WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground systems jaugs

  1. Yang-Mills-Vlasov system in the temporal gauge. Systeme de Yang-Mills-Vlasov en jauge temporelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y.; Noutchegueme, N. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (FR))

    1991-01-01

    We prove a local in time existence theorem of a solution of the Cauchy problem for the Yang-Mills-Vlasov integrodifferential system. Such equations govern the evolution of plasmas, for instance of quarks and gluons (quagmas), where non abelian gauge fields and Yang-Mills charges replace the usual electromagnetic field and electric charge. We work with the temporal gauge and use functional spaces with appropriate weight on the momenta, but no fall off is required in the space direction.

  2. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  3. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  4. De l'air à la terre Weyl et la philosophie de jauge

    CERN Document Server

    Lachièze-Rey, Marc

    2017-01-01

    De quoi est fait le monde ? La question peut bien se poser mais les réponses ont été étonnantes : d’eau, de corpuscules (éventuellement crochus), d’air, de feu, d’ondes, de terre, d’effluves, de champs, d’énergie et ainsi de suite. La liste est longue (on n’a oublié que le caoutchouc). Aujourd’hui les réalistes structurels nous apprennent même que le monde serait constitué de structures mathématiques, celles notamment qui figurent dans nos meilleures théories physiques. Et ces dernières incluraient, pour en venir au sujet de ce livre, des théories de jauge, dont les structures assumeraient ainsi une valeur ontique. Le monde serait donc composé — dans un sens auquel il faut éventuellement s’habituer — de ces mêmes structures. Mais ces structures, d’où viennent-elles ? De toutes pièces de l’expérience ? Son apport est certes important, mais il y a autre chose.

  5. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  6. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Squad Mission Support System SOC .............................. Special Operations Command SOFC ............................ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...technologies may be used to match a given Use Profile: Table 5. Power Use Profiles Energy Storage Energy Harvesting Fuel Cells Engines Lead Acid...significant amount of research and development in both Government and Industry have been devoted to the areas of energy storage, fuel cells , and small

  7. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.376 Grounded distribution systems... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must...

  8. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  9. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  10. Ground Collision Avoidance System (Igcas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A (Inventor); Prosser, Kevin (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for aircraft ground collision avoidance (iGCAS) comprising a modular array of software, including a sense own state module configured to gather data to compute trajectory, a sense terrain module including a digital terrain map (DTM) and map manger routine to store and retrieve terrain elevations, a predict collision threat module configured to generate an elevation profile corresponding to the terrain under the trajectory computed by said sense own state module, a predict avoidance trajectory module configured to simulate avoidance maneuvers ahead of the aircraft, a determine need to avoid module configured to determine which avoidance maneuver should be used, when it should be initiated, and when it should be terminated, a notify Module configured to display each maneuver's viability to the pilot by a colored GUI, a pilot controls module configured to turn the system on and off, and an avoid module configured to define how an aircraft will perform avoidance maneuvers through 3-dimensional space.

  11. Simple system for locating ground loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, P M

    2007-06-01

    A simple low-cost system for rapid identification of the cables causing ground loops in complex instrumentation configurations is described. The system consists of an exciter module that generates a 100 kHz ground loop current and a detector module that determines which cable conducts this test current. Both the exciter and detector are magnetically coupled to the ground circuit so there is no physical contact to the instrumentation system under test.

  12. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral..., circuit breaker, or fuse in the neutral conductor of the bus-tie feeder connecting the emergency... that aluminum grounding conductors must not be used....

  13. Mécanique quantique relativiste théories de jauge : cours et exercices corrigés

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Avec la mise en service du plus grand accélérateur du monde, le LHC au CERN, cet ouvrage propose de manière pertinente une introduction pédagogique aux théories décrivant les particules élémentaires à haute énergie. Des rappels de relativité restreinte et du formalisme de Lagrange et Hamilton permettent d'établir une base commune et une notation covariante. Sont ensuite présentées la mécanique quantique relativiste avec les équations de Klein-Gordon et de Dirac, les fonctions de Green et les propagateurs, les théories de jauge abéliennes, comme l'électrodynamique quantique (QED), et non-abéliennes, comme la chromodynamique quantique (QCD), et le mécanisme de Higgs. Les règles de Feynman, qui en sont déduites, offrent une description intuitive sur les interactions entre les constituants fondamentaux et un outil de calcul efficace pour les processus physiques. Chaque chapitre se termine par une série d'exercices corrigés. Le cours reste accessible aux étudiants de master qui ne souhait...

  14. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  15. Space/ground systems as cooperating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) it is agreed that autonomy is an important goal for the design of future spacecraft and that this requires on-board artificial intelligence. NASA emphasizes deep space and planetary rover missions, while ESA considers on-board autonomy as an enabling technology for missions that must cope with imperfect communications. ESA's attention is on the space/ground system. A major issue is the optimal distribution of intelligent functions within the space/ground system. This paper describes the multi-agent architecture for space/ground systems (MAASGS) which would enable this issue to be investigated. A MAASGS agent may model a complete spacecraft, a spacecraft subsystem or payload, a ground segment, a spacecraft control system, a human operator, or an environment. The MAASGS architecture has evolved through a series of prototypes. The paper recommends that the MAASGS architecture should be implemented in the operational Dutch Utilization Center.

  16. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  17. VENTILATION SYSTEM WITH GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  18. Ground states of linearly coupled Schrodinger systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the standing waves of a linearly coupled Schrodinger system which arises from nonlinear optics and condensed matter physics. The coefficients of the system are spatially dependent and have a mixed behavior: they are periodic in some directions and tend to positive constants in other directions. Under suitable assumptions, we prove that the system has a positive ground state. In addition, when the L-infinity-norm of the coupling coefficient tends to zero, the asymptotic behavior of the ground states is also obtained.

  19. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  20. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  1. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-14

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined.

  2. Semantic Grounding Strategies for Tagbased Recommender Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Durao, Frederico

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag based recommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases. Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevant recommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show a comprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The study besides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentage of the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much as it does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with such number of expansions, the recommendations change considerably.

  3. Distributed intelligence for ground/space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarup, Mads; Munch, Klaus Heje; Fuchs, Joachim; Hartmann, Ralf; Baud, Tim

    1994-01-01

    DI is short for Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems and the DI Study is one in a series of ESA projects concerned with the development of new concepts and architectures for future autonomous spacecraft systems. The kick-off of DI was in January 1994 and the planned duration is three years. The background of DI is the desire to design future ground/space systems with a higher degree of autonomy than seen in today's missions. The aim of introducing autonomy in spacecraft systems is to: (1) lift the role of the spacecraft operators from routine work and basic troubleshooting to supervision; (2) ease access to and increase availability of spacecraft resources; (3) carry out basic mission planning for users; (4) enable missions which have not yet been feasible due to eg. propagation delays, insufficient ground station coverage etc.; and (5) possibly reduce mission cost. The study serves to identify the feasibility of using state-of-the-art technologies in the area of planning, scheduling, fault detection using model-based diagnosis and knowledge processing to obtain a higher level of autonomy in ground/space systems.

  4. Features of the Deployed NPOESS Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Grant, K. D.; Route, G.; Heckmann, G.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA, DoD, and NASA are jointly acquiring the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) replacing the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to US NOAA and DoD processing centers. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command and telemetry segment is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of SMD to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health, status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. The NPOESS C3S and IDPS ground segments have been delivered and transitioned to operations for NPP. C3S was transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland MD in August

  5. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  6. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  7. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111... Grounding conductors for systems. (a) A conductor for grounding a direct-current system must be the larger of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor...

  8. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  9. In Situ Measurement of the Undisturbed Ground Temperature for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed ground are important for design of the ground heat exchangers in ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. In this paper, the undisturbed ground temperatures measured in two different methods are presented. The investigation was carried out in two cases. The temperature measured with the direct method is assumed to give the correct undisturbed ground temperature profile. The temperature measured with indirect method overestimates the undisturbed ground temperature by 2.1℃ and 1.7℃. This difference is mainly caused by the circulation pump and ambient air to the fluid. Therefore, the results that are decreased about 2℃ as compared with the indirect measured are recommended to estimate the undisturbed ground temperature in situ measuring. A smaller pump or deeper borehole or mild weather would result in a more correct temperature. Because the undisturbed ground temperature is affected by many factors. Whether or not these conclusions are correct to other areas, this would need further investigation.

  10. JPSS Common Ground System Multimission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA & NASA jointly acquire the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS contributes the afternoon orbit & restructured NPOESS ground system (GS) to replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system run by NOAA. JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere & space. The JPSS GS is the Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of Command, Control, & Communications (C3S) and Interface Data Processing (IDPS) segments, both developed by Raytheon Intelligence, Information & Services (IIS). CGS now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers its mission data between ground facilities and processes its data into Environmental Data Records for NOAA & Defense (DoD) weather centers. CGS will expand to support JPSS-1 in 2017. The JPSS CGS currently does data processing (DP) for S-NPP, creating multiple TBs/day across over two dozen environmental data products (EDPs). The workload doubles after JPSS-1 launch. But CGS goes well beyond S-NPP & JPSS mission management & DP by providing data routing support to operational centers & missions worldwide. The CGS supports several other missions: It also provides raw data acquisition, routing & some DP for GCOM-W1. The CGS does data routing for numerous other missions & systems, including USN's Coriolis/Windsat, NASA's SCaN network (including EOS), NSF's McMurdo Station communications, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and NOAA's POES & EUMETSAT's MetOp satellites. Each of these satellite systems orbits the Earth 14 times/day, downlinking data once or twice/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/second, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. Raytheon and the US government invested much in Raytheon's mission-management, command & control and data-processing products & capabilities. CGS's flexible

  11. Renaissance architecture for Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) has embarked on a new approach for developing and operating Ground Data Systems (GDS) for flight mission support. This approach is driven by the goals of minimizing cost and maximizing customer satisfaction. Achievement of these goals is realized through the use of a standard set of capabilities which can be modified to meet specific user needs. This approach, which is called the Renaissance architecture, stresses the engineering of integrated systems, based upon workstation/local area network (LAN)/fileserver technology and reusable hardware and software components called 'building blocks.' These building blocks are integrated with mission specific capabilities to build the GDS for each individual mission. The building block approach is key to the reduction of development costs and schedules. Also, the Renaissance approach allows the integration of GDS functions that were previously provided via separate multi-mission facilities. With the Renaissance architecture, the GDS can be developed by the MO&DSD or all, or part, of the GDS can be operated by the user at their facility. Flexibility in operation configuration allows both selection of a cost-effective operations approach and the capability for customizing operations to user needs. Thus the focus of the MO&DSD is shifted from operating systems that we have built to building systems and, optionally, operations as separate services. Renaissance is actually a continuous process. Both the building blocks and the system architecture will evolve as user needs and technology change. Providing GDS on a per user basis enables this continuous refinement of the development process and product and allows the MO&DSD to remain a customer-focused organization. This paper will present the activities and results of the MO&DSD initial efforts toward the establishment of the Renaissance approach for the development of GDS, with a particular focus on both the technical

  12. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [ENVIRON; Yavuzturk, Cy [University of Hartford; Pinder, George [University of Vermont

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  13. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  14. Joint Polar Satellite System Common Ground System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Jointly acquired by NOAA & NASA, the next-generation civilian environmental satellite system, Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), will supply the afternoon orbit & ground system of the restructured NPOESS program. JPSS will replace NOAA's current POES satellites and the ground processing part of both POES & DoD's Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS)(DMSP replacement). JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and solar-geophysical data. The ground system, or JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), has 6 integrated product teams/segments: Command, Control & Communications (C3S); Interface Data Processing (IDPS); Field Terminal (FTS); Systems Engineering, Integration & Test (SEIT); Operations & Support (O&S); and Sustainment developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. The IDPS will process JPSS data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA & DoD processing centers beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through JPSS & DWSS eras. C3S will: manage overall JPSS & DWSS missions from control/status of space/ground assets to ensure timely delivery of high-quality data to IDPS; provide globally-distributed ground assets to collect/transport mission, telemetry and command data between satellites & processing locations; provide all commanding & state-of-health monitoring functions of NPP, JPSS and DWSS satellites, and delivery of mission data to each Central IDP and monitor/report system-wide health/status and data communications with external systems and between CGS segments. SEIT leads the overall effort, including: manage/coordinate/execute JPSS CGS activities with NASA participation/oversight; plan/conduct all activities related to systems engineering, develop & ensure completeness of JPSS CGS functional & technical baselines and perform integration, deployment, testing and verification; sponsor/support modeling & simulation, performance analysis and trade studies; provide engineering for the product

  15. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  16. 46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.676 Grounded electrical systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  17. 30 CFR 77.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. On and after September 30, 1971, all high-voltage, resistance grounded systems shall include a fail safe ground check circuit or other no less effective device... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on...

  18. Joint Polar Satellite System Common Ground System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, previously known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both segments are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The C3S currently flies the Suomi National Polar Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite and transfers mission data from Suomi NPP and between the ground facilities. The IDPS processes Suomi NPP satellite data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. When the JPSS-1 satellite is launched in early 2017, the responsibilities of the C3S and the IDPS will be expanded to support both Suomi NPP and JPSS-1. The JPSS CGS currently provides data processing for Suomi NPP, generating multiple terabytes per day across over two dozen environmental data products; that workload will be multiplied by two when the JPSS-1 satellite is

  19. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Wilhelm, A. N., Surgenor, B. W., and Pharoah, J. G., “Design and evaluation of a micro-fuel-cell-based power system for a mobile robot ,” Mechatronics ...of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA bU.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC, Warren, MI, USA ABSTRACT Long-duration missions challenge ground robot systems with respect...to energy storage and efficient conversion to power on demand. Ground robot systems can contain multiple power sources such as fuel cell, battery and

  1. A Quarter Active Suspension System Based Ground-Hook Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Turnip Arjon

    2016-01-01

    An alternative design technique for active suspension system of vehicle using a developved ground-hook damping system as a reference is proposed. The controller parameters are determined using Lyapunov method and can be tuned to precisely achieve the type of desired response which given by reference model. The simulation result show that the designed active suspension system based ground-hook reference model is able to significantly improve the ride comfort and the road holding compared with ...

  2. Classical ground states of symmetric Heisenberg spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, H J

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the ground states of classical Heisenberg spin systems which have point group symmetry. Examples are the regular polygons (spin rings) and the seven quasi-regular polyhedra including the five Platonic solids. For these examples, ground states with special properties, e.g. coplanarity or symmetry, can be completely enumerated using group-theoretical methods. For systems having coplanar (anti-) ground states with vanishing total spin we also calculate the smallest and largest energies of all states having a given total spin S. We find that these extremal energies depend quadratically on S and prove that, under certain assumptions, this happens only for systems with coplanar S = 0 ground states. For general systems the corresponding parabolas represent lower and upper bounds for the energy values. This provides strong support and clarifies the conditions for the so-called rotational band structure hypothesis which has been numerically established for many quantum spin systems.

  3. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  4. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  5. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  6. Optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications. [Including ground coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water - source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed or modified to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost and the ground coil's performance. The life-cycle cost of a GCHP system (water-source heat pump with a horizontal ground coil) for an 1800 ft/sup 2/ (167 m/sup 2/) house in Pittsburgh, PA, was minimized over a 7 year economic life. Simple payback for the optimized GCHP system, relative to conventional air-source heat pumps, was under 3 years. The water-source heat pump package resulting from this optimization is calculated to cost 21% more than its conventional counterpart with a heating coefficient of performance (COP) about 20% higher, and a cooling COP about 23% higher. In the GCHP system modeled, its annual energy savings are predicted to be about 11% compared to a system designed around the conventional heat pump while having about the same installation cost. The major conclusion of this study is - GCHP system performance improvement can be attained by improving the water-source heat pump package at less cost than by buying more ground coil. The following conclusions were drawn from the steady-state performance optimization results: (1) By adding about $100.00 to the manufacturer's cost off construction, both the heating and cooling COPs can be improved by 20% or more. (2) Cooling COP need not be sacrificed for the sake of heating performance and vice versa. 13 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  8. The Spartan attitude control system - Ground support computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Spartan Attitude Control System (ACS) contains a command and control computer. This computer is optimized for the activities of the flight and contains very little human interface hardware and software. The computer system provides the technicians testing of Spartan ACS with a convenient command-oriented interface to the flight ACS computer. The system also decodes and time tags data automatically sent out by the flight computer as key events occur. The duration and magnitude of all system maneuvers is also derived and displayed by this system. The Ground Support Computer is also the primary Ground Support Equipment for the flight sequencer which controls all payload maneuvers, and long term program timing.

  9. Integrated Train Ground Radio Communication System Based TD-LTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hongli; CAO Yuan; ZHU Li; XU Wei

    2016-01-01

    In existing metro systems, the train ground radio communication system for different applications are deployed independently. Investing and constructing the communication infrastructures repeatedly wastes substan-tial social resources, and it brings difficulties to maintain all these infrastructures. We present the communication Quality of service (QoS) requirement for different train ground radio applications. An integrated TD-LTE based train ground radio communication system for the metro system (LTE-M) is designed next. In order to test the LTE-M system performance, an indoor testing environment is set up. The channel simulator and programmable attenua-tors are used to simulate the real metro environment. Ex-tensive test results show that the designed LTE-M system performance satisfies metro communication requirements.

  10. Pumpage for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents ground-water discharged from the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) through pumped wells. Pumping from wells in...

  11. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I effort demonstrated, through actual development and tests with a spacecraft system, the technical and programmatic feasibility of developing, within the...

  12. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  13. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2016-10-25

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  14. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  15. Equivalence of the Symbol Grounding and Quantum System Identification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fields

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive. The quantum system identification problem is the problem of relating observational outcomes to specific collections of physical degrees of freedom, i.e., to specific Hilbert spaces. It is shown that with reasonable physical assumptions these problems are equivalent. As the quantum system identification problem is demonstrably unsolvable by finite means, the symbol grounding problem is similarly unsolvable.

  16. A Quarter Active Suspension System Based Ground-Hook Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnip Arjon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design technique for active suspension system of vehicle using a developved ground-hook damping system as a reference is proposed. The controller parameters are determined using Lyapunov method and can be tuned to precisely achieve the type of desired response which given by reference model. The simulation result show that the designed active suspension system based ground-hook reference model is able to significantly improve the ride comfort and the road holding compared with semi-active suspension.

  17. X-band uplink ground systems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R.; Johns, C.; Kolbly, R.

    1980-04-01

    The design of an X-band exciter and transmitter control system is presented. For the exciter design such aspects as the block diagram, expected oscillator frequency stability, effect of instability of the cables between the control room and the antenna, improvement in uplink stability obtained with the transmitter phase control loop, expected frequency stability of exciter references for the doppler extractors, expected performance of the X-band range modulator, and the frequency stability improvement to be obtained with temperature control of the hardware environment are covered.

  18. Applications of CCSDS recommendations to Integrated Ground Data Systems (IGDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Martin, Daniel; Kato, Hatsuhiko; Ihara, Hirokazu

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an application of the CCSDS Principle Network (CPH) service model to communications network elements of a postulated Integrated Ground Data System (IGDS). Functions are drawn principally from COSMICS (Cosmic Information and Control System), an integrated space control infrastructure, and the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Core System (ECS). From functional requirements, this paper derives a set of five communications network partitions which, taken together, support proposed space control infrastructures and data distribution systems. Our functional analysis indicates that the five network partitions derived in this paper should effectively interconnect the users, centers, processors, and other architectural elements of an IGDS. This paper illustrates a useful application of the CCSDS (Consultive Committee for Space Data Systems) Recommendations to ground data system development.

  19. 30 CFR 75.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. 75.803 Section 75.803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.803 Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance...

  20. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  1. The Interim : until you achieve an operationally responsive ground system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Bob; Clarke, Kelly; Lei, Jordan; Miyamoto, Charles; Owen-Mankovich, Kyran

    2008-01-01

    Everyone wants to achieve a 'Responsive' Ground Data System (GDS), but that takes time. What do you do in the interim? Our group, called the Integration, Test and Deployment Team (ITD), is a group of responsive engineers whose primary focus is to assist JPL projects to successfully adapt, test, integrate and deploy their ground data system. The team configures and adapts the GDS for a project, so that analysts, engineers and scientist do not need to be experts in the GDS to operate it. The team has developed a human interface to accommodate all types of users. It provides Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's) for those that want GUI's, command line interfaces for those that want control, and selection button interfaces for other users. The cornerstone of a responsive Ground Data System is responsive people. Without individuals who can be aware of a project's changing needs and requirements, how can the GDS become responsive

  2. Structural factors of solar system cluster ground coupled storage rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor V. Wysochin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The computational investigations of unsteady heat transfer in seasonal solar heat storage system were conducted. This storage system consists of nine ground heat exchangers. The investigations were made for periodical diurnal cycle charging during summer season. The heat exchanger is presented as vertical probe with concentric tubes arrangement. Aim: The aim of the work is the optimization of cluster ground coupled storage – the probes quantity in cluster, their lengths and interval – using high precision mathematical model. Materials and Methods: The mathematical model of conjugate solar system functioning and ground coupled storage involves differential equations describing the incoming and conversion of solar energy in solar collector. Also it includes the heat exchange in ground heat exchangers and three-dimensional soil mass. Results: The need of mutual influence accounting of the solar collector and the ground heat exchanger size ranges is shown. One more thing – capability of effectiveness improvement of the collector based on reasonable step size selection for cluster and selection of active heat exchangers quantity in requisite construction. Conclusions: The recommendations for organization of heat exchangers of the collector work are offered. The five-probe structure is the most effective one for cluster arrangement of seasonal heat storage. The recommended interval between probes is 4 meters.

  3. Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-05-21

    The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures.

  4. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  5. 0{sup +} ground state dominance in many-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yu-Min [Southeast Univ., Dept. of Physics, Nanjing (China); Arima, Akito [The House of Councilors, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Naotaka [Saitama Univ., Physics Dept., Saitama (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We propose a simple approach to predict the angular momentum I ground states (Ig.s.) probabilities of many-body systems without diagonalization of the hamiltonian using random interactions. It is suggested that the 0g.s. dominance in boson systems and even valence nucleon systems is not given by the model space as previously assumed, but by specific two-body interactions. (author)

  6. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  7. Evaluation of Grounding Impedance of a Complex Lightning Protective System Using Earth Ground Clamp Measurements and ATP Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, Angel G.

    2010-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulators installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. A total of nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long, on average) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each of the nine downconductors is connected to a 7.62-meter radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced 6-meter long vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and above ground metallic piping, enclosures, raceways, and cable trays, within 7.62 meters of the counterpoise, to be bounded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways, and cable trays that run in multiple direction around LC39B. The complexity of this grounding system makes the fall of potential method, which uses multiple metallic rods or stakes, unsuitable for measuring the grounding impedances of the downconductors. To calculate the downconductors grounding impedance, an Earth Ground Clamp (a stakeless grounding resistance measuring device) and a LPS Alternative Transient Program (ATP) model are used. The Earth Ground Clamp is used to measure the loop impedance plus the grounding impedance of each downconductor and the ATP model is used to calculate the loop impedance of each downconductor circuit. The grounding impedance of the downconductors is then calculated by subtracting the ATP calculated loop impedances from the Earth Ground Clamp measurements.

  8. `imaka - a ground-layer adaptive optics system on Maunakea

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Mark; Toomey, Douglas; Lu, Jessica; Service, Max; Baranec, Christoph; Thibault, Simon; Brousseau, Denis; Hayano, Yutaka; Oya, Shin; Santi, Shane; Kingery, Christopher; Loss, Keith; Gardiner, John; Steele, Brad

    2016-01-01

    We present the integration status for `imaka, the ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system on the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii. This wide-field GLAO pathfinder system exploits Maunakea's highly confined ground layer and weak free-atmosphere to push the corrected field of view to ~1/3 of a degree, an areal field approaching an order of magnitude larger than any existing or planned GLAO system, with a FWHM ~ 0.33 arcseconds in the visible and near infrared. We discuss the unique design aspects of the instrument, the driving science cases and how they impact the system, and how we will demonstrate these cases on the sky.

  9. Space Shuttle Damper System for Ground Wind Load Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G. D.; Holt, J. R.; Chang, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    An active damper system which was originally developed for a 5.5% Saturn IB/Skylab Ground Winds Model was modified and used for similar purposes in a Space Shuttle model. A second damper system which was originally used in a 3% Saturn V/Dry Workshop model was also modified and made compatible with the Space Shuttle model to serve as a back-up system. Included in this final report are descriptions of the modified damper systems and the associated control and instrumentation.

  10. Automatic Scheduling and Planning (ASAP) in future ground control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlin, Sam

    1988-01-01

    This report describes two complementary approaches to the problem of space mission planning and scheduling. The first is an Expert System or Knowledge-Based System for automatically resolving most of the activity conflicts in a candidate plan. The second is an Interactive Graphics Decision Aid to assist the operator in manually resolving the residual conflicts which are beyond the scope of the Expert System. The two system designs are consistent with future ground control station activity requirements, support activity timing constraints, resource limits and activity priority guidelines.

  11. Key Features of the Deployed NPP/NPOESS Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Grant, K. D.; Mulligan, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather/environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). NPOESS satellites carry sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical data of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)/NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products/records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the US government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with NPP and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command & telemetry segment is the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPP/NPOESS missions from control & status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally-distributed ground assets needed to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day satellite commanding & state-of-health monitoring, and delivery of Stored Mission Data to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to system subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health & status and data communications with external systems and between the segments. The C3S & IDPS segments were delivered & transitioned to

  12. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  13. Web-Altairis: An Internet-Enabled Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Phil; Coleman, Jason; Gemoets, Darren; Hughes, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Web-Altairis, an Internet-enabled ground system software package funded by the Advanced Automation and Architectures Branch (Code 588) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Web-Altairis supports the trend towards "lights out" ground systems, where the control center is unattended and problems are resolved by remote operators. This client/server software runs on most popular platforms and provides for remote data visualization using the rich functionality of the VisAGE toolkit. Web-Altairis also supports satellite commanding over the Internet. This paper describes the structure of Web-Altairis and VisAGE, the underlying technologies, the provisions for security, and our experiences in developing and testing the software.

  14. Seismic Monitoring System Calibration Using Ground Truth Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Winston; Wagner, Robert

    2002-12-22

    Calibration of a seismic monitoring system remains a major issue due to the lack of ground truth information and uncertainties in the regional geological parameters. Rapid and accurate identification of seismic events is currently not feasible due to the absence of a fundamental framework allowing immediate access to ground truth information for many parts of the world. Precise location and high-confidence identification of regional seismic events are the primary objectives of monitoring research in seismology. In the Department of Energy Knowledge Base (KB), ground truth information addresses these objectives and will play a critical role for event relocation and identification using advanced seismic analysis tools. Maintaining the KB with systematic compilation and analysis of comprehensive sets of geophysical data from various parts of the world is vital. The goal of this project is to identify a comprehensive database for China using digital seismic waveform data that are currently unavailable. These data may be analyzed along with ground truth information that becomes available. To date, arrival times for all regional phases are determined on all events above Mb 4.5 that occurred in China in 2000 and 2001. Travel-time models are constructed to compare with existing models. Seismic attenuation models may be constructed to provide better understanding of regional wave propagation in China with spatial resolution that has not previously been obtained.

  15. Microcontroller based ground weapon control system(Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sankar Kishore

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Armoured vehicles and tanks generally consist of high resolution optical (both infrared and visible and display systems for recognition and identification of the targets. Different weapons/articles to engage the targets may be present. A fire control system (FCS controls all the above systems, monitors the status of the articles present and passes the information to the display system. Depending upon the health and availability of the articles, the FCS selects and fires the articles. Design and development of ground control unit which is the heart of the FCS, both in hardware and software, has been emphasised. The system has been developed using microcontroller and software developed in ASM 51 language. The system also has a facility to test all the systems and articles as initial power on condition. From the safety point of view, software and hardware interlocks have been provided in the critical operations, like firing sequence. "

  16. A Taxonomy of Vision Systems for Ground Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Martínez-Gómez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a taxonomy of vision systems for ground mobile robots. In the last five years, a significant number of relevant papers have contributed to this subject. Firstly, a thorough review of the papers is proposed to discuss and classify both past and the most current approaches in the field. As a result, a global picture of the state of the art of the last five years is obtained. Moreover, the study of the articles is used to put forward a comprehensive taxonomy based on the most up-to-date research in ground mobile robotics. In this sense, the paper aims at being especially helpful to both budding and experienced researchers in the areas of vision systems and mobile ground robots. The taxonomy described is devised from a novel perspective, namely in order to respond to the main questions posed when designing robotic vision systems: why?, what for?, what with?, how?, and where? The answers are derived from the most relevant techniques described in the recent literature, leading in a natural way to a series of classifications that are discussed and contextualized. The article offers a global picture of the state of the art in the area and discovers some promising research lines.

  17. Engineering a Multimission Approach to Navigation Ground Data System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimatos, Dimitrios V.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mission Design and Navigation (MDNAV) Section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supports many deep space and earth orbiting missions from formulation to end of mission operations. The requirements of these missions are met with a multimission approach to MDNAV ground data system (GDS) infrastructure capable of being shared and allocated in a seamless and consistent manner across missions. The MDNAV computing infrastructure consists of compute clusters, network attached storage, mission support area facilities, and desktop hardware. The multimission architecture allows these assets, and even personnel, to be leveraged effectively across the project lifecycle and across multiple missions simultaneously. It provides a more robust and capable infrastructure to each mission than might be possible if each constructed its own. It also enables a consistent interface and environment within which teams can conduct all mission analysis and navigation functions including: trajectory design; ephemeris generation; orbit determination; maneuver design; and entry, descent, and landing analysis. The savings of these efficiencies more than offset the costs of increased complexity and other challenges that had to be addressed: configuration management, scheduling conflicts, and competition for resources. This paper examines the benefits of the multimission MDNAV ground data system infrastructure, focusing on the hardware and software architecture. The result is an efficient, robust, scalable MDNAV ground data system capable of supporting more than a dozen active missions at once.

  18. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) software configuration management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Victor E.; Long, D.; Hartenstein, Ray; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of the software configuration management (CM) plans developed for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) and the Space Station Control Center. The scope of the CM assessed in this report is the Systems Integration and Testing Phase of the Ground Systems development life cycle. This is the period following coding and unit test and preceding delivery to operational use. This report is one of a series from a study of the interfaces among the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE), the development systems for the SSTF and the SSCC, and the target systems for SSCC and SSTF. This is the last report in the series. The focus of this report is on the CM plans developed by the contractors for the Mission Systems Contract (MSC) and the Training Systems Contract (TSC). CM requirements are summarized and described in terms of operational software development. The software workflows proposed in the TSC and MSC plans are reviewed in this context, and evaluated against the CM requirements defined in earlier study reports. Recommendations are made to improve the effectiveness of CM while minimizing its impact on the developers.

  19. A knowledge base system for ground control over abandoned mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazimko, V.V.; Zviagilsky, E.L. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1999-07-01

    The knowledge of engineering systems has been developed to choose optimal technology for subsidence prevention over abandoned mines. The expert system treats a specific case, maps consequences of actions and derives relevant technology (or a set of technologies) that should be used to prevent ground subsidence. Input parameters that characterise the case are treated using fuzzy logic and are then fed to a neural network. The network has been successfully trained by a backpropagation algorithm on the basis of three fuzzy rules. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Ground-based complex for checking the optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenyuk, V.; Boreiko, V.; Dmitrotsa, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Lavrova, M.; Popescu, E. M.; Sabirov, B.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Volvach, A.; Yashin, I.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose TUS space experiment is to study cosmic rays of ultrahigh energies produced by extensive air showers from space. The concentrator is located on satellite, made in the form of the Fresnel mirror towards the earth's atmosphere, the focus of which is a photodetector. The angle of view of the mirror is ±4.5° that for a given height of the orbit corresponds to the area 80 × 80 km2 on ground. The ground complex consisting of a number of stations, to check the optical system of the experiment is created, (their location and the amount will be determined after the launch of the satellite based on its actual orbit).

  1. The Improvement and Data Acquisition Systems on Electrical Systems and Grounding Networks in NSRRC

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yung-Hui; Chen June Rong; Lin, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Zong-Da

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to declare the improvement on electrical and grounding systems in NSRRC. In electrical power system, an Automated Voltage Regulator (AVR) was established to RF system in 2003. The variation of voltage supply from Taiwan Power Company (TPC) is reduced from 3% to 0.2% through the AVR system. And a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system was also setup to monitoring the electrical power conditions in each power station. After the high precision grounding systems were constructed in 2004, the stability of beam line was raised. For comprehending the grounding current and noise control, a grounding monitoring system with 32 channels was built in the storage ring. The grounding currents of 4 kickers, one septum and grounding bus are on-line acquisition. Two Electromagnetic Field (EMF) apparatuses were also installed to collect electrical and magnetic fields in the R1 section. It was observed that the electromagnetic field was correlated to grounding currents in certain lo...

  2. Evolution of the JPSS Ground Project Calibration and Validation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Jain, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) next-generation operational Earth observation Program that acquires and distributes global environmental data from multiple polar-orbiting satellites. The JPSS Program plays a critical role to NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in weather, climate, oceans, and coasts environments, which supports the nation's economy and protects lives and property. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is acquiring and implementing the JPSS, comprised of flight and ground systems on behalf of NOAA. The JPSS satellites are planned to fly in afternoon orbit and will provide operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system is a NOAA system developed and deployed by JPSS Ground Project to support Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val), Algorithm Integration, Investigation, and Tuning, and Data Quality Monitoring. It is a mature, deployed system that supports SNPP mission and has been in operations since SNPP launch. This paper discusses the major re-architecture for Block 2.0 that incorporates SNPP lessons learned, architecture of the system, and demonstrates how GRAVITE has evolved as a system with increased performance. It is a robust, reliable, maintainable, scalable, and secure system that supports development, test, and production strings, replaces proprietary and custom software, uses open source software, and is compliant with NASA and NOAA standards. "[Pending NASA Goddard Applied Engineering & Technology Directorate (AETD) Approval]"

  3. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  4. Decreasing costs of ground data processing system development using a software product line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I describe software product lines and why a Ground Data Processing System should use one. I also describe how to develop a software product line, using examples from an imaginary Ground Data Processing System.

  5. Application of modified vector fitting to grounding system modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, D.; Camargo, M.; Herrera, J.; Torres, H. [National University of Colombia (Colombia). Research Program on Acquisition and Analysis of Signals - PAAS], Emails: dyjimeneza@unal.edu.co, mpcamargom@unal.edu.co; Vargas, M. [Siemens S.A. - Power Transmission and Distribution - Energy Services (Colombia)

    2007-07-01

    The transient behavior of grounding systems (GS) influences greatly the performance of electrical networks under fault conditions. This fact has led the authors to present an application of the Modified Vector Fitting (MVF)1 methodology based upon the frequency response of the system, in order to find a rational function approximation and an equivalent electrical network whose transient behavior is similar to the original one of the GS. The obtained network can be introduced into the EMTP/ATP program for simulating the transient behavior of the GS. The MVF technique, which is a modification of the Vector Fitting (VF) technique, allows identifying state space models from the Frequency Domain Response for both single and multiple input-output systems. In this work, the methodology is used to fit the frequency response of a grounding grid, which is computed by means of the Hybrid Electromagnetic Model (HEM), finding the relation between voltages and input currents in two points of the grid in frequency domain. The model obtained with the MVF shows a good agreement with the frequency response of the GS. Besides, the model is tested in EMTP/ATP finding a good fitting with the calculated data, which demonstrates the validity and usefulness of the MVF. (author)

  6. Uniqueness of ground states of some coupled nonlinear Schrodinger systems and their application

    OpenAIRE

    MA,LI; Lin ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    We establish the uniqueness of ground states of some coupled nonlinear Schrodinger systems in the whole space. We firstly use Schwartz symmetrization to obtain the existence of ground states for a more general case. To prove the uniqueness of ground states, we use the radial symmetry of the ground states to transform the systems into an ordinary differential system, and then we use the integral forms of the system. More interestingly, as an application of our uniqueness results, we derive a s...

  7. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint of neu...... of the control method is presented in detail. Experimental results prove the effectiveness and novelty of the proposed grounding system and control method....

  8. Ground-based optical observation system for LEO objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2015-08-01

    We propose a ground-based optical observation system for monitoring LEO objects, which uses numerous optical sensors to cover a vast region of the sky. Its potential in terms of detection and orbital determination were examined. About 30 cm LEO objects at 1000 km altitude are detectable using an 18 cm telescope, a CCD camera and the analysis software developed. Simulations and a test observation showed that two longitudinally separate observation sites with arrays of optical sensors can identify the same objects from numerous data sets and determine their orbits precisely. The proposed system may complement or replace the current radar observation system for monitoring LEO objects, like space-situation awareness, in the near future.

  9. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  10. Strong Ground Motion Database System for the Mexican Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Yanez, C.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macías, M. A.; Sandoval, H.; Alcántara, L.; Quiroz, A.

    2014-12-01

    A web-based system for strong Mexican ground motion records dissemination and archival is presented. More than 50 years of continuous strong ground motion instrumentation and monitoring in Mexico have provided a fundamental resource -several thousands of accelerograms- for better understanding earthquakes and their effects in the region. Lead by the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the engineering strong ground motion monitoring program at IE relies on a continuously growing network, that at present includes more than 100 free-field stations and provides coverage to the seismic zones in the country. Among the stations, approximately 25% send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City in real-time, and the rest require manual access, remote or in situ, for later processing and cataloguing. As part of a collaboration agreement between UNAM and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, regarding the construction and operation of a unified seismic network, a web system was developed to allow access to UNAM's engineering strong motion archive and host data from other institutions. The system allows data searches under a relational database schema, following a general structure relying on four databases containing the: 1) free-field stations, 2) epicentral location associated with the strong motion records available, 3) strong motion catalogue, and 4) acceleration files -the core of the system. In order to locate and easily access one or several records of the data bank, the web system presents a variety of parameters that can be involved in a query (seismic event, region boundary, station name or ID, radial distance to source or peak acceleration). This homogeneous platform has been designed to facilitate dissemination and processing of the information worldwide. Each file, in a standard format, contains information regarding the recording instrument, the station, the corresponding earthquake

  11. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  12. Laser Ground System for Communication Experiments with ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkov, Volodymyr; Volovyk, Dmytro; Kuzkov, Sergii; Sodnik, Zoran; Pukha, Sergii; Caramia, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The ARTEMIS satellite with the OPALE laser communication terminal on-board was launched on 12 July, 2001. 1789 laser communications sessions were performed between ARTEMIS and SPOT-4 (PASTEL) from 01 April 2003 to 09 January 2008 with total duration of 378 hours. Regular laser communication experiments between ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS - altitude 2400 m above see level) and ARTEMIS in various atmosphere conditions were also performed. The Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched the KIRARI (OICETS) satellite with laser communication terminal called LUCE. Laser communication links between KIRARI and ARTEMIS were successfully realized and international laser communications experiments from the KIRARI satellite were also successfully performed with optical ground stations located in the USA (JPL), Spain (ESA OGS), Germany (DLR), and Japan (NICT). The German Space Agency (DLR) performed laser communication links between two LEO satellites (TerraSAR-X and NFIRE), demonstrating data transfer rates of 5.6Gbit/s and performed laser communication experiments between the satellites and the ESA optical ground station. To reduce the influence of weather conditions on laser communication between satellites and ground stations, a network of optical stations situated in different atmosphere regions needs to be created. In 2002, the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) started the development of its own laser communication system to be placed into the Cassegrain focus of its 0.7m AZT-2 telescope (Fe = 10.5m), located in Kyiv 190 meters above sea level. The work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA ARTEMIS has an orbital position of 21.4° E and an orbital inclination of more than 9.75°. As a result we developed a precise tracking system for AZT-2 telescope (weighing more than 2 tons) using micro-step motors. Software was developed for computer control of the telescope to track the satellite's orbit and a tracking accuracy of 0.6 arcsec was achieved

  13. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, in a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation; testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to verify compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision-making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  14. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  15. Development of a Near Ground Remote Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchao Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have shown great potential in agriculture and are increasingly being developed for agricultural use. There are still a lot of experiments that need to be done to improve their performance and explore new uses, but experiments using UAVs are limited by many conditions like weather and location and the time it takes to prepare for a flight. To promote UAV remote sensing, a near ground remote sensing platform was developed. This platform consists of three major parts: (1 mechanical structures like a horizontal rail, vertical cylinder, and three axes gimbal; (2 power supply and control parts; (3 onboard application components. This platform covers five degrees of freedom (DOFs: horizontal, vertical, pitch, roll, yaw. A stm32 ARM single chip was used as the controller of the whole platform and another stm32 MCU was used to stabilize the gimbal. The gimbal stabilizer communicates with the main controller via a CAN bus. A multispectral camera was mounted on the gimbal. Software written in C++ language was developed as the graphical user interface. Operating parameters were set via this software and the working status was displayed in this software. To test how well the system works, a laser distance meter was used to measure the slide rail’s repeat accuracy. A 3-axis vibration analyzer was used to test the system stability. Test results show that the horizontal repeat accuracy was less than 2 mm; vertical repeat accuracy was less than 1 mm; vibration was less than 2 g and remained at an acceptable level. This system has high accuracy and stability and can therefore be used for various near ground remote sensing studies.

  16. Development of a Near Ground Remote Sensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanchao; Xiao, Yuzhao; Zhuang, Zaichun; Zhou, Liping; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-05-06

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have shown great potential in agriculture and are increasingly being developed for agricultural use. There are still a lot of experiments that need to be done to improve their performance and explore new uses, but experiments using UAVs are limited by many conditions like weather and location and the time it takes to prepare for a flight. To promote UAV remote sensing, a near ground remote sensing platform was developed. This platform consists of three major parts: (1) mechanical structures like a horizontal rail, vertical cylinder, and three axes gimbal; (2) power supply and control parts; (3) onboard application components. This platform covers five degrees of freedom (DOFs): horizontal, vertical, pitch, roll, yaw. A stm32 ARM single chip was used as the controller of the whole platform and another stm32 MCU was used to stabilize the gimbal. The gimbal stabilizer communicates with the main controller via a CAN bus. A multispectral camera was mounted on the gimbal. Software written in C++ language was developed as the graphical user interface. Operating parameters were set via this software and the working status was displayed in this software. To test how well the system works, a laser distance meter was used to measure the slide rail's repeat accuracy. A 3-axis vibration analyzer was used to test the system stability. Test results show that the horizontal repeat accuracy was less than 2 mm; vertical repeat accuracy was less than 1 mm; vibration was less than 2 g and remained at an acceptable level. This system has high accuracy and stability and can therefore be used for various near ground remote sensing studies.

  17. Development of a Near Ground Remote Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanchao; Xiao, Yuzhao; Zhuang, Zaichun; Zhou, Liping; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have shown great potential in agriculture and are increasingly being developed for agricultural use. There are still a lot of experiments that need to be done to improve their performance and explore new uses, but experiments using UAVs are limited by many conditions like weather and location and the time it takes to prepare for a flight. To promote UAV remote sensing, a near ground remote sensing platform was developed. This platform consists of three major parts: (1) mechanical structures like a horizontal rail, vertical cylinder, and three axes gimbal; (2) power supply and control parts; (3) onboard application components. This platform covers five degrees of freedom (DOFs): horizontal, vertical, pitch, roll, yaw. A stm32 ARM single chip was used as the controller of the whole platform and another stm32 MCU was used to stabilize the gimbal. The gimbal stabilizer communicates with the main controller via a CAN bus. A multispectral camera was mounted on the gimbal. Software written in C++ language was developed as the graphical user interface. Operating parameters were set via this software and the working status was displayed in this software. To test how well the system works, a laser distance meter was used to measure the slide rail’s repeat accuracy. A 3-axis vibration analyzer was used to test the system stability. Test results show that the horizontal repeat accuracy was less than 2 mm; vertical repeat accuracy was less than 1 mm; vibration was less than 2 g and remained at an acceptable level. This system has high accuracy and stability and can therefore be used for various near ground remote sensing studies. PMID:27164111

  18. 46 CFR 111.05-17 - Generation and distribution system grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 111.05-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-17... neutral bus permanently connected to the neutral bus on the main switchboard; and (3) No switch,...

  19. Ground strain measuring system using optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadanobu; Honda, Riki; Shibata, Shunjiro; Takegawa, Naoki

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a device to measure the dynamic horizontal shear strain of the ground during earthquake. The proposed device consists of a bronze plate with fiber Bragg grating sensors attached on it. The device is vertically installed in the ground, and horizontal shear strain of the ground is measured as deflection angle of the plate. Employment of optical fiber sensors makes the proposed device simple in mechanism and highly durable, which makes it easy to install our device in the ground. We conducted shaking table tests using ground model to verify applicability of the proposed device.

  20. Subregions of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the subregions of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS). Subregions are...

  1. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  2. The performance of the CHEOPS on-ground calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelas, B.; Wildi, F. P.; Sarajlic, M.; Sordet, M.; Deline, A.

    2016-07-01

    The CHEOPS space mission will measure photometric transits of exo-planets with a precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time on a 9th magnitude star. This corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 for a transit of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a solar-sized star. Achieving the precision goal requires precise on-ground calibration of the payload to remove its signature from the raw data while in flight. A sophisticated calibration system will inject a stimulus beam in the payload and measure its response to the variation of electrical and environmental parameters. These variations will be compiled in a correction model. At the very end of the testing phase, the CHEOPS photometric performance will be assessed on an artificial star, applying the correction model This paper addresses some original details of the CHEOPS calibration bench and its performance as measured in the lab.

  3. LABS problem and ground state spin glasses system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukhin, A. N.; Bezrodnyi, V. I.; Kozlova, Yu. A.

    2016-12-01

    In our work we demonstrate the new results of an exhaustive search for optimal binary sequences with minimum peak sidelobe (MPS) up to length N=85. The design problem for law autocorrelation binary sequences (LABS) is a notoriously difficult computational problem which is numbered as the problem number 005 in CSPLib. In statistical physics LABS problem can be interrepted as the energy of N iteracting Ising spins. This is a Bernasconi model. Due to this connection to physics we refer a binary sequence as one-dimensional spin lattice. At this assumption optimal binary sequences by merit factor (MF) criteria are the ground-state spin system without disorder which exhibits a glassy regime.

  4. Software Development and Test Methodology for a Distributed Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Guillebeau, Pat; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes in an effort to minimize unnecessary overhead while maximizing process benefits. The Software processes that have evolved still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Processes have evolved, highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project.

  5. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  6. Integrating intrinsic mobility into unmanned ground vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosinsky, Chris A.; Penzes, Steven G.; Buehler, Martin G.; Steeves, Carl

    2001-09-01

    The ability of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) to successfully move about in its environment is enabled by the synergistic combination of perception, control and platform (mobility and utility). Vast effort is being expended on the former technologies but little demonstrable evidence has been produced to indicate that the latter (mobility/utility) has been considered as an integral part of the UGV systems level capability; a concept commonly referred to as intrinsic mobility. While past work described the rationale for hybrid locomotion, this paper aims to demonstrate that integrating intrinsic mobility into a UGV systems mobility element or 'vehicle' will be a key contributor to the magnitude of autonomy that the system can achieve. This paper serves to provide compelling evidence that 1) intrinsic mobility improvements provided by hybrid locomotion configurations offer the best generic mobility, that 2) strict attention must be placed on the optimization of both utility (inherent vehicle capabilities) and mobility and that 3) the establishment of measures of performance for unmanned vehicle mobility is an unmet and latent need.

  7. Prognostics for Ground Support Systems: Case Study on Pneumatic Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Goebel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Prognostics technologies determine the health (or damage) state of a component or sub-system, and make end of life (EOL) and remaining useful life (RUL) predictions. Such information enables system operators to make informed maintenance decisions and streamline operational and mission-level activities. We develop a model-based prognostics methodology for pneumatic valves used in ground support equipment for cryogenic propellant loading operations. These valves are used to control the flow of propellant, so failures may have a significant impact on launch availability. Therefore, correctly predicting when valves will fail enables timely maintenance that avoids launch delays and aborts. The approach utilizes mathematical models describing the underlying physics of valve degradation, and, employing the particle filtering algorithm for joint state-parameter estimation, determines the health state of the valve and the rate of damage progression, from which EOL and RUL predictions are made. We develop a prototype user interface for valve prognostics, and demonstrate the prognostics approach using historical pneumatic valve data from the Space Shuttle refueling system.

  8. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  9. Computer simulation of ground coupled storage in a series solar assisted heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, John W.; Metz, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    A quantitative study of the effect of thermal coupling between the ground and the heat storage element of a series solar assisted heat pump system is presented. The transient simulation computer program TRNSYS is used to simulate the solar portion of this system. A program to simulate the thermal interaction of the storage element with the ground is incorporated into TRNSYS as a sub-routine. This program calculates heat flow through the ground in discrete steps over space and time. Boundary conditions are established. The ground coupled storage is driven by thermal inputs from the solar portion of the system and from the changing ambient and ground temperatures.

  10. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  11. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  12. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  13. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge...

  14. GPS: Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User Equipment Production Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    GPS Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User Equipment Production Readiness Report to...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS : Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User Equipment Production...Highlights of GAO-15-657, a report to congressional committees September 2015 GPS Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User

  15. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  16. PLANNING AND PREDICTING AS SYSTEM ELEMENTS OF GROUNDING THE PROSPECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kurakov, A.

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the theoretical approach to grounding the results of prospective development of professional educational establishments by interaction between planning and predicting in the management system.

  17. Automatic Checkout System for Ground Electronics of a Weapon System (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ashok Kumar

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic checkout system (ACOS designed and developed for a surface-to-air missile system is described. The system has a built-in self-check and has been extensively used for checking faults in the subsystems of ground electronics. It has resulted in saving a lot of effort in quickly diagnosing and rectifying faults. The salient features of the ACOS have been described and the scope for further work in this area has been outline.

  18. Ground-target detection system for digital video database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yiqing; Huang, Jeffrey R.; Wolf, Wayne H.; Liu, Bede

    1998-07-01

    As more and more visual information is available on video, information indexing and retrieval of digital video data is becoming important. A digital video database embedded with visual information processing using image analysis and image understanding techniques such as automated target detection, classification, and identification can provide query results of higher quality. We address in this paper a robust digital video database system within which a target detection module is implemented and applied onto the keyframe images extracted by our digital library system. The tasks and application scenarios under consideration involve indexing video with information about detection and verification of artificial objects that exist in video scenes. Based on the scenario that the video sequences are acquired by an onboard camera mounted on Predator unmanned aircraft, we demonstrate how an incoming video stream is structured into different levels -- video program level, scene level, shot level, and object level, based on the analysis of video contents using global imagery information. We then consider that the keyframe representation is most appropriate for video processing and it holds the property that can be used as the input for our detection module. As a result, video processing becomes feasible in terms of decreased computational resources spent and increased confidence in the (detection) decisions reached. The architecture we proposed can respond to the query of whether artificial structures and suspected combat vehicles are detected. The architecture for ground detection takes advantage of the image understanding paradigm and it involves different methods to locate and identify the artificial object rather than nature background such as tree, grass, and cloud. Edge detection, morphological transformation, line and parallel line detection using Hough transform applied on key frame images at video shot level are introduced in our detection module. This function can

  19. Response of base isolation system excited by spectrum compatible ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Structures in a nuclear power system are designed to be elastic even under an earthquake excitation. However a structural component such as an isolator shows inelastic behavior inherently. For the seismic assessment of nonlinear structures, the response history analysis should be performed. Especially for the performance based design, where the failure probability of a system needs to be evaluated, the variation of response should be evaluated. In this study, the spectrum compatible ground motions, the artificial ground motion and the modified ground motion, were generated. Using these ground motions, the variations of seismic responses of a simplified isolation system were evaluated.

  20. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Block 3.0 Communications Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Ottinger, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The JPSS program is the follow-on for both space and ground systems to the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a globally distributed, multi-mission system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. In a highly successful international partnership between NOAA and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the CGS currently provides data routing from McMurdo Station in Antarctica to the EUMETSAT processing center in Darmstadt, Germany. Continuing and building upon that partnership, NOAA and EUMETSAT are collaborating on the development of a new path forward for the 2020's. One approach being explored is a concept of operations where each organization shares satellite downlink resources with the other. This paper will describe that approach, as well as modeling results that demonstrate its feasibility and expected performance.

  1. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  2. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....403 Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems with significant deficiencies or source water fecal contamination. (1) The treatment technique requirements of this... requirements of this section. (3) When a significant deficiency is identified at a Subpart H public...

  3. Principle and Design of a Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System for Neutral-to-ground Voltage Compensation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, Lingjie; Zeng, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Neutral-to-ground overvoltage may occur in non-effectively grounded power systems because of the distributed parameters asymmetry and resonance between Petersen coil and distributed capacitances. Thus, the constraint of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks....... In this paper, an active grounding system based on single-phase inverter and its control parameter design method is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between its output current and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral-to-ground voltage compensation. Then...... margin subjecting to large range of load change. The PI method is taken as the comparative method and the performances of both control methods are presented in detail. Experimental results prove the effectiveness and novelty of the proposed grounding system and control method....

  4. Lower bounds for the ground-state degeneracies of frustrated systems on fractal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado; Nobre

    2000-12-01

    The total number of ground states for nearest-neighbor-interaction Ising systems with frustrations, defined on hierarchical lattices, is investigated. A simple method is presented, which allows one to factorize the ground-state degeneracy, at a given hierarchy level n, in terms of contributions due to all hierarchy levels. Such a method may yield the exact ground-state degeneracy of uniformly frustrated systems, whereas it works as an approximation for randomly frustrated models. In the latter cases, it is demonstrated that such an approximation yields lower-bound estimates for the ground-state degeneracies.

  5. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The areal concentration distribution of commonmineral constituents and properties of ground water in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system are described in this report. Maps depicting the water quality and the altitude of the water table are included. The shallow aquifer system in Wisconsin, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel and shallow bedrock, is the source of most potable ground-water supplies in the State. Most ground water in the shallow aquifer system moves in local flow systems, but it interacts with regional flow systems in some areas.

  6. Tailoring NIST Security Controls for the Ground System: Selection and Implementation -- Recommendations for Information System Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Mangum, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests millions of dollars in spacecraft and ground system development, and in mission operations in the pursuit of scientific knowledge of the universe. In recent years, NASA sent a probe to Mars to study the Red Planet's upper atmosphere, obtained high resolution images of Pluto, and it is currently preparing to find new exoplanets, rendezvous with an asteroid, and bring a sample of the asteroid back to Earth for analysis. The success of these missions is enabled by mission assurance. In turn, mission assurance is backed by information assurance. The information systems supporting NASA missions must be reliable as well as secure. NASA - like every other U.S. Federal Government agency - is required to manage the security of its information systems according to federal mandates, the most prominent being the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002 and the legislative updates that followed it. Like the management of enterprise information technology (IT), federal information security management takes a "one-size fits all" approach for protecting IT systems. While this approach works for most organizations, it does not effectively translate into security of highly specialized systems such as those supporting NASA missions. These systems include command and control (C&C) systems, spacecraft and instrument simulators, and other elements comprising the ground segment. They must be carefully configured, monitored and maintained, sometimes for several years past the missions' initially planned life expectancy, to ensure the ground system is protected and remains operational without any compromise of its confidentiality, integrity and availability. Enterprise policies, processes, procedures and products, if not effectively tailored to meet mission requirements, may not offer the needed security for protecting the information system, and they may even become disruptive to mission operations

  7. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    , and cultural differences, to ensure an efficient response to customer issues using a small Customer Service Team (CST) and adaptability, constant communication with customers, technical expertise and knowledge of services, and dedication to customer service. The HOSC Customer Support Team has implemented a variety of processes, and procedures that help to mitigate the potential problems that arise when integrating ground system services for a variety of complex missions and the lessons learned from this experience will lead the future of customer service in the space operations industry.

  8. Fault diagnosis in neutral point indirectly grounded system based on information fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞; 鞠丽叶; 刘喜梅; 崔平远; 钟秋海

    2003-01-01

    In neutral point indirectly grounded systems, phase-to-ground fault is putting new demands on fault diagnosis technology. Information fusion is applied to detect the phase-to-ground fault, which integrates several sources of information, including line current, line voltage, zero sequence current and voltage, and quintic harmonic wave component. This method is testified through the simulation of Matlab. Simulation results show that the precision and reliability of the detection has been greatly increased.

  9. Performance and Optimization for a Ground-Coupled Liquid Loop Heat Recovery Ventilation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su; Per FAHLEN; Torbj(o)rn LINDHOLM

    2007-01-01

    Ground-coupled heat pumps(GCHP) arecommonly used in residential heating system. To mitigatethe boreholes temperature dropping with operating time, anew exhaust-air recharging system is developed. The newrecharging system can be used in three operational modes.In this paper, a ground-coupled heat recovery ventilation(HRV) model is discussed. A thermal model is set up tofind the optimal brine flow rate and heat transfer allocationratio between exhaust and supply coils for maximum heatrecovery efficiency. Contrary to the conventional liquid-loopHRV systems, the brine temperature entering the exhaustcoil never goes blow zero(0℃), and hence defrosting isneedless in the ground-coupled HRV system. This can makethe ground-coupled HRV system over 20% more efficientthan a conventional HRV system at low outdoortemperatures.

  10. Eurobot Ground Prototype Control System Overview & Tests Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Andrea; Martelli, Andrea; Pensavalle, Emanuele; Ferraris, Simona; Didot, Frederic

    2010-08-01

    In the planned missions on Moon and Mars, robotics can play a key role, as robots can both assist astronauts and, above all, relieve them of dangerous or too difficult tasks. To this aim, both cooperative capabilities and a great level of autonomy are needed: the robotic crew assistant must be able to work on its own, without supervision by humans, and to help astronauts to accomplish tasks otherwise unfeasible for them. Within this context, a project named Eurobot Ground Prototype, conducted in conjunction with ESA and Thales Alenia Space, is presented. EGP is a dual-arm mobile manipulator and exploits both stereo cameras and force/torque sensors in order to rely on visual and force feedback. This paper provides an overview of the performed and on going activities within the Eurobot Ground Prototype project.

  11. Development Ground Fault Detecting System for D.C Voltage Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Taek Soo; Song Ung Il; Gwon, Young Dong; Lee Hyoung Kee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to keep the security of reliability and to maximize the efficiency of maintenance by prompt detection of a D.C feeder ground fault point at the built ed or a building power plants. At present, the most of the power plants are set up the ground fault indicator lamp in the monitor room. If a ground fault occurs on DC voltage feeder, a current through the ground fault relay is adjusted and the lamps have brightened while the current flows the relay coil. In order to develop such a system, it is analyzed a D.C feeder ground circuit theoretically and studied a principles which can determine ground fault point or a polarity discrimination and a phase discrimination of the line. So, the developed system through this principles can compute a resistance ground fault current and a capacitive ground fault current. It shows that the system can defect a ground fault point or a bad insulated line by measuring a power plant D.C feeder insulation resistance at the un interruptible power status, and therefore the power plant could protect an unexpected service interruption . (author). 18 refs., figs.

  12. Computer Aided Design of Transformer Station Grounding System Using CDEGS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikolovski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer-aided design of a transformer station grounding system. Fault conditions in a transformer station can produce huge damage to transformer station equipment if the grounding system is not designed properly. A well designed grounding system is a very important part of the project for transformer station design as a whole. This paper analyses a procedure for transformer grounding system design and spatial distribution of touch and step voltage on the ground surface level, using the CDEGS (Current Distribution Electromagnetic Interference Grounding and Soil Structure Analysis software. Spatial distribution is needed for checking and finding dangerous step and touch voltages above and around the transformer station. Apparent earth resistivity data is measured and analyzed using the RESAP module of the CDEGS software. Because of the very high current flow into the grounding system during a single line to ground fault or a three phase fault in the transformer station, very high and dangerous potentials can be induced on the metallic structures including the fence, which can cause dangerous situations for people and animals near the station and for the personnel inside the station. The PLOT module of CDEGS is used to view the results of the scalar potential, step and touch voltage on the surface. Graphic displays include equipotent contour lines and potential profiles (gradients in 3D and 2D perspective and apparent soil resistivity (Wm versus inter electrode spacing (m. The results of alternative grid designs may be displayed simultaneously for the purpose of comparison.

  13. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  14. Study on the System Design of a Solar Assisted Ground Heat Pump System Using Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of hybrid systems using multiple heat sources in buildings to ensure a stable energy supply and improve the system performance has gained attention. Among them, a heat pump system using both solar and ground heat was developed and various system configurations have been introduced. However, establishing a suitable design method for the solar-assisted ground heat pump (SAGHP system including a thermal storage tank is complicated and there are few quantitative studies on the detailed system configurations. Therefore, this study developed three SAGHP system design methods considering the design factors focused on the thermal storage tank. Using dynamic energy simulation code (TRNSYS 17, individual performance analysis models were developed and long-term quantitative analysis was carried out to suggest optimum design and operation methods. As a result, it was found that SYSTEM 2 which is a hybrid system with heat storage tank for only a solar system showed the highest average heat source temperature of 14.81 °C, which is about 11 °C higher than minimum temperature in SYSTEM 3. Furthermore, the best coefficient of performance (COP values of heat pump and system were 5.23 and 4.32 in SYSYEM 2, using high and stable solar heat from a thermal storage tank. Moreover, this paper considered five different geographical and climatic locations and the SAGHP system worked efficiently in having high solar radiation and cool climate zones and the system COP was 4.51 in the case of Winnipeg (Canada where the highest heating demand is required.

  15. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Current Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.; Panas, M.; Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture is being upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to "operationalize" S-NPP, leverage lessons learned to date in multi-mission support, take advantage of more reliable and efficient technologies, and satisfy new requirements and constraints in the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 49 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 10 categories, such as data latency, operational availability and scalability. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 10 TPM categories listed above. We will provide updates on how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  16. Innovative commercial ``ground source'' heat pump system sources and sinks: Engineering and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, H.M.; Lowenstein, A.I.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.; Carlson, S.W.; Risser, J.E.

    1998-07-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, which will be called GX systems in this paper, have been employed in specialty applications on both residential and commercial buildings for several decades. GX systems generally have very competitive life cycle costs, but somewhat higher initial costs. The incremental cost of the ground heat exchanger cost is close to the average cost per ton, so GX systems work best with very efficient building shells. Innovative methods can reduce the ground heat exchanger cost. These include better coupling of the heat exchange boreholes to the ground, hybrid systems that use low cost closed fluid coolers to supplement the ground heat exchanger where cooling loads dominate, open loop systems, and opportunistic systems that use sewage effluent or other non-standard sources for heat exchange. These approaches and their benefits are illustrated through five case studies.

  17. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.404 Treatment technique violations for...

  18. System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator Jae-Jun Kim∗ and Brij N. Agrawal † Department of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...and Dynamics, Vol. 20, No. 4, July-August 1997, pp. 625-632. 6Schwartz, J. L. and Hall, C. D., “ System Identification of a Spherical Air-Bearing

  19. Ground Data System Risk Mitigation Techniques for Faster, Better, Cheaper Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, John J.; Saylor, Rick; Casasanta, Ralph; Weikel, Craig; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of faster, cheaper, and better missions, NASA Projects acknowledged that a higher level of risk was inherent and accepted with this approach. It was incumbent however upon each component of the Project whether spacecraft, payload, launch vehicle, or ground data system to ensure that the mission would nevertheless be an unqualified success. The Small Explorer (SMEX) program's ground data system (GDS) team developed risk mitigation techniques to achieve these goals starting in 1989. These techniques have evolved through the SMEX series of missions and are practiced today under the Triana program. These techniques are: (1) Mission Team Organization--empowerment of a closeknit ground data system team comprising system engineering, software engineering, testing, and flight operations personnel; (2) Common Spacecraft Test and Operational Control System--utilization of the pre-launch spacecraft integration system as the post-launch ground data system on-orbit command and control system; (3) Utilization of operations personnel in pre-launch testing--making the flight operations team an integrated member of the spacecraft testing activities at the beginning of the spacecraft fabrication phase; (4) Consolidated Test Team--combined system, mission readiness and operations testing to optimize test opportunities with the ground system and spacecraft; and (5). Reuse of Spacecraft, Systems and People--reuse of people, software and on-orbit spacecraft throughout the SMEX mission series. The SMEX ground system development approach for faster, cheaper, better missions has been very successful. This paper will discuss these risk management techniques in the areas of ground data system design, implementation, test, and operational readiness.

  20. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  1. Net infiltration of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Recharge in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) was estimated from net infiltration simulated by Hevesi and others (2003) using a...

  2. Plug and Play Realtime Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is moving towards transforming parts of the Kennedy Space Center from a historically government-only...

  3. Postures and Motions Library Development for Verification of Ground Crew Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mariea Dunn; Dischinger, Charles; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a Primitive motion capture library. The Library will be used by the human factors engineering in the future to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the Primitive models are being developed for the library the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed for the SLS and Orion launch systems. This paper explains how the Motion Capture of unique ground systems activities are being used to verify the human factors analysis requirements for ground system used to process the STS and Orion vehicles, and how the primitive models will be applied to future spacecraft and launch vehicle processing.

  4. Hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset represents the surface hydrogeology of an approximately 45,000 square-kilometer area of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  5. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  6. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  7. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  8. Ground-state characterizations of systems predicted to exhibit L11 or L13 crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lance J.; Hart, Gus L. W.; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Despite their geometric simplicity, the crystal structures L11 (CuPt) and L13 (CdPt3) do not appear as ground states experimentally, except in Cu-Pt. We investigate the possibility that these phases are ground states in other binary intermetallic systems, but overlooked experimentally. Via the synergy between high-throughput and cluster-expansion computational methods, we conduct a thorough search for systems that may exhibit these phases and calculate order-disorder transition temperatures when they are predicted. High-throughput calculations predict L11 ground states in the systems Ag-Pd, Ag-Pt, Cu-Pt, Pd-Pt, Li-Pd, Li-Pt, and L13 ground states in the systems Cd-Pt, Cu-Pt, Pd-Pt, Li-Pd, Li-Pt. Cluster expansions confirm the appearance of these ground states in some cases. In the other cases, cluster expansion predicts unsuspected derivative superstructures as ground states. The order-disorder transition temperatures for all L11/L13 ground states were found to be sufficiently high that their physical manifestation may be possible.

  9. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896 MHz... systems providing radio telecommunications service, including voice and/or data service, to persons on... “commercial aviation” systems....

  10. BEHAVIOUR OF BACKFILL MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. LIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Backfill materials like Bentonite and cement are effective in lowering grounding resistance of electrodes for a considerable period. During lightning, switching impulses and earth fault occurrences in medium and high voltage networks, the grounding system needs to handle extremely high currents either for a short duration or prolonged period respectively. This paper investigates the behaviour of bentonite, cement and sand under impulse and alternating high voltage (50Hz conditions. Fulguritic-formation was observed in all materials under alternating high voltage. The findings reveal that performance of grounding systems under high voltage conditions may significantly change from the outcomes anticipated at design stage.

  11. Thevenin source resistances of the touch, transferred and step voltages of a grounding system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Y.L.; Salama, M.M.A.; Djogo, G. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    The source resistances for surface voltages (touch, transferred and step voltage) are considered. It is proved that the source resistances of the touch and transferred voltages are the same, given by the grounding resistances between the feet of a human and the grounding system. In a practical situation, however, this resistance is very close to that of the ANSI/IEEE Standard 80 that is widely accepted. The source resistance of the step voltage is simply the resistance between the two feet, not at all perturbed by the grounding system. Proofs are derived rigorously by combining the field Galerkin's moment method and basic circuit theory. (author)

  12. Achieving Lights-Out Operation of SMAP Using Ground Data System Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The approach used in the SMAP ground data system to provide reliable, automated capabilities to conduct unattended operations has been presented. The impacts of automation on the ground data system architecture were discussed, including the three major automation patterns identified for SMAP and how these patterns address the operations use cases. The architecture and approaches used by SMAP will set the baseline for future JPL Earth Science missions.

  13. Numerical analysis of heat exchange processes for the ground source heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Moritani, S.; Kohgo, Y.; Hamamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) use ground or groundwater as a heat source. They can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems because the temperature of the ground is much more stable than that of the air. Heat energy in the ground is then viewed as one of the renewable energy sources. GSHP has been receiving great interests among countries in North America and Western Europe, as well as some developed countries in Asia because it can potentially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. While GSHP can inject heat from the buildings to the ground for cooling during the summer, it can pump heat stored in the ground for heating during the winter. As some physical, chemical, and biological properties of the ground and groundwater are temperature dependent, running GSHP can eventually affect groundwater quality. The main objective of this project was to develop a model that allows predicting not only ground and groundwater temperatures but also changes in physical, chemical, and biological properties of ground and groundwater with GSHP under operations. This particular study aims at simulating heat exchange and transfer processes in the ground for a vertical-loop closed GSHP system. In the closed GSHP system, an anti-freezing solution is circulated inside the closed-loop tube, called U-tube, that is buried in the ground. Heat is then transferred to the anti-freezing solution in the U-tube by a heat exchanger. In this study we used HYDRUS to predict temperature of the anti-freezing solution, as well as that of the ground. HYDRUS allows one to simulate variably-saturated water flow and solute and heat transport in porous media numerically in two- and three-dimensional domains with great flexibility in defining boundary conditions. At first changes in anti-freezing solution temperatures measured were predicted in response to Thermal Response Test (TRT) conducted at our study site. Then, heat

  14. Finite Element Modeling of Unbounded Grounding System Considering Soil Ionization Characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; LI Jingli; YANG Qing; SIMA Wenxia; SUN Caixin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to calculate accurately the grounding performance of an unbounded grounding system under high-magnitude fault current.In this work,a finite element model is presented to compute the characteristic parameters of the grounding system in frequency domain.The ionization phenomenon in the soil surrounding the grounding electrode is taken into account by setting the resistivity of every soil element while the resistivity of each element is varying with the electric field intensity;not a priori hypothesis on the geometrical shape of the ionized region around the electrodes has to be enforced.Open boundaries of the grounding system are represented by introducing a spatial transformation formulation,which translates the semi-infinite space into the finite space without shortening the domain as in the traditional approach.The suggested modeling is validated by comparison of the calculated results,which are laid out for grounding rod and grounding grid,with experimental and simulation results found in literature.

  15. System and method for transferring telemetry data between a ground station and a control center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Timothy J. (Inventor); Ly, Vuong T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems, computer-implemented methods, and tangible computer-readable media for coordinating communications between a ground station, a control center, and a spacecraft. The method receives a call to a simple, unified application programmer interface implementing communications protocols related to outer space, when instruction relates to receiving a command at the control center for the ground station generate an abstract message by agreeing upon a format for each type of abstract message with the ground station and using a set of message definitions to configure the command in the agreed upon format, encode the abstract message to generate an encoded message, and transfer the encoded message to the ground station, and perform similar actions when the instruction relates to receiving a second command as a second encoded message at the ground station from the control center and when the determined instruction type relates to transmitting information to the control center.

  16. Bott periodicity for Z2 symmetric ground states of gapped free-fermion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Building on the symmetry classification of disordered fermions, we give a proof of the proposal by Kitaev, and others, for a "Bott clock" topological classification of free-fermion ground states of gapped systems with symmetries. Our approach differs from previous ones in that (i) we work in the standard framework of Hermitian quantum mechanics over the complex numbers, (ii) we directly formulate a mathematical model for ground states rather than spectrally flattened Hamiltonians, and (iii) we use homotopy-theoretic tools rather than K-theory. Key to our proof is a natural transformation that squares to the standard Bott map and relates the ground state of a d-dimensional system in symmetry class s to the ground state of a (d+1)-dimensional system in symmetry class s+1. This relation gives a new vantage point on topological insulators and superconductors.

  17. Piezoelectric MEMS Microphones for Ground Testing of Aeronautical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improving the acoustical environment is critical in aeronautics. Airports and aeronautical systems manufacturers are facing ever-increasing demands to reduce noise...

  18. Piezoelectric MEMS Microphones for Ground Testing of Aeronautical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improving the acoustical environment is critical in aeronautics. Airports and aeronautical systems manufacturers are facing ever-increasing demands to reduce noise...

  19. A refined computer program for the transient simulation of ground coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. W.; Metz, P. D.; Saunders, J. H.

    1983-04-01

    The use of the earth as a heat source/sink or storage medium for various heat pump based space conditioning systems were investigated. A computer program ground coupled system (GROCS) was developed to model the behavior of ground coupling devices. The GROCS was integrated with TRNSYS, the solar system simulation program, to permit the simulation of complete ground coupled heat pump systems. Experimental results were compared to GROCS simulation results for model validation. It is found that the model has considerable validity. A refined version of the GROCS-TRNSYS program developed to model vertical or horizontal earth coil systems, which considers system cycling is described. The design of the program and its interaction with TRNSYS are discussed.

  20. SEARCHING GROUND FOR APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS DYNAMICS IN REGIONAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pshunetlev A. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows considerable potential of system dynamics in solving insisting regional problems. The analysis of modern challenges to regional science, shows that mechanisms, structures of many regional problems are not well understood. Integrating theory, the concept of regional economic, demographic, governance expert opinion, the possibility of simulation, system dynamics, can become the leading trend of regional science methodology

  1. a model for incremental grounding in spoken dialogue systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Thomas; Traum, David; DeVault, David; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in incremental language processing for dialogue systems promise to enable more natural conversation between humans and computers. By analyzing the user's utterance while it is still in progress, systems can provide more human-like overlapping and backchannel responses to convey their

  2. FDTD Analysis of the Current Distribution within the Grounding System for a Wind Turbine Generation Tower Struck by Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mitsuhiro; Nagaoka, Naoto; Baba, Yoshihiro; Ametani, Akihiro

    Transient current distribution within the grounding system for a wind-turbine-generation tower of height 61m struck by lightning has been calculated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The grounding grid for the lightning-struck tower considered in this paper is connected electrically via an insulated wire to one neighboring-tower grounding grid located 50m away from it. High-frequency components of a lightning current tend to flow in ground through the grounding grid of the lightning-struck tower, and they become larger with increasing the ground conductivity. Relatively-lower-frequency components of the lightning current flow in ground through each of the two grounding grids roughly in inverse proportion to the grounding resistance of each grid. For example, when two identical grounding grids for the lightning-struck tower and the neighboring tower are buried in the same ground, about 50% of the lightning current flows in the grounding grid for the neighboring tower via the insulated wire connecting these two grounding grids. When the grounding resistance of the neighboring tower is about 1/4 of that for the lightning-struck tower, about 4/5 of the lightning current flows in the neighboring-tower grounding grid. This agrees well with the trend shown by Nagaoka et al. from their measurement in the grounding system for an actual wind-turbine-generation tower struck by natural lightning.

  3. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  4. Ground truth management system to support multispectral scanner /MSS/ digital analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, J. C.; Ungar, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized geographic information system for management of ground truth has been designed and implemented to relate MSS classification results to in situ observations. The ground truth system transforms, generalizes and rectifies ground observations to conform to the pixel size and shape of high resolution MSS aircraft data. These observations can then be aggregated for comparison to lower resolution sensor data. Construction of a digital ground truth array allows direct pixel by pixel comparison between classification results of MSS data and ground truth. By making comparisons, analysts can identify spatial distribution of error within the MSS data as well as usual figures of merit for the classifications. Use of the ground truth system permits investigators to compare a variety of environmental or anthropogenic data, such as soil color or tillage patterns, with classification results and allows direct inclusion of such data into classification operations. To illustrate the system, examples from classification of simulated Thematic Mapper data for agricultural test sites in North Dakota and Kansas are provided.

  5. The common ground of genomics and systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The rise of systems biology is intertwined with that of genomics, yet their primordial relationship to one another is ill-defined. We discuss how the growth of genomics provided a critical boost to the popularity of systems biology. We describe the parts of genomics that share common areas of interest with systems biology today in the areas of gene expression, network inference, chromatin state analysis, pathway analysis, personalized medicine, and upcoming areas of synergy as genomics continues to expand its scope across all biomedical fields. PMID:25033072

  6. Preparing ground States of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, David; Wocjan, Pawel

    2009-04-03

    Preparing the ground state of a system of interacting classical particles is an NP-hard problem. Thus, there is in general no better algorithm to solve this problem than exhaustively going through all N configurations of the system to determine the one with lowest energy, requiring a running time proportional to N. A quantum computer, if it could be built, could solve this problem in time sqrt[N]. Here, we present a powerful extension of this result to the case of interacting quantum particles, demonstrating that a quantum computer can prepare the ground state of a quantum system as efficiently as it does for classical systems.

  7. Prognostics for Ground Support Systems: Case Study on Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics technologies determine the health (or damage) state of a component or sub- system, and make end of life (EOL) and remaining useful life (RUL)...

  8. Strengthening the Security of ESA Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentge, Felix; Eggleston, James; Garcia Mateos, Marc

    2013-08-01

    A common approach to address information security has been implemented in ESA's Mission Operations (MOI) Infrastructure during the last years. This paper reports on the specific challenges to the Data Systems domain within the MOI and how security can be properly managed with an Information Security Management System (ISMS) according to ISO 27001. Results of an initial security risk assessment are reported and the different types of security controls that are being implemented in order to reduce the risks are briefly described.

  9. Experimental analysis of direct-expansion ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, V. C.; Baxter, V. D.

    1991-09-01

    Direct-expansion ground-coil-coupled (DXGC) heat pump systems have certain energy efficiency advantages over conventional ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems. Principal among these advantages are that the secondary heat transfer fluid heat exchanger and circulating pump are eliminated. While the DXGC concept can produce higher efficiencies, it also produces more system design and environmental problems (e.g., compressor starting, oil return, possible ground pollution, and more refrigerant charging). Furthermore, general design guidelines for DXGC systems are not well documented. A two-pronged approach was adopted for this study: (1) a literature survey, and (2) a laboratory study of a DXGC heat pump system with R-22 as the refrigerant, for both heating and cooling mode tests done in parallel and series tube connections. The results of each task are described in this paper. A set of general design guidelines was derived from the test results and is also presented.

  10. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  11. Altitudes of the top of model layers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the altitudes of the tops of 16 model layers simulated in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient flow...

  12. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  13. Heating performance of a ground source heat pump system installed in a school building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaedo; SONG; Kwangho; LEE; Youngman; JEONG; Seongir; CHEONG; Jaekeun; LEE; Yujin; HWANG; Yeongho; LEE; Donghyuk; LEE

    2010-01-01

    The heating performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground source heat pump system is represented in this paper under the actual working conditions of the GSHP(ground source heat pump) system during the winter season of 2008.Ten heat pump equipments with the capacity of 10 HP each and a closed vertical typed-ground heat exchanger with 24 boreholes of 175 m in depth were constructed.We investigated a variety of working conditions,including the outdoor temperature,the ground temperature,and the water temperature of inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger in order to examine the heating performance of the GSHP system.Subsequently,the heating capacity and the input power were investigated to determine the heating performance of the GSHP system.The average heating coefficient of performance(COP) of the heat pump was noted to be 5.1 at partial load of 47%,while the overall system COP was found to be 4.2.Also,performance of the GSHP system was compared with that of air source heat pump.

  14. The XRS Low Temperature Cryogenic System: Ground Performance Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Susan; Sirron, Peter; Boyle, Robert; Canavan, Ed; DiPirro, Michael; Serlemitsos, Aristides; Tuttle, James; Whitehouse, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is part of the Astro-E mission scheduled to launch early in 2000. Its cryogenic system is required to cool a 32-element square array of x-ray microcalorimeters to 60-65 mK over a mission lifetime of at least 2 years. This is accomplished using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) contained within a two-stage superfluid helium/solid neon cooler. Goddard Space Flight Center is providing the ADR and helium dewar. The flight system was assembled in Sept. 1997 and subjected to extensive thermal performance tests. This paper presents test results at both the system and component levels. In addition, results of the low temperature topoff performed in Japan with the engineering unit neon and helium dewars are discussed.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  16. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain. The...

  17. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain....

  18. Passive Fuel Tank Inerting Systems for Ground Combat Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    34Fire Protection Handbook,"Natioaal girt Pro~dction Association (NFPA), 14th es., Dos on, cu (January 1976) 25 American Petroleum Institute, API ...System on the X60 Series Combat Vehicles," Report No. 79-04A, U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research and Development I Command, DRDTA-V, Warren, MI (October

  19. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the “Flyer”) that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration

  20. From the Ground Up: Building an Undergraduate Earth Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, W. D.; Alexander, S. E.; Moore, S. W.; Melton, F. S.

    2006-12-01

    It is rare that an interdisciplinary group of educators has the opportunity to design a science curriculum without the constraints of pre-existing academic departments. In 1994, California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB) acquired 1,387 acres from the U.S. Department of the Army and began construction of a new campus. CSUMB was developed as a four-year undergraduate university distinctive in its mission to serve the diverse people of California. Inspired by the Earth System Science Education program initiated by NASA and the University Space Research Association, CSUMB embarked upon the development of an interdisciplinary Earth systems curriculum that placed a strong emphasis on experience-based learning, integration of science, policy, and technology, outreach to minority students, and partnerships with the local community. Our cornerstone program is the Bachelor of Science in Earth Systems Science & Policy. It is built on a pyramid- style framework that includes integration, systems approach, and applied technologies (base of the pyramid); junior entry course, case studies, concentrations, service learning, student internships, and research experiences (middle of the pyramid); and senior capstone projects (apex of the pyramid). However, to succeed, new and innovative programs must constantly evaluate where they have been, where they are, and where they need to go to meet the needs of their students today and their students of the future.

  1. Simulation of a ground-layer adaptive optics system for the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Jia; Sijiong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) is a recently developed technique extensively applied to ground-based telescopes,which mainly compensates for the wavefront errors induced by ground-layer turbulence to get an appropriate point spread function in a wide field of view.The compensation results mainly depend on the turbulence distribution.The atmospheric turbulence at Dome A in the Antarctic is mainly distributed below 15 meters,which is an ideal site for applications of GLAO.The GLAO system has been simulated for the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope,which will be set up at Dome A,and uses a rotating mirror to generate several laser guide stars and a wavefront sensor with a wide field of view to sequentially measure the wavefronts from different laser guide stars.The system is simulated on a computer and parameters of the system are given,which provide detailed information about the design of a practical GLAO system.

  2. Ground heat flux and power sources of low-enthalpy geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp; Rivera, Jaime A.

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal heat pumps commonly extract energy from the shallow ground at depths as low as approximately 400 m. Vertical borehole heat exchangers are often applied, which are seasonally operated for decades. During this lifetime, thermal anomalies are induced in the ground and surface-near aquifers, which often grow over the years and which alleviate the overall performance of the geothermal system. As basis for prediction and control of the evolving energy imbalance in the ground, focus is typically set on the ground temperatures. This is reflected in regulative temperature thresholds, and in temperature trends, which serve as indicators for renewability and sustainability. In our work, we examine the fundamental heat flux and power sources, as well as their temporal and spatial variability during geothermal heat pump operation. The underlying rationale is that for control of ground temperature evolution, knowledge of the primary heat sources is fundamental. This insight is also important to judge the validity of simplified modelling frameworks. For instance, we reveal that vertical heat flux from the surface dominates the basal heat flux towards a borehole. Both fluxes need to be accounted for as proper vertical boundary conditions in the model. Additionally, the role of horizontal groundwater advection is inspected. Moreover, by adopting the ground energy deficit and long-term replenishment as criteria for system sustainability, an uncommon perspective is adopted that is based on the primary parameter rather than induced local temperatures. In our synthetic study and dimensionless analysis, we demonstrate that time of ground energy recovery after system shutdown may be longer than what is expected from local temperature trends. In contrast, unrealistically long recovery periods and extreme thermal anomalies are predicted without account for vertical ground heat fluxes and only when the energy content of the geothermal reservoir is considered.

  3. An optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the group coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost, and the ground coil's performance.

  4. Characterization of a Hyperspectral Chromotomographic Imaging Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    36 2.16. Quantum efficiency over the visible regime. The oscillations are consistent...Optical Transfer Function QE quantum efficiency SCTEx spaced-based chromotomographic experiment SNR signal-to-noise ratio STF System Transfer Function...collection and its relation to the x-ray transform. [6] a direct inversion method for producing a hypercube is ill-posed. Some mechani - cal techniques

  5. Adaptive and Cognitive Ground and Wall Penetrating Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    during Fleming Museum sidewalk scan. . . . Page 40 46. Figure 46 Dual-band GPR test results from Fleming Museum sidewalk scan: a. Channel 1 (400 MHz...position. Page 42 48. Figure 48 Dual-band GPR test results from Fleming Museum sidewalk scan: a. Channel 1 (400 MHz Antenna), b. Channel 2 (1,600 MHz...of microwave engineering, sensing, cognitive systems and structural identification. Students from Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and

  6. Identification of septic system effluent in ground water using small catchment hydrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, M.B.J.; Alexander, E.C. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    In many areas the contribution of septic system effluent to ground water contamination is still uncertain because of ambiguous provenance of chemical constituents. The problem is to establish a diagnostic chemical signature for the septic system effluent. Chlorides, nitrogen isotopes and optical brighteners have all been used as single constituent tracers for this purpose. These tracers tend to have limited range of application and cannot resolve ambiguity in areas with multiple potential contaminant sources. The authors addressed this problem using eight major ions to characterize the ground water chemistry, graphically or statistically. They identify the chemical signatures of septic system effluent and other non-point source contamination from the ground water chemistry of small ground water catchments overlain by single or very restricted land use types. They studied five small catchments near Rochester, Minnesota to isolate pre-development and non-septic system components of the ground water chemistry. Five small isolated hills were selected each with a distinct land-use type; natural forest, agricultural, unsewered residential, mixed agricultural/residential and fully sewered residential. The results show that Piper diagrams and statistical analysis can be used to define chemical signatures for the unsewered residential area using septic systems, the natural forest, and the agricultural catchments. The signatures of the mixed agriculture/residential and the fully sewered catchments are very similar to that of the agricultural catchment.

  7. Portable end-to-end ground system for low-cost mission support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Barbara

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a revolutionary architecture of the end-to-end ground system to reduce overall mission support costs. The present ground system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is costly to operate, maintain, deploy, reproduce, and document. In the present climate of shrinking NASA budgets, this proposed architecture takes on added importance as it should dramatically reduce all of the above costs. Currently, the ground support functions (i.e., receiver, tracking, ranging, telemetry, command, monitor and control) are distributed among several subsystems that are housed in individual rack-mounted chassis. These subsystems can be integrated into one portable laptop system using established Multi Chip Module (MCM) packaging technology and object-based software libraries. The large scale integration of subsystems into a small portable system connected to the World Wide Web (WWW) will greatly reduce operations, maintenance and reproduction costs. Several of the subsystems can be implemented using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products further decreasing non-recurring engineering costs. The inherent portability of the system will open up new ways for using the ground system at the "point-of-use" site as opposed to maintaining several large centralized stations. This eliminates the propagation delay of the data to the Principal Investigator (PI), enabling the capture of data in real-time and performing multiple tasks concurrently from any location in the world. Sample applications are to use the portable ground system in remote areas or mobile vessels for real-time correlation of satellite data with earth-bound instruments; thus, allowing near real-time feedback and control of scientific instruments. This end-to-end portable ground system will undoubtedly create opportunities for better scientific observation and data acquisition.

  8. Reconfigurable Mobile System - Ground, sea and air applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamonica, Gary L.; Sturges, James W.

    1990-11-01

    The Reconfigurable Mobile System (RMS) is a highly mobile data-processing unit for military users requiring real-time access to data gathered by airborne (and other) reconnaissance data. RMS combines high-performance computation and image processing workstations with resources for command/control/communications in a single, lightweight shelter. RMS is composed of off-the-shelf components, and is easily reconfigurable to land-vehicle or shipboard versions. Mission planning, which involves an airborne sensor platform's sensor coverage, considered aircraft/sensor capabilities in conjunction with weather, terrain, and threat scenarios. RMS's man-machine interface concept facilitates user familiarization and features iron-based function selection and windowing.

  9. Integrated Unmanned Air-Ground Robotics System, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-20

    Winkeler, Sherri Adlich Programmatics Pat McInnis, Jim Sanders, John Carter, Jim Kirkwood Systems Integration Jim Dinges; George Smith Mechanical...les vies des soldats sur les champs de bataille , le développement de drones apparaît comme la solution idéale. Ces systèmes étant capables de missions...préserver les vies des soldats sur les champs de bataille , le développement de drones apparaît comme la solution idéale. Ces systèmes étant capables de

  10. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must include...

  11. Positive and ground state solutions for the critical Klein-Gordon-Maxwell system with potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carriao, Paulo C; Miyagaki, Olimpio H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a class of Klein-Gordon-Maxwell system when the nonlinearity exhibits critical growth. First we prove both existence and ground state solutions for this system with a periodic potencial V, and then we show the existence in the case that a nonperiodic potencial V is introduced.

  12. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  13. Correlation study between ground motion intensity measure parameters and deformation demands for bilinear SDOF systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between ground motion intensity measures (IM) and single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) deformation demands is described in this study. Peak ground acceleration (APG), peak ground velocity (VPG), peak ground displacement (DPG), spectral acceleration at the first-mode period of vibration [As(T1)] and ratio of VPG to APG are used as IM parameters, and the correlation is characterized by correlation coefficients ρ. The numerical results obtained by nonlinear dynamic analyses have shown good correlation between As(T1) or VPG and deformation demands. Furthermore, the effect of As(T1) and VPG as IM on the dispersion of the mean value of deformation demands is also investigated for SDOF systems with three different periods T=0.3 s, 1.0 s, 3.0 s respectively.

  14. Color night vision system for ground vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. A.; Qadir, H.; Kozaitis, S. P.

    2014-06-01

    Operating in a degraded visual environment due to darkness can pose a threat to navigation safety. Systems have been developed to navigate in darkness that depend upon differences between objects such as temperature or reflectivity at various wavelengths. However, adding sensors for these systems increases the complexity by adding multiple components that may create problems with alignment and calibration. An approach is needed that is passive and simple for widespread acceptance. Our approach uses a type of augmented display to show fused images from visible and thermal sensors that are continuously updated. Because the raw fused image gave an unnatural color appearance, we used a color transfer process based on a look-up table to replace the false colors with a colormap derived from a daytime reference image obtained from a public database using the GPS coordinates of the vehicle. Although the database image was not perfectly registered, we were able to produce imagery acquired at night that appeared with daylight colors. Such an approach could improve the safety of nighttime navigation.

  15. Ground Simulation of an Autonomous Satellite Rendezvous and Tracking System Using Dual Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube, Matthew J.; Hyslop, Andrew M.; Carignan, Craig R.; Easley, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop ground system was developed for simulating a robotic servicer spacecraft tracking a target satellite at short range. A relative navigation sensor package "Argon" is mounted on the end-effector of a Fanuc 430 manipulator, which functions as the base platform of the robotic spacecraft servicer. Machine vision algorithms estimate the pose of the target spacecraft, mounted on a Rotopod R-2000 platform, relay the solution to a simulation of the servicer spacecraft running in "Freespace", which performs guidance, navigation and control functions, integrates dynamics, and issues motion commands to a Fanuc platform controller so that it tracks the simulated servicer spacecraft. Results will be reviewed for several satellite motion scenarios at different ranges. Key words: robotics, satellite, servicing, guidance, navigation, tracking, control, docking.

  16. New vision system and navigation algorithm for an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tann, Hokchhay; Shakya, Bicky; Merchen, Alex C.; Williams, Benjamin C.; Khanal, Abhishek; Zhao, Jiajia; Ahlgren, David J.

    2013-12-01

    Improvements were made to the intelligence algorithms of an autonomously operating ground vehicle, Q, which competed in the 2013 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). The IGVC required the vehicle to first navigate between two white lines on a grassy obstacle course, then pass through eight GPS waypoints, and pass through a final obstacle field. Modifications to Q included a new vision system with a more effective image processing algorithm for white line extraction. The path-planning algorithm adopted the vision system, creating smoother, more reliable navigation. With these improvements, Q successfully completed the basic autonomous navigation challenge, finishing tenth out of over 50 teams.

  17. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  18. Analysis and field evaluation of an advanced ground-coupled heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Catan, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Hughes, H.M. (Climate Master, Inc. (USA)); Hughes, P.J. (Fleming (W.S.) and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY (USA)); O' Neil, R.A. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (USA))

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump (WSHP) package designed expressly for such systems for a northern climate. The research objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost (LCC) of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the ground heat exchanger in concert. The LCC of a GCHP system with a horizontal ground heat exchanger was minimized over a seven-year economic life for an 1800 ft{sup 2} (167 m{sup 2}) house in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Simple payback for the optimized system, relative to conventional air-source heat pumps (ASHPs), was less than three years. The resulting WSHP design is calculated to cost approximately 20% more than its conventional counterpart, but offers a 20% higher heating coefficient of performance (COP) and a 23% higher cooling COP. The major conclusion of this study is that by improving the WSHP package efficiency, the ground heat exchanger size can be reduced by at least 30% without sacrificing performance; this can yield significant improvement in the cost competitiveness of GCHP systems. 10 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Patterns of the ground states in the presence of random interactions: nucleon systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Shimizu, N; Ogawa, K; Yoshinaga, N; Scholten, O

    2004-01-01

    We present our results on properties of ground states for nucleonic systems in the presence of random two-body interactions. In particular we present probability distributions for parity, seniority, spectroscopic (i.e., in the laboratory framework) quadrupole moments and $\\alpha$ clustering in the ground states. We find that the probability distribution for the parity of the ground states obtained by a two-body random ensemble simulates that of realistic nuclei: positive parity is dominant in the ground states of even-even nuclei while for odd-odd nuclei and odd-mass nuclei we obtain with almost equal probability ground states with positive and negative parity. In addition we find that for the ground states, assuming pure random interactions, low seniority is not favored, no dominance of positive values of spectroscopic quadrupole deformation, and no sign of $\\alpha$-cluster correlations, all in sharp contrast to realistic nuclei. Considering a mixture of a random and a realistic interaction, we observe a sec...

  20. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  1. Distributed Common Ground System-Navy Increment 2 (DCGS-N Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    for MAIS Programs 3 Program Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status...UNCLASSIFIED 4 Program Description Distributed Common Ground System - Navy (DCGS-N) is the Navy Service component of the DoD DCGS family of systems...partnerships and collaboration with the Defense Intelligence Information Enterprise, the DCGS Family of Systems, the broader IC, and existing Joint and

  2. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  3. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  4. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent years.…

  5. H-Bridge Transformerless Inverter with Common Ground for Single-Phase Solar-Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase H-Bridge transformerless inverter with common ground for grid-connected photovoltaic systems (hereafter it is called ‘Siwakoti-H’ inverter). The inverter works on the principle of flying capacitor and consists of only four power switches (two reverse blockin...

  6. Patterns of the ground states in the presence of random interactions : Nucleon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, YM; Arima, A; Shimizu, N; Ogawa, K; Yoshinaga, N; Scholten, O

    2004-01-01

    We present our results on properties of ground states for nucleonic systems in the presence of random two-body interactions. In particular, we calculate probability distributions for parity, seniority, spectroscopic (i.e., in the laboratory frame) quadrupole moments, and discuss a clustering in the

  7. Thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone in southeastern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a regional study of thermal and non-thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone of southern Idaho and western Wyoming are presented. The study involved hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data collection and interpretation. Particular emphasis was placed on analyzing the role that thrust zones play in controlling the movement of thermal and non-thermal fluids.

  8. Portable Ground Measurement & Control System%便携式地面测控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗珊; 陈睿璟; 路引; 张哲聪

    2012-01-01

    为适应无人机地面测控技术的发展要求,设计一种便携式无人机地面控制系统.分析便携式无人机控制系统的基本技术和原理,着重探究便携式地面测控系统的工作原理,通过采用操纵杆和键盘指令由测控计算机完成向无人机靶机发送遥控指令.试验和测试结果表明,所设计的无人机靶机地面测控系统具有一定的可行性.%In order to meet the development requirement of UAV ground measurement & control technology, design a portable UVA ground control system. Analyze the basic technology and principle of portable UAV control system. Pay much attention to working principle of the UAV ground measurement and control system. Realize measurement and control computer sending remote command to UAV target drone by using joy stick and keyboard command. The test results show that the design of the UAV target drone ground measurement & control system is feasible.

  9. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent…

  10. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  11. An Innovative Use of Renewable Ground Heat for Insulation in Low Exergy Building Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjürg Leibundgut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground heat is a renewable resource that is readily available for buildings in cool climates, but its relatively low temperature requires the use of a heat pump to extract it for heating. We developed a system that uses low temperature ground heat directly in a building wall to reduce transmission heat losses. The Active Low Exergy Geothermal Insulation Systems (ALEGIS minimizes exergy demand and maximizes the use of renewable geothermal heat from the ground. A fluid is pumped into a small pipe network in an external layer of a wall construction that is linked to a ground heat source. This decouples the building from the outside temperature, therefore eliminating large peak demands and reducing the primary energy demand. Our steady-state analysis shows that at a design temperature of −10 °C the 6 cm thick active insulation system has equivalent performance to 11 cm of passive insulation. Our comparison of heating performance of a building with our active insulation system versus a building with static insulation of the same thickness shows a 15% reduction in annual electricity demand, and thus exergy input. We present an overview of the operation and analysis of our low exergy concept and its modeled performance.

  12. Design of an ultra-wideband ground-penetrating radar system using impulse radiating antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Giri, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    At TNO-FEL, one of the research programs is to explore the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields in a bi-static ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system for the detection, location and identification of buried items of unexploded ordnance (e.g. land mines). In the present paper we describe

  13. Design of an ultra-wideband ground-penetrating radar system using impulse radiating antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Giri, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    At TNO-FEL, one of the research programs is to explore the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields in a bi-static ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system for the detection, location and identification of buried items of unexploded ordnance (e.g. land mines). In the present paper we describe

  14. Study on the Performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Assisted by Solar Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A ground source heat pump system (GSHPS utilizes a relatively stable underground temperature to achieve energy-saving for heating and cooling in buildings. However, continuous long-term operation will reduce the soil temperature in winter, resulting in a decline in system performance. In this research, in order to improve the system performance of a GSHPS, a ground heat pump system integrated with solar thermal storage was developed. This solar-assisted ground heat pump system (SAGHPS can both maintain the balance of the soil temperature effectively and achieve higher system performance than the conventional system. In this paper, in order to examine the characteristics of the system, a dynamic simulation was conducted under various conditions. The results of our case study provide specific operation data such as heat exchange rate, heat source temperature, and heat pump COP. As a result, the heat pump COP of SAGHPS was 4.7%, 9.3% higher than that of the GSHPS.

  15. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  16. Temperature and energy deficit in the ground during operation and recovery phases of closed-loop ground source heat pump system: Effect of the groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Selcuk; Francois, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    The advection/dispersion mechanism of the groundwater flow in the ground has a significant effect on a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) to enhance its thermal performance. However, the amount of energy extracted from the ground never disappears and only shifts with the magnitude of the effective thermal velocity in the infinite domain. In this work, we focus on the temperature and the energy balance of the ground in an advection/dispersion dominated heat transfer system during the operation period of a BHE and the subsequent recovery phase when the system is idle. The problem is treated with single BHE and multi-BHEs systems, for different representative geology and different groundwater flow velocity. In order to assess the thermal energy deficit due to heat extraction from the ground, we used the finite line source analytical model, developed recently (Erol et al., 2015) that provides the temperature distributions around the boreholes for discontinuous heat extraction. The model is developed based on the Green's function, which is the solution of heat conduction/advection/dispersion equation in porous media, for discontinuous heat extraction by analytically convoluting rectangular function or pulses in time domain. The results demonstrate the significant positive impact of the groundwater flow for the recovery in terms of temperature deficit at the location of the borehole. However, the total thermal energy deficit is not affected by the groundwater movement. The energy balance of the ground is the same no matter the prevailing heat transfer system, which can be only conduction or advection/dispersion. In addition, the energy balance of the ground is not based on either the duration of the production period operation or of the recovery phase, but depends on the total amount of heat that is extracted and on the bulk volumetric heat capacity of the ground.

  17. Marx’s Ground Rent Theory and Innovation of China’s Urban Land System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiefang; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    China’s traditional urban land system is established in highly centralized planned economy. This system negates functions of value law and economic law fundamentally,so it is not favorable for establishment of market mechanism and development of market economy. This study took Marx’s ground rent theory as guidance,combined existing problems of China’s land use system,and made analysis on innovation of China’s urban land system from property right system,land market and land price.

  18. Effectiveness of adaptive optics system in satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Huang; Ke, Deng; Chao, Liu; Peng, Zhang; Dagang, Jiang; Zhoushi, Yao

    2014-06-30

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems can suppress the signal fade induced by atmospheric turbulence in satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication. The lower bound of the signal fade under AO compensation was investigated by analyzing the pattern of aberration modes for a one-stage imaging AO system. The distribution of the root mean square of the residual aberration is discussed on the basis of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the residual aberration of the AO system. The effectiveness of the AO system for improving the performance of coherent optical communication is presented in terms of the bit error rate and system availability.

  19. Annual investigation of vertical type ground source heat pump system performance on a wall heating and cooling system in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, U.; Yoru, Y.; Kincay, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University (Turkey)], email: akbulutugur@yahoo.com, email: yilmazyoru@gmail.com, email: okincay@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Wall heating and cooling systems (WHCS) are equipped with heating serpentines or panels for water circulation. These systems operate in a low temperature range so they are preferable to other, conventional systems. Furthermore, when these systems are connected to a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, energy performance and thermal comfort are further enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an annual inspection done on a vertical type ground-coupled heat pump systems (V-GSHP) WHCS in Istanbul and present the results. The performance data from the Yildiz Renewable Energy House at Davutpasa Campus of Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, during the year 2010 were collected and analyzed. The conclusions drawn from the inspection and analysis were listed in this paper. Using renewable energy sources effectively will bring both economic and environmental benefits and it is hoped that the use of these energy efficient WHCS systems will become widespread.

  20. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative effluent containment system (ECS) that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal.

  1. Performance analysis of MRC spatial diversity receiver system for satellite-to-ground downlink optical transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Cao, Yubin

    2016-10-01

    The performances of satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications over Gamma-Gamma distributed turbulence are studied for multiple apertures receiver system. Maximum ratio combining (MRC) technique is considered as a combining scheme to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence under thermal noise limited conditions. Bit-error rate (BER) performances for on-off keying (OOK) modulated direct detection optical communications are analyzed for MRC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of multiple apertures receiver system, BER performances of MRC receiver system are compared with a single monolithic aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power) for satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications. All the numerical results are also verified by Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations.

  2. Distributed Common Ground System Army Increment 1 (DCGS-A Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    requirements and business case assessments. In 2002, the Army consolidated the critical requirements in nine families of fielded systems and included...for MAIS Programs 3 Program Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 6 Program Status...Description Distributed Common Ground System–Army (DCGS-A) is the Army Service component of the DoD DCGS Family of Systems and the Defense Intelligence

  3. A Ground-Based Validation System of Teleoperation for a Space Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Xueqian Wang; Houde Liu; Wenfu Xu; Bin Liang; Yingchun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Teleoperation of space robots is very important for future on‐orbit service. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experiments are required to verify the function and validity of the teleoperation system before a space robot is launched. In this paper, a ground‐based validation subsystem is developed as a part of a teleoperation system. The subsystem is mainly composed of four parts: the input verification module, the onboard verification module, the dynamic and ima...

  4. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  5. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  6. Single Phase-to-Ground Fault Line Identification and Section Location Method for Non-Effectively Grounded Distribution Systems Based on Signal Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhencun; WANG Chengshan; CONG Wei; ZHANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    A diagnostic signal current trace detecting based single phase-to-ground fault line identifica- tion and section location method for non-effectively grounded distribution systems is presented in thisi oaper. A special diagnostic signal current is injected into the fault distribution system, and then it is de- tected at the outlet terminals to identify the fault line and at the sectionalizing or branching point along the fault line to locate the fault section. The method has been put into application in actual distribution network and field experience shows that it can identify the fault line and locate the fault section correctly and effectively.

  7. Determining Component Probability using Problem Report Data for Ground Systems used in Manned Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Gillespie, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    During the shuttle era NASA utilized a failure reporting system called the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) it purpose was to identify and track system non-conformance. The PRACA system over the years evolved from a relatively nominal way to identify system problems to a very complex tracking and report generating data base. The PRACA system became the primary method to categorize any and all anomalies from corrosion to catastrophic failure. The systems documented in the PRACA system range from flight hardware to ground or facility support equipment. While the PRACA system is complex, it does possess all the failure modes, times of occurrence, length of system delay, parts repaired or replaced, and corrective action performed. The difficulty is mining the data then to utilize that data in order to estimate component, Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and system reliability analysis metrics. In this paper, we identify a methodology to categorize qualitative data from the ground system PRACA data base for common ground or facility support equipment. Then utilizing a heuristic developed for review of the PRACA data determine what reports identify a credible failure. These data are the used to determine inter-arrival times to perform an estimation of a metric for repairable component-or LRU reliability. This analysis is used to determine failure modes of the equipment, determine the probability of the component failure mode, and support various quantitative differing techniques for performing repairable system analysis. The result is that an effective and concise estimate of components used in manned space flight operations. The advantage is the components or LRU's are evaluated in the same environment and condition that occurs during the launch process.

  8. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  9. Optimization of Serial Combined System of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; LU Suzhen; CUI Junkui

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical optimization model was set up for a ground-solar combined system based on in-situ experimental results,in which the solar collector was combined serially with a ground-coupled heat pump(GCHP).The universal optimal equations were solved by the constrained variable metric method considering both the performance and economics.Then the model was applied to a specific case concerning an actual solar assisted GCHP system for space heating.The results indicated a system coefficient of performance(COP)of 3.9 for the optimal method under the seriaI heating mode,and 3.2 for the conventional one.In addition,the optimum solution also showed advantages in energy and cost saving.1eading to a 16.7%improvement in the heat pump performance at 17.2%less energy consumption and 11.8%lower annual cost,respectively.

  10. Towards photonic quantum simulation of ground states of frustrated Heisenberg spin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-song; Dakić, Borivoje; Kropatschek, Sebastian; Naylor, William; Chan, Yang-hao; Gong, Zhe-xuan; Duan, Lu-ming; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2014-01-07

    Photonic quantum simulators are promising candidates for providing insight into other small- to medium-sized quantum systems. Recent experiments have shown that photonic quantum systems have the advantage to exploit quantum interference for the quantum simulation of the ground state of Heisenberg spin systems. Here we experimentally characterize this quantum interference at a tuneable beam splitter and further investigate the measurement-induced interactions of a simulated four-spin system by comparing the entanglement dynamics using pairwise concurrence. We also study theoretically a four-site square lattice with next-nearest neighbor interactions and a six-site checkerboard lattice, which might be in reach of current technology.

  11. The laser calibration system for the STACEE ground-based gamma ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the laser system used for calibration monitoring of components of the STACEE detector. STACEE is a ground based gamma ray detector which uses the heliostats of a solar power facility to collect and focus Cherenkov light onto a system of secondary optics and photomultiplier tubes. To monitor the gain and check the linearity and timing properties of the phototubes and associated electronics, a system based on a dye laser, neutral density filters and optical fibres has been developed. In this paper we describe the system and present some results from initial tests made with it.

  12. Ground test results and analysis advancements for the AFRL airborne CO2 DIAL system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Hamilton, Carla M.; Richter, Dale A.; Higdon, N. S.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.

    1999-10-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Active Remote Sensing Branch has developed the Laser Airborne Remote Sensing (LARS) system for chemical detection using the differential absorption lidar technique. The system is based on a high-power CO2 laser which can use either the standard 12C16O2 or the 13C16O2 carbon dioxide isotopes as the lasing medium, and has output energies of up to 5 J on the stronger laser transitions. The lidar system is mounted on a flight-qualified optical breadboard designed for installation into the AFRL Argus C- 135E optical testbed aircraft. The Phase I ground tests were conducted at Kirtland AFB in 1997, prior to the LARS flight tests performed in September 1997 at Kirtland AFB and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Phase II ground tests were conducted in 1998 to determine the optimum performance of the LARS systems, after the incorporation of modifications and improvements suggested by the flight test results. This paper will present some of the chemical detection and radiometric results obtained during the Phase II ground tests. Following the presentation of the direct detection results, a summary of current work on a heterodyne DIAL system is given.

  13. Function-based design process for an intelligent ground vehicle vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Robert L.; Perry, Kenneth L.; Stone, Robert B.; McAdams, Daniel A.

    2010-10-01

    An engineering design framework for an autonomous ground vehicle vision system is discussed. We present both the conceptual and physical design by following the design process, development and testing of an intelligent ground vehicle vision system constructed for the 2008 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. During conceptual design, the requirements for the vision system are explored via functional and process analysis considering the flows into the vehicle and the transformations of those flows. The conceptual design phase concludes with a vision system design that is modular in both hardware and software and is based on a laser range finder and camera for visual perception. During physical design, prototypes are developed and tested independently, following the modular interfaces identified during conceptual design. Prototype models, once functional, are implemented into the final design. The final vision system design uses a ray-casting algorithm to process camera and laser range finder data and identify potential paths. The ray-casting algorithm is a single thread of the robot's multithreaded application. Other threads control motion, provide feedback, and process sensory data. Once integrated, both hardware and software testing are performed on the robot. We discuss the robot's performance and the lessons learned.

  14. SPARCL: a high-altitude tethered balloon-based optical space-to-ground communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badesha, Surjit S.

    2002-12-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted a feasibility study to determine if a high altitude (20 km) tethered balloon-based space-to-ground optical communication system is a feasible concept. To support this effort, a detailed concept definition was developed and associated issues were identified and analyzed systematically. Of all the adverse atmospheric phenomena, cloud coverage was identified as the most prohibitive obstacle for a space-to-ground optical communication link. However, by placing a receiver on a balloon at a 20 km altitude, the proposed high altitude system avoids virtually all atmospheric effects. A practical notional scenario was developed (i.e. surveillance and/or reconnaissance of a regional conflict) involving end-to-end optical communication architecture to identify system elements, system level requirements, and to quantify realistic data rate requirements. Analysis of the proposed space-to-ground communication elements indicates that while significant development is required, the system is technically feasible and is a very cost effective 24/7solution.

  15. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  16. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1 load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, (2 wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3 master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4 a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons.

  17. Ground System Architectures Workshop GMSEC SERVICES SUITE (GSS): an Agile Development Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Vuong

    2017-01-01

    The GMSEC (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center) Services Suite (GSS) is a collection of tools and software services along with a robust customizable web-based portal that enables the user to capture, monitor, report, and analyze system-wide GMSEC data. Given our plug-and-play architecture and the needs for rapid system development, we opted to follow the Scrum Agile Methodology for software development. Being one of the first few projects to implement the Agile methodology at NASA GSFC, in this presentation we will present our approaches, tools, successes, and challenges in implementing this methodology. The GMSEC architecture provides a scalable, extensible ground and flight system for existing and future missions. GMSEC comes with a robust Application Programming Interface (GMSEC API) and a core set of Java-based GMSEC components that facilitate the development of a GMSEC-based ground system. Over the past few years, we have seen an upbeat in the number of customers who are moving from a native desktop application environment to a web based environment particularly for data monitoring and analysis. We also see a need to provide separation of the business logic from the GUI display for our Java-based components and also to consolidate all the GUI displays into one interface. This combination of separation and consolidation brings immediate value to a GMSEC-based ground system through increased ease of data access via a uniform interface, built-in security measures, centralized configuration management, and ease of feature extensibility.

  18. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  19. Ground States for the Schrödinger Systems with Harmonic Potential and Combined Power-Type Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger systems with potential terms and combined power-type nonlinearities. We establish the existence of ground states, by using a variational method. As an application, some symmetry results for ground states of Schrödinger systems with harmonic potential terms are obtained.

  20. An aerial–ground robotic system for navigation and obstacle mapping in large outdoor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Mario; Valente, João; Zapata, David; Barrientos, Antonio

    2013-01-21

    There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning) require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments.

  1. An Aerial–Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Mario; Valente, João; Zapata, David; Barrientos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning) require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments. PMID:23337332

  2. Performance characterization and ground testing of an airborne CO2 differential absorption lidar system (phase II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Hamilton, Carla M.; Richter, Dale A.; Higdon, N. S.; Kelly, Brian T.

    1999-05-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Active Remote Sensing Branch has developed the Laser Airborne Remote Sensing (LARS) system for chemical detection using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. The system is based on a high-power CO2 laser which can use either the standard 12C16O2 or the 13C16O2 carbon dioxide isotopes as the lasing medium, and has output energies of up to 5 J on the stronger laser transitions. The lidar system is mounted on a flight-qualified optical breadboard designed for installation into the AFRL Argus C- 135E optical testbed aircraft. The Phase I ground tests were conducted at Kirtland AFB in 1997, prior to the LARS flight tests performed in September 1997 at Kirtland AFB and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Phase II ground tests were conducted in 1998 to determine the optimum performance of the LARS system, after the incorporation of modification and improvements suggested by the flight test results. This paper will present some of the chemical detection and radiometric results obtained during the Phase II ground tests.

  3. A Ground Experiment System of a Free-Floating Robot for Fine Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houde Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in future space activities with the development of space technology. One broad area of application is in the servicing, construction and maintenance of satellites and large space structures in orbit. Fine manipulation technology is very important for space robots to be able to perform these tasks, since it must ensure safe and reliable interaction with objects or the environment. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experimentations are required in order to verify key planning and control algorithms before the space robot is launched. In this paper, based on the concept of a hybrid approach combining the mathematical model with the physical model, a ground experiment system is set up, which is composed of two industrial robots, global and hand‐eye visual equipment, six‐axis force/torquesensors, guide rail and four computers. Many control approaches of fine manipulation, such as compliance control, impedance control, hybrid force/position control, intelligent control and so on, can be verified using this system. As an example, a contour curves tracking experiment based on the compliance control strategy is performed. Experiment results show that the ground system is very useful for verifying the dexterous manipulation technology of space robots.

  4. An Aerial-Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments.

  5. Parasitic Effects of Grounding Paths on Common-Mode EMI Filter's Performance in Power Electronics Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuo [ORNL; Maillet, Yoann [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Wang, Fei [ORNL; Lai, Rixin [General Electric; Luo, Fang [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency common-mode (CM) electromagnetic-interference (EMI) noise is difficult to suppress in electronics systems. EMI filters are used to suppress CM noise, but their performance is greatly affected by the parasitic effects of the grounding paths. In this paper, the parasitic effects of the grounding paths on an EMI filter's performance are investigated in a motor-drive system. The effects of the mutual inductance between two grounding paths are explored. Guidelines for the grounding of CM EMI filters are derived. Simulations and experiments are finally carried out to verify the theoretical analysis.

  6. Mitigation of ground motion effects via feedback systems in the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen; Schmickler, Hermann; Schulte, Daniel

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a future multi-TeV electron positron collider, which is currently being designed at CERN. To achieve its ambitious goals, CLIC has to produce particle beams of the highest quality, which makes the accelerator very sensitive to ground motion. Four mitigation methods have been foreseen by the CLIC design group to cope with the feasibility issue of ground motion. This thesis is concerned with the design of one of these mitigation methods, named linac feedback (L-FB), but also with the simultaneous simulation and validation of all mitigation methods. Additionally, a technique to improve the quality of the indispensable system knowledge has been developed. The L-FB suppresses beam oscillations along the accelerator. Its design is based on the decoupling of the overall accelerator system into independent channels. For each channel an individual compensator is found with the help of a semi- automatic control synthesis procedure. This technique allows the designer to incorporate ...

  7. Coherent receiving efficiency in satellite-ground coherent laser communication system based on analysis of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shiqi; Zhang, Dai; Zhao, Qingsong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Qi

    2017-06-01

    Aimed at analyzing the coherent receiving efficiency of a satellite-ground coherent laser communication system, polarization state of the received light is analyzed. We choose the circularly polarized, partially coherent laser as transmitted light source. The analysis process includes 3 parts. Firstly, an theoretical model to analyze received light's polarization state is constructed based on Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) and cross spectral density function matrix. Then, analytic formulas to calculate coherent receiving efficiency are derived in which both initial ellipticity modification and deflection angle between polarization axes of the received light and the intrinsic light are considered. At last, numerical simulations are operated based on our study. The research findings investigate variations of polarization state and obtain analytic formulas to calculate the coherent receiving efficiency. Our study has theoretical guiding significances in construction and optimization of satellite-ground coherent laser communication system.

  8. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  9. Mechanizing Weakly Ground Termination Proving of Term Rewriting Systems by Structural and Cover-Set Inductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Feng

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents three formal proving methods for generalized weakly ground terminating property, i.e.,weakly terminating property in a restricted domain of a term rewriting system, one with structural induction, one with cover-set induction, and the third without induction, and describes their mechanization based on a meta-computation model for term rewriting systems-dynamic term rewriting calculus. The methods can be applied to non-terminating, nonconfluent and/or non-left-linear term rewriting systems. They can do "forward proving" by applying propositions in the proof, as well as "backward proving" by discovering lemmas during the proof.

  10. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  11. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  12. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  13. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  14. Hierarchical neural network model of the visual system determining figure/ground relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important functions of the visual perception in the brain is figure/ground interpretation from input images. Figural region in 2D image corresponding to object in 3D space are distinguished from background region extended behind the object. Previously the author proposed a neural network model of figure/ground separation constructed on the standpoint that local geometric features such as curvatures and outer angles at corners are extracted and propagated along input contour in a single layer network (Kikuchi & Akashi, 2001). However, such a processing principle has the defect that signal propagation requires manyiterations despite the fact that actual visual system determines figure/ground relation within the short period (Zhou et al., 2000). In order to attain speed-up for determining figure/ground, this study incorporates hierarchical architecture into the previous model. This study confirmed the effect of the hierarchization as for the computation time by simulation. As the number of layers increased, the required computation time reduced. However, such speed-up effect was saturatedas the layers increased to some extent. This study attempted to explain this saturation effect by the notion of average distance between vertices in the area of complex network, and succeeded to mimic the saturation effect by computer simulation.

  15. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  16. Algorithm of sky-ground-wave signal separation in CDMA system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingjuan; Chen Shiru

    2008-01-01

    To solve the problem of the sky-wave interference in radio positioning system operating in CDMA mode, an algorithm of sky-ground-wave separation is provided. Based on the MLE (maximum likelihood estimate),and by estimating the amplitude and the phase of the sky-wave signal, the provided algorithm for separating sky-ground-wave is implemented. The mathematics model used for signal processing is established, and the possible solutions are provided. The structure and signal processing flow implementing the presented algorithm in the receiver are presented. A multi-channels signal searching idea is adopted, some of which process the sky-wave signal, and some of which process the ground-wave signal. Numerical analysis and simulation show that the proposed algorithm has higher accuracy, more rapid processing speed, and simpler implementation for the estimation of the sky-wave signal parameter, and can separate the sky-wave signal and ground-wave signal from the arrival combination signal effectively.

  17. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  18. Geographic Information System technology applications to Ground-Water Management Program, EPA Region 3. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clibanoff, A.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. GIS technology is a computer informational system that stores, analyzes, and manipulates both spatial and non-spatial data. Base map information for the GIS has come primarily from the USGS. Data for the entire Region at the 1:2,000,000 scale and for some of the Region at the 1:100,000 scale is currently being used. Data from GIRAS, a land use Database, at the 1:250,000 also exists for much of the Region. Information is contributed to the GIS from various sources including but not limited to RCRA, CERCLA, UIC, and UST programs. The WHP program is also being tapped to identify locations of public water supply wells. Region III is interested in any data that accurately describes the ground water condition in a given area. In Regional pilot studies being conducted, GIS is being employed at both the regional and county level. The goals of the pilot studies include the identification of areas of ground water susceptibility and major sources of ground water contamination, and prioritizing the Region's ground water supplies in terms of vulnerability to pollution and risk to the population.

  19. A Bayesian and Physics-Based Ground Motion Parameters Map Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Quiroz, A.; Sandoval, H.; Perez-Yanez, C.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macias, M. A.; Alcántara, L.

    2014-12-01

    We present the Ground Motion Parameters Map Generation (GMPMG) system developed by the Institute of Engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The system delivers estimates of information associated with the social impact of earthquakes, engineering ground motion parameters (gmp), and macroseismic intensity maps. The gmp calculated are peak ground acceleration and velocity (pga and pgv) and response spectral acceleration (SA). The GMPMG relies on real-time data received from strong ground motion stations belonging to UNAM's networks throughout Mexico. Data are gathered via satellite and internet service providers, and managed with the data acquisition software Earthworm. The system is self-contained and can perform all calculations required for estimating gmp and intensity maps due to earthquakes, automatically or manually. An initial data processing, by baseline correcting and removing records containing glitches or low signal-to-noise ratio, is performed. The system then assigns a hypocentral location using first arrivals and a simplified 3D model, followed by a moment tensor inversion, which is performed using a pre-calculated Receiver Green's Tensors (RGT) database for a realistic 3D model of Mexico. A backup system to compute epicentral location and magnitude is in place. A Bayesian Kriging is employed to combine recorded values with grids of computed gmp. The latter are obtained by using appropriate ground motion prediction equations (for pgv, pga and SA with T=0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 s ) and numerical simulations performed in real time, using the aforementioned RGT database (for SA with T=2, 2.5 and 3 s). Estimated intensity maps are then computed using SA(T=2S) to Modified Mercalli Intensity correlations derived for central Mexico. The maps are made available to the institutions in charge of the disaster prevention systems. In order to analyze the accuracy of the maps, we compare them against observations not considered in the

  20. Working Group 11F Opening Comments NASA Planning for NASA's Future Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford S.

    2016-01-01

    These are simple charts for the introductory comments to be made at the start of a panel session at the Ground System Architecture Workshop (GSAW2016). It is not meant as a formal paper, but rather contains information to prompt further discussion of the panel members and audience. The panel topic is: Embracing Change via the Use of Service-Based Frameworks and Products in an Enterprise.

  1. Space station operations task force. Panel 2 report: Ground operations and support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Concept embodied in this report provides for safe multi-user utilization of the Space Station, eases user integration, and gives users autonomy and flexibility. It provides for meaningful multi-national participation while protecting U.S. interests. The concept also supports continued space operations technology development by maintaining NASA expertise and enabling technology evolution. Given attention here are pre/post flight operations, logistics, sustaining engineering/configuration management, transportation services/rescue, and information systems and communication.

  2. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  3. Space Fence Ground-Based Radar System Increment 1 (Space Fence Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-438 Space Fence Ground-Based Radar System Increment 1 (Space Fence Inc 1) As of FY 2017...11 Track to Budget 17 Cost and Funding 18 Low Rate Initial Production 23 Foreign Military Sales 24 Nuclear Costs 24 Unit Cost...Document CLIN - Contract Line Item Number CPD - Capability Production Document CY - Calendar Year DAB - Defense Acquisition Board DAE - Defense Acquisition

  4. Ground state spin 0$^+$ dominance of many-body systems with random interactions and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Arima, A; Zhao, Y M

    2003-01-01

    In this talk we shall show our recent results in understanding the spin$^{\\rm parity}$ 0$^+$ ground state (0 g.s.) dominance of many-body systems. We propose a simple approach to predict the spin $I$ g.s. probabilities which does not require the diagonalization of a Hamiltonian with random interactions. Some findings related to the 0 g.s. dominance will also be discussed.

  5. System safety activities supporting an aero-space plane ground support technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the specific system safety activities required to support the ground support technology program associated with the design of an aerospace plane. Safe zones must be assessed to ensure that explosive safety requirements are attained to protect the vehicle, personnel, and support and operational facilities. Attention is given to the specific and unique design requirements connected with the utilization of cryogenic fuels as they apply to the design and development of an aerospace plane.

  6. Using High Performance Computing to Realize a System-Level RDDO for Military Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    Using High Performance Computing to Realize a System-Level RBDO for Military Ground Vehicles • David A. Lamb, Ph.D. • Computational Reliability and...fictitious load cases is number of design variables X number of static load cases (6 X 24 = 144 for Stryker A-arm). RBDO Flowchart Pre-processor Morpher...Based Geometry Morpher Mesh Finite Element Analysis Durability Sensitivity RBDO /PBDO FE Analysis FE re-analysis for DSA Sensitivity of SIC and Fatigue

  7. NASA Requirements for Ground-Based Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems (PVS). Revision C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Owen Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to ensure the structural integrity of PVS through implementation of a minimum set of requirements for ground-based PVS in accordance with this document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 8710.5, NASA Safety Policy for Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements, applicable Federal Regulations, and national consensus codes and standards (NCS).

  8. Ground and Low-Lying Collective States of Rotating Three-Boson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Mohd.; Ahsan, M. A. H.

    2016-04-01

    The ground and low-lying collective states of a rotating system of N = 3 bosons harmonically confined in quasi-two-dimension and interacting via repulsive finite-range Gaussian potential is studied in weakly to moderately interacting regime. The N-body Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized in subspaces of quantized total angular momenta 0 ≥ L ≥ 4N to obtain the ground and low-lying eigenstates. Our numerical results show that breathing modes with N-body eigenenergy spacing of 2ħω⊥, known to exist in strictly 2D system with zero-range (δ-function) interaction potential, may as well exist in quasi-2D system with finite-range Gaussian interaction potential. To gain an insight into the many-body states, the von Neumann entropy is calculated as a measure of quantum correlation and the conditional probability distribution is analyzed for the internal structure of the eigenstates. In the rapidly rotating regime the ground state in angular momentum subspaces L = (q/2)N (N - 1) with q = 2, 4 is found to exhibit the anticorrelation structure suggesting that it may variationally be described by a Bose-Laughlin like state. We further observe that the first breathing mode exhibits features similar to the Bose-Laughlin state in having eigenenergy, von Neumann entropy and internal structure independent of interaction for the three-boson system considered here. On the contrary, for eigenstates lying between the Bose-Laughlin like ground state and the first breathing mode, values of eigenenergy, von Neumann entropy and internal structure are found to vary with interaction.

  9. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  10. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 separate, independent system design and development hardware demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter ground demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators. Descriptions of the system designs for both the ATK and L'Garde systems will be presented. Changes, additions and evolution of the system designs will be highlighted. A description of the modeling and analyses activities performed by both teams, as well as testing conducted to raise the TRL of solar sail technology will be presented. A summary of the results of model correlation activities will be presented. Finally, technology gaps identified during the assessment and gap closure plans will be presented, along with "lessons learned", subsequent planning activities and validation flight opportunities for solar sail propulsion technology.

  11. Strong Ground Motion Evaluation for an Active Fault System by the Empirical Green Function Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Choun, Young Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Shiba, Yoshiaki; Ohtori, Yasuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    In an area with a high seismic activity, a design earthquake ground motion is generally determined empirically by investigating the historical records concerning damaging events. But it is difficult in Korea to obtain such seismic records that reflect the local characteristics because of the low seismic activity. A geological survey on the active faults near the sites of nuclear power plants has been carried out recently, and the segmentation, slip rate and the latest activity of the fault system are partly revealed. It will be significant for the advanced seismic design of nuclear facilities to utilize the information derived from these geological investigations and evaluate the strong ground motions. In this study, the empirical Green's function method (EFGM) was used to simulate strong ground motions from an active fault system in Korea. The source models are assumed by using the information obtained from the geological survey and the trench investigation on the fault system. Finally, the applicability of this approach to Korea was estimated.

  12. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  13. LWIR passive perception system for stealthy unmanned ground vehicle night operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daren; Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Nash, Jeremy; Ahuja, Gaurav; Matthies, Larry

    2016-05-01

    Resupplying forward-deployed units in rugged terrain in the presence of hostile forces creates a high threat to manned air and ground vehicles. An autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) capable of navigating stealthily at night in off-road and on-road terrain could significantly increase the safety and success rate of such resupply missions for warfighters. Passive night-time perception of terrain and obstacle features is a vital requirement for such missions. As part of the ONR 30 Autonomy Team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a passive, low-cost night-time perception system under the ONR Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare and Combating Terrorism Applied Research program. Using a stereo pair of forward looking LWIR uncooled microbolometer cameras, the perception system generates disparity maps using a local window-based stereo correlator to achieve real-time performance while maintaining low power consumption. To overcome the lower signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution of LWIR thermal imaging technologies, a series of pre-filters were applied to the input images to increase the image contrast and stereo correlator enhancements were applied to increase the disparity density. To overcome false positives generated by mixed pixels, noisy disparities from repeated textures, and uncertainty in far range measurements, a series of consistency, multi-resolution, and temporal based post-filters were employed to improve the fidelity of the output range measurements. The stereo processing leverages multi-core processors and runs under the Robot Operating System (ROS). The night-time passive perception system was tested and evaluated on fully autonomous testbed ground vehicles at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) and Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. This paper describes the challenges, techniques, and experimental results of developing a passive, low-cost perception system for night-time autonomous navigation.

  14. Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Lansdale, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial supply. In 1979, ground water in the Lansdale area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and other man-made organic compounds, and in 1989, the area was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) National Priority List as the North Penn Area 6 site. To assist the USEPA in the hydrogeological assessment of the site, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to describe the ground-water system and to determine the effects of changes in the well pumping patterns on the direction of ground-water flow in the Lansdale area. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1995-98 and on results of the simulation of the regional ground-water-flow system by use of a numerical model.Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicate that the sedimentary rock beds strike generally northeast and dip at angles less than 30 degrees to the northwest. The ground-water system is confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths; depth to bedrock commonly is less than 20 feet (6 meters); and depth to water commonly is about 15 to 60 feet (5 to 18 meters) below land surface. Single-well, aquifer-interval-isolation (packer) tests indicate that vertical permeability of the sedimentary rocks is low. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate that the system is heterogeneous and that flow appears primarily in discrete zones parallel to bedding. Preferred horizontal flow along strike was not observed in the aquifer tests for wells open to the pumped interval. Water levels in wells that are open to the pumped interval, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells that do not intersect the pumped interval. A regional potentiometric map based on measured water levels indicates that ground water flows from Lansdale towards discharge

  15. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  16. Wire position system to consistently measure and record the location change of girders following ground changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.

  17. Ground states for Schrodinger-Poisson systems with three growth terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the existence and nonexistence of ground states of the Schrodinger-Poisson system $$\\displaylines{ -\\Delta u+V(xu+K(x\\phi u=Q(xu^3,\\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R}^3,\\cr -\\Delta\\phi=K(xu^2, \\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R}^3, }$$ where V, K, and Q are asymptotically periodic in the variable x. The proof is based on the the method of Nehari manifold and concentration compactness principle. In particular, we develop the method of Nehari manifold for Schrodinger-Poisson systems with three times growth.

  18. Influence of the underlying surface on the antenna system of the ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzovsky, E. V.; Buyanov, Yu I.; Shipilov, S. E.

    2017-08-01

    Simulation results of the antenna system of the radar of subsurface sounding intended for contactless investigation of the road condition are presented. The elements of the antenna system of ground penetrating radar with extended bandwidth made as a combination of electric and magnetic type radiators have been designed. The transmission coefficient between the elements of the antenna array determining their mutual influence has been calculated. Despite the close arrangement of the elements in the array, the level of mutual influence of the elements is not critical. The developed antenna array can be used both for excitation with short ultrawideband pulses and for frequency steering in the range of 0.8-4 GHz.

  19. Analysis of Space Shuttle Ground Support System Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Processes and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael; Trent, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the FDIR (Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery) Project for the Constellation Program, a task was designed within the context of the Constellation Program FDIR project called the Legacy Benchmarking Task to document as accurately as possible the FDIR processes and resources that were used by the Space Shuttle ground support equipment (GSE) during the Shuttle flight program. These results served as a comparison with results obtained from the new FDIR capability. The task team assessed Shuttle and EELV (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle) historical data for GSE-related launch delays to identify expected benefits and impact. This analysis included a study of complex fault isolation situations that required a lengthy troubleshooting process. Specifically, four elements of that system were considered: LH2 (liquid hydrogen), LO2 (liquid oxygen), hydraulic test, and ground special power.

  20. Lower ground state due to counter-rotating wave interaction in trapped ion system

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; Feng, M

    2007-01-01

    We consider a single ion confined in a trap under radiation of two traveling waves of lasers. In the strong-excitation regime and without the restriction of Lamb-Dicke limit, the Hamiltonian of the system is similar to a driving Jaynes-Cummings model without rotating wave approximation (RWA). The approach we developed enables us to present a complete eigensolutions, which makes it available to compare with the solutions under the RWA. We find that, the ground state in our non-RWA solution is energically lower than the counterpart under the RWA. If we have the ion in the ground state, it is equivalent to a spin dependent force on the trapped ion. Discussion is made for the difference between the solutions with and without the RWA, and for the relevant experimental test, as well as for the possible application in quantum information processing.

  1. Simulation of the ground-water-flow system in the Kalamazoo County area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.; Blumer, Stephen P.; Weaver, T.L.; Jean, Julie

    2004-01-01

    A ground-water-flow model was developed to investigate the ground-water resources of Kalamazoo County. Ground water is widely used as a source of water for drinking and industry in Kalamazoo County and the surrounding area. Additionally, lakes and streams are valued for their recreational and aesthetic uses. Stresses on the ground-water system, both natural and human-induced, have raised concerns about the long-term availability of ground water for people to use and for replenishment of lakes and streams. Potential changes in these stresses, including withdrawals and recharge, were simulated using a ground-water-flow model. Simulations included steady-state conditions (in which stresses remained constant and changes in storage were not included) and transient conditions (in which stresses changed in seasonal and monthly time scales and storage within the system was included). Steady-state simulations were used to investigate the long-term effects on water levels and streamflow of a reduction in recharge or an increase in pumping to projected 2010 withdrawal rates, withdrawal and application of water for irrigation, and a reduction in recharge in urban areas caused by impervious surfaces. Transient simulations were used to investigate changes in withdrawals to match seasonal and monthly patterns under various recharge conditions, and the potential effects of the use of water for irrigation over the summer months. With a reduction in recharge, simulated water levels declined over most of the model area in Kalamazoo County; with an increase in pumping, water levels declined primarily near pumping centers. Because withdrawals by wells intercept water that would have discharged possibly to a stream or lake, model simulations indicated that streamflow was reduced with increased withdrawals. With withdrawal and consumption of water for irrigation, simulated water levels declined. Assuming a reduction in recharge due to urbanization, water levels declined and flow to

  2. Measuring the electrical properties of soil using a calibrated ground-coupled GPR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, C.P.; Olhoeft, G.R.; Wright, D.L.; Powers, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods for estimating vadose zone soil properties using ground penetrating radar (GPR) include measuring travel time, fitting diffraction hyperbolae, and other methods exploiting geometry. Additional processing techniques for estimating soil properties are possible with properly calibrated GPR systems. Such calibration using ground-coupled antennas must account for the effects of the shallow soil on the antenna's response, because changing soil properties result in a changing antenna response. A prototype GPR system using ground-coupled antennas was calibrated using laboratory measurements and numerical simulations of the GPR components. Two methods for estimating subsurface properties that utilize the calibrated response were developed. First, a new nonlinear inversion algorithm to estimate shallow soil properties under ground-coupled antennas was evaluated. Tests with synthetic data showed that the inversion algorithm is well behaved across the allowed range of soil properties. A preliminary field test gave encouraging results, with estimated soil property uncertainties (????) of ??1.9 and ??4.4 mS/m for the relative dielectric permittivity and the electrical conductivity, respectively. Next, a deconvolution method for estimating the properties of subsurface reflectors with known shapes (e.g., pipes or planar interfaces) was developed. This method uses scattering matrices to account for the response of subsurface reflectors. The deconvolution method was evaluated for use with noisy data using synthetic data. Results indicate that the deconvolution method requires reflected waves with a signal/noise ratio of about 10:1 or greater. When applied to field data with a signal/noise ratio of 2:1, the method was able to estimate the reflection coefficient and relative permittivity, but the large uncertainty in this estimate precluded inversion for conductivity. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  3. Low-Impact Air-to-Ground Free-Space Optical Communication System Design and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo; Geday, Morten A; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M; Oton, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    An air-to-ground free-space optical communication system has been designed and partially developed. The design covers both the communications between the airborne and the ground station, and the acquisition, tracking and pointing. A strong effort has been made in order to achieve the minimum payload power, size and weight, for which a MEMS modulating retroreflector has been chosen. In the ground station, a new technique for fine pointing, based on a liquid crystal device, is proposed and will be demonstrated, as well as other improvements with the aim of optimizing the ground station performance.

  4. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  5. A Ground-Based Validation System of Teleoperation for a Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqian Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Teleoperation of space robots is very important for future on‐orbit service. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experiments are required to verify the function and validity of the teleoperation system before a space robot is launched. In this paper, a ground‐based validation subsystem is developed as a part of a teleoperation system. The subsystem is mainly composed of four parts: the input verification module, the onboard verification module, the dynamic and image workstation, and the communication simulator. The input verification module, consisting of hardware and software of the master, is used to verify the input ability. The onboard verification module, consisting of the same hardware and software as the onboard processor, is used to verify the processor’s computing ability and execution schedule. In addition, the dynamic and image workstation calculates the dynamic response of the space robot and target, and generates emulated camera images, including the hand‐eye cameras, global‐ vision camera and rendezvous camera. The communication simulator provides fidelity communication conditions, i.e., time delays and communication bandwidth. Lastly, we integrated a teleoperation system and conducted many experiments on the system. Experiment results show that the ground system is very useful for verified teleoperation technology.

  6. Historical Trends in Ground-Based Optical Space Surveillance System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, M.; Shroyer, L.

    In the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the launch of the first man-made satellite, an historical overview of ground-based optical space surveillance systems is provided. Specific emphasis is given on gathering metrics to analyze design trends. The subject of space surveillance spans the history of spaceflight: from the early tracking cameras at missile ranges, the first observations of Sputnik, to the evolution towards highly capable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems, and much in between. Whereas previous reviews in the literature have been limited in scope to specific time periods, operational programs, countries, etc., a broad overview of a wide range of sources is presented. This review is focused on systems whose primary design purpose can be classified as Space Object Identification (SOI) or Orbit Determination (OD). SOI systems are those that capture images or data to determine information about the satellite itself, such as attitude, features, and material composition. OD systems are those that produce estimates of the satellite position, usually in the form of orbital elements or a time history of tracking angles. Systems are also categorized based on the orbital regime in which their targets reside, which has been simplified in this study to either Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The systems are further classified depending on the industry segment (government/commercial or academic), and whether the program is foreign or domestic. In addition to gathering metrics on systems designed solely for man-made satellite observations, it is interesting to find examples of other systems being similarly used. Examples include large astronomical telescopes being used for GEO debris surveys and anomaly resolution for deep-space probes. Another interesting development is the increase in number and capability of COTS systems, some of which are specifically marketed to consumers as satellite trackers. After describing the results of the

  7. Prevention of significant deterioration application for approval to construct SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The following application is being submitted by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352, pursuant to WAC 173-403-080, and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing a Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for a new source of airborne radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The new source, the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site, will be located in the 309 Building of the 300 Area. The US Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the US Department of Defense (DOD) have entered into an agreement to jointly develop space nuclear reactor power system technology. The DOE has primary responsibility for developing and ground testing the nuclear subsystem. A ground test of a reactor is necessary to demonstrate technology readiness of this major subsystem before proceeding with the flight system development and demonstration. The SP-100 GES Test Site will provide a location for the operation and testing of a prototype space-based, liquid metal-cooled, fast flux nuclear reactor in an environment closely simulating the vacuum and temperature conditions of space operations. The purpose of the GES is to develop safe, compact, light-weight and durable space reactor power system technology. This technology will be used to provide electric power, in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts, for a variety of potential future civilian and military space missions requiring long-term, high-power level sources of energy. 20 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. The Effect of Images on Surface Potential and Resistance Calculation of Grounding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS, A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the grounding systems with a two layers soil, the calculation of the surface potential using the image method is sometimes impossible due to singularities, avoiding researchers to use the method for electrodes in the bottom layer. In the literature this problem solution is refereed as unreliable or solved with other more complex methods. This paper presents a new approach to calculate the surface potentials in a two. layer soil, for electrodes in the bottom layer, when images are at surface. The singularities in computing surface voltage, when the first image upwards lies at surface, are analysed and it's shown that a small change in top layer thickness allows an approximate solution. Surface potentials due to grid conductor are also considered and the values of resistance are compared with those from other methodologies. Singularities for a ground rod that crosses the two layers are also treated. The obtained values of resistance are not satisfactory, due to lower segments images that overlap the upper segments. This paper also proposes shifting the surface of the upper part of the ground rod, in the upper layer, or taking the modulus of the mutual resistance, to overcome this difficulty.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchangers (HAGHE for HVAC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/31/EU for Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB, innovative solutions were investigated for building HVAC systems. Horizontal air-ground heat exchangers (HAGHE offer a significant contribution in reducing energy consumption for ventilation, using the thermal energy stored underground, in order to pre-heat or pre-cool the ventilation air, in winter and summer, respectively. This is particularly interesting in applications for industrial, commercial and education buildings where keeping the indoor air quality under control is extremely important. Experimental measurements show that, throughout the year, the outside air temperature fluctuations are mitigated at sufficient ground depth (about 3 m because of the high thermal inertia of the soil, the ground temperature is relatively constant and instead higher than that of the outside air in winter and lower in summer. The study aims to numerically investigate the behavior of HAGHE by varying the air flow rate and soil conductivity in unsteady conditions by using annual weather data of South-East Italy. The analysis shows that, in warm climates, the HAGHE brings a real advantage for only a few hours daily in winter, while it shows significant benefits in the summer for the cooling of ventilation air up to several temperature degrees, already by a short pipe.

  10. Ground-Water Availability Assessment for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to gain a clearer understanding of the status of our water resources and the land-use, water-use, and climatic trends that affect them. The goal of the National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have now, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). Water availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water, and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The focus of the Columbia Plateau regional ground-water availability assessment is to improve fundamental knowledge of the ground-water balance of the region, including the flows, storage, and ground-water use by humans. An improved quantitative understanding of the region's water balance not only provides key information about water quantity, but also can serve as a fundamental basis for many analyses of water quality and ecosystem health.

  11. Data Distribution System (DDS) and Solar Dynamic Observatory Ground Station (SDOGS) Integration Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kim; Bialas, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DDS SDOGS Integration Manager (DSIM) provides translation between native control and status formats for systems within DDS and SDOGS, and the ASIST (Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test) control environment in the SDO MOC (Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission Operations Center). This system was created in response for a need to centralize remote monitor and control of SDO Ground Station equipments using ASIST control environment in SDO MOC, and to have configurable table definition for equipment. It provides translation of status and monitoring information from the native systems into ASIST-readable format to display on pages in the MOC. The manager is lightweight, user friendly, and efficient. It allows data trending, correlation, and storing. It allows using ASIST as common interface for remote monitor and control of heterogeneous equipments. It also provides failover capability to back up machines.

  12. Future Ground-Based Solar System Research: a Prospective Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Käufl, H. U.

    2009-09-01

    The article tries to provide a perspective summary of the planetary science to be performed with future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) as an outcome of the workshop on ‘Future Ground-based Solar System Research: Synergies between Space Probes and Space Telescopes’ held on 8-12 September 2008 in Portoferraio on Isola d’ Elba, Italy. It addresses science cases on solar system objects that might challenge the capabilities of ELTs and that provide a major step forward in the knowledge and understanding of planetary system objects per se and all populations. We also compile high-level requirements for such telescopes and their instrumentation that should enable successful ELT usage for research on objects in the Solar System, the ‘disturbing foreground to real astronomy’.

  13. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  14. Systems for heat and cold from the ground. Proposal for a development program; System foer vaerme och kyla ur mark - Foerslag till utvecklingsprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Bengt; Gabrielsson, Anna; Fallsvik, Jan; Nilsson, Gunnel [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Hellstroem, Goeran [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    2002-02-01

    Ground heat systems usually consist of a heat pump, with an evaporator connected to a heat carrier circuit of heat exchangers in the ground, and a condenser connected to the heat distribution system inside the building (radiators, fan convectors, floor heating etc). The heat pump's compressor is connected to the electricity grid. Similar systems without heat pumps are also used, where the excess heat from the building or process is exchanged with the cooler ground solely by circulation of the heat carrier fluid in the ground heat exchangers, so called 'Tree cooling'. The performance of ground heat systems depends on several factors. There is a continuous development of components and their interaction in heating/cooling systems, both in Sweden and abroad. Based on the current state of the art of ground heat systems and the national energy market it is possible to identify the development potential within many areas. In this report the development potentials for ground heat systems are presented in the following program areas: Combined heating/cooling systems with or without heat pumps and improvements of existing systems. Horizontal, compact and vertical ground heat exchangers, installation methods. Geological prerequisites and geotechnical impact of heating and/or cooling. Thermal capacity of all types of ground heat exchangers including moisture transport effects. Design specifications for different types of ground heat exchangers and ground conditions. Operation and maintenance. Environmental impact, e.g. of heat carrier fluids and local government environmental protection requirements. Economic optimization based on verified technical performance and cost figures.

  15. Development of a sine-dwell ground vibration test (GVT) system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available stream_source_info VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9765 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Development of a Sine-Dwell Ground... vibration testing? • Basics of sine-dwell testing Getting the structure to vibrate in phase, and what then? • Excitation hardware Exciters are similar to speakers • Measurement system Force and response as complex numbers • Excitation control...

  16. Positive ground state solutions to Schrodinger-Poisson systems with a negative non-local term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the Schrodinger-Poisson system $$\\displaylines{ -\\Delta u+u-\\lambda K(x\\phi(xu=a(x|u|^{p-1}u, \\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^3, \\cr -\\Delta\\phi=K(xu^{2},\\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^3, }$$ with $p\\in(1,5$. Assume that $a:\\mathbb{R}^3\\to \\mathbb{R^{+}}$ and $K:\\mathbb{R}^3\\to \\mathbb{R^{+}}$ are nonnegative functions and satisfy suitable assumptions, but not requiring any symmetry property on them, we prove the existence of a positive ground state solution resolved by the variational methods.

  17. A 20 GHz low noise, low cost receiver for digital satellite communication system, ground terminal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Glen

    1988-01-01

    A 45 month effort for the development of a 20 GHz, low-noise, low-cost receiver for digital, satellite communication system, ground terminal applications is discussed. Six proof-of-concept receivers were built in two lots of three each. Performance was generally consistent between the two lots. Except for overall noise figure, parameters were within or very close to specification. While noise figure was specified as 3.5 dB, typical performance was measured at 3.0 to 5.5 dB, over the full temperature range of minus 30 C to plus 75 C.

  18. Human‐Centered Design: Integrating Services & Systems Around People By Providing A Common Ground for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    argue that human-centered design challenges the systems view of service engineers and service designers and requires them to reach out to each other. For this reason, I conclude that for these two disciplines, human-centered design provides a common ground for purposeful action: to arrive at the best......Service engineering and service design, though distinct in their origins, theories, concepts, methods and practices, share that they are both consequential productive arts for people who depend on their outcomes. The ideas, methods and practices of human‐centred design are therefore relevant...

  19. Department of Health application for approval of construction SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The following Application For Approval of Construction is being submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site, which will provide a new source of radioactive emissions to the atmosphere. The US Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the US Department of Defense have entered into an agreement to jointly develop space nuclear reactor power system technology. A ground test of a reactor is necessary to demonstrate technology readiness of this major subsystem before proceeding with the flight system development and demonstration. It is proposed that the SP-100 test reactor be tested in the existing decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor containment building (309 Building). The reactor will be operated for at least three months and up to 2 yr. Following the test, the 309 Building will be decontaminated for potential use in other programs. It is projected this new source of emissions will contribute approximately 0.05 mrem/yr dose to the maximally exposed offsite individual. This application is being submitted in response to those projected emissions that would provide the described offsite dose. 28 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Ground and excited states for exotic three-body atomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasaneo G.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An Angular Correlated Configuration Interaction method is extended and applied to exotic threebody atomic systems with general masses. A recently proposed angularly correlated basis set is used to construct, simultaneously and with a single diagonalization, ground and excited states wave functions which: (i satisfy exactly Kato cusp conditions at the two-body coalescence points; (ii have only linear parameters; (iii show a fast convergency rate for the energy; (iv form an orthogonal set. The efficiency of the construction is illustrated by the study a variety of three-body atomic systems [m1− m2− m3z3+ ] with two negatively charged light particles, with 123 diverse masses m1− and m2−, and a heavy positively charged nucleus m3z3+. The calculated ground 11S and several excited n1,3S state energies are compared with those given in the literature, when available. We also present a short discussion on the critical charge necessary to get a stable three-body system supporting two electrons, an electron and a muon, or two muons.

  1. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... and foundation on the performance of the floor heating sys-tem. The ground coupled floor heating model is validated against measurements from a single-family house. The simulation model is coupled to a whole-building energy simu-lation model with inclusion of heat losses and heat supply to the room above...

  2. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  3. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongsheng; Li Yunze; Wang Shengnan; Liu Yang; Zhong Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat sur-face and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and exper-imental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 ?C and 78.2 ?C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed;results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  4. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in conventional and diversified crop rotation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Megan E; Liebman, Matt; Rice, Marlin E

    2008-02-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are important in agro-ecosystems as generalist predators of invertebrate pests and weed seeds and as prey for larger animals. However, it is not well understood how cropping systems affect ground beetles. Over a 2-yr period, carabids were monitored two times per month using pitfall traps in a conventional chemical input, 2-yr, corn/soybean rotation system and a low input, 4-yr, corn/soybean/triticale-alfalfa/alfalfa rotation system. Carabid assemblages were largely dominated by a few species across all cropping treatments with Poecilus chalcites Say comprising >70% of pitfall catches in both years of study. Overall carabid activity density and species richness were higher in the low input, 4-yr rotation compared with the conventionally managed, 2-yr rotation. There were greater differences in the temporal activity density and species richness of carabids among crops than within corn and soybean treatments managed with different agrichemical inputs and soil disturbance regimes. Detrended correspondence analysis showed strong yearly variation in carabid assemblages in all cropping treatments. The increase in carabid activity density and species richness observed in the 4-yr crop rotation highlights the potential benefits of diverse crop habitats for carabids and the possibility for managing natural enemies by manipulating crop rotations.

  5. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Technical Performance Measures of the Block 2 Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Panas, M.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA and NASA are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS replaced the afternoon orbit component and ground processing of NOAA's old POES system. JPSS satellites carry sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a globally distributed, multi-mission system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture has been upgraded to Block 2.0 to satisfy several key objectives, including: "operationalizing" the first satellite, Suomi NPP, which originally was a risk reduction mission; leveraging lessons learned in multi-mission support, taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies and satisfying constraints due of the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 48 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 9 categories: Data Availability, Data Latency, Operational Availability, Margin, Scalability, Situational Awareness, Transition (between environments and sites), WAN Efficiency, and Data Recovery Processing. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 9 TPM categories listed above. We will describe how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  6. Angular momentum I ground state probabilities of boson systems interacting by random interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Yoshinaga, N

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report our systematic calculations of angular momentum $I$ ground state probabilities ($P(I)$) of boson systems with spin $l$ in the presence of random two-body interactions. It is found that the P(0) dominance is usually not true for a system with an odd number of bosons, while it is valid for an even number of bosons, which indicates that the P(0) dominance is partly connected to the even number of identical particles. It is also noticed that the $P(I_{max})$'s of bosons with spin $l$ do not follow the 1/N ($N=l+1$, referring to the number of independent two-body matrix elements) relation. The properties of the $P(I)$'s obtained in boson systems with spin $l$ are discussed.

  7. On-ground tests of LISA PathFinder thermal diagnostics system

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, A; Ramos-Castro, J; Sanjuan, J; Lobo, Alberto; Nofrarias, Miquel; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Sanjuan, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Thermal conditions in the LTP, the LISA Technology Package, are required to be very stable, and in such environment precision temperature measurements are also required for various diagnostics objectives. A sensitive temperature gauging system for the LTP is being developed at IEEC, which includes a set of thermistors and associated electronics. In this paper we discuss the derived requirements applying to the temperature sensing system, and address the problem of how to create in the laboratory a thermally quiet environment, suitable to perform meaningful on-ground tests of the system. The concept is a two layer spherical body, with a central aluminium core for sensor implantation surrounded by a layer of polyurethane. We construct the insulator transfer function, which relates the temperature at the core with the laboratory ambient temperature, and evaluate the losses caused by heat leakage through connecting wires. The results of the analysis indicate that, in spite of the very demanding stability conditio...

  8. Transient analysis for grounding systems considering the ground ionization; Analisis transitorio de sistemas de puesta a tierra considerando la ionizacion del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado Salgado, Luis Alberto

    2008-06-15

    All electrical installation must have an effective grounding system. The purpose of this grounding system is to provide a low impedance path for draining electric currents generated by faults, switching operations or atmospheric discharges to earth, avoiding damage to people, equipment or installations. High currents drained to ground leads to an electric field which can be capable of breaking down the dielectric strength of the ground. When this happens, the ionization phenomena takes place, which reduce the grounding system impedance and modify its performance. In this thesis, a computational model for evaluating the transient performance of grounding systems subjected to high magnitude and frequency currents is presented. The model is based in a transmission line approach and the grounding system transient analysis is carried out in the frequency domain. The time domain translation is performed by means of the Fast Fourier Inverse Transform (FFIT). The computer model is capable of simulating soil ionization. The computer model developed is used to study the performance of vertical rods and grounding grids of different sizes. In every case, different electric field magnitudes and soil's resistivity were used, currents of different frequency components and magnitude values where used as well. The obtained results presented were compared and validated with other computer model results and measurements published in the literature. [Spanish] Toda instalacion electrica debe contar con un sistema de puesta a tierra efectivo. La finalidad de este sistema es proporcionar un camino de baja impedancia para drenar a tierra las corrientes generadas por fallas, maniobras o fenomenos naturales como las descargas atmosfericas, evitando de esta manera danos a las personas, equipos o instalaciones. Cuando las corrientes drenadas a tierra son de gran magnitud se origina un campo electrico critico capaz de romper la rigidez dielectrica del suelo que rodea los conductores del

  9. System-level view of geospace dynamics: Challenges for high-latitude ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, research programs including GEM, CEDAR, GEMSIS, GO Canada, and others are focusing on how geospace works as a system. Coupling sits at the heart of system level dynamics. In all cases, coupling is accomplished via fundamental processes such as reconnection and plasma waves, and can be between regions, energy ranges, species, scales, and energy reservoirs. Three views of geospace are required to attack system level questions. First, we must observe the fundamental processes that accomplish the coupling. This "observatory view" requires in situ measurements by satellite-borne instruments or remote sensing from powerful well-instrumented ground-based observatories organized around, for example, Incoherent Scatter Radars. Second, we need to see how this coupling is controlled and what it accomplishes. This demands quantitative observations of the system elements that are being coupled. This "multi-scale view" is accomplished by networks of ground-based instruments, and by global imaging from space. Third, if we take geospace as a whole, the system is too complicated, so at the top level we need time series of simple quantities such as indices that capture important aspects of the system level dynamics. This requires a "key parameter view" that is typically provided through indices such as AE and DsT. With the launch of MMS, and ongoing missions such as THEMIS, Cluster, Swarm, RBSP, and ePOP, we are entering a-once-in-a-lifetime epoch with a remarkable fleet of satellites probing processes at key regions throughout geospace, so the observatory view is secure. With a few exceptions, our key parameter view provides what we need. The multi-scale view, however, is compromised by space/time scales that are important but under-sampled, combined extent of coverage and resolution that falls short of what we need, and inadequate conjugate observations. In this talk, I present an overview of what we need for taking system level research to its next level, and how

  10. A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat Ronald L. Cypert Scientific...units, along with coordination at the state and federal agency level, a dynamic process modeling capability was chosen to chart the myriad...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against

  11. Energy performance of a ventilation system for a block of apartments with a ground source heat pump as generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, M.; Lorenzini, M.; Valdiserri, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation of the annual performance of two different systems: a traditional one composed by a gas boiler-chiller pair and one consisting of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) both coupled to two thermal storage tanks. The systems serve a bloc of flats located in northern Italy and are assessed over a typical weather year, covering both the heating and cooling seasons. The air handling unit (AHU) coupled with the GSHP exhibits excellent characteristics in terms of temperature control, and has high performance parameters (EER and COP), which make conduction costs about 30% lower than those estimated for the traditional plant.

  12. Expert System for the Tornado Ground-Based Check-Out System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    demonstrator, supporting the TORNADO check-out system, has been developed and tested. The expert system , called TORRES (TORNADO Radar Readiness Expert ...flight. The expert system is also able to exclude errors, that were generated by other systems capable of changing the state of the radar system and... System ), supports debriefing staff with various levels of experience. The scope of the error detection encompasses the TORNADO Terrain Following and

  13. Managing electromagnetic fields from residential electrode grounding systems: a predecision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Winterfeldt, D; Trauger, T

    1996-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have linked exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with health effects, including leukemia and brain cancer, but the research is still inconclusive. In particular, no clear causal mechanism has been identified by which EMFs may promote cancers. Nevertheless, the concerns raised by the positive epidemiological studies have led to increasing efforts to reduce EMFs from a number of sources. One source of EMFs are home grounding systems that are connected through water pipes in homes to water mains. This paper analyzes whether home owners who are concerned about electromagnetic fields exposure from home grounding systems should take any action to reduce fields. Assuming that the grounding system produces elevated magnetic fields (e.g., 2-3 mG or higher), this study investigates several readily available alternatives and evaluates them with respect to five criteria: risk reduction, cost, fire risk increase, worker risk, and electrical shock risk. Because of the lack of conclusive evidence about an EMF-cancer relationship, this study uses a parameterized approach that makes conditional estimates of health risk depending on future research outcomes and on the nature of the EMF/health effects relationship. This type of analysis, which is called predecision analysis because of its preliminary nature, is therefore highly dependent on a set of assumptions. Nevertheless, this predecision analysis had some fairly clear results. First, waiting for more research or taking a fairly inexpensive corrective action (insulating the water pipe to reduce ground current flow) seem to be the main contenders for the best decision for many different assumptions and parameters. Second, the choice between these two actions is very sensitive to variations in assumptions and parameters. Homeowners who accept the base-case assumptions and parameters of this study should prefer to wait. If any of the base-case parameters are changed to more pessimistic estimates

  14. Design of a mechanically actuated RF grounding system for the ITER ICRH antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, David, E-mail: david.hancock@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 5ER (United Kingdom); Shannon, Mark [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 5ER (United Kingdom); Beaumont, Bertrand [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Dumortier, Pierre; Durodie, Frederic; Kyrytsya, Volodymyr; Louche, Fabrice [LPP/ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels (Belgium); McKinley, Robert; Nicholls, Keith [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 5ER (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The requirements for RF grounding of the ITER ICRH antenna are outlined. ► A number of early concepts are presented and reasons given for their rejection. ► The current grounding contact design is presented and its operation explained. ► Analysis and testing have been undertaken and these results are outlined. -- Abstract: In the ITER equatorial ports containing ICRH antennas, parasitic electrical resonances can be excited in the nominal 20 mm clearance gap between the port walls and the plug contained within it. RF calculations have established that these resonances can be effectively mitigated by a series of suitably located electrically conducting contacts between the port and plug. These contacts must allow installation and removal of the antenna but must also make reliable electrical contact during antenna operation. In addition, the contacts must be compliant enough to survive deflection of the port during seismic and disruption events without transmitting large forces to the vacuum vessel. The distance to be spanned is subject to significant uncertainty, due to the large manufacturing tolerances of the surrounding components, and this also must be considered during the design process. This paper outlines progress made in the design of the grounding system, as well as detailing a number of concepts which have been investigated and abandoned, leading up to the current reference design. The current reference design is a simple and robust mechanical solution consisting of sprung Copper-plated Inconel flaps which use part of the range of the shimming system included in the antenna design as the actuation mechanism. This paper also details practical testing of a number of aspects of the design, including building and testing a prototype to validate mechanical and thermal analyses.

  15. Advanced Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Above Ground Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage in borehole heat exchanger arrays is a promising technology to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. These systems usually consist of several subsystems like the heat source (e.g. solarthermics or a combined heat and power plant), the heat consumer (e.g. a heating system), diurnal storages (i.e. water tanks), the borehole thermal energy storage, additional heat sources for peak load coverage (e.g. a heat pump or a gas boiler) and the distribution network. For the design of an integrated system, numerical simulations of all subsystems are imperative. A separate simulation of the borehole energy storage is well-established but represents a simplification. In reality, the subsystems interact with each other. The fluid temperatures of the heat generation system, the heating system and the underground storage are interdependent and affect the performance of each subsystem. To take into account these interdependencies, we coupled a software for the simulation of the above ground facilities with a finite element software for the modeling of the heat flow in the subsurface and the borehole heat exchangers. This allows for a more realistic view on the entire system. Consequently, a finer adjustment of the system components and a more precise prognosis of the system's performance can be ensured.

  16. Mission Operations Centers (MOCs): Integrating key spacecraft ground data system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Randy; Szakal, Donna

    1994-11-01

    In an environment characterized by decreasing budgets, limited system development time, and user needs for increased capabilities, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center initiated a new, cost-effective concept in developing its spacecraft ground data systems: the Mission Operations Center (MOC). In the MOC approach, key components are integrated into a comprehensive and cohesive spacecraft planning, monitoring, command, and control system with a single, state-of-the-art graphical user interface. The MOD is currently implementing MOC's, which feature a common, reusable, and extendable system architecture, to support the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) missions. As a result of the MOC approach, mission operations are integrated, and users can, with a single system, perform real-time health and safety monitoring, real-time command and control, real-time attitude processing, real-time and predictive graphical spacecraft monitoring, trend analysis, mission planning and scheduling, command generation and management, network scheduling, guide star selection, and (using an expert system) spacecraft monitoring and fault isolation. The MOD is also implementing its test and training simulators under the new MOC management structure. This paper describes the MOC concept, the management approaches used in developing MOC systems, the technologies employed and the development process improvement initiatives applied in implementing MOC systems, and the expected benefits to both the user and the mission project in using the MOC approach.

  17. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  18. Response of a transmission tower-line system at a canyon site to spatially varying ground motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-nan LI; Feng-long BAI; Li TIAN; Hong HAO

    2011-01-01

    Collapses of transmission towers were often observed in previous large earthquakes such as the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan and Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China. These collapses were partially caused by the pulling forces from the transmission lines generated from out-of-phase responses of the adjacent towers owing to spatially varying earthquake ground motions. In this paper, a 3D finite element model of the transmission tower-line system is established considering the geometric nonlinearity of transmission lines. The nonlinear responses of the structural system at a canyon site are analyzed subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The spatial variations of ground motion associated with the wave passage, coherency loss, and local site effects are given. The spatially varying ground motions are simulated stochastically based on an empirical coherency loss function and a filtered Tajimi-Kanai power spectral density function. The site effect is considered by a transfer function derived from ID wave propagation theory. Compared with structural responses calculated using the uniform ground motion and delayed excitations, numerical results indicate that seismic responses of transmission towers and power lines are amplified when considering spatially varying ground motions including site effects. Each factor of ground motion spatial variations has a significant effect on the seismic response of the structure, especially for the local site effect. Therefore, neglecting the earthquake ground motion spatial variations may lead to a substantial underestimation of the response of transmission tower-line system during strong earthquakes. Each effect of ground motion spatial variations should be incorporated in seismic analysis of the structural system.

  19. A New Method of Ground Fault Location in 2 × 25 kV Railway Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Serrano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the installation of autotransformers at regular intervals along the line, distance protection relays cannot be used with the aim of locating ground faults in 2 × 25 kV railway power supply systems. The reason is that the ratio between impedance and distance to the fault point is not linear in these electrification systems, unlike in 1 × 25 kV power systems. Therefore, the location of ground faults represents a complicated task in 2 × 25 kV railway power supply systems. Various methods have been used to localize the ground fault position in 2 × 25 kV systems. The method described here allows the location of a ground fault to be economically found in an accurate way in real time, using the modules of the circulating currents in different autotransformers when the ground fault occurs. This method first needs to know the subsection and the conductor (catenary or feeder with the defect, then localizes the ground fault’s position.

  20. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  1. Autonomous landing of a helicopter UAV with a ground-based multisensory fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dianle; Zhong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Daibing; Shen, Lincheng; Yan, Chengping

    2015-02-01

    In this study, this paper focus on the vision-based autonomous helicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing problems. This paper proposed a multisensory fusion to autonomous landing of an UAV. The systems include an infrared camera, an Ultra-wideband radar that measure distance between UAV and Ground-Based system, an PAN-Tilt Unit (PTU). In order to identify all weather UAV targets, we use infrared cameras. To reduce the complexity of the stereovision or one-cameral calculating the target of three-dimensional coordinates, using the ultra-wideband radar distance module provides visual depth information, real-time Image-PTU tracking UAV and calculate the UAV threedimensional coordinates. Compared to the DGPS, the test results show that the paper is effectiveness and robustness.

  2. Achieving Rigour and Relevance in Information Systems Studies: Using grounded theory to investigate organizational cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lehmann, Ph.D.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on the belief that rigorous Information Systems (IS research can help practitioners to better understand and to adapt to emerging situations. Contrary to the view seeing rigour and relevance as a dichotomy, it is maintained that IS researchers have a third choice; namely, to be both relevant and rigorous. The paper proposes ways in which IS research can contribute to easing the practitioners’ burden of adapting to changes by providing timely, relevant, and rigorous research. It is argued that synergy between relevance and rigour is possible and that classic grounded theory methodology in combination with case-based data provides a good framework for rigorous and relevant research of emerging phenomena in information systems.

  3. Application of star identification using pattern matching to space ground systems at GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, D.; Shoup, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the application of pattern recognition techniques for star identification based on those proposed by Van Bezooijen to space ground systems for near-real-time attitude determination. A prototype was developed using these algorithms, which was used to assess the suitability of these techniques for support of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) missions. Experience with the prototype was used to refine specifications for the operational system. Different geometry tests appropriate to the mission requirements of XTE, SWAS, and SOHO were adopted. The applications of these techniques to upcoming mission support of XTE, SWAS, and SOHO are discussed.

  4. Configurable adaptive optical system for imaging of ground-based targets from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.; Friedman, Edward J.; Hooker, R. Brian; Cermak, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    Space-based, high resolution, Earth remote sensing systems, that employ large, flexible, lightweight primary mirrors, will require active wavefront correction, in the form of active and adaptive optics, to correct for thermally and vibrationally induced deformations in the optics. These remote sensing systems typically have a large field-of-view. Unlike the adaptive optics on ground-based astronomical telescopes, which have a negligible field-of-view, the adaptive optics on these space-based remote sensing systems will be required to correct the wavefront over the entire field-of-view, which can be several degrees. The error functions for astronomical adaptive optics have been developed for the narrow field-of-view correction of atmospheric turbulence and do not address the needs of wide field space-based systems. To address these needs, a new wide field adaptive optics theory and a new error function are developed. Modeling and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the wide field adaptive optics theory and new error function. This new error function, which is a new extension of conventional adaptive optics, lead to the development of three new types of imaging systems: wide field-of-view, selectable field-of-view, and steerable field-of-view. These new systems can have nearly diffraction-limited performance across the entire field-of-view or a narrow movable region of high-resolution imaging. The factors limiting system performance will be shown. The range of applicability of the wide field adaptive optics theory is shown. The range of applicability is used to avoid limitations in system performance and to estimate the optical systems parameters, which will meet the system"s performance requirements.

  5. Thermodynamic framework for the ground state of a simple quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Andre M. C.; Nobre, Fernando D.

    2017-01-01

    The ground state of a two-level system (associated with probabilities p and 1 -p , respectively) defined by a general Hamiltonian H ̂=Ĥ0+λ V ̂ is studied. The simple case characterized by λ =0 , whose Hamiltonian Ĥ0 is represented by a diagonal matrix, is well established and solvable within Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics; in particular, it follows the third law of thermodynamics, presenting zero entropy (SBG=0 ) at zero temperature (T =0 ). Herein it is shown that the introduction of a perturbation λ V ̂ (λ >0 ) in the Hamiltonian may lead to a nontrivial ground state, characterized by an entropy S [p ] (with S [p ] ≠SBG[p ] ), if the Hermitian operator V ̂ is represented by a 2 ×2 matrix, defined by nonzero off-diagonal elements V12=V21=-z , where z is a real positive number. Hence, this new term in the Hamiltonian, presenting V12≠0 , may produce physically significant changes in the ground state, and especially, it allows for the introduction of an effective temperature θ (θ ∝λ z ), which is shown to be a parameter conjugated to the entropy S . Based on this, one introduces an infinitesimal heatlike quantity, δ Q =θ d S , leading to a consistent thermodynamic framework, and by proposing an infinitesimal form for the first law, a Carnot cycle and thermodynamic potentials are obtained. All results found are very similar to those of usual thermodynamics, through the identification T ↔θ , and particularly the form for the efficiency of the proposed Carnot Cycle. Moreover, S also follows a behavior typical of a third law, i.e., S →0 , when θ →0 .

  6. Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the

  7. Small UAV Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System Design Considerations and Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Paul; Skoog, Mark; Burrows, Scott; Thomas, SaraKatie

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) project demonstrated several important collision avoidance technologies. First, the SUAV Auto GCAS design included capabilities to take advantage of terrain avoidance maneuvers flying turns to either side as well as straight over terrain. Second, the design also included innovative digital elevation model (DEM) scanning methods. The combination of multi-trajectory options and new scanning methods demonstrated the ability to reduce the nuisance potential of the SUAV while maintaining robust terrain avoidance. Third, the Auto GCAS algorithms were hosted on the processor inside a smartphone, providing a lightweight hardware configuration for use in either the ground control station or on board the test aircraft. Finally, compression of DEM data for the entire Earth and successful hosting of that data on the smartphone was demonstrated. The SUAV Auto GCAS project demonstrated that together these methods and technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the number of controlled flight into terrain mishaps across a wide range of aviation platforms with similar capabilities including UAVs, general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and model aircraft.

  8. A solitary pulmonary ground-glass nodule in adult systemic langerhans’ cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Yunyuan; Fan, Li; Liu, Shiyuan

    2015-01-01

    During a thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan, a 36-year-old male was diagnosed with a solitary oval pulmonary mixed ground-glass nodule in the right upper lobe of the lung. The edge of the nodule was well-defined, and its largest axial size was approximately 1.1×0.9 cm2. This nodule was slightly lobulated, but not obviously speculated. Solid components, micro-cystic lucency shadow, small high-density rings and tiny vascular branches were all visible in the nodule. During hospitalization, a technetium 99 m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m MDP) bone scan was performed, which showed a skeletal foci with abnormal uptake in the left iliac. A pulmonary lobectomy of the right upper lobe of the lung by video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed. In post-operative pathological photomicrographs, proliferative Langerhans’ cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes were found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of S-100 protein, CD1a, and CD68 antigen all stained positive. Since Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH) that is also associated with isolated mixed ground-glass nodules is relatively rare, such a multi-systemic LCH case as identified herein, is reported. PMID:26722574

  9. Application of Fault Location Mode Based on Travelling Waves for Neutral Non-effective Grounding Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Fault location for distribution feeders short circuit especially single-phase grounding fault is an important task in distribution system with non-effectively grounded neutral.Fault location mode for distribution feeders using fault generated current and voltage transient traveling waves was investigated.The characteristics of transient traveling waves resulted from each short circuit fault and their transmission disciplinarian in distribution feeders are analyzed.This paper proposed that double end travelling waves theory which measures arriving time of fault initiated surge at both ends of the monitored line is fit for distribution feeders but single end traveling waves theory not.According to different distribution feeders,on the basis of analyzing original traveling waves reflection rule in line terminal, Current-voltage mode,voltage-voltage mode and current-current mode for fault location based on traveling waves are proposed and aerial mode component of original traveling waves is used to realize fault location.Experimental test verify the feasibility and correctness of the proposed method.

  10. Accounting for Hydrologic State in Ground-Penetrating Radar Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-22

    on ground - penetrating radar (GPR) signals, particularly those associated with landmines , and (2) investigate the potential for developing contextual... ground - penetrating radar (GPR) signals, particularly those associated with landmines , and (2) investigate the potential for developing contextual GPR...on ground - penetrating radar (GPR) signals, particularly those associated with landmines , and (2) investigate the potential for developing contextual

  11. DAZZLE project: UAV to ground communication system using a laser and a modulated retro-reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thueux, Yoann; Avlonitis, Nicholas; Erry, Gavin

    2014-10-01

    The advent of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has generated the need for reduced size, weight and power (SWaP) requirements for communications systems with a high data rate, enhanced security and quality of service. This paper presents the current results of the DAZZLE project run by Airbus Group Innovations. The specifications, integration steps and initial performance of a UAV to ground communication system using a laser and a modulated retro-reflector are detailed. The laser operates at the wavelength of 1550nm and at power levels that keep it eye safe. It is directed using a FLIR pan and tilt unit driven by an image processing-based system that tracks the UAV in flight at a range of a few kilometers. The modulated retro-reflector is capable of a data rate of 20Mbps over short distances, using 200mW of electrical power. The communication system was tested at the Pershore Laser Range in July 2014. Video data from a flying Octocopter was successfully transmitted over 1200m. During the next phase of the DAZZLE project, the team will attempt to produce a modulated retro-reflector capable of 1Gbps in partnership with the research institute Acreo1 based in Sweden. A high speed laser beam steering capability based on a Spatial Light Modulator will also be added to the system to improve beam pointing accuracy.

  12. Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for accurate ground instability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide ground perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the ground is

  13. Characterization of Site for Installing Open Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. W.; Park, Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Yi, M. J.; Cha, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to understand hydrogeological properties of site where open loop ground source heat pump system will be installed and operated. Groundwater level and water temperature were hourly measured at the well developed for usage of open loop ground source heat pump system from 11 October 2013 to 8 January 2014. Groundwater was sampled in January and August 2013 and its chemical and isotopic compositions were analyzed. The bedrock of study area is the Jurassic granodiorite that mainly consists of quartz (27.9 to 46.8%), plagioclase (26.0 to 45.5%), and alkali feldspar (9.5 to 18.7%). The groundwater level ranged from 68.30 to 68.94 m (above mean sea level). Recharge rate was estimated using modified watertable fluctuation method and the recharge ratios was 9.1%. The water temperature ranged from 14.8 to 15.0oC. The vertical Increase rates of water temperature were 1.91 to 1.94/100 m. The water temperature showed the significant seasonal variation above 50 m depth, but had constant value below 50 m depth. Therefore, heat energy of the groundwater can be used securely in open loop ground source heat pump system. Electrical conductivity ranged from 120 to 320 µS/cm in dry season and from 133 to 310 µS/cm in wet season. The electrical conductivity gradually decreased with depth. In particular, electrical conductivity in approximately 30 m depth decreased dramatically (287 to 249 µS/cm) in wet season. The groundwater was Ca-HCO3 type. The concentrations of dissolved components did not show the vertically significant variations from 0 to 250 m depth. The δ18O and δD ranged from -9.5 to -9.4‰ and from -69 to -68‰. This work is supported by the New and Renewable Energy of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  14. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Analyses of Track-Embankment-Ground System Subjected to High Speed Train Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate dynamic response of track-embankment-ground system subjected to moving loads caused by high speed trains. The track-embankment-ground systems such as the sleepers, the ballast, the embankment, and the ground are represented by 8-noded solid elements. The infinite elements are used to represent the infinite boundary condition to absorb vibration waves induced by the passing of train load at the boundary. The loads were applied on the rails directly to simulate the real moving loads of trains. The effects of train speed on dynamic response of the system are considered. The effect of material parameters, especially the modulus changes of ballast and embankment, is taken into account to demonstrate the effectiveness of strengthening the ballast, embankment, and ground for mitigating system vibration in detail. The numerical results show that the model is reliable for predicting the amplitude of vibrations produced in the track-embankment-ground system by high-speed trains. Stiffening of fill under the embankment can reduce the vibration level, on the other hand, it can be realized by installing a concrete slab under the embankment. The influence of axle load on the vibration of the system is obviously lower than that of train speed.

  15. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.

  16. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Analyses of Track-Embankment-Ground System Subjected to High Speed Train Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate dynamic response of track-embankment-ground system subjected to moving loads caused by high speed trains. The track-embankment-ground systems such as the sleepers, the ballast, the embankment, and the ground are represented by 8-noded solid elements. The infinite elements are used to represent the infinite boundary condition to absorb vibration waves induced by the passing of train load at the boundary. The loads were applied on the rails directly to simulate the real moving loads of trains. The effects of train speed on dynamic response of the system are considered. The effect of material parameters, especially the modulus changes of ballast and embankment, is taken into account to demonstrate the effectiveness of strengthening the ballast, embankment, and ground for mitigating system vibration in detail. The numerical results show that the model is reliable for predicting the amplitude of vibrations produced in the track-embankment-ground system by high-speed trains. Stiffening of fill under the embankment can reduce the vibration level, on the other hand, it can be realized by installing a concrete slab under the embankment. The influence of axle load on the vibration of the system is obviously lower than that of train speed. PMID:24723838

  17. Gravity-Off-loading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Olyvia; Kienholz, David; Janzen, Paul; Kidney, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-off-loading of deployable spacecraft mechanisms during ground testing is a long-standing problem. Deployable structures which are usually too weak to support their own weight under gravity require a means of gravity-off-loading as they unfurl. Conventional solutions to this problem have been helium-filled balloons or mechanical pulley/counterweight systems. These approaches, however, suffer from the deleterious effects of added inertia or friction forces. The changing form factor of the deployable structure itself and the need to track the trajectory of the center of gravity also pose a challenge to these conventional technologies. This paper presents a novel testing apparatus for high-fidelity zero-gravity simulation for special application to deployable space structures such as solar arrays, magnetometer booms, and robotic arms in class 100,000 clean room environments

  18. Design of a mechanically actuated RF grounding system for the ITER ICRH antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, D; Beaumont, B; Dumortier, P; Durodie, F; Kyrytsya, V; Louche, F; McKinley, R; Nicholls, K

    2013-01-01

    In the ITER equatorial ports containing ICRH antennas, parasitic electrical resonances can be excited in the nominal 20 mm clearance gap between the port walls and the plug contained within it. RF calculations have established that these resonances can be effectively mitigated by a series of suitably located electrically conducting contacts between the port and plug. These contacts must allow installation and removal of the antenna but must also make reliable electrical contact during antenna operation. In addition, the contacts must be compliant enough to survive deflection of the port during seismic and disruption events without transmitting large forces to the vacuum vessel. The distance to be spanned is subject to significant uncertainty, due to the large manufacturing tolerances of the surrounding components, and this also must be considered during the design process. This paper outlines progress made in the design of the grounding system, as well as detailing a number of concepts which have been investi...

  19. Analysis of Compression Algorithm in Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Tyler; Ryan, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS) utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) stored onboard a plane to determine potential recovery maneuvers. Because of the current limitations of computer hardware on military airplanes such as the F-22 and F-35, the DTED must be compressed through a lossy technique called binary-tree tip-tilt. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the compressed data with respect to the original DTED. This study is mainly interested in the magnitude of the error between the two as well as the overall distribution of the errors throughout the DTED. By understanding how the errors of the compression technique are affected by various factors (topography, density of sampling points, sub-sampling techniques, etc.), modifications can be made to the compression technique resulting in better accuracy. This, in turn, would minimize unnecessary activation of A-GCAS during flight as well as maximizing its contribution to fighter safety.

  20. SSE software test management STM capability: Using STM in the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Victor E.; Long, D.; Hartenstein, Ray; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1992-01-01

    This report is one of a series discussing configuration management (CM) topics for Space Station ground systems software development. It provides a description of the Software Support Environment (SSE)-developed Software Test Management (STM) capability, and discusses the possible use of this capability for management of developed software during testing performed on target platforms. This is intended to supplement the formal documentation of STM provided by the SEE Project. How STM can be used to integrate contractor CM and formal CM for software before delivery to operations is described. STM provides a level of control that is flexible enough to support integration and debugging, but sufficiently rigorous to insure the integrity of the testing process.

  1. Evaluation of ground state entanglement in spin systems with the random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Matera, J M; Canosa, N

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a general treatment based on the mean field plus random phase approximation (RPA) for the evaluation of subsystem entropies and negativities in ground states of spin systems. The approach leads to a tractable general method, becoming straightforward in translationally invariant arrays. The method is examined in arrays of arbitrary spin with $XYZ$ couplings of general range in a uniform transverse field, where the RPA around both the normal and parity breaking mean field state, together with parity restoration effects, are discussed in detail. In the case of a uniformly connected $XYZ$ array of arbitrary size, the method is shown to provide simple analytic expressions for the entanglement entropy of any global bipartition, as well as for the negativity between any two subsystems, which become exact for large spin. The limit case of a spin $s$ pair is also discussed.

  2. Evaluation of ground-state entanglement in spin systems with the random phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, J. M.; Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.

    2010-11-01

    We discuss a general treatment based on the mean field plus random-phase approximation (RPA) for the evaluation of subsystem entropies and negativities in ground states of spin systems. The approach leads to a tractable general method that becomes straightforward in translationally invariant arrays. The method is examined in arrays of arbitrary spin with XYZ couplings of general range in a uniform transverse field, where the RPA around both the normal and parity-breaking mean-field state, together with parity-restoration effects, is discussed in detail. In the case of a uniformly connected XYZ array of arbitrary size, the method is shown to provide simple analytic expressions for the entanglement entropy of any global bipartition, as well as for the negativity between any two subsystems, which become exact for large spin. The limit case of a spin s pair is also discussed.

  3. Economic Analysis of using Above Ground Gas Storage Devices for Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinchao; ZHANG Xinjing; XU Yujie; CHEN Zongyan; CHEN Haisheng; TAN Chunqing

    2014-01-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types:air storage tanks,gas cylinders,and gas storage pipelines.A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis.The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number.The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared.The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types.This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  4. Analysis of ferroresonance in a neutral grounding system with nonlinear core loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Meng; Zhang Yan-Bin; Liu Chong-Xin

    2009-01-01

    The chaotic behaviour exhibited by a typical ferroresonant circuit in a neutral grounding system is investigated in this paper. In most earlier ferroresonance studies the core loss of the power transformer was neglected or represented by a linear resistance. However, this is not always true. In this paper the core loss of the power transformer is modelled by a third order series in voltage and the magnetization characteristics of the transformer are modelled by an 11th order two-term polynomial. Extensive simulations are carried out to analyse the effect of nonlinear core loss on transformer ferroresonance. A detailed analysis of simulation results demonstrates that, with the nonlinear core loss model used, the onset of chaos appears at a larger source voltage and the transient duration is shorter.

  5. Substations grounding systems design; Diseno de sistemas de conexion a tierra en subestaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The grounding systems have been the object of a great number of analytical and experimental studies in the past 15 years, that have given rise to research reports on the several aspects involved in this technique. In this work are briefly reviewed various aspects that is necessary to take into account for its design, analysis and put in operation. [Espanol] Los sistemas de conexion a tierra han sido objeto de gran cantidad de estudios analiticos y experimentales en los pasados quince anos, que han dado origen a informes de investigacion sobre los diversos aspectos que involucra esta tecnica. En este trabajo se revisan brevemente diversos aspectos que es necesario considerar para su diseno, analisis y puesta en operacion.

  6. Ground penetrating detection using miniaturized radar system based on solid state microwave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B M; Fu, L; Chen, X S; Lu, W; Guo, H; Gui, Y S; Hu, C-M

    2013-12-01

    We propose a solid-state-sensor-based miniaturized microwave radar technique, which allows a rapid microwave phase detection for continuous wave operation using a lock-in amplifier rather than using expensive and complicated instruments such as vector network analyzers. To demonstrate the capability of this sensor-based imaging technique, the miniaturized system has been used to detect embedded targets in sand by measuring the reflection for broadband microwaves. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the imaging of the embedded target with a diameter less than 5 cm buried in the sands with a depth of 5 cm or greater is clearly detected. Therefore, the sensor-based approach emerges as an innovative and cost-effective way for ground penetrating detection.

  7. Ground-based studies of tropisms in hardware developed for the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Mullen, Jack L.; Kiss, John Z.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μg, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station, we have been conducting ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments with Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue- and red-light signaling systems interact with each other and with the gravisensing system.

  8. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  9. Digital Terrestrial Video Broadcast Interference Suppression in Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, F. I.; Mendez-Rial, Roi; Lawadka, Lukasz; Gonzalez-Huici, Maria A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we show how radio frequency interference (RFI) generated by digital video broadcasting terrestrial and digital audio broadcasting transmitters can be an important noise source for forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) systems. Even in remote locations the average interference power sometimes exceeds ultra-wideband signals by many dB, becoming the limiting factor in the system sensitivity. The overall problem of RFI and its impact in GPR systems is briefly described and several signal processing approaches to removal of RFI are discussed. These include spectral estimation and coherent subtraction algorithms and various filter approaches which have been developed and applied by the research community in similar contexts. We evaluate the performance of these methods by simulating two different scenarios submitted to real RFI acquired with a FLGPR system developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR), (GER). The effectiveness of these algorithms in removing RFI is presented using some performance indices after suppression.

  10. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  11. Research on the acquisition and tracking simulation system of light beacon in satellite-ground optical communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Tao; AI Yong; HUANG Hai-bo; SU Gui-bo

    2010-01-01

    @@ The study on the acquisition and tracking simulation system in satellite-ground optical communications is presented here.By applying global positioning system(GPS)coordinate calculation,the time needed in initial acquisition of light beacon can be reduced largely.Smith predictor is applied to compensate the mechanical hysteresis of tracking system and to improve the dynamic performance of the system.Tracking experiments over a i 6 km distance on the ground are conducted to verify the tracking of light beacon in satellite-ground optical communications.The standard deviation of horizontal coordinates is 35.3568 μrad and the maximum offset is 209.3675 μrad in stable tracking.

  12. Controlling laser beam irradiation area using an optical duplicate system to improve satellite-ground laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoko; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Fujikawa, Chiemi; Kodate, Kashiko

    2016-08-01

    To improve the quality of ground to satellite laser communications, we propose an optical duplicate system of the optical ground station. Our proposed approach can be used to control the beam irradiation area for a satellite position without changing the total power of the output beam and the mechanical drive unit; this is performed by controlling the input pattern of a liquid crystal filter inserted in the input plane of the optical duplicate system. Most of the power of the diffracted laser beam emitted from the ground is focused on the optical axis. By distributing the power to side lobes, it is possible to extend the coverage area for a satellite position. This system allows the laser beam irradiation area to be controlled by a sufficient degree by adjusting the threshold of the satellite reception level. We verify the efficacy of the system using wave optics numerical calculations.

  13. Influence of beam wander on bit-error rate in a ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Jiang, Yijun; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Du, Wenhe

    2008-11-15

    Based on weak fluctuation theory and the beam-wander model, the bit-error rate of a ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system is analyzed, in comparison with the condition in which beam wander is not taken into account. Considering the combined effect of scintillation and beam wander, optimum divergence angle and transmitter beam radius for a communication system are researched. Numerical results show that both of them increase with the increment of total link margin and transmitted wavelength. This work can benefit the ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system design.

  14. Utilization of the horizontal ground heat exchanger in the heating and cooling system of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała Małgorzata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of thermodynamic analyses of a system using a horizontal ground heat exchanger to cool a residential building in summer and heat it in the autumn-winter period. The main heating device is a vapour compression heat pump with the ground as the lower heat source. The aim of the analyses is to examine the impact of heat supply to the ground in the summer period, when the building is cooled, on the operation of the heating system equipped with a heat pump in the next heating season, including electricity consumption. The processes occurring in cooling and heating systems have an unsteady nature. The main results of the calculations are among others the time-dependent values of heat fluxes extracted from or transferred to the ground heat exchanger, the fluxes of heat generated by the heat pump and supplied to the heated building by an additional heat source, the parameters in characteristic points of the systems, the temperature distributions in the ground and the driving electricity consumption in the period under analysis. The paper presents results of analysis of cumulative primary energy consumption of the analyzed systems and cumulative emissions of harmful substances.

  15. Utilization of the horizontal ground heat exchanger in the heating and cooling system of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała, Małgorzata; Bury, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of thermodynamic analyses of a system using a horizontal ground heat exchanger to cool a residential building in summer and heat it in the autumn-winter period. The main heating device is a vapour compression heat pump with the ground as the lower heat source. The aim of the analyses is to examine the impact of