 °C, which is about 11 °C higher than minimum temperature in SYSTEM 3. Furthermore, the best coefficient of performance (COP values of heat pump and system were 5.23 and 4.32 in SYSYEM 2, using high and stable solar heat from a thermal storage tank. Moreover, this paper considered five different geographical and climatic locations and the SAGHP system worked efficiently in having high solar radiation and cool climate zones and the system COP was 4.51 in the case of Winnipeg (Canada where the highest heating demand is required.

  6. Corrosion of dissimilar metal crevices in simulated concentrated ground water solutions at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Quinn, M.J

    2003-01-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada is under consideration by the US Department of Energy. The proposed facility will be located in the unsaturated zone approximately 300 m below the surface and 300 m above the water table. The proposed waste container consists of an outer corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 shell surrounding a 316 NG stainless steel structural inner container that encapsulates the used nuclear fuel waste. A titanium drip shield is proposed to protect the waste container from ground water seepage arid rock-fail. A cycle of dripping/evaporation could result in the generation of concentrated aggressive solutions, which could contact the waste container. The waste container material could be susceptible to crevice corrosion from such solutions. The experiments described in this report support the modeling of waste package degradation processes. The intent was to provide parameter values that are required to model crevice corrosion chemistry, as it relates to hydrogen pick-up, and stress corrosion cracking for selected candidate waste package materials. The purpose of the experiments was to study the crevice corrosion behavior of various candidate materials under near freely corroding conditions and to determine the pH developed in crevice solutions. Experimental results of crevice corrosion of dissimilar metal pairs (Alloy 22, Grade-7 and -16 titanium and 316 stainless steel) immersed in a simulated concentrated ground water at {approx}90{sup o}C are reported. The corrosion potential was measured during exposure periods of between 330 and 630 h. Following the experiments, the pH of the crevice solution was measured. The results indicate that a limited degree of crevice acidification occurred during the experiment. The values for corrosion potential suggest that crevice corrosion may have initiated. The total corrosion was limited, with little visible evidence for crevice corrosion being observed on the sample coupon faces

  7. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  8. Affordable Development and Optimization of CERMET Fuels for NTP Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Mireles, Omar R.

    2014-01-01

    CERMET fuel materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) are currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The work is part of NASA's Advanced Space Exploration Systems Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Project. The goal of the FY12-14 project is to address critical NTP technology challenges and programmatic issues to establish confidence in the affordability and viability of an NTP system. A key enabling technology for an NCPS system is the fabrication of a stable high temperature nuclear fuel form. Although much of the technology was demonstrated during previous programs, there are currently no qualified fuel materials or processes. The work at MSFC is focused on developing critical materials and process technologies for manufacturing robust, full-scale CERMET fuels. Prototypical samples are being fabricated and tested in flowing hot hydrogen to understand processing and performance relationships. As part of this initial demonstration task, a final full scale element test will be performed to validate robust designs. The next phase of the project will focus on continued development and optimization of the fuel materials to enable future ground testing. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the CERMET fuel materials development plan. The overall CERMET fuel development path is shown in Figure 2. The activities begin prior to ATP for a ground reactor or engine system test and include materials and process optimization, hot hydrogen screening, material property testing, and irradiation testing. The goal of the development is to increase the maturity of the fuel form and reduce risk. One of the main accomplishmens of the current AES FY12-14 project was to develop dedicated laboratories at MSFC for the fabrication and testing of full length fuel elements. This capability will enable affordable, near term development and optimization of the CERMET fuels for future ground testing. Figure 2 provides a timeline of the

  9. The role of simulations in consumer experiences and behavior: insights from the grounded cognition theory of desire

    OpenAIRE

    Papies, Esther K.; Best, Maisy; Gelibter, Elena; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2017-01-01

    What are the mechanisms by which extrinsic and environmental cues affect consumer experiences, desires, and choices? Based on the recent grounded cognition theory of desire, we argue that consumption and reward simulations constitute a central mechanism in these phenomena. Specifically, we argue that appetitive stimuli, such as specific product cues, can activate simulations of consuming and enjoying the respective products, based on previous learning experiences. These consumption and reward...

  10. CFD simulation of air discharge tests in the PPOOLEX facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, V.; Puustinen, M.

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes the CFD simulation results of two air discharge tests of the characterizing test program in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX facility. Air was blown to the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe into the condensation pool (wet well). The selected tests were modeled with Fluent CFD code. Test CHAR-09-1 was simulated to 28.92 seconds of real time and test CHAR-09-3 to 17.01 seconds. The VOF model was used as a multiphase model and the standard k ε-model as a turbulence model. Occasional convergence problems, usually at the beginning of bubble formation, required the use of relatively short time stepping. The simulation time costs threatened to become unbearable since weeks or months of wall-clock time with 1-2 processors were needed. Therefore, the simulated time periods were limited from the real duration of the experiments. The results obtained from the CFD simulations are in a relatively good agreement with the experimental results. Simulated pressures correspond well to the measured ones and, in addition, fluctuations due to bubble formations and breakups are also captured. Most of the differences in temperature values and in their behavior seem to depend on the locations of the measurements. In the vicinity of regions occupied by water in the experiments, thermocouples getting wet and drying slowly may have had an effect on the measured temperature values. Generally speaking, most temperatures were simulated satisfyingly and the largest discrepancies could be explained by wetted thermocouples. However, differences in the dry well and blowdown pipe top measurements could not be explained by thermocouples getting wet. Heat losses and dry well / wet well heat transfer due to conduction have neither been estimated in the experiments nor modeled in the simulations. Estimation of heat conduction and heat losses should be carried out in future experiments and they should be modeled in future simulations, too. (au)

  11. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ten-See Wang

    Full Text Available A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze the entire process on a three-dimensional domain. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger was less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process. Keywords: Hydrogen decomposition reactions, Hydrogen recombination reactions, Hydrogen containment process, Nuclear thermal propulsion, Ground testing

  12. Direction and Integration of Experimental Ground Test Capabilities and Computational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper groups and summarizes the salient points and findings from two AIAA conference panels targeted at defining the direction, with associated key issues and recommendations, for the integration of experimental ground testing and computational methods. Each panel session utilized rapporteurs to capture comments from both the panel members and the audience. Additionally, a virtual panel of several experts were consulted between the two sessions and their comments were also captured. The information is organized into three time-based groupings, as well as by subject area. These panel sessions were designed to provide guidance to both researchers/developers and experimental/computational service providers in defining the future of ground testing, which will be inextricably integrated with the advancement of computational tools.

  13. First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Drivetrains: Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Link, H.; McDade, M.; Mander, A.; Fox, J. C.; Rigas, N.

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Drivetrains, held from June 13 to 14, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center, located south of Boulder, Colorado. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and cohosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Clemson University under ongoing collaboration via a cooperative research and development agreement. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to discuss the research, testing needs, and state-of-the-art apparatuses involved in grid compliance testing of utility-scale wind turbine generators. This includes both dynamometer testing of wind turbine drivetrains ('ground testing') and field testing grid-connected wind turbines. Four sessions followed by discussions in which all attendees of the workshop were encouraged to participate comprised the workshop.

  14. The ACE-DTU Planar Near-Field Ground Penetrating Radar Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The ACE-DTU planar near-field ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility is used to measure the plane-wave transmitting spectrum of a GPR loop antenna close to the air-soil interface by means of a probe buried in soil. Probe correction is implemented using knowledge about the complex pe...... permittivity of the soil and the current distribution of the probe....

  15. F-4 Beryllium Rudders; A Precis of the Design, Fabrication, Ground and Flight Test Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    of this assembly. The face skins, doublers and edging members are Beryllium. The non-perforated honeycomb core is 5052 -H39 aluminum with 1/4 inch... alloy making It particularly attractive for applica tions where weight and stiffness are critical. Limited ductility does put a premium on... aluminum rudder at a weight savings of 41.5%, was extensively ground tested DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF 1 NOV 85 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED

  16. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar at the FAA's National Airport Pavement Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injun, Song

    2015-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States has used a ground-coupled Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) since 2005. One of the primary objectives of the testing at the facility is to provide full-scale pavement response and failure information for use in airplane landing gear design and configuration studies. During the traffic testing at the facility, a GSSI GPR system was used to develop new procedures for monitoring Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement density changes that is directly related to pavement failure. After reviewing current setups for data acquisition software and procedures for identifying different pavement layers, dielectric constant and pavement thickness were selected as dominant parameters controlling HMA properties provided by GPR. A new methodology showing HMA density changes in terms of dielectric constant variations, called dielectric sweep test, was developed and applied in full-scale pavement test. The dielectric constant changes were successfully monitored with increasing airplane traffic numbers. The changes were compared to pavement performance data (permanent deformation). The measured dielectric constants based on the known HMA thicknesses were also compared with computed dielectric constants using an equation from ASTM D4748-98 Standard Test Method for Determining the Thickness of Bound Pavement Layers Using Short-Pulse Radar. Six inches diameter cylindrical cores were taken after construction and traffic testing for the HMA layer bulk specific gravity. The measured bulk specific gravity was also compared to monitor HMA density changes caused by aircraft traffic conditions. Additionally this presentation will review the applications of the FAA's ground-coupled GPR on embedded rebar identification in concrete pavement, sewer pipes in soil, and gage identifications in 3D plots.

  17. Reduced Order Modeling for Rapid Simulation of Blast Events of a Military Ground Vehicle and Its Occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-12

    Survivability Simulation Framework Using FEM -SPH Coupling, 2011 NDIA Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium (GVSETS...Dearborn, MI, Aug 9-11. DTIC Report # AD A547566 [12] Cummins, C., Modeling brown clayey sand in LS- DYNA with an analytical method for soil state

  18. Ground-Based Facilities for Simulation of Microgravity: Organism-Specific Recommendations for Their Use, and Recommended Terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, R.; Anken, R.; Boonstra, J.; Braun, M.; Christianen, P.C.M.; van der Geest, M.; Hauslage, J.; Hilbig, R.; Hill, R.J.A.; Lebert, M.; Medina, F.J.; Vagt, N.; Ullrich, O.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Hemmersbach, R.

    2013-01-01

    Research in microgravity is indispensable to disclose the impact of gravity on biological processes and organisms. However, research in the near-Earth orbit is severely constrained by the limited number of flight opportunities. Ground-based simulators of microgravity are valuable tools for preparing

  19. Numerical simulation of vertical ground-water flux of the Rio Grande from ground-water temperature profiles, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    1999-01-01

    An important gap in the understanding of the hydrology of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, is the rate at which water from the Rio Grande recharges the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Several methodologies-including use of the Glover-Balmer equation, flood pulses, and channel permeameters- have been applied to this problem in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. In the work presented here, ground-water temperature profiles and ground-water levels beneath the Rio Grande were measured and numerically simulated at four sites. The direction and rate of vertical ground-water flux between the river and underlying aquifer was simulated and the effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying the river was estimated through model calibration. Seven sets of nested piezometers were installed during July and August 1996 at four sites along the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area, though only four of the piezometer nests were simulated. In downstream order, these four sites are (1) the Bernalillo site, upstream from the New Mexico State Highway 44 bridge in Bernalillo (piezometer nest BRN02); (2) the Corrales site, upstream from the Rio Rancho sewage treatment plant in Rio Rancho (COR01); (3) the Paseo del Norte site, upstream from the Paseo del Norte bridge in Albuquerque (PDN01); and (4) the Rio Bravo site, upstream from the Rio Bravo bridge in Albuquerque (RBR01). All piezometers were completed in the inner-valley alluvium of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Ground-water levels and temperatures were measured in the four piezometer nests a total of seven times in the 24-month period from September 1996 through August 1998. The flux between the surface- and ground-water systems at each of the field sites was quantified by one-dimensional numerical simulation of the water and heat exchange in the subsurface using the heat and water transport model VS2DH. Model calibration was aided by the use of PEST, a model-independent computer program that uses

  20. Numerical Simulations of Level-Ground Walking Based on Passive Walk for Planar Biped Robots with Torso by Hip Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Terumasa; Takahashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazuo

    This study aims at a design technique of energy-efficient biped walking robots on level ground with simple mechanisms. To do this, we focus on the passive dynamic walkers which can walk stably down a shallow slope without actuators and controllers. On level ground, active walking should be studied because the mechanical energy is mainly lost through the swing-leg impacts with the ground. In this paper, numerical simulations show that planar biped robots with torso can walk efficiently on level ground over a wide range of speed by only using hip actuators. The hip actuators are used for a torso and swing-leg control based on passive-dynamic walking. The torso is used to generate active power replacing gravity used in the case of the passive walk. The swing-leg control is introduced to walk stably over a wide range of speed.

  1. Education and training by utilizing irradiation test reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Shohei; Koike, Sumio; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, at its Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), completed an irradiation test reactor simulator in May 2012. This simulator simulates the operation, irradiation test, abnormal transient change during operation, and accident progress events, etc., and is able to perform operation training on reactor and irradiation equipment corresponding to the above simulations. This simulator is composed of a reactor control panel, process control panel, irradiation equipment control panel, instructor control panel, large display panel, and compute server. The completed simulator has been utilized in the education and training of JMTR operators for the purpose of the safe and stable operation of JMTR and the achievement of high operation rate after resuming operation. For the education and training, an education and training curriculum has been prepared for use in not only operation procedures at the time of normal operation, but also learning of fast and accurate response in case of accident events. In addition, this simulator is also being used in operation training for the purpose of contributing to the cultivation of human resources for atomic power in and out of Japan. (A.O.)

  2. Testing power system controllers by real-time simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venne, Philippe; Guillaud, Xavier; Sirois, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a number of state-of-the art methods for testing power system controllers based on the use of a real-time power system simulator. After introducing Hypersim, we list and discuss the different means of connection between the controller under tests and the power system...

  3. Simulation of the drop impact test for moulded thermoplastic containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, P.E.; Breedveld, G.; Lim, B.C.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is made of the drop impact test for moulded plastics containers, as a first step towards the simulation of the impact event for design and development purposes. Experimental data are analysed from instrumented base drop impact testing of water-filled blow-moulded bottles, 20 and 210 l

  4. Numerical simulations of LNG vapor dispersion in Brayton Fire Training Field tests with ANSYS CFX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ruifeng; Ng, Dedy; Cormier, Benjamin R; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-11-15

    Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses the ANSYS CFX CFD code to model LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Discussed are important parameters that are essential inputs to the ANSYS CFX simulations, including the atmospheric conditions, LNG evaporation rate and pool area, turbulence in the source term, ground surface temperature and roughness height, and effects of obstacles. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate uncertainties in the simulation results arising from the mesh size and source term turbulence intensity. In addition, a set of medium-scale LNG spill tests were performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field to collect data for validating the ANSYS CFX prediction results. A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dense gas behavior of LNG vapor cloud, and its prediction results of downwind gas concentrations close to ground level were in approximate agreement with the test data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-06-10

    Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (τ) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

  6. Effects of simulated ground-water pumping and recharge on ground-water flow in Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket Island basins, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Barlow, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional transient ground-water-flow models that simulate both freshwater and saltwater flow were developed for the flow cells of the Cape Cod Basin to determine the effects of long-term pumping and recharge, seasonal fluctuations in pumping and recharge, and prolonged reductions of natural recharge, on the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface, water-table and pond altitudes, and streamflow and discharge to coastal marshes and embayments. Two-dimensional, finite-difference change models were developed for Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island basins to determine anticipated drawdowns in response to projected summer season pumping rates for 180 days of no recharge.

  7. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  8. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval through Combined Radar/Radiometer Ground Based Simulator with Special Reference to Dielectric Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K., ,, Dr.; O'Neill, Peggy, ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is an important element for weather and climate prediction, hydrological sciences, and applications. Hence, measurements of this hydrologic variable are required to improve our understanding of hydrological processes, ecosystem functions, and the linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles (Srivastava et al. 2013). The retrieval of soil moisture depends not only on parameterizations in the retrieval algorithm but also on the soil dielectric mixing models used (Behari 2005). Although a number of soil dielectric mixing models have been developed, testing these models for soil moisture retrieval has still not been fully explored, especially with SMAP-like simulators. The main objective of this work focuses on testing different dielectric models for soil moisture retrieval using the Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) ground-based L-band simulator developed jointly by NASA/GSFC and George Washington University (O'Neill et al., 2006). The ComRAD system was deployed during a field experiment in 2012 in order to provide long active/passive measurements of two crops under controlled conditions during an entire growing season. L-band passive data were acquired at a look angle of 40 degree from nadir at both horizontal & vertical polarization. Currently, there are many dielectric models available for soil moisture retrieval; however, four dielectric models (Mironov, Dobson, Wang & Schmugge and Hallikainen) were tested here and found to be promising for soil moisture retrieval (some with higher performances). All the above-mentioned dielectric models were integrated with Single Channel Algorithms using H (SCA-H) and V (SCA-V) polarizations for the soil moisture retrievals. All the ground-based observations were collected from test site-United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) OPE3, located a few miles away from NASA GSFC. Ground truth data were collected using a theta probe and in situ sensors which were then used for validation. Analysis

  9. Simulated hail impact testing of photovoltaic solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D.; Wilson, A.; Ross, R.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques used to simulate and study the effect of hail on photovoltaic solar panels are described. Simulated hail stones (frozen ice spheres projected at terminal velocity) or steel balls were applied by air guns, gravity drop, or static loading. Tests with simulated hail and steel balls yielded different results. The impact strength of 10 commercially available flat-plate photovoltaic modules was tested. It was found that none of the six panel designs incorporating clear potting silicone material as the outermost layer remained undamaged by 1-in. simulated hailstones, while a photovoltaic module equipped with a 0.188-in.-thick acrylic cover sheet would be able to withstand the impact of a 2-in.-diameter hailstone.

  10. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  11. Simulation and interpretation of inter-well tracer tests

    OpenAIRE

    Dugstad Øyvind; Viig Sissel; Sagen Jan; Huseby Olaf

    2013-01-01

    In inter-well tracer tests (IWTT), chemical compounds or radioactive isotopes are used to label injection water and gas to establish well connections and fluid patterns in petroleum reservoirs. Tracer simulation is an invaluable tool to ease the interpretation of IWTT results and is also required for assisted history matching application of tracer data. In this paper we present a new simulation technique to analyse and interpret tracer results. Laboratory results are used to establish and tes...

  12. Virtual simulation of maneuvering captive tests for a surface vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajivand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic derivatives or coefficients are required to predict the maneuvering characteristics of a marine vehicle. These derivatives are obtained numerically for a DTMB 5512 model ship by virtual simulating of captive model tests in a CFD environment. The computed coefficients are applied to predict the turning circle and zigzag maneuvers of the model ship. The comparison of the simulated results with the available experimental data shows a very good agreement among them. The simulations show that the CFD is precise and affordable tool at the preliminary design stage to obtain maneuverability performance of a marine vehicles.

  13. Simulation and interpretation of inter-well tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseby, Olaf; Sagen, Jan; Viig, Sissel; Dugstad, Øyvind

    2013-05-01

    In inter-well tracer tests (IWTT), chemical compounds or radioactive isotopes are used to label injection water and gas to establish well connections and fluid patterns in petroleum reservoirs. Tracer simulation is an invaluable tool to ease the interpretation of IWTT results and is also required for assisted history matching application of tracer data. In this paper we present a new simulation technique to analyse and interpret tracer results. Laboratory results are used to establish and test formulations of the tracer conservation equations, and the technique is used to provide simulated tracer responses that are compared with observed tracer data from an extensive tracer program. The implemented tracer simulation methodology use a fast post-processing of previously simulated reservoir simulation runs. This provides a fast, flexible and powerful method for analysing gas tracer behaviour in reservoirs. We show that simulation time for tracers can be reduced by factor 100 compared to solving the tracer flow equations simultaneously with the reservoir fluid flow equations. The post-processing technique, combined with a flexible built-in local tracer-grid refinement is exploited to reduce numerical smearing, particularly severe for narrow tracer pulses.

  14. Using Modeling and Simulation to Complement Testing for Increased Understanding of Weapon Subassembly Response.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davidson, Megan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As part of Sandia’s nuclear deterrence mission, the B61-12 Life Extension Program (LEP) aims to modernize the aging weapon system. Modernization requires requalification and Sandia is using high performance computing to perform advanced computational simulations to better understand, evaluate, and verify weapon system performance in conjunction with limited physical testing. The Nose Bomb Subassembly (NBSA) of the B61-12 is responsible for producing a fuzing signal upon ground impact. The fuzing signal is dependent upon electromechanical impact sensors producing valid electrical fuzing signals at impact. Computer generated models were used to assess the timing between the impact sensor’s response to the deceleration of impact and damage to major components and system subassemblies. The modeling and simulation team worked alongside the physical test team to design a large-scale reverse ballistic test to not only assess system performance, but to also validate their computational models. The reverse ballistic test conducted at Sandia’s sled test facility sent a rocket sled with a representative target into a stationary B61-12 (NBSA) to characterize the nose crush and functional response of NBSA components. Data obtained from data recorders and high-speed photometrics were integrated with previously generated computer models in order to refine and validate the model’s ability to reliably simulate real-world effects. Large-scale tests are impractical to conduct for every single impact scenario. By creating reliable computer models, we can perform simulations that identify trends and produce estimates of outcomes over the entire range of required impact conditions. Sandia’s HPCs enable geometric resolution that was unachievable before, allowing for more fidelity and detail, and creating simulations that can provide insight to support evaluation of requirements and performance margins. As computing resources continue to improve, researchers at Sandia are hoping

  15. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed...... of the quasirandom draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws replicating the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood...... parameters this practice is very likely to cause misleading test results for the number of draws usually used today. The paper shows that increasing the number of draws is a very inefficient solution strategy requiring very large numbers of draws to ensure against misleading test statistics. The paper shows...

  16. Ground motion effects of underground nuclear testing on perennial vegetation at Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.

    1976-07-01

    In this study to estimate the potential injury to vegetation from earth movement caused by underground nuclear detonations and to estimate the extent to which this may have occurred at NTS, two explosions in the megaton range on Pahute Mesa were studied in some detail: Boxcar, which caused a surface subsidence, and Benham, which did not. Because of the subsidence phenomenology, shock propagation through the earth and along the surface, and the resulting fractures, shrubs were killed at Boxcar around the perimeter of the subsidence crater. Both trees and shrubs were killed along tectonic faults, which became the path for earth fractures, and along fractures and rock falls elsewhere. There was also evidence at Boxcar of tree damage which antedated the nuclear testing program, presumably from natural earthquakes. With the possible exception of damage to aged junipers this investigation did not reveal any good evidence of immediate effects from underground testing on vegetation beyond that recognized earlier as the edge effect

  17. Test system to simulate transient overpower LMFBR cladding failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrus, H.G.; Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    One of the HEDL programs has the objective to experimentally characterize fuel pin cladding failure due to cladding rupture or ripping. A new test system has been developed which simulates a transient mechanically-loaded fuel pin failure. In this new system the mechanical load is prototypic of a fuel pellet rapidly expanding against the cladding due to various causes such as fuel thermal expansion, fuel melting, and fuel swelling. This new test system is called the Fuel Cladding Mechanical Interaction Mandrel Loading Test (FCMI/MLT). The FCMI/MLT test system and the method used to rupture cladding specimens very rapidly to simulate a transient event are described. Also described is the automatic data acquisition and control system which is required to control the startup, operation and shutdown of the very fast tests, and needed to acquire and store large quantities of data in a short time

  18. Comparison between SAR Soil Moisture Estimates and Hydrological Model Simulations over the Scrivia Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pistocchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of a comparison between the soil moisture content (SMC estimated from C-band SAR, the SMC simulated by a hydrological model, and the SMC measured on ground are presented. The study was carried out in an agricultural test site located in North-west Italy, in the Scrivia river basin. The hydrological model used for the simulations consists of a one-layer soil water balance model, which was found to be able to partially reproduce the soil moisture variability, retaining at the same time simplicity and effectiveness in describing the topsoil. SMC estimates were derived from the application of a retrieval algorithm, based on an Artificial Neural Network approach, to a time series of ENVISAT/ASAR images acquired over the Scrivia test site. The core of the algorithm was represented by a set of ANNs able to deal with the different SAR configurations in terms of polarizations and available ancillary data. In case of crop covered soils, the effect of vegetation was accounted for using NDVI information, or, if available, for the cross-polarized channel. The algorithm results showed some ability in retrieving SMC with RMSE generally <0.04 m3/m3 and very low bias (i.e., <0.01 m3/m3, except for the case of VV polarized SAR images: in this case, the obtained RMSE was somewhat higher than 0.04 m3/m3 (≤0.058 m3/m3. The algorithm was implemented within the framework of an ESA project concerning the development of an operative algorithm for the SMC retrieval from Sentinel-1 data. The algorithm should take into account the GMES requirements of SMC accuracy (≤5% in volume, spatial resolution (≤1 km and timeliness (3 h from observation. The SMC estimated by the SAR algorithm, the SMC estimated by the hydrological model, and the SMC measured on ground were found to be in good agreement. The hydrological model simulations were performed at two soil depths: 30 and 5 cm and showed that the 30 cm simulations indicated, as expected, SMC

  19. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  20. Simulation of thermohydraulic phenomena and model test for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kazuziro

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the major thermohydraulic phenomena of FBRs and the conventional ways of their model tests, and introduces the recent findings regarding measurement technology and computational science. In the future commercial stage of FBRs, the design optimization will becomes important to improve economy and safety more and more. It is indispensable to use computational science to the plant design and safety evaluation. The most of the model tests will be replaced by the simulation analyses based on computational science. The measurement technology using ultrasonic and the numerical simulation with super parallel computing are considered to be the key technology to realize the design by analysis method. (author)

  1. Testing power system controllers by real-time simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venne, Philippe; Guillaud, Xavier; Sirois, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a number of state-of-the art methods for testing power system controllers based on the use of a real-time power system simulator. After introducing Hypersim, we list and discuss the different means of connection between the controller under tests and the power system...... simulator. We then present two applications based on this method. The first one is an agent based controller used to increase the penetration of wind energy in a weak grid, and the second one is the controller of a gas micro turbine connected to the distribution grid....

  2. The ground motion simulation of Kangding Mw6.0,2014 by the stochastic finite-fault model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifang; Li, Shanyou; Lyu, Yuejun

    2018-01-01

    The November 22, 2014, Kangding strike-slip earthquake (Mw 6.0) occurred on the Southern Section of the Xianshuihe Fault Zone. Its epicenter was at 101.69°E, 30.26°N, source mechanism strikes N33°E, dips 82°, and slipped at an angle of -9°. In this work, we simulated ground motions by the stochastic finite-fault model(SFFM), including peak ground acceleration, peak velocity, and acceleration time-histories caused by this earthquake.

  3. Free Flight Ground Testing of ADEPT in Advance of the Sounding Rocket One Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.

  4. Pattern recognition techniques for failure trend detection in SSME ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a complex power plant. To evaluate its performance 1200 hot-wire ground tests have been conducted, varying in duration from 0 to 500 secs. During the test some 500 sensors are sampled every 20 ms. The sensors are generally bounded by red lines so that an excursion beyond could lead to premature shutdown. In 27 tests it was not possible to effect an orderly premature shutdown, resulting in major incidents with serious damage to the SSME and test stand. The application of pattern recognition are investigated to detect SSME performance trends that may lead to major incidents. Based on the sensor data a set of (n) features is defined. At any time during the test, the state of the SSME is given by a point in the n-dimensional feature space. The history of a test can now be represented as a trajectory in the n-dimensional feature space. Portions of the normal trajectories and failed test trajectories would lie in different regions of the n-dimensional feature space. The latter can now be partitioned into regions of normal and failed tests. Thus, it is possible to examine the trajectory of a test in progress and predict if it is going into the normal or failure region.

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN AGRICULTURAL SOIL SHEAR STRESS TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a numerical simulation of agricultural soil shear stress tests was performed through soil shear strength data detected by a soil shearometer. We used a soil shearometer available on the market to measure soil shear stress and constructed special equipment that enabled automated detection of soil shear stress. It was connected to an acquisition data system that displayed and recorded soil shear stress during the full field tests. A soil shearometer unit was used to the in situ measurements of soil shear stress in full field conditions for different types of soils located on the right side of the Sele river, at a distance of about 1 km from each other, along the perpendicular to the Sele river in the direction of the sea. Full field tests using the shearometer unit were performed alongside considered soil characteristic parameter data collection. These parameter values derived from hydrostatic compression and triaxial tests performed on considered soil samples and repeated 4 times and we noticed that the difference between the maximum and minimum values detected for every set of performed tests never exceeded 4%. Full field shear tests were simulated by the Abaqus program code considering three different material models of soils normally used in the literature, the Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Cam-Clay models. We then compared all data outcomes obtained by numerical simulations with those from the experimental tests. We also discussed any further simulation data results obtained with different material models and selected the best material model for each considered soil to be used in tyre/soil contact simulation or in soil compaction studies.

  6. Safety panel and new procedures evaluation by simulator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, T.

    1986-01-01

    With more than thirty weeks of simulator testing (for the last three years only) and approximately three hundred scenarios, EDF's experience in this field is extensive. This practice is well known within Fossil and Nuclear Generation and is well accepted by the operating teams which participate in it. Simulator testing appears to be an essential decision-making tool in the process of developing new operating aids in PWR plants. Accelerated development and the elimination of long and expensive modifications after commissioning is an economic advantage. The saving in time is obvious, since modifications are carried out continuously throughout the development phase. Finally, operators participate in the development of systems and receive fixed, well-defined applications. This practice has become systematic, and all new applications concerning the operation of PWR plants are simulator-tested, particularly 1300-MW unit computers and operating procedures, the new generation of 900-MW unit computers, and the new 1500-MW fully computerized control rooms. Finally, this simulator testing allows us to considerably increase our knowledge concerning the behavior of operators in accident situations, and special tests are performed for this purpose

  7. 3D Ground-Motion Simulations for Magnitude 9 Earthquakes on the Cascadia Megathrust: Sedimentary Basin Amplification, Rupture Directivity, and Ground-Motion Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A. D.; Wirth, E. A.; Marafi, N.; Vidale, J. E.; Stephenson, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    We have produced broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetic seismograms for Mw 9 earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone by combining synthetics from 3D finite-difference simulations at low frequencies (≤ 1 Hz) and stochastic synthetics at high frequencies (≥ 1 Hz). These synthetic ground motions are being used to evaluate building response, liquefaction, and landslides, as part of the M9 Project of the University of Washington, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey. The kinematic rupture model is composed of high stress drop sub-events with Mw 8, similar to those observed in the Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan and Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquakes, superimposed on large background slip with lower slip velocities. The 3D velocity model is based on active and passive-source seismic tomography studies, seismic refraction and reflection surveys, and geologic constraints. The Seattle basin portion of the model has been validated by simulating ground motions from local earthquakes. We have completed 50 3D simulations of Mw 9 earthquakes using a variety of hypocenters, slip distributions, sub-event locations, down-dip limits of rupture, and other parameters. For sites not in deep sedimentary basins, the response spectra of the synthetics for 0.1-6.0 s are similar, on average, to the values from the BC Hydro ground motion prediction equations (GMPE). For periods of 7-10 s, the synthetic response spectra exceed these GMPE, partially due to the shallow dip of the plate interface. We find large amplification factors of 2-5 for response spectra at periods of 1-10 s for locations in the Seattle and Tacoma basins, relative to sites outside the basins. This amplification depends on the direction of incoming waves and rupture directivity. The basin amplification is caused by surface waves generated at basin edges from incoming S-waves, as well as amplification and focusing of S-waves and surface waves by the 3D basin structure. The inter-event standard deviation of response spectral

  8. Three-dimensional ground-motion simulations of earthquakes for the Hanford area, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Thorne, Paul; Rohay, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of ground-motion simulations of earthquakes using three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) crustal models conducted for the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) of the Hanford facility, Washington, under the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) guidelines. The first portion of this report demonstrates that the 3D seismic velocity model for the area produces synthetic seismograms with characteristics (spectral response values, duration) that better match those of the observed recordings of local earthquakes, compared to a 1D model with horizontal layers. The second part of the report compares the response spectra of synthetics from 3D and 1D models for moment magnitude (M) 6.6–6.8 earthquakes on three nearby faults and for a dipping plane wave source meant to approximate regional S-waves from a Cascadia great earthquake. The 1D models are specific to each site used for the PSHA. The use of the 3D model produces spectral response accelerations at periods of 0.5–2.0 seconds as much as a factor of 4.5 greater than those from the 1D models for the crustal fault sources. The spectral accelerations of the 3D synthetics for the Cascadia plane-wave source are as much as a factor of 9 greater than those from the 1D models. The differences between the spectral accelerations for the 3D and 1D models are most pronounced for sites with thicker supra-basalt sediments and for stations with earthquakes on the Rattlesnake Hills fault and for the Cascadia plane-wave source.

  9. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  10. Comparison of Energy-based Seismic Structural Response Estimated Based on Simulated Ground Motions with Empirical Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askan, A.; karimzadeh Naghshineh, S.; Erberik, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Energy-based approaches for seismic design of structural systems have advanced within earthquake engineering community. In these approaches, seismic design is considered to be satisfactory when there is higher structural capacity for absorbing or dissipation of the input energy compared to the energy demand of an earthquake.Previous studies have utilized existing real ground motion sets for energy-based seismic response evaluation. However, in regions where there is lack of real records from potential events with large magnitudes, simulated motions could be employed alternatively. Since these records provide a controlled variability in seismic demand, it is significant to assess them in terms of energy responses. In this study, stochastic finite-fault methodology is used for simulation of a wide range of scenario events using regional input parameters for two different seismically active areas: Duzce and Erzincan (Turkey). Then, the energy-based response of simple structural systems are assessed with time history analyses using the generated simulated ground motion sets. Results are compared with the existing empirical relationships in between seismic demand and capacity responses based on real ground motion datasets. Our numerical results show that simulated records yield realistic results in terms of energy demand.

  11. Design and analysis of a natural-gradient ground-water tracer test in a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times

  12. Websim3d: A Web-based System for Generation, Storage and Dissemination of Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K. B.

    2003-12-01

    Synthetic time histories from large-scale 3D ground motion simulations generally constitute large 'data' sets which typically require 100's of Mbytes or Gbytes of storage capacity. For the same reason, getting access to a researchers simulation output, for example for an earthquake engineer to perform site analysis, or a seismologist to perform seismic hazard analysis, can be a tedious procedure. To circumvent this problem we have developed a web-based ``community model'' (websim3D) for the generation, storage, and dissemination of ground motion simulation results. Websim3D allows user-friendly and fast access to view and download such simulation results for an earthquake-prone area. The user selects an earthquake scenario from a map of the region, which brings up a map of the area where simulation data is available. Now, by clicking on an arbitrary site location, synthetic seismograms and/or soil parameters for the site can be displayed at fixed or variable scaling and/or downloaded. Websim3D relies on PHP scripts for the dynamic plots of synthetic seismograms and soil profiles. Although not limited to a specific area, we illustrate the community model for simulation results from the Los Angeles basin, Wellington (New Zealand), and Mexico.

  13. LOCA simulation in the NRU reactor: materials test-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Wildung, N.J.; Rausch, W.N.

    1981-10-01

    A simulated loss-of-coolant accident was performed with a full-length test bundle of pressurized water reactor fuel rods. This second experiment of the program produced peak fuel cladding temperatures of 1148K (1607 0 F) and resulted in six ruptured fuel rods. Test data and initial results from the experiment are presented here in the form of photographs and graphical summaries. These results are also compared with the preceding prototypic thermal-hydraulic test results and with computer model test predictions

  14. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

  15. SSE software test management STM capability: Using STM in the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Victor E.; Long, D.; Hartenstein, Ray; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1992-01-01

    This report is one of a series discussing configuration management (CM) topics for Space Station ground systems software development. It provides a description of the Software Support Environment (SSE)-developed Software Test Management (STM) capability, and discusses the possible use of this capability for management of developed software during testing performed on target platforms. This is intended to supplement the formal documentation of STM provided by the SEE Project. How STM can be used to integrate contractor CM and formal CM for software before delivery to operations is described. STM provides a level of control that is flexible enough to support integration and debugging, but sufficiently rigorous to insure the integrity of the testing process.

  16. [Effect of space flight factors simulated in ground-based experiments on the behavior, discriminant learning, and exchange of monoamines in different brain structures of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtemberg, A S; Lebedeva-Georgievskaia, K V; Matveeva, M I; Kudrin, V S; Narkevich, V B; Klodt, P M; Bazian, A S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental treatment (long-term fractionated γ-irradiation, antiorthostatic hypodynamia, and the combination of these factors) simulating the effect of space flight in ground-based experiments rapidly restored the motor and orienting-investigative activity of animals (rats) in "open-field" tests. The study of the dynamics of discriminant learning of rats of experimental groups did not show significant differences from the control animals. It was found that the minor effect of these factors on the cognitive performance of animals correlated with slight changes in the concentration ofmonoamines in the brain structures responsible for the cognitive, emotional, and motivational functions.

  17. Flight simulation testing equipment for composite material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, J. F.; Wilkins, D. J.; Stein, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    A test program is discussed which aims at establishing the time-temperature-stress characteristics of several classes of high-temperature composite materials in order to determine their suitability for applications in supersonic cruise aircraft. Five advanced composite materials (a boron epoxy, a boron polyimide, a graphite epoxy, a graphite polyimide, and diffusion-bonded boron aluminum) are being evaluated using a flight-test simulator capable of long-term automatic testing based on random loading and realistic flight temperature profiles. The design, construction, and checkout of this simulator are described along with the digital load programmer, load magnitude controllers, the hydraulic pumping system, the heating and cooling systems, the control console, and the data recording system. Typical results for short-term tests performed at constant temperatures and accelerated load rates are presented in terms of a random-load spectrum and a wearout model.

  18. UPTF loop seal tests and their RELAP simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomainen, M.; Tuunanen, J.

    1997-01-01

    In a pressurized water reactor the loop seals have an effect on the natural circulation. If a loop seal is filled with water it can cause a flow stagnation in the loop during two-phase natural circulation. Also the pressure loss over a filled loop seal is high, which lowers the water level in the core. Tests to investigate the loop seal behaviour were performed on a German Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF). The purpose of the tests was to study the amount of water in the loop seal under different steam flow rates. The tests were simulated with RELAP5/MOD3.2. With high steam flow rates the code had problems in simulating the amount of the water remaining in the pump elbow, but in general the agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data was good. (orig.)

  19. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  20. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  1. Tests of the gravitational redshift effect in space-born and ground-based experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, I. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of experiments as concerns with the tests of the gravitational redshift (GRS) effect in ground-based and space-born experiments. In particular, we consider the GRS effects in the gravitational field of the Earth, the major planets of the Solar system, compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars) where this effect is confirmed with a higher accuracy. We discuss availabilities to confirm the GRS effect for galaxies and galaxy clusters in visible and X-ray ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  2. Objectives and Progress on Ground Vibration Testing for the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Chenevert, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA s next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be conducting the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO will perform the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orion/lander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. The current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at lift-off (using inert first stage segments). Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and modified for reactivation to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. Two new cranes will help move test articles at the test stand and at the

  3. Development of simulated contamination (SIMCON) and miscellaneous decontamination scoping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report details the development of a method of simulating ICPP type contamination (SIMCON) with surrogate, nonradioactive materials and some miscellaneous testing and results that were completed using SIMCON. An analysis of historical ICPP decontamination samples is given, along with the justification relating SIMCON to this historical data. Some SIMCON testing of the following methods are given as miscellaneous examples: water rinse, water ultrasonic, cerric nitrate, CO 2 snowflake blasting, nitrogen ''Cryogenic'' blasting and strippable coating removal

  4. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lanigan, David C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    This revision to the original report adds two longer term leach sets of data to the report and provides more discussion and graphics on how to interpret the results from long-term laboratory leach tests. The leach tests were performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams.

  5. Development of simulated contamination (SIMCON) and miscellaneous decontamination scoping tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report details the development of a method of simulating ICPP type contamination (SIMCON) with surrogate, nonradioactive materials and some miscellaneous testing and results that were completed using SIMCON. An analysis of historical ICPP decontamination samples is given, along with the justification relating SIMCON to this historical data. Some SIMCON testing of the following methods are given as miscellaneous examples: water rinse, water ultrasonic, cerric nitrate, CO{sub 2} snowflake blasting, nitrogen ``Cryogenic`` blasting and strippable coating removal.

  6. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  7. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  8. Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

  9. Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.

  10. Simulation and video software development for soil consolidation testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, Usama F.A.

    2003-01-01

    The development techniques and file structures of CTM, a novel multi-media (computer simulation and video) package on consolidation and laboratory consolidation testing, are presented in this paper. A courseware tool called Authorware proved to be versatile for building the package and the paper

  11. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the

  12. Validation of new CFD release by Ground-Coupled Heat Transfer Test Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnalek Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented validation of ANSYS Fluent with IEA BESTEST Task 34. Article stars with outlook to the topic, afterward are described steady-state cases used for validation. Thereafter is mentioned implementation of these cases on CFD. Article is concluded with presentation of the simulated results with a comparison of those from already validated simulation software by IEA. These validation shows high correlation with an older version of tested ANSYS as well as with other main software. The paper ends by discussion with an outline of future research.

  13. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Irwin Basin Aquifer System, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water pumping in the Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California resulted in water-level declines of about 30 feet from 1941 to 1996. Since 1992, artificial recharge from wastewater-effluent infiltration and irrigation-return flow has stabilized water levels, but there is concern that future water demands associated with expansion of the base may cause a resumption of water-level declines. To address these concerns, a ground-water flow model of the Irwin Basin was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Historical data show that ground-water-level declines in the Irwin Basin between 1941 and 1996, caused the formation of a pumping depression near the pumped wells, and that recharge from the wastewater-treatment facility and disposal area caused the formation of a recharge mound. There have been two periods of water-level recovery in the Irwin Basin since the development of ground water in this basin; these periods coincide with a period of decreased pumpage from the basin and a period of increased recharge of water imported from the Bicycle Basin beginning in 1967 and from the Langford Basin beginning in 1992. Since 1992, artificial recharge has exceeded pumpage in the Irwin Basin and has stabilized water-level declines. A two-layer ground-water flow model was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity, altitude of the bottom of the layers, vertical conductance, storage coefficient, recharge, and discharge were determined using existing geohydrologic data. Rates and distribution of recharge and discharge were determined from

  14. Test requirements for the integral effect test to simulate Korean PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Yun, B. J.; Chung, M. K.

    2001-02-01

    In this report, the test requirements are described for the design of the integral effect test facility to simulate Korean PWR plants. Since the integral effect test facility should be designed so as to simulate various thermal hydraulic phenomena, as closely as possible, to be occurred in real plants during operation or anticipated transients, the design and operational characteristics of the reference plants (Korean Standard Nuclear Plant and Korean Next Generation Reactor)were analyzed in order to draw major components, systems, and functions to be satisfied or simulated in the test facility. The test matrix is set up by considering major safety concerns of interest and the test objectives to confirm and enhance the safety of the plants. And the analysis and prioritization of the test matrix leads to the general design requirements of the test facility. Based on the general design requirements, the design criteria is set up for the basic and detailed design of the test facility. And finally it is drawn the design requirements specific to the fluid system and measurement system of the test facility. The test requirements in this report will be used as a guideline to the scaling analysis and basic design of the test facility. The test matrix specified in this report can be modified in the stage of main testing by considering the needs of experiments and circumstances at that time

  15. Test requirements for the integral effect test to simulate Korean PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Yun, B. J.; Chung, M. K

    2001-02-01

    In this report, the test requirements are described for the design of the integral effect test facility to simulate Korean PWR plants. Since the integral effect test facility should be designed so as to simulate various thermal hydraulic phenomena, as closely as possible, to be occurred in real plants during operation or anticipated transients, the design and operational characteristics of the reference plants (Korean Standard Nuclear Plant and Korean Next Generation Reactor)were analyzed in order to draw major components, systems, and functions to be satisfied or simulated in the test facility. The test matrix is set up by considering major safety concerns of interest and the test objectives to confirm and enhance the safety of the plants. And the analysis and prioritization of the test matrix leads to the general design requirements of the test facility. Based on the general design requirements, the design criteria is set up for the basic and detailed design of the test facility. And finally it is drawn the design requirements specific to the fluid system and measurement system of the test facility. The test requirements in this report will be used as a guideline to the scaling analysis and basic design of the test facility. The test matrix specified in this report can be modified in the stage of main testing by considering the needs of experiments and circumstances at that time.

  16. About rehabilitation of disturbed ecosystems of the experimental ground 'Balapan' of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plisak, R.P.; Magasheva, R.J.; Plisak, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: 131 nuclear devices were tested in 1968-1989 at the territory of experimental field 'Balapan'. Nuclear explosions were conducted out in vertical experimental holes 500-600 meters in depth. They were accompanied by escapes of grounds and volatile radionuclides. But the main source of radiation pollution of the territory is dumps of the 'Atomic lake'. Level of radiation pollution of the dumps surrounding the lake fluctuates from 400 up to 14,000 μR/h. Technogene substratum has developed on the dumps for 35 years after explosion. This is loamy sandy with rock fragments ground. The biggest fragments of mountain rocks have remained on the tops of the dumps until now. Skeleton ground constituted by midsize fragments of mountain rocks with salinazid gypsum clays predominates on slopes of the dumps. Fine earth accumulates in small depressions of slopes of the dumps. Its texture is loamy sandy grassy with low content of loam. The ground is primary stage of soil formation process. Humus colouring appears on its upper slightly condensed crust. In these radioecological conditions only 0.5-1.0 % of the area of the dumps are assimilated by single individuals and rarefied aggregations of annuals (Artemisia sieversiana, A. scoparia, Kochia sieversiana) perennials (Acroptilon repens), mesoxerophytes, petrophyte and xerophyte dwarf semishrubs (Artemisia schrenkiana, Limonium suffruticosum), shrubs (Atraphaxis frutescens) and haloxerophytes (Nitraria sibirica). For rehabilitation of ecosystems of the dumps it is necessary to conduct out: 1. technical preparation of ground of the lower parts of the dumps - laying-out, terracing, fixing of fine earth; 2. biological re-cultivation of prepared ground - restoration of soils and phyto-melioration. It is possible to sow in additions seeds of Limonium suffruticosum, Artemisia schrenkiana, Atraphaxis frutescens in depressions with accumulations of fine earth in the upper part of the dumps. It is possible to sow in additions seeds

  17. Strength and durability tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing under the influence of operational loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with integrated research works and tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” which is laid in the eternally frozen grounds. In order to ensure the above-ground routing method for the oil pipeline “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” and in view of the lack of construction experience in case of above-ground routing of oil pipelines, the leading research institute of JSC “Transneft” - LLC “NII TNN” over the period of August, 2011 - September, 2012 performed a research and development work on the subject “Development and production of pipeline supports and pile foundation test specimens for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe”. In the course of the works, the test specimens of fixed support, linear-sliding and free-sliding pipeline supports DN1000 and DN800 were produced and examined. For ensuring the stable structural reliability of the supports constructions and operational integrity of the pipelines the complex research works and tests were performed: 1. Cyclic tests of structural elements of the fixed support on the test bed of JSC “Diascan” by means of internal pressure and bending moment with the application of specially prepared equipment for defining the pipeline supports strength and durability. 2. Tests of the fixed support under the influence of limit operating loads and by means of internal pressure for confirming the support’s integrity. On the test bed there were simulated all the maximum loads on the support (vertical, longitudinal, side loadings, bending moment including subsidence of the neighboring sliding support and, simultaneously, internal pressure of the carried medium. 3. Cyclic tests of endurance and stability of the displacements of sliding supports under the influence of limit operating loads for confirming their operation capacity. Relocation of the pipeline on the sliding

  18. Simulation of spatially varying ground motions including incoherence, wave‐passage and differential site‐response effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for simulating arrays of spatially varying ground motions, incorporating the effects of incoherence, wave passage, and differential site response. Non‐stationarity is accounted for by considering the motions as consisting of stationary segments. Two approaches are developed...... of multiply‐supported structures. In the second approach, simulated motions are conditioned on the segmented record itself and exhibit increasing variance with distance from the site of the observation. For both approaches, example simulated motions are presented for an existing bridge model employing two...... alternatives for modeling the local soil response: i) idealizing each soil‐column as a single‐degree‐of‐freedom oscillator, and ii) employing the theory of vertical wave propagation in a single soil layer over bedrock. The selection of parameters in the simulation procedure and their effects...

  19. Simulation of Multiscale Ground-Water Flow in Part of the Northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Green, Christopher T.; Burow, Karen R.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Rewis, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    The transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in a variety of environmental settings is being evaluated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. One of the locations being evaluated is a 2,700-km2 (square kilometer) regional study area in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley surrounding the city of Modesto, an area dominated by irrigated agriculture in a semi-arid climate. Ground water is a key source of water for irrigation and public supply, and exploitation of this resource has altered the natural flow system. The aquifer system is predominantly alluvial, and an unconfined to semiconfined aquifer overlies a confined aquifer in the southwestern part of the study area; these aquifers are separated by the lacustrine Corcoran Clay. A regional-scale 16-layer steady-state model of ground-water flow in the aquifer system in the regional study area was developed to provide boundary conditions for an embedded 110-layer steady-state local-scale model of part of the aquifer system overlying the Corcoran Clay along the Merced River. The purpose of the local-scale model was to develop a better understanding of the aquifer system and to provide a basis for simulation of reactive transport of agricultural chemicals. The heterogeneity of aquifer materials was explicitly incorporated into the regional and local models using information from geologic and drillers? logs of boreholes. Aquifer materials were differentiated in the regional model by the percentage of coarse-grained sediments in a cell, and in the local model by four hydrofacies (sand, silty sand, silt, and clay). The calibrated horizontal hydraulic conductivity values of the coarse-grained materials in the zone above the Corcoran Clay in the regional model and of the sand hydrofacies used in the local model were about equal (30?80 m/d [meter per day]), and the vertical hydraulic conductivity values in the same zone of the regional model (median of 0.012 m/d), which is

  20. Simulation-Based Testing of Pager Interruptions During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujka, Joseph A; Safcsak, Karen; Bhullar, Indermeet S; Havron, William S

    2018-01-30

    To determine if pager interruptions affect operative time, safety, or complications and management of pager issues during a simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twelve surgery resident volunteers were tested on a Simbionix Lap Mentor II simulator. Each resident performed 6 randomized simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomies; 3 with pager interruptions (INT) and 3 without pager interruptions (NO-INT). The pager interruptions were sent in the form of standardized patient vignettes and timed to distract the resident during dissection of the critical view of safety and clipping of the cystic duct. The residents were graded on a pass/fail scale for eliciting appropriate patient history and management of the pager issue. Data was extracted from the simulator for the following endpoints: operative time, safety metrics, and incidence of operative complications. The Mann-Whitney U test and contingency table analysis were used to compare the 2 groups (INT vs. NO-INT). Level I trauma center; Simulation laboratory. Twelve general surgery residents. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in any of the operative endpoints as measured by the simulator. However, in the INT group, only 25% of the time did the surgery residents both adequately address the issue and provide effective patient management in response to the pager interruption. Pager interruptions did not affect operative time, safety, or complications during the simulated procedure. However, there were significant failures in the appropriate evaluations and management of pager issues. Consideration for diversion of patient care issues to fellow residents not operating to improve quality and safety of patient care outside the operating room requires further study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

  2. On-Track Testing as a Validation Method of Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of a Formula SAE Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Robert

    This thesis is about the validation of a computational fluid dynamics simulation of a ground vehicle by means of a low-budget coast-down test. The vehicle is built to the standards of the 2014 Formula SAE rules. It is equipped with large wings in the front and rear of the car; the vertical loads on the tires are measured by specifically calibrated shock potentiometers. The coast-down test was performed on a runway of a local airport and is used to determine vehicle specific coefficients such as drag, downforce, aerodynamic balance, and rolling resistance for different aerodynamic setups. The test results are then compared to the respective simulated results. The drag deviates about 5% from the simulated to the measured results. The downforce numbers show a deviation up to 18% respectively. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of inlet velocities, ride heights, and pitch angles was performed with the help of the computational simulation.

  3. Testability, Test Automation and Test Driven Development for the Trick Simulation Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the adoption of a Test Driven Development approach and a Continuous Integration System in the development of the Trick Simulation Toolkit, a generic simulation development environment for creating high fidelity training and engineering simulations at the NASA Johnson Space Center and many other NASA facilities. It describes the approach, and the significant benefits seen, such as fast, thorough and clear test feedback every time code is checked into the code repository. It also describes an approach that encourages development of code that is testable and adaptable.

  4. RSRM top hat cover simulator lightning test, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The test sequence was to measure electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case when a simulated lightning discharge strikes an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was conducted between 21 June and 17 July 1990. Thirty-six high rate-of-rise Marx generator discharges and eight high current bank discharges were injected onto three different test article configurations. Attach points included three locations on the top hat cover simulator and two locations on the mounting bolts. Top hat cover simulator and mounting bolt damage and grain cover damage was observed. Overall electric field levels were well below 30 kilowatts/meter. Electric field levels ranged from 184.7 to 345.9 volts/meter and magnetic field levels were calculated from 6.921 to 39.73 amperes/meter. It is recommended that the redesigned solid rocket motor top hat cover be used in Configuration 1 or Configuration 2 as an interim lightning protection device until a lightweight cover can be designed.

  5. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Construction management at the SP-100 ground engineering system test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, G.P.; Wilson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Contractors under the U.S. Department of Energy management have implemented a comprehensive approach to the management of design and construction of the complex facility modifications at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site on the Hanford Reservation. The SP-100 Test Site employs a multi-organizational integrated management approach with clearly defined responsibilities to assure success. This approach allows for thorough planning and analysis before the project kick off, thus minimizing the number and magnitude of problems which arise during the course of the project. When combined with a comprehensive cost and schedule/project management reporting system the problems which do occur are recognized early enough to assure timely intervention and resolution

  7. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Enhanced Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, J R; Brock, J S; Brandon, S T; Cotrell, D L; Johnson, B; Knupp, P; Rider, W; Trucano, T; Weirs, V G

    2008-10-10

    This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations. The key points of this document are: (1) Verification deals with mathematical correctness of the numerical algorithms in a code, while validation deals with physical correctness of a simulation in a regime of interest. This document is about verification. (2) The current seven-problem Tri-Laboratory Verification Test Suite, which has been used for approximately five years at the DOE WP laboratories, is limited. (3) Both the methodology for and technology used in verification analysis have evolved and been improved since the original test suite was proposed. (4) The proposed test problems are in three basic areas: (a) Hydrodynamics; (b) Transport processes; and (c) Dynamic strength-of-materials. (5) For several of the proposed problems we provide a 'strong sense verification benchmark', consisting of (i) a clear mathematical statement of the problem with sufficient information to run a computer simulation, (ii) an explanation of how the code result and benchmark solution are to be evaluated, and (iii) a description of the acceptance criterion for simulation code results. (6) It is proposed that the set of verification test problems with which any particular code be evaluated include some of the problems described in this document. Analysis of the proposed verification test problems constitutes part of a necessary--but not sufficient--step that builds confidence in physics and engineering simulation codes. More complicated test cases, including physics models of

  9. Numerical Simulation of Galvanic Corrosion Caused by Shaft Grounding Systems in Steel Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Y

    2005-01-01

    The shaft grounding systems used on board HMC ships have substantially reduced the shaft-to-hull resistance and, thus, improved the performance of the shipboard impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system...

  10. Soft Soil Impact Testing and Simulation of Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2008-01-01

    In June 2007, a 38-ft/s vertical drop test of a 5-ft-diameter, 5-ft-long composite fuselage section that was retrofitted with a novel composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) was conducted onto unpacked sand. This test was one of a series of tests to evaluate the multi-terrain capabilities of the DEA and to generate test data for model validation. During the test, the DEA crushed approximately 6-in. and left craters in the sand of depths ranging from 7.5- to 9-in. A finite element model of the fuselage section with DEA was developed for execution in LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic code. Pre-test predictions were generated in which the sand was represented initially as a crushable foam material MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63). Following the drop test, a series of hemispherical penetrometer tests were conducted to assist in soil characterization. The penetrometer weighed 20-lb and was instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer. Drop tests were performed at 16-ft/s and crater depths were measured. The penetrometer drop tests were simulated as a means for developing a more representative soil model based on a soil and foam material definition MAT_SOIL_AND FOAM (Mat 5) in LS-DYNA. The model of the fuselage with DEA was reexecuted using the updated soil model and test-analysis correlations are presented.

  11. Blended-Wing-Body Low-Speed Flight Dynamics: Summary of Ground Tests and Sample Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of low-speed wind tunnel tests of a Blended-Wing-Body tri-jet configuration to evaluate the low-speed static and dynamic stability and control characteristics over the full envelope of angle of attack and sideslip are summarized. These data were collected for use in simulation studies of the edge-of-the-envelope and potential out-of-control flight characteristics. Some selected results with lessons learned are presented.

  12. Benchmark test of accelerated multi-slice simulation by GPGPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Shinkawa, Takao; Arai, Yoshihiro; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2015-11-01

    A fast multi-slice image simulation by parallelized computation using a graphics processing unit (GPU) has been developed. The image simulation contains multiple sets of computing steps, such as Fourier transform and pixel-to-pixel operation. The efficiency of GPU varies depending on the type of calculation. In the effective case of utilizing GPU, the calculation speed is conducted hundreds of times faster than a central processing unit (CPU). The benchmark test of parallelized multi-slice was performed, and the results of contents, such as TEM imaging, STEM imaging and CBD calculation are reported. Some features of the simulation software are also introduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects and mechanism on Kapton film under ozone exposure in a ground near space simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Yang, Guimin; Liu, Gang; Jiang, Haifu; Zhang, Tingting

    2018-05-01

    The effect on aircraft materials in the near space environment is a key part of air-and-space integration research. Ozone and aerodynamic fluids are important organizational factors in the near space environment and both have significant influences on the performance of aircraft materials. In the present paper a simulated ozone environment was used to test polyimide material that was rotated at the approximate velocity of 150-250 m/s to form an aerodynamic fluid field. The goal was to evaluate the performance evolution of materials under a comprehensive environment of ozone molecular corrosion and aerodynamic fluids. The research results show that corrosion and sputtering by ozone molecules results in Kapton films exhibiting a rugged "carpet-like" morphology exhibits an increase in surface roughness. The morphology after ozone exposure led to higher surface roughness and an increase in surface optical diffuse reflection, which is expressed by the lower optical transmittance and the gradual transition from light orange to brown. The mass loss test, XPS, and FTIR analysis show that the molecular chains on the surface of the Kapton film are destroyed resulting in Csbnd C bond breaking to form small volatile molecules such as CO2 or CO, which are responsible for a linear increase in mass loss per unit area. The Csbnd N and Csbnd O structures exhibit weakening tendency under ozone exposure. The present paper explores the evaluation method for Kapton's adaptability under the ozone exposure test in the near space environment, and elucidates the corrosion mechanism and damage mode of the polyimide material under the combined action of ozone corrosion and the aerodynamic fluid. This work provides a methodology for studying materials in the near-space environment.

  14. Simulation to Flight Test for a UAV Controls Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.

  15. BWR Full Integral Simulation Test (FIST) program: facility description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, A G [ed.

    1984-09-01

    A new boiling water reactor safety test facility (FIST, Full Integral Simulation Test) is described. It will be used to investigate small breaks and operational transients and to tie results from such tests to earlier large-break test results determined in the TLTA. The new facility's full height and prototypical components constitute a major scaling improvement over earlier test facilities. A heated feedwater system, permitting steady-state operation, and a large increase in the number of measurements are other significant improvements. The program background is outlined and program objectives defined. The design basis is presented together with a detailed, complete description of the facility and measurements to be made. An extensive component scaling analysis and prediction of performance are presented.

  16. Color film spectral properties test experiment for target simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Ming, Xing; Fan, Da; Guo, Wenji

    2017-04-01

    In hardware-in-loop test of the aviation spectra camera, the liquid crystal light valve and digital micro-mirror device could not simulate the spectrum characteristics of the landmark. A test system frame was provided based on the color film for testing the spectra camera; and the spectrum characteristics of the color film was test in the paper. The result of the experiment shows that difference was existed between the landmark and the film spectrum curse. However, the spectrum curse peak should change according to the color, and the curse is similar with the standard color traps. So, if the quantity value of error between the landmark and the film was calibrated and the error could be compensated, the film could be utilized in the hardware-in-loop test for the aviation spectra camera.

  17. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  18. A blind test of nondestructive underground void detection by ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wallace W. L.; Chang, Ray K. W.; Sham, Janet F. C.

    2018-02-01

    Blind test/experiment is widely adopted in various scientific disciplines like medicine drug testing/clinical trials/psychology, but not popular in nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDTE) nor near-surface geophysics (NSG). This paper introduces a blind test of nondestructive underground void detection in highway/pavement using ground penetrating radar (GPR). Purpose of which is to help the Highways Department (HyD) of the Hong Kong Government to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale and nationwide application, and examine the ability of appropriate service providers to carry out such works. In the past failure case of such NDTE/NSG based on lowest bid price, it is not easy to know which part(s) in SWIMS (S - service provider, i.e. people; W - work procedure; I - instrumentation; M - materials in the complex underground; S - specifications by client) fails, and how it/they fail(s). This work attempts to carry out the blind test by burying fit balls (as voids) under a site with reinforced concrete road and paving block by PolyU team A. The blind test about the void centroid, spread and cover depth was then carried out by PolyU team B without prior information given. Then with this baseline, a marking scheme, acceptance criteria and passing mark were set to test six local commercial service providers, determine their scores and evaluate the performance. A pass is a prerequisite of the award of a service contract of similar nature. In this first attempt of the blind test, results were not satisfactory and it is concluded that 'S-service provider' and 'W-work procedure' amongst SWIMS contributed to most part of the unsatisfactory performance.+

  19. Simulation of streamflow and estimation of ground-water recharge in the Upper Cibolo Creek Watershed, south-central Texas, 1992-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2007-01-01

    A watershed model (Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN) was developed, calibrated, and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio Water System, and Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, to simulate streamflow and estimate ground-water recharge in the upper Cibolo Creek watershed in south-central Texas. Rainfall, evapotranspiration, and streamflow data were collected during 1992?2004 for model calibrations and simulations. Estimates of average ground-water recharge during 1992?2004 from simulation were 79,800 acre-feet (5.47 inches) per year or about 15 percent of rainfall. Most of the recharge (about 74 percent) occurred as infiltration of streamflow in Cibolo Creek. The remaining recharge occurred as diffuse infiltration of rainfall through the soil and rock layers and karst features. Most recharge (about 77 percent) occurred in the Trinity aquifer outcrop. The remaining 23 percent occurred in the downstream part of the watershed that includes the Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop). Streamflow and recharge in the study area are greatly influenced by large storms. Storms during June 1997, October 1998, and July 2002 accounted for about 11 percent of study-area rainfall, 61 percent of streamflow, and 16 percent of the total ground-water recharge during 1992?2004. Annual streamflow and recharge also were highly variable. During 1999, a dry year with about 16 inches of rain and no measurable runoff at the watershed outlet, recharge in the watershed amounted to only 0.99 inch compared with 13.43 inches during 1992, a relatively wet year with about 54 inches of rainfall. Simulation of flood-control/recharge-enhancement structures showed that certain structures might reduce flood peaks and increase recharge. Simulation of individual structures on tributaries showed relatively little effect. Larger structures on the main stem of Cibolo Creek were more effective than structures

  20. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad E.; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA Subassembly (MTSAS) was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort was testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon's EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. Lunar environment testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 Nomenclature loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This exceeded any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  1. Analytical simulation of seismic testing of VKL piping system at the HDR test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the analytical modeling, calculations, and results of the posttest simulation of seismic testing of the VKL piping system at the HDR Test Facility in West Germany. A main objective of the tests was to evaluate analytical methods for calculating the seismic response of realistic piping systems subjected to seismic excitation. Six different pipe-support configurations, ranging from a stiff system with struts and snubbers to a very flexible system with practically no seismic supports, were subjected to simulated earthquakes. The posttest calculations cover the stiffest system with snubbers, and a reasonably compliant system with only rigid struts. Responses for 100 to 300% safe-shutdown-earthquake loading were calculated using the piping response module of the SMACS code with multiple, independent support acceleration input. Analytical simulation of the tests was found to somewhat underestimate the responses. The paper discusses the possible explanation for this and the effect on the results of the damping ratios assumed

  2. Distributed Sensor Network Software Development Testing through Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Sean M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The distributed sensor network (DSN) presents a novel and highly complex computing platform with dif culties and opportunities that are just beginning to be explored. The potential of sensor networks extends from monitoring for threat reduction, to conducting instant and remote inventories, to ecological surveys. Developing and testing for robust and scalable applications is currently practiced almost exclusively in hardware. The Distributed Sensors Simulator (DSS) is an infrastructure that allows the user to debug and test software for DSNs independent of hardware constraints. The exibility of DSS allows developers and researchers to investigate topological, phenomenological, networking, robustness and scaling issues, to explore arbitrary algorithms for distributed sensors, and to defeat those algorithms through simulated failure. The user speci es the topology, the environment, the application, and any number of arbitrary failures; DSS provides the virtual environmental embedding.

  3. Obtaining reliable likelihood ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2014-01-01

    programs - to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). Problem 1: Inconsistent LR tests due to asymmetric draws: This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed parameters this practice is very......Mixed models: Models allowing for continuous heterogeneity by assuming that value of one or more parameters follow a specified distribution have become increasingly popular. This is known as ‘mixing’ parameters, and it is standard practice by researchers - and the default option in many statistical...... are used, models reducing the dimension of the mixing distribution must replicate the relevant dimensions of the quasi-random draws in the simulation of the restricted likelihood. Again this is not standard in research or statistical programs. The paper therefore recommends using fully antithetic draws...

  4. Small UAV Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System Design Considerations and Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Paul; Skoog, Mark; Burrows, Scott; Thomas, SaraKatie

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) project demonstrated several important collision avoidance technologies. First, the SUAV Auto GCAS design included capabilities to take advantage of terrain avoidance maneuvers flying turns to either side as well as straight over terrain. Second, the design also included innovative digital elevation model (DEM) scanning methods. The combination of multi-trajectory options and new scanning methods demonstrated the ability to reduce the nuisance potential of the SUAV while maintaining robust terrain avoidance. Third, the Auto GCAS algorithms were hosted on the processor inside a smartphone, providing a lightweight hardware configuration for use in either the ground control station or on board the test aircraft. Finally, compression of DEM data for the entire Earth and successful hosting of that data on the smartphone was demonstrated. The SUAV Auto GCAS project demonstrated that together these methods and technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the number of controlled flight into terrain mishaps across a wide range of aviation platforms with similar capabilities including UAVs, general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and model aircraft.

  5. The Building Blocks for JWST I and T (Integrations and Test) to Operations - From Simulator to Flight Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.

  6. Reaction torque control of redundant space robotic systems for orbital maintenance and simulated microgravity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocuzza, Silvio; Pretto, Isacco; Debei, Stefano

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the theoretical formulation and the experimental validation of a novel solution for the inverse kinematics of redundant space robotic systems aimed at locally minimizing the torque transferred to the spacecraft due to the robotic arm movement. The differential kinematics is formulated at the acceleration level and an additional constraint is imposed in order to locally minimize the torque transferred to the spacecraft center of mass. This problem can be expressed as a constrained linear least squares problem and a closed-form solution is obtained. An extension of this method is presented in order to take into account the physical limits of the manipulator, by limiting the joint accelerations under acceptable values. In this case the problem can be expressed as a constrained linear least squares problem with both equality and inequality constraints. The proposed solution has been experimentally tested using a 3D free-flying robot previously tested in an ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign. In this test campaign the 3D robot has been converted in a 2D robot taking advantage of its modular structure, and it has been suspended by means of air-bearings on a granite plane. In this way it is possible to perform simulated microgravity tests without time constraints. The base of the robot is fixed on ground by means of a custom design dynamometer, which measures the torque transferred to ground to be minimized. The experimental results validated the proposed solutions and confirmed their good performance.

  7. Parallel-Processing Test Bed For Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blech, Richard; Cole, Gary; Townsend, Scott

    1996-01-01

    Second-generation Hypercluster computing system is multiprocessor test bed for research on parallel algorithms for simulation in fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, chemistry, and other fields with large computational requirements but relatively low input/output requirements. Built from standard, off-shelf hardware readily upgraded as improved technology becomes available. System used for experiments with such parallel-processing concepts as message-passing algorithms, debugging software tools, and computational steering. First-generation Hypercluster system described in "Hypercluster Parallel Processor" (LEW-15283).

  8. Prescribed differences in exercise intensity based on the TCAR test over sandy ground and grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fernandes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of training might be influenced by exercise mode and type of terrain. Thus, the objective of this study was a to compare the physiological indices determined in the TCAR test carried out on natural grass (NG and sandy ground (SG, and b to analyze heart rate (HR and blood lactate responses during constant exercise on SG and NG. Ten soccer players (15.11 ± 1.1 years, 168 ± 4.0 cm, 60 ± 4.0 kg were submitted to the TCAR test to determine peak velocity (PV and the intensity corresponding to 80.4% PV (V80.4 on NG and SG. The second evaluation consisted of two constant load tests (CLT (80.4% PV on NG and SG with a duration of 27 min. The paired Student t-test was used to compare the tests carried out on NG and SG. ANOVA (two-way, complemented by the Tukey test, was used to compare lactate concentrations [La] at 9, 18 and 27 min between the two types of terrain. A p value <0.05 was adopted. PV and V80.4 (15.3±1.0 and 12.3±0.6 km/h were significantly higher on grass than on sand (14.3±1.0 and 11.5±0.4 km/h. Lactate concentration during the CLT [LaV80.4] was significantly higher on sand (4.1±0.9 mmol/L than on grass (2.8±0.7 mmol/L. In the CLT, no significant difference in mean HR was observed between the two terrains, whereas there was a difference in [La]. In conclusion, the type of terrain interferes with indicators associated with aerobic power and capacity obtained by the TCAR test.

  9. Irradiation test plan of the simulated DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ki Kwang; Yang, M. S.; Kim, B. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    Simulated DUPIC fuel had been irradiated from Aug. 4, 1999 to Oct. 4 1999, in order to produce the data of its in-core behavior, to verify the design of DUPIC non-instrumented capsule developed, and to ensure the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO. The welding process was certified for manufacturing the mini-element, and simulated DUPIC fuel rods were manufactured with simulated DUPIC pellets through examination and test. The non-instrumented capsule for a irradiation test of DUPIC fuel has been designed and manufactured referring to the design specification of the HANARO fuel. This is to be the design basis of the instrumented capsule under consideration. The verification experiment, whether the capsule loaded in the OR4 hole meet the HANARO requirements under the normal operation condition, as well as the structural analysis was carried out. The items for this experiment were the pressure drop test, vibration test, integrity test, et. al. It was noted that each experimental result meet the HANARO operational requirements. For the safety analysis of the DUPIC non-instrumented capsule loaded in the HANARO core, the nuclear/mechanical compatibility, thermodynamic compatibility, integrity analysis of the irradiation samples according to the reactor condition as well as the safety analysis of the HANARO were performed. Besides, the core reactivity effects were discussed during the irradiation test of the DUPIC capsule. The average power of each fuel rod in the DUPIC capsule was calculated, and maximal linear power reflecting the axial peaking power factor from the MCNP results was evaluated. From these calculation results, the HANARO core safety was evaluated. At the end of this report, similar overseas cases were introduced. 9 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  10. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  11. SEVO ON THE GROUND: DESIGN OF A LABORATORY SOLAR SIMULATION IN SUPPORT OF THE O/OREOS MISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricco, Antonio J.; Minelli, Giovanni; Quigley, Emmett; Walker, Ryan; Walker, Robert; Quinn, Richard C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Bramall, Nathan E.

    2014-01-01

    This technical note describes a novel solar simulation experiment designed to mimic the solar radiation experienced by the Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) nanosatellite in low-Earth orbit. Thin films of organic compounds within hermetically sealed sample cells (identical to the films and cells of the spaceflight mission) were exposed to simulated AM0 solar radiation in the laboratory for a total of 6 months, and monitored for spectral changes at two-week intervals. The laboratory experiment accurately simulated ultraviolet and visible solar irradiance to within 2% from 200-1000 nm and the Lyα (121.6 nm) emission line radiation to within 8%. Design and calibration parameters for the experiment are discussed in detail for this ground-based laboratory irradiation experiment, which was built as a complement to, and as scientific validation of, the O/OREOS SEVO experiment in space

  12. FEM simulation of static loading test of the Omega beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílý, Petr; Kohoutková, Alena; Jedlinský, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with a FEM simulation of static loading test of the Omega beam. Omega beam is a precast prestressed high-performance concrete element with the shape of Greek letter omega. Omega beam was designed as a self-supporting permanent formwork member for construction of girder bridges. FEM program ATENA Science was exploited for simulation of load-bearing test of the beam. The numerical model was calibrated using the data from both static loading test and tests of material properties. Comparison of load-displacement diagrams obtained from the experiment and the model was conducted. Development of cracks and crack patterns were compared. Very good agreement of experimental data and the FEM model was reached. The calibrated model can be used for design of optimized Omega beams in the future without the need of expensive loading tests. The calibrated material model can be also exploited in other types of FEM analyses of bridges constructed with the use of Omega beams, such as limit state analysis, optimization of shear connectors, prediction of long-term deflections or prediction of crack development.

  13. Creating a simulation model of software testing using Simulink package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Dubovoi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the solution model of software testing that allows prediction both the whole process and its specific stages is actual for IT-industry. The article focuses on solving this problem. The aim of the article is prediction the time and improvement the quality of software testing. The analysis of the software testing process shows that it can be attributed to the branched cyclic technological processes because it is cyclical with decision-making on control operations. The investigation uses authors' previous works andsoftware testing process method based on Markov model. The proposed method enables execution the prediction for each software module, which leads to better decision-making of each controlled suboperation of all processes. Simulink simulation model shows implementation and verification of results of proposed technique. Results of the research have practically implemented in the IT-industry.

  14. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the first volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of an introduction, summary/conclusion, site description and assessment, description of facility, and description of operation.

  15. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  16. Study of the Effectiveness of Different Kalman Filtering Methods and Smoothers in Object Tracking Based on Simulation Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski Marcin; Kwiecień Janusz

    2015-01-01

    In navigation practice, there are various navigational architecture and integration strategies of measuring instruments that affect the choice of the Kalman filtering algorithm. The analysis of different methods of Kalman filtration and associated smoothers applied in object tracing was made on the grounds of simulation tests of algorithms designed and presented in this paper. EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) filter based on approximation with (jacobians) partial derivations and derivative-free f...

  17. Hybrid Simulations of the Broadband Ground Motions for the 2008 MS8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 at 14:28 Beijing Time. It is the largest event happened in the mainland of China since the 1976, Mw7.6, Tangshan earthquake. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. These resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Casualties numbered more than 80,000 people, and there were major economic losses. However, this earthquake is the first Ms 8 intraplate earthquake with good close fault strong motion coverage. Over four hundred strong motion stations of the National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) recorded the mainshock. Twelve of them located within 20 km of the fault traces and another 33 stations located within 100 km. These observations, accompanying with the hundreds of GPS vectors and multiple ALOS INSAR images, provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the rupture process of such a great intraplate earthquake. In this study, we calculate broadband near-field ground motion synthetic waveforms of this great earthquake using a hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology, which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies (f < 1.0 Hz) with a theoretic Green's function calculation approach at high frequency ( ~ 10.0 Hz). The fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time that were obtained by an inversion kinematic source model. At the same time, based on the aftershock data, we analyze the site effects for the near-field stations. Frequency-dependent site-amplification values for each station are calculated using genetic algorithms. For the calculation of the synthetic waveforms, at first, we carry out simulations using the hybrid methodology for the frequency up to 10.0 Hz. Then, we consider for

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS TWP-ICE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  20. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Helicopter Ground Resonance Utilizing Symbolic Processing and Dynamic Simulation Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    ...) source code formatted specifically for numerical integration. The compiled source code can be accessed and numerically integrated by the dynamic simulation software SIMULINK(registered). SIMULINK(registered...

  2. Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Pipes - Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doru, Zdrenghea

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents in the first part a state of the art review of reinforced concrete pipes used in micro tunnelling realised through pipes jacking method and design methods for steel fibres reinforced concrete. In part two experimental tests are presented on inner pipes with diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with metal fibres (35 kg / m3). In part two experimental tests are presented on pipes with inner diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with steel fibres (35 kg / m3). The results obtained are analysed and are calculated residual flexural tensile strengths which characterise the post-cracking behaviour of steel fibres reinforced concrete. In the third part are presented numerical simulations of the tests of pipes and specimens. The model adopted for the pipes test was a three-dimensional model and loads considered were those obtained in experimental tests at reaching breaking forces. Tensile stresses determined were compared with mean flexural tensile strength. To validate tensile parameters of steel fibres reinforced concrete, experimental tests of the specimens were modelled with MIDAS program to reproduce the flexural breaking behaviour. To simulate post - cracking behaviour was used the method σ — ε based on the relationship stress - strain, according to RILEM TC 162-TDF. For the specimens tested were plotted F — δ diagrams, which have been superimposed for comparison with the similar diagrams of experimental tests. The comparison of experimental results with those obtained from numerical simulation leads to the following conclusions: - the maximum forces obtained by numerical calculation have higher values than the experimental values for the same tensile stresses; - forces corresponding of residual strengths have very similar values between the experimental and numerical calculations; - generally the numerical model estimates a breaking force greater

  3. Simulation of Near-Fault High-Frequency Ground Motions from the Representation Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-11-01

    "What is the maximum possible ground motion near an earthquake fault?" is an outstanding question of practical significance in earthquake seismology. In establishing a possible theoretical cap on extreme ground motions, the representation integral of elasticity, providing an exact, within limits of applicability, solution for fault radiation at any frequency, is an under-utilized tool. The application of a numerical procedure leading to synthetic ground displacement, velocity, and acceleration time histories to modeling of the record at the Lucerne Valley hard-rock station, uniquely located at 1.1 km from the rupture of the M w 7.2 Landers, California event, using a seismologically constrained temporal form of slip on the fault, reveals that the shape of the displacement waveform can be modeled closely, given the simplicity of the theoretical model. High precision in the double integration, as well as carefully designed smoothing and filtering, are necessary to suppress the numerical noise in the high-frequency (velocity and acceleration) synthetic motions. The precision of the integration of at least eight decimal digits ensures the numerical error in the displacement waveforms generally much lower than 0.005% and reduces the error in the peak velocities and accelerations to the levels acceptable to make the representation theorem a reliable tool in the practical evaluation of the magnitude of maximum possible ground motions in a wide-frequency range of engineering interest.

  4. SimBRS: A University/Industry Consortium Focused on Simulation Based Solutions for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    solving complex engineering problems for ground vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as...stress wave propagation due to blast loading”, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics , 28:33–56, 2004. [11] M

  5. 2.5D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ogy, since the 1985 Michoacan, Mexico earthquake. The Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake of 1995 and the. 1994 Northridge earthquake are recent reminders that soft sediments and the basin-edge gave the most significant effects on surface wave generation and ground motion amplification. The configuration for 2.5D wave ...

  6. 2.5D Simulation of basin-edge effects on the ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ation patterns using a double-couple source, cor- roborate with each other in the xz-plane (figure 1). Narayan (2001) also reported that site-specific ground motion can be predicted just by rotating the strike of the fault in the anti-clockwise direction by the same amount as the azimuth of the site with respect to the epicenter.

  7. Effects of air pollution and simulated acid rain on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenkirchen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Descriptive and experimental studies on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests in Bavaria indicated the following phenomena: a. In N-limited pine forests recent eutrophication effects occur. b. The structure of the moss layer in coniferous forests sensitively reacts to very acid throughfall water (pH [de

  8. Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-Grounded Hypotheses from Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Har, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, "Interact", can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal…

  9. Simulation tests of plastic-packaged commercial SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, O.A.; Nikiforov, A.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Laser and X-ray simulation test technique is developed adopted to plastic-packaged ICs. Dose rate and total dose test results are presented for two types of commercial RAMS. Dose rate and total dose test results were obtained for two types of commercial RAMS: AS7C256-20 256 K (32 K x 8) and MT5C1008W - 1 M (128 K x 8). The latch-up of AS7C256-20 was detected at dose rate 1.510 9 rad(Si)/s and of MT5C1008W - at dose rate 5.7-10 8 rad(Si)/s. The total dose failure thresholds were in the ranges of 55 to 90 krad(Si) for AS7C25620 and 40 to 328 krad for MT5C1008W depending on RAM operational mode under irradiation. The obtained simulation test results are in a good agreement with previously published for radiation installations. (authors)

  10. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  11. Transient productivity index for numerical well test simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, G.; Ding, D.Y.; Ene, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Pau (France)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The most difficult aspect of numerical simulation of well tests is the treatment of the Bottom Hole Flowing (BHF) Pressure. In full field simulations, this pressure is derived from the Well-block Pressure (WBP) using a numerical productivity index which accounts for the grid size and permeability, and for the well completion. This productivity index is calculated assuming a pseudo-steady state flow regime in the vicinity of the well and is therefore constant during the well production period. Such a pseudo-steady state assumption is no longer valid for the early time of a well test simulation as long as the pressure perturbation has not reached several grid-blocks around the well. This paper offers two different solutions to this problem: (1) The first one is based on the derivation of a Numerical Transient Productivity Index (NTPI) to be applied to Cartesian grids; (2) The second one is based on the use of a Corrected Transmissibility and Accumulation Term (CTAT) in the flow equation. The representation of the pressure behavior given by both solutions is far more accurate than the conventional one as shown by several validation examples which are presented in the following pages.

  12. [Short-term effects of low intensity thinning simulated by gap on ground microclimate and soil nutrients of pure spruce plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Pang, Xue-Yong; Bao, Wei-Kai

    2010-03-01

    Taking a dense spruce pure plantation as test object and simulating the formation of natural forest gap, this paper studied the effects of low intensity thinning by gap creation on the ground temperature, ground humidity, and nutrient contents in different soil layers of the plantation. In the first year of gap creation, the mean diurnal temperature in the gap across the growth season (May - September) increased, while the mean diurnal humidity decreased. The soil organic matter (SOM) and NH4(+) -N contents in O-horizon (humus layer) increased by 19.62% and 283.85%, and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and NO3(-) -N contents decreased by 77.86% and 23.60%, respectively. The SOM, total nitrogen (TN), and NO3(-) -N contents in 0-10 cm soil layer increased by 45.77%, 37.14%, and 75.11%, and the NH4(+) -N, DOC, and total phosphorus (TP) contents decreased by 48.56%, 33.33%, and 13.11%, respectively. All the results suggested that low intensity thinning by gap creation could rapidly improve the ground microclimate of the plantation, and consequently, promote the soil microbial activity and mineralization processes in O-horizon, the release of soil nutrients, and the restoration of soil fertility.

  13. Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Simulation of Ground Motions from the August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Arthur J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dreger, Douglas S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pitarka, Arben [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We performed three-dimensional (3D) anelastic ground motion simulations of the South Napa earthquake to investigate the performance of different finite rupture models and the effects of 3D structure on the observed wavefield. We considered rupture models reported by Dreger et al. (2015), Ji et al., (2015), Wei et al. (2015) and Melgar et al. (2015). We used the SW4 anelastic finite difference code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Petersson and Sjogreen, 2013) and distributed by the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics. This code can compute the seismic response for fully 3D sub-surface models, including surface topography and linear anelasticity. We use the 3D geologic/seismic model of the San Francisco Bay Area developed by the United States Geological Survey (Aagaard et al., 2008, 2010). Evaluation of earlier versions of this model indicated that the structure can reproduce main features of observed waveforms from moderate earthquakes (Rodgers et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2010). Simulations were performed for a domain covering local distances (< 25 km) and resolution providing simulated ground motions valid to 1 Hz.

  14. Simulations of the Holuhraun eruption 2014 with WRF-Chem and evaluation with satellite and ground based SO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Arnold-Arias, Delia; Flandorfer, Claudia; Maurer, Christian; Mantovani, Simone; Natali, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions, with gas or/and particle emissions, directly influence our environment, with special significance when they either occur near inhabited regions or are transported towards them. In addition to the well-known affectation of air traffic, with large economic impacts, the ground touching plumes can lead directly to an influence of soil, water and even to a decrease of air quality. The eruption of Holuhraun in August 2014 in central Iceland is the country's largest lava and gas eruption since the Lakagígar eruption in 1783. Nevertheless, very little volcanic ash was produced. The main atmospheric threat from this event was the SO2 pollution that frequently violated the Icelandic National Air Quality Standards in many population centers. However, the SO2 affectation was not limited to Iceland but extended to mainland Europe. The on-line coupled model WRF-Chem is used to simulate the dispersion of SO2 for this event that affected the central European regions. The volcanic emissions are considered in addition to the anthropogenic and biogenic ground sources at European scale. A modified version of WRF-Chem version 4.1 is used in order to use time depending injection heights and mass fluxes which were obtained from in situ observations. WRF-Chem uses complex gas- (RADM2) and aerosol- (MADE-SORGAM) chemistry and is operated on a European domain (12 km resolution), and a nested grid covering the Alpine region (4 km resolution). The study is showing the evaluation of the model simulations with satellite and ground based measurement data of SO2. The analysis is conducted on a data management platform, which is currently developed in the frame of the ESA-funded project TAMP "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform": it provides comprehensive functionalities to visualize and numerically compare data from different sources (model, satellite and ground-measurements).

  15. An interactive physics-based unmanned ground vehicle simulator leveraging open source gaming technology: progress in the development and application of the virtual autonomous navigation environment (VANE) desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Mitchell M.; Crawford, Justin; Toschlog, Matthew; Iagnemma, Karl D.; Kewlani, Guarav; Cummins, Christopher L.; Jones, Randolph A.; Horner, David A.

    2009-05-01

    It is widely recognized that simulation is pivotal to vehicle development, whether manned or unmanned. There are few dedicated choices, however, for those wishing to perform realistic, end-to-end simulations of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE), under development by US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), provides such capabilities but utilizes a High Performance Computing (HPC) Computational Testbed (CTB) and is not intended for on-line, real-time performance. A product of the VANE HPC research is a real-time desktop simulation application under development by the authors that provides a portal into the HPC environment as well as interaction with wider-scope semi-automated force simulations (e.g. OneSAF). This VANE desktop application, dubbed the Autonomous Navigation Virtual Environment Laboratory (ANVEL), enables analysis and testing of autonomous vehicle dynamics and terrain/obstacle interaction in real-time with the capability to interact within the HPC constructive geo-environmental CTB for high fidelity sensor evaluations. ANVEL leverages rigorous physics-based vehicle and vehicle-terrain interaction models in conjunction with high-quality, multimedia visualization techniques to form an intuitive, accurate engineering tool. The system provides an adaptable and customizable simulation platform that allows developers a controlled, repeatable testbed for advanced simulations. ANVEL leverages several key technologies not common to traditional engineering simulators, including techniques from the commercial video-game industry. These enable ANVEL to run on inexpensive commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. In this paper, the authors describe key aspects of ANVEL and its development, as well as several initial applications of the system.

  16. AN INNOVATIVE SKI-BOOT: DESIGN, NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS AND TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Corazza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is concerned with the design of an innovative ski-boot. In order to optimize ergonomics and biomechanical behavior of the ski-boot it is important to take into account the orientation of the leg with respect to the ground. The SGS system (Stance Geometry System developed in this work allows the skier to adjust for posture in the frontal plane by rotating the sole of the boot about the antero-posterior axis (ski-boot is then locked in the desired position before skiing. A simplified model of the effect of ski-boot deformation on skiing behavior is used to evaluate the minimal stiffness the system must have. An experimental analysis on the ski slopes was carried out to provide ski-boot deformations and loading data in different skiing conditions, to be used in numerical simulations. Finite Elements Method (FEM simulations were performed for optimal design of the joint between ski-boot and sole. The active loads and local ski-boot deformations during small- and large-radius turns were experimentally determined and used to validate a FEM model of the ski-boot. The model was used to optimize the design for maximum stiffness and to demonstrate the efficacy of virtual design supported by proper experimental data. Mean loads up to 164% body weight were measured on the outer ski during turning. The new SGS design system allows the adjustment of lateral stance before using the ski-boot, optimizing the ski-boot stiffness through FEM analysis. Innovative aspects of this work included not only the stance geometry system ski-boot but also the setup of a virtual design environment that was validated by experimental evidence. An entire dataset describing loads during skiing has been obtained. The optimized SGS ski-boot increases intrinsic knee stability due to proper adjustment of lateral stance, guaranteeing appropriate stiffness of the ski-boot system

  17. Comparison of road load simulator test results with track tests on electric vehicle propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.

  18. Simulation and test of 3D silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleta, C.; Pennicard, D.; Bates, R.; Parkes, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Wright, V.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented here is the result of the collaborative effort between the University of Glasgow, ITC-IRST (Trento) and IMB-CNM (Barcelona) in the framework of the CERN-RD50 Collaboration to produce 3D silicon radiation detectors and study their performance. This paper reports on two sets of 3D devices. IRST and CNM have fabricated a set of single-type column 3D detectors, which have columnar electrodes of the same doping type and an ohmic contact located at the backplane. Simulations of the device behaviour and electrical test results are presented. In particular, current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and charge collection efficiency measurements are reported. Other types of structures called double-sided 3D detectors are currently being fabricated at CNM. In these detectors the sets of n and p columns are made on opposite sides of the device. Electrical and technological simulations and first processing results are presented

  19. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are γ-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  20. Note: Simulation and test of a strip source electron gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Islam, G U; Misbah, I; Iqbal, O; Zhou, Z

    2014-06-01

    We present simulation and test of an indirectly heated strip source electron beam gun assembly using Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) electron beam trajectory program. The beam is now sharply focused with 3.04 mm diameter in the post anode region at 15.9 mm. The measured emission current and emission density were 1.12 A and 1.15 A/cm(2), respectively, that corresponds to power density of 11.5 kW/cm(2), at 10 kV acceleration potential. The simulated results were compared with then and now experiments and found in agreement. The gun is without any biasing, electrostatic and magnetic fields; hence simple and inexpensive. Moreover, it is now more powerful and is useful for accelerators technology due to high emission and low emittance parameters.

  1. Testing of an Integrated Reactor Core Simulator and Power Conversion System with Simulated Reactivity Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Hervol, David S.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    A Direct Drive Gas-Cooled (DDG) reactor core simulator has been coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) for integrated system testing at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio. This is a closed-cycle system that incorporates an electrically heated reactor core module, turboalternator, recuperator, and gas cooler. Nuclear fuel elements in the gas-cooled reactor design are replaced with electric resistance heaters to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel in the corresponding fast spectrum nuclear reactor. The thermodynamic transient behavior of the integrated system was the focus of this test series. In order to better mimic the integrated response of the nuclear-fueled system, a simulated reactivity feedback control loop was implemented. Core power was controlled by a point kinetics model in which the reactivity feedback was based on core temperature measurements; the neutron generation time and the temperature feedback coefficient are provided as model inputs. These dynamic system response tests demonstrate the overall capability of a non-nuclear test facility in assessing system integration issues and characterizing integrated system response times and response characteristics.

  2. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  3. Strong ground motion prediction applying dynamic rupture simulations for Beppu-Haneyama Active Fault Zone, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, M.; Matsushima, S.; Ando, R.; Miyake, H.; Imanishi, K.; Hayashida, T.; Takenaka, H.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuyama, H.

    2017-12-01

    We conducted strong ground motion prediction for the active Beppu-Haneyama Fault zone (BHFZ), Kyushu island, southwestern Japan. Since the BHFZ runs through Oita and Beppy cities, strong ground motion as well as fault displacement may affect much to the cities.We constructed a 3-dimensional velocity structure of a sedimentary basin, Beppu bay basin, where the fault zone runs through and Oita and Beppu cities are located. Minimum shear wave velocity of the 3d model is 500 m/s. Additional 1-d structure is modeled for sites with softer sediment: holocene plain area. We observed, collected, and compiled data obtained from microtremor surveys, ground motion observations, boreholes etc. phase velocity and H/V ratio. Finer structure of the Oita Plain is modeled, as 250m-mesh model, with empirical relation among N-value, lithology, depth and Vs, using borehole data, then validated with the phase velocity data obtained by the dense microtremor array observation (Yoshimi et al., 2016).Synthetic ground motion has been calculated with a hybrid technique composed of a stochastic Green's function method (for HF wave), a 3D finite difference (LF wave) and 1D amplification calculation. Fault geometry has been determined based on reflection surveys and active fault map. The rake angles are calculated with a dynamic rupture simulation considering three fault segments under a stress filed estimated from source mechanism of earthquakes around the faults (Ando et al., JpGU-AGU2017). Fault parameters such as the average stress drop, a size of asperity etc. are determined based on an empirical relation proposed by Irikura and Miyake (2001). As a result, strong ground motion stronger than 100 cm/s is predicted in the hanging wall side of the Oita plain.This work is supported by the Comprehensive Research on the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  4. SOFI Simulation Tool: A Software Package for Simulating and Testing Super-Resolution Optical Fluctuation Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsault, Arik; Lukes, Tomas; Sharipov, Azat; Geissbuehler, Stefan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Vandenberg, Wim; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Lasser, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) allows one to perform sub-diffraction fluorescence microscopy of living cells. By analyzing the acquired image sequence with an advanced correlation method, i.e. a high-order cross-cumulant analysis, super-resolution in all three spatial dimensions can be achieved. Here we introduce a software tool for a simple qualitative comparison of SOFI images under simulated conditions considering parameters of the microscope setup and essential properties of the biological sample. This tool incorporates SOFI and STORM algorithms, displays and describes the SOFI image processing steps in a tutorial-like fashion. Fast testing of various parameters simplifies the parameter optimization prior to experimental work. The performance of the simulation tool is demonstrated by comparing simulated results with experimentally acquired data.

  5. Ground motion simulation for the 23 August 2011, Mineral, Virginia earthquake using physics-based and stochastic broadband methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodan; Hartzell, Stephen; Rezaeian, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    Three broadband simulation methods are used to generate synthetic ground motions for the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and compare with observed motions. The methods include a physics‐based model by Hartzell et al. (1999, 2005), a stochastic source‐based model by Boore (2009), and a stochastic site‐based model by Rezaeian and Der Kiureghian (2010, 2012). The ground‐motion dataset consists of 40 stations within 600 km of the epicenter. Several metrics are used to validate the simulations: (1) overall bias of response spectra and Fourier spectra (from 0.1 to 10 Hz); (2) spatial distribution of residuals for GMRotI50 peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity, and pseudospectral acceleration (PSA) at various periods; (3) comparison with ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for the eastern United States. Our results show that (1) the physics‐based model provides satisfactory overall bias from 0.1 to 10 Hz and produces more realistic synthetic waveforms; (2) the stochastic site‐based model also yields more realistic synthetic waveforms and performs superiorly for frequencies greater than about 1 Hz; (3) the stochastic source‐based model has larger bias at lower frequencies (frequency content in the time domain. The spatial distribution of GMRotI50 residuals shows that there is no obvious pattern with distance in the simulation bias, but there is some azimuthal variability. The comparison between synthetics and GMPEs shows similar fall‐off with distance for all three models, comparable PGA and PSA amplitudes for the physics‐based and stochastic site‐based models, and systematic lower amplitudes for the stochastic source‐based model at lower frequencies (<0.5  Hz).

  6. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  7. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(reg s ign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  8. Testing predictors of eruptivity using parametric flux emergence simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guennou Chloé

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs are among the most energetic events in the solar system, impacting the near-Earth environment. Flare productivity is empirically known to be correlated with the size and complexity of active regions. Several indicators, based on magnetic field data from active regions, have been tested for flare forecasting in recent years. None of these indicators, or combinations thereof, have yet demonstrated an unambiguous eruption or flare criterion. Furthermore, numerical simulations have been only barely used to test the predictability of these parameters. In this context, we used the 3D parametric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD numerical simulations of the self-consistent formation of the flux emergence of a twisted flux tube, inducing the formation of stable and unstable magnetic flux ropes of Leake et al. (2013, 2014. We use these numerical simulations to investigate the eruptive signatures observable in various magnetic scalar parameters and provide highlights on data analysis processing. Time series of 2D photospheric-like magnetograms are used from parametric simulations of stable and unstable flux emergence, to compute a list of about 100 different indicators. This list includes parameters previously used for operational forecasting, physical parameters used for the first time, as well as new quantities specifically developed for this purpose. Our results indicate that only parameters measuring the total non-potentiality of active regions associated with magnetic inversion line properties, such as the Falconer parameters Lss, WLss, Lsg, and WLsg, as well as the new current integral WLsc and length Lsc parameters, present a significant ability to distinguish the eruptive cases of the model from the non-eruptive cases, possibly indicating that they are promising flare and eruption predictors. A preliminary study about the effect of noise on the detection of the eruptive signatures is also proposed.

  9. Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Responses in Simulated Strong Ground Motions: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Big One

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the response of steel moment-resisting frame buildings in simulated strong ground motions. I collect 37 simulations of crustal earthquakes in California. These ground motions are applied to nonlinear finite element models of four types of steel moment frame buildings: six- or twenty-stories with either a stiffer, higherstrength design or a more flexible, lower-strength design. I also consider the presence of fracture-prone welds in each design. Since these b...

  10. Geohydrology and numerical simulation of ground-water flow in the central Virgin River basin of Iron and Washington Countries, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Freethey, G.W.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Stolp, B.J.; Wilberg, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Because rapid growth of communities in Washington and Iron Counties, Utah, is expected to cause an increase in the future demand for water resources, a hydrologic investigation was done to better understand ground-water resources within the central Virgin River basin. This study focused on two of the principal ground-water reservoirs within the basin: the upper Ash Creek basin ground-water system and the Navajo and Kayenta aquifer system. The ground-water system of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin consists of three aquifers: the uppermost Quaternary basin-fill aquifer, the Tertiary alluvial-fan aquifer, and the Tertiary Pine Valley monzonite aquifer. These aquifers are naturally bounded by the Hurricane Fault and by drainage divides. On the basis of measurements, estimates, and numerical simulations of reasonable values for all inflow and outflow components, total water moving through the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is estimated to be about 14,000 acre-feet per year. Recharge to the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is mostly from infiltration of precipitation and seepage from ephemeral and perennial streams. The primary source of discharge is assumed to be evapotranspiration; however, subsurface discharge near Ash Creek Reservoir also may be important. The character of two of the hydrologic boundaries of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is speculative. The eastern boundary provided by the Hurricane Fault is assumed to be a no-flow boundary, and a substantial part of the ground-water discharge from the system is assumed to be subsurface outflow beneath Ash Creek Reservoir along the southern boundary. However, these assumptions might be incorrect because alternative numerical simulations that used different boundary conditions also proved to be feasible. The hydrogeologic character of the aquifers is uncertain because of limited data. Difference in well yield indicate that there is considerable

  11. About condition of soil ground at locations of the former Azgir nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.; Ermatov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Soil condition after underground nuclear explosions at locations of the test sites is considered. The region is situated in the zone of northern deserts and characterized by prevalence of greyish-brown soils in conditions of sharply continental climate and presence of salt in soil-formative complex including tertiary clays, loess-like loam, loam sands and sands. There are small quantity of humus in such soil. During investigation of soil characteristics and ability of soil particles to form conglomerates, possessing of different properties, it is necessary to know both element and phase composition, determining, in the most extent, such physical and mechanical macro-characteristics as: density, stickiness, air and water penetrability, solubility, chemical resistance, granulometric set and others. Phase composition of soil samples can be, to a sufficient extent, determined by the X-ray diffractometry methods using ordinary X-ray experimental facilities. Phase composition of soil includes gypsum, quartz, calcium, potash feldspar hematite, kaolin, peach and mica in different quantities. Data on element composition of soil samples were obtained from the territory of technological locations of test site using the method of X-ray-fluorescent analysis. Granulometric composition of soil ground has been investigated using the methods of dry sieving and wet sieving for determination of radionuclide distribution in different fractions of soil particles. By the method of the dry sieving of soil ground samples there are taken place a sticking the small together of fine fractions and an adhesion of stuck-together particles to more large ones. Therefore, fine fractions cannot be separate completely at dry sieving. As distinct from the dry sieving an use of water jet in the sieving allows to overcome defects of the dry method and, by a sufficiently effective separation of granulometric fractions, to obtain more precise results of investigations of granulometric

  12. Lessons Learned from Biosphere 2: When Viewed as a Ground Simulation/Analogue for Long Duration Human Space Exploration and Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, T.; Poynter, J.; Bearden, D.

    A human mission to Mars, or a base on the Moon or Mars, is a longer and more complex mission than any space endeavor undertaken to date. Ground simulations provide a relevant, analogous environment for testing technologies and learning how to manage complex, long duration missions, while addressing inherent mission risks. Multiphase human missions and settlements that may preclude a rapid return to Earth, require high fidelity, end-to-end, at least full mission duration tests in order to evaluate a system's ability to sustain the crew for the entire mission and return the crew safely to Earth. Moreover, abort scenarios are essentially precluded in many mission scenarios, though certain risks may only become evident late in the mission. Aging and compounding effects cannot be simulated through accelerated tests for all aspects of the mission. Until such high fidelity long duration simulations are available, and in order to help prepare those simulations and mission designs, it is important to extract as many lessons as possible from analogous environments. Possibly the best analogue for a long duration space mission is the two year mission of Biosphere 2. Biosphere 2 is a three-acre materially closed ecological system that supported eight crewmembers with food, air and water in a sunlight driven bioregenerative system for two years. It was designed for research applicable to environmental management on Earth and the development of human life support for space. A brief overview of the two-year Biosphere 2 mission is presented, followed by select data and lessons learned that are applicable to the design and operation of a long duration human space mission, settlement or test bed. These lessons include technical, programmatic, and psychological issues

  13. Probabilistic low-rank factorization accelerates tensor network simulations of critical quantum many-body ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Lucas; Tschirsich, Ferdinand; Keck, Maximilian; Plenio, Martin B.; Tamascelli, Dario; Montangero, Simone

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that randomized low-rank factorization is a powerful tool for the determination of the ground-state properties of low-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians through tensor network techniques. In particular, we show that randomized matrix factorization outperforms truncated singular value decomposition based on state-of-the-art deterministic routines in time-evolving block decimation (TEBD)- and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-style simulations, even when the system under study gets close to a phase transition: We report linear speedups in the bond or local dimension of up to 24 times in quasi-two-dimensional cylindrical systems.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  15. Towards an understanding of the attributes of simulation that enable learning in undergraduate nurse education: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Andrew J; Tobbell, Jane

    2016-09-01

    Simulation has become an established feature of nurse education yet little is understood about the mechanisms that lead to learning. To explore the attributes of simulation-based education that enable student learning in undergraduate nurse education. Final year students drawn from one UK University (n=46) participated in a grounded theory study. First, nonparticipant observation and video recording of student activity was undertaken. Following initial analysis, recordings and observations were deconstructed during focus group interviews that enabled both the researcher and participants to unpack meaning. Lastly emergent findings were verified with final year students drawn from a second UK University (n=6). A staged approach to learning emerged from engagement in simulation. This began with initial hesitation as students moved through nonlinear stages to making connections and thinking like a nurse. Core findings suggest that simulation enables curiosity and intellect (main concern) through doing (core category) and interaction with others identified as social collaboration (category). This study offers a theoretical basis for understanding simulation-based education and integration of strategies that maximise the potential for learning. Additionally it offers direction for further research, particularly with regards to how the application of theory to practice is accelerated through learning by doing and working collaboratively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-Speed Gearbox Dynamic Simulation Predictions and Test Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; DeSmidt, Hans; Smith, Edward C.; Bauman, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic simulations and experimental validation tests were performed on a two-stage, two-speed gearbox as part of the drive system research activities of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Rotary Wing Project. The gearbox was driven by two electromagnetic motors and had two electromagnetic, multi-disk clutches to control output speed. A dynamic model of the system was created which included a direct current electric motor with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) speed control, a two-speed gearbox with dual electromagnetically actuated clutches, and an eddy current dynamometer. A six degree-of-freedom model of the gearbox accounted for the system torsional dynamics and included gear, clutch, shaft, and load inertias as well as shaft flexibilities and a dry clutch stick-slip friction model. Experimental validation tests were performed on the gearbox in the NASA Glenn gear noise test facility. Gearbox output speed and torque as well as drive motor speed and current were compared to those from the analytical predictions. The experiments correlate very well with the predictions, thus validating the dynamic simulation methodologies.

  17. Secondary Waste Simulant Development for Cast Stone Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a waste form testing program to implement aspects of the Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Cast Stone Technology Development Plan (Ashley 2012) and the Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap (PNNL 2009) related to the development and qualification of Cast Stone as a potential waste form for the solidification of aqueous wastes from the Hanford Site after the aqueous wastes are treated at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The current baseline is that the resultant Cast Stone (or grout) solid waste forms would be disposed at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Data and results of this testing program will be used in the upcoming performance assessment of the IDF and in the design and operation of a solidification treatment unit planned to be added to the ETF. The purpose of the work described in this report is to 1) develop simulants for the waste streams that are currently being fed and future WTP secondary waste streams also to be fed into the ETF and 2) prepare simulants to use for preparation of grout or Cast Stone solid waste forms for testing.

  18. Constraining seismic velocity features combining short and long period signals: Test ground is Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Fatih; Eken, Tuna; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    Verifying the seismic velocity models requires combining different techniques to obtain more reliable basement for further steps, e.g., earthquake location, moment tensor analysis etc. Especially, 2D/3D heterogeneities and velocity contrasts are the key unknowns to be addressed in order to achieve the best-possible setup for further analysis. In that frame, short and long period signals are combined to better constrain the unusual velocity features. Our approach employs P-wave particle motions and receiver functions to discriminate the velocity structure of different crustal blocks. P-wave particle motions are basically used to differentiate direction of incoming waves, which is an indirect measure of potential velocity contrast/heterogeneity in horizontal axis. In the meanwhile, P-wave receiver functions are used to estimate frequency dependent S-wave velocities at different crustal spots. Turkey, seismically the most active region in Europe, is selected to be the test ground for joint analysis scheme. The region has been continuously monitored by AFAD (Prime Ministry, Ankara) and Kandilli Observatory (Boğaziçi Üniversity, Istanbul). Furthermore, some particular regions have been densely monitored for a couple of years by temporary seismic networks, e.g., the IRIS network deployed in the frame of the North Anatolian Fault experiment. We integrated all available data to reach to the highest possible coverage for selected test sites. The results are jointly interpreted to refine existing crustal models in Turkey.

  19. PhoneSat: Ground Testing of a Phone-Based Prototype Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Carmen; Howard, Benjamin; Reyes, Matthew; Snarskiy, Fedor; Hickman, Ryan; Boshuizen, Christopher; Marshall, William

    2010-01-01

    Most of the key capabilities that are requisite of a satellite bus are housed in today's smart phones. PhoneSat refers to an initiative to build a ground-based prototype vehicle that could all the basic functionality of a satellite, including attitude control, using a smart Phone as its central hardware. All components used were also low cost Commercial off the Shelf (COTS). In summer 2009, an initial prototype was created using the LEGO Mindstorm toolkit demonstrating simple attitude control. Here we report on a follow up initiative to design, build and test a vehicle based on the Google s smart phone Nexus One. The report includes results from initial thermal-vacuum chamber tests and low altitude sub-orbital rocket flights which show that, at least for short durations, the Nexus One phone is able to withstand key aspects of the space environment without failure. We compare the sensor data from the Phone's accelerometers and magnetometers with that of an external microelectronic inertial measurement unit.

  20. Operational Phase Life Cycle Assessment of Select NASA Ground Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Marshall, Timothy J.; McGinnis, Sean

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) is responsible for many large, high-energy ground test facilities that accomplish the nation s most advanced aerospace research. In order to accomplish these national objectives, significant energy and resources are consumed. A select group of facilities was analyzed using life-cycle assessment (LCA) to determine carbon footprint and environmental impacts. Most of these impacts stem from electricity and natural gas consumption, used directly at the facility and to generate support processes such as compressed air and steam. Other activities were analyzed but determined to be smaller in scale and frequency with relatively negligible environmental impacts. More specialized facilities use R-134a, R-14, jet fuels, or nitrogen gas, and these unique inputs can have a considerable effect on a facility s overall environmental impact. The results of this LCA will be useful to ATP and NASA as the nation looks to identify its top energy consumers and NASA looks to maximize research output and minimize environmental impact. Keywords: NASA, Aeronautics, Wind tunnel, Keyword 4, Keyword 5

  1. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    . For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April - May 2008, a control area of 10 × 10 km2 was chosen at the VAS study area where a network of ground soil moisture (SM) measuring stations is being set up based on an original definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units attending to climatic......, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over this control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft which contained onboard a payload constituted...... of the following instruments: (i) L-band EMIRAD radiometer (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) L-band HUT-2D imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish Institute of Maritime Research, FIMR...

  2. Achieving sustainable ground-water management by using GIS-integrated simulation tools: the EU H2020 FREEWAT platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; De Filippis, Giovanna; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura; Toegl, Anja; Cannata, Massimiliano; Neumann, Jakob; Vazquez-Sune, Enric; Criollo, Rotman

    2017-04-01

    In order to achieve sustainable and participated ground-water management, innovative software built on the integration of numerical models within GIS software is a perfect candidate to provide a full characterization of quantitative and qualitative aspects of ground- and surface-water resources maintaining the time and spatial dimension. The EU H2020 FREEWAT project (FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management; Rossetto et al., 2015) aims at simplifying the application of EU water-related Directives through an open-source and public-domain, GIS-integrated simulation platform for planning and management of ground- and surface-water resources. The FREEWAT platform allows to simulate the whole hydrological cycle, coupling the power of GIS geo-processing and post-processing tools in spatial data analysis with that of process-based simulation models. This results in a modeling environment where large spatial datasets can be stored, managed and visualized and where several simulation codes (mainly belonging to the USGS MODFLOW family) are integrated to simulate multiple hydrological, hydrochemical or economic processes. So far, the FREEWAT platform is a large plugin for the QGIS GIS desktop software and it integrates the following capabilities: • the AkvaGIS module allows to produce plots and statistics for the analysis and interpretation of hydrochemical and hydrogeological data; • the Observation Analysis Tool, to facilitate the import, analysis and visualization of time-series data and the use of these data to support model construction and calibration; • groundwater flow simulation in the saturated and unsaturated zones may be simulated using MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005); • multi-species advective-dispersive transport in the saturated zone can be simulated using MT3DMS (Zheng & Wang, 1999); the possibility to simulate viscosity- and density-dependent flows is further accomplished through SEAWAT (Langevin et al., 2007); • sustainable

  3. Methanogenic biodegradation of creosote contaminants in natural and simulated ground-water ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsy, E. Michael; Goerlitz, Donald; Grbic-Galic, Dunja

    1992-01-01

    Wastes from a wood preserving plant in Pensacola, Florida have contaminated the near-surface sand-and-gravel aquifer with creosote-derived compounds and pentachlorophenol. Contamination resulted from the discharge of plant waste waters to and subsequent seepage from unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the ground water. Two distinct phases resulted when the creosote and water mixed: a denser than water hydrocarbon phase that moved vertically downward, and an organic-rich aqueous phase that moved laterally with the ground-water flow. The aqueous phase is enriched in organic acids, phenolic compounds, single- and double-ring nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen containing compounds, and single- and double-ring aromatic hydrocarbons. The ground water is devoid of dissolved O2, is 60-70% saturated with CH4 and contains H2S. Field analyses document a greater decrease in concentration of organic fatty acids, benzoic acid, phenol, 2-, 3-, 4-methylphenol, quinoline, isoquinoline, 1(2H)-quinolinone, and 2(1H)-isoquinolinone during downgradient movement in the aquifer than could be explained by dilution and/or dispersion. Laboratory microcosm studies have shown that within the study region, this effect can be attributed to microbial degradation to CH4 and CO2. A small but active methanogenic population was found on sediment materials taken from highly contaminated parts of the aquifer.

  4. Development of testing and training simulator for CEDMCS in KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, C. H.; Park, C. Y.; Nam, J. I.; Yook, S. K.; Cho, C. I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a newly developed testing and training simulator (TTS) for automatically diagnosing and tuning the Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System (CEDMCS). TTS includes a new automatic, diagnostic, method for logic control cards and a new tuning method for phase synchronous pulse cards. In Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP). reactor trips occasionally occur due to a damaged logic control card in CEDMCS. However, there is no pre-diagnostic tester available to detect a damaged card in CEDMCS before it causes a reactor trip. Even after the reactor trip occurs, it is difficult to find the damaged card. To find the damaged card. ICT is usually used. ICT is an automated, computer-controlled testing system with measurement capabilities for testing active and passive components, or clusters of components, on printed circuit boards (PCB) and/or assemblies. However, ICT cannot detect a time dependent fault correctly and requires removal of the waterproof mating to perform the test. Therefore, the additional procedure of re-coating the PCB card is required after the test. TTS for CEDMCS is designed based on real plant conditions, both electrically and mechanically. Therefore, the operator can operate the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM), which is mounted on the closure head of the reactor vessel (RV) using the soft control panel in ITS, which duplicates the Main Control Board (MCB) in the Main Control Room (MCR). However, during the generation of electric power in a nuclear power plant, it is difficult to operate the CEDM so a CEDM and Control Element Assembly (CEA) mock-up facility was developed to simulate a real plant CEDM. ITS was used for diagnosing and tuning control logic cards in CEDMCS in the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant No. 4 during the plant overhaul period. It exhibited good performance in detecting the damaged cards and tuning the phase synchronous pulse cards. In addition, TTS was useful in training the CEDMCS operator by

  5. Simulation of integral local tests with high-burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyori, G.

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of nuclear fuel under LOCA conditions may strongly depend on the burnup-dependent fuel characteristics, as it has been indicated by recent integral experiments. Fuel fragmentation and the associated fission gas release can influence the integral fuel behaviour, the rod rupture and the radiological release. The TRANSURANUS fuel performance code is a proper tool for the consistent simulation of burnup-dependent phenomena during normal operation and the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod in a subsequent accident. The code has been extended with an empirical model for micro-cracking induced FGR and fuel fragmentation and verified against integral LOCA tests of international projects. (author)

  6. Simulation/optimization applications and software for optimal ground-water and conjunctive water management

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Diverse water management simulation/optimization (S/O) experiences promoted the development of many S/O modeling approaches and models. Several of these are being incorporated within the Simulation/Optimization Modeling System (SOMOS). Non-modeler water scientists or engineers can apply one SOMOS module to optimize field-scale groundwater and conjunctive water management. Experienced groundwater modelers can apply other modules to optimally manage complex heterogeneous aquifer and stream-aqui...

  7. T-4G Simulator and T-4 Ground Training Devices in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.

    The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…

  8. Design of a Realistic Test Simulator For a Built-In Self Test Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a realistic test approach suitable to Design For Testability (DFT and Built- In Self Test (BIST environments. The approach is culminated in the form of a test simulator which is capable of providing a required goal of test for the System Under Test (SUT. The simulator uses the approach of fault diagnostics with fault grading procedure to provide the tests. The tool is developed on a common PC platform and hence no special software is required. Thereby, it is a low cost tool and hence economical. The tool is very much suitable for determining realistic test sequences for a targeted goal of testing for any SUT. The developed tool incorporates a flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI procedure and can be operated without any special programming skill. The tool is debugged and tested with the results of many bench mark circuits. Further, this developed tool can be utilized for educational purposes for many courses such as fault-tolerant computing, fault diagnosis, digital electronics, and safe - reliable - testable digital logic designs.

  9. Preliminary Results on Simulations of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) detected by The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez Rivera, O.; Lara, A.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently under construction at the Sierra Negra Volcano, Puebla in Mexico. Located 4100 m above sea level, this large array is mainly designed to observe high energy gamma rays (TeV). However, by recording scaler data that correspond to the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes, the detection and study of solar energetic particles (known as Ground Level Enhancements) as well as the decrease of the cosmic ray flux due to solar transients (known as Forbush decreases) will also be possible. In order to determine the response of the array to solar transients, we have performed simulations of the scaler output using different sub-array configurations. We present here our preliminary results of such simulations and their comparison with observed Forbush decreases.

  10. Growth and inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth and validation in ground pork meat during simulated home storage abusive temperature and home pan-frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground pork meat with natural microbiota and inoculated with low initial densities (1-10 or 10-100 CFU/g of Salmonella enterica or Listeria monocytogenes was stored under abusive temperature at 10°C and thermally treated by a simulated home pan-frying procedure. The growth and inactivation characteristics were also evaluated in broth. In ground pork meat, the population of S. enterica increased by less than one log after 12-days of storage at 10°C, whereas L. monocytogenes increased by 2.3 to 2.8 log units. No unusual intrinsic heat resistance of the pathogens was noted when tested in broth at 60°C although shoulders were observed on the inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes. After growth of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes at 10°C for 5 days to levels of 1.95 log CFU/g and 3.10 log CFU/g, respectively, in ground pork meat, their inactivation in the burger subjected to a simulated home pan-frying was studied. After thermal treatment S. enterica was undetectable but L. monocytogenes was recovered in three out of six of the 25 g burger samples. Overall, the present study shows that data on growth and inactivation of broths are indicative but may underestimate as well as overestimate behavior of pathogens and thus need confirmation in food matrix conditions to assess food safety in reasonably foreseen abusive conditions of storage and usual home pan-frying of of meat burgers in Belgium.

  11. Growth and inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth and validation in ground pork meat during simulated home storage abusive temperature and home pan-frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Lahou, Evy; De Boeck, Elien; Devlieghere, Frank; Geeraerd, Annemie; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Ground pork meat with natural microbiota and inoculated with low initial densities (1-10 or 10-100 CFU/g) of Salmonella enterica or Listeria monocytogenes was stored under abusive temperature at 10°C and thermally treated by a simulated home pan-frying procedure. The growth and inactivation characteristics were also evaluated in broth. In ground pork meat, the population of S. enterica increased by less than one log after 12-days of storage at 10°C, whereas L. monocytogenes increased by 2.3 to 2.8 log units. No unusual intrinsic heat resistance of the pathogens was noted when tested in broth at 60°C although shoulders were observed on the inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes. After growth of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes at 10°C for 5 days to levels of 1.95 log CFU/g and 3.10 log CFU/g, respectively, in ground pork meat, their inactivation in the burger subjected to a simulated home pan-frying was studied. After thermal treatment S. enterica was undetectable but L. monocytogenes was recovered in three out of six of the 25 g burger samples. Overall, the present study shows that data on growth and inactivation of broths are indicative but may underestimate as well as overestimate behavior of pathogens and thus need confirmation in food matrix conditions to assess food safety in reasonably foreseen abusive conditions of storage and usual home pan-frying of meat burgers in Belgium.

  12. Monte Carlo transport simulation for a long counter neutron detector employed as a cosmic rays induced neutron monitor at ground level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazianotto, Mauricio Tizziani; Carlson, Brett Vern [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio Antonio; Goncalez, Odair Lelis [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Estudos Avancados

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Great effort is required to understand better the cosmic radiation (CR) dose received by sensitive equipment, on-board computers and aircraft crew members at Brazil airspace, because there is a large area of South America and Brazil subject to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). High energy neutrons are produced by interactions between primary cosmic ray and atmospheric atoms, and also undergo moderation resulting in a wider spectrum of energy ranging from thermal energies (0:025eV ) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. Measurements of the cosmic radiation dose on-board aircrafts need to be followed with an integral flow monitor on the ground level in order to register CR intensity variations during the measurements. The Long Counter (LC) neutron detector was designed as a directional neutron flux meter standard because it presents fairly constant response for energy under 10MeV. However we would like to use it as a ground based neutron monitor for cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum (CRINS) that presents an isotropic fluency and a wider spectrum of energy. The LC was modeled and tested using a Monte Carlo transport simulation for irradiations with known neutron sources ({sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 251}Cf) as a benchmark. Using this geometric model its efficiency was calculated to CRINS isotropic flux, introducing high energy neutron interactions models. The objective of this work is to present the model for simulation of the isotropic neutron source employing the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) and then access the LC efficiency to compare it with experimental results for cosmic ray neutrons measures on ground level. (author)

  13. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don; Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark; Viani, Brian; Drake, John; MacKinney, John

    2010-01-01

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  14. Peculiarities and opportunities of restoration of vegetation of experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plisak, R.P.; Plisak, S. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Geo-botanical researches at experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000. 26 ground and 87 air nuclear tests were conducted out at the territory in 1949-1962. It is found that for deluvial-proluvial plain: High level of radiation pollution of soils in the epicentre of nuclear explosions is limiting factor for vegetation rehabilitation. Under level of PED of γ-irradiation 14,000-16,000 μR/h vegetation restoration has not begun until now. Only single individuals of Artemisia frigida appear under PED of γ-irradiation 10,000-13,000 μR/h. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by annual-biennial weed species appear under PED of γ-irradiation 3,600-8,000 μR/h. Natural rehabilitation of vegetation occurs more intensively under PED of γ-irradiation of 60-200 μR/h. Vegetation aggregations close to initial zonal coenosis develop in these conditions. It is found that for tumulose: Vegetation restoration on the tops of hills starts with invasion of weed species. Plant aggregations with predominance of Caragana pumila, tyhedra distachya develop on accumulations of fine earth in cracks of mountain rocks. Lichens and mosses assimilate outcrops of mountain rocks. 2. Plant aggregations with predominance of Spiraea hypericifoia, Caragana pumila, Artemisia frigida develop on the upper parts of slopes of hills. Craters of nuclear explosions have not been assimilated by higher plants yet. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by Psathyrostachys juncea, Artemisia frigida appear in the lower parts of slopes of hills. Single individuals of Medicago falcata, Galium ruthenicum, Melilotus dentatus are found on sides of explosion craters. Vegetation rehabilitates slowly trenches on gentle slopes of hills. Following measures are necessary for intensification of the process of restoration of vegetation destroyed and damaged by nuclear explosions: To clean slopes of hills from numerous fragment of metallic and plastic

  15. Arboreallty and morphological evolution in ground beetles (Carabidae: Harpalinae): testing the taxon pulse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Karen A

    2003-06-01

    One-third to two-thirds of all tropical carabids, or ground beetles, are arboreal, and evolution of arboreality has been proposed to be a dead end in this group. Many arboreal carabids have unusual morphological features that have been proposed to be adaptations for life on vegetation, including large, hemispheric eyes; an elongated prothorax; long elytra; long legs; bilobed fourth tarsomeres; adhesive setae on tarsi; and pectinate claws. However, correlations between these features and arboreality have not been rigorously tested previously. I examined the evolution of arboreality and morphological features often associated with this habitat in a phylogenetic context. The number and rates of origins and losses of arboreality in carabids in the subfamily Harpalinae were inferred with parsimony and maximum-likelihood on a variety of phylogenetic hypotheses. Correlated evolution in arboreality and morphological characters was tested with concentrated changes tests, maximum-likelihood, and independent contrasts on optimal phylogenies. There is strong evidence that both arboreality and the morphological features examined originated multiple times and can be reversed, and in no case could the hypothesis of equal rates of gains and losses be rejected. Several features are associated with arboreality: adhesive setae on the tarsi, bilobed tarsomeres, and possibly pectinate claws and an elongated prothorax. Bulgy eyes, long legs, and long elytra were not correlated with arboreality and are probably not arboreal adaptations. The evolution of arboreal carabids has not been unidirectional. These beetles have experienced multiple gains and losses of arboreality and the morphological characters commonly associated with the arboreal habitat. The evolutionary process of unidirectional character change may not be as widespread as previously thought and reversal from specialized lifestyles or habitats may be common.

  16. Blended-Wing-Body Transonic Aerodynamics: Summary of Ground Tests and Sample Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melissa B.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Patel, Dharmendra

    2009-01-01

    The Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) concept has shown substantial performance benefits over conventional aircraft configuration with part of the benefit being derived from the absence of a conventional empennage arrangement. The configuration instead relies upon a bank of trailing edge devices to provide control authority and augment stability. To determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft, several wind tunnel tests were conducted with a 2% model of Boeing's BWB-450-1L configuration. The tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility and the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. Characteristics of the configuration and the effectiveness of the elevons, drag rudders and winglet rudders were measured at various angles of attack, yaw angles, and Mach numbers (subsonic to transonic speeds). The data from these tests will be used to develop a high fidelity simulation model for flight dynamics analysis and also serve as a reference for CFD comparisons. This paper provides an overview of the wind tunnel tests and examines the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, pitch-pause versus continuous sweep data acquisition and compares the data from the two wind tunnels.

  17. LARGE SCALE REFRIGERATION PLANT FOR GROUND TESTING THE JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE AT NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Arnold, Lutz Decker, D. Howe, J. Urbin, Jonathan Homan, Carl Reis, J. Creel, V. Ganni, P. Knudsen, A. Sidi-Yekhlef

    2010-04-01

    The James Webb Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Telescope and will be placed in an orbit of 1.5 million km from earth. Before launch in 2014, the telescope will be tested in NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) space simulation chamber, Chamber A. The tests will be conducted at deep space conditions. Chamber A's helium cryo-panels are currently cooled down to 20 K by two Linde 3.5 kW helium refrigerators. The new 12.5 kW, 20-K helium coldbox described in this paper is part of the upgrade to the chamber systems for this large test program. The Linde coldbox will provide refrigeration in several operating modes where the temperature of the chamber is being controlled with a high accuracy due to the demanding NASA test requirements. The implementation of two parallel expansion turbine strings and the Ganni cycle—Floating Pressure process results in a highly efficient and flexible process that minimizes the electrical input power. This paper will describe the collaboration and execution of the coldbox project.

  18. Modular, Autonomous Command and Data Handling Software with Built-In Simulation and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuseo, John

    2012-01-01

    The spacecraft system that plays the greatest role throughout the program lifecycle is the Command and Data Handling System (C&DH), along with the associated algorithms and software. The C&DH takes on this role as cost driver because it is the brains of the spacecraft and is the element of the system that is primarily responsible for the integration and interoperability of all spacecraft subsystems. During design and development, many activities associated with mission design, system engineering, and subsystem development result in products that are directly supported by the C&DH, such as interfaces, algorithms, flight software (FSW), and parameter sets. A modular system architecture has been developed that provides a means for rapid spacecraft assembly, test, and integration. This modular C&DH software architecture, which can be targeted and adapted to a wide variety of spacecraft architectures, payloads, and mission requirements, eliminates the current practice of rewriting the spacecraft software and test environment for every mission. This software allows missionspecific software and algorithms to be rapidly integrated and tested, significantly decreasing time involved in the software development cycle. Additionally, the FSW includes an Onboard Dynamic Simulation System (ODySSy) that allows the C&DH software to support rapid integration and test. With this solution, the C&DH software capabilities will encompass all phases of the spacecraft lifecycle. ODySSy is an on-board simulation capability built directly into the FSW that provides dynamic built-in test capabilities as soon as the FSW image is loaded onto the processor. It includes a six-degrees- of-freedom, high-fidelity simulation that allows complete closed-loop and hardware-in-the-loop testing of a spacecraft in a ground processing environment without any additional external stimuli. ODySSy can intercept and modify sensor inputs using mathematical sensor models, and can intercept and respond to actuator

  19. Altitude simulation facility for testing large space motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, U.; Lustig, J.; Cohen, Y.; Malkin, I.

    1993-02-01

    This work describes the design of an altitude simulation facility for testing the AKM motor installed in the 'Ofeq' satellite launcher. The facility, which is controlled by a computer, consists of a diffuser and a single-stage ejector fed with preheated air. The calculations of performance and dimensions of the gas extraction system were conducted according to a one-dimensional analysis. Tests were carried out on a small-scale model of the facility in order to examine the design concept, then the full-scale facility was constructed and operated. There was good agreement among the results obtained from the small-scale facility, from the full-scale facility, and from calculations.

  20. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-09-19

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry.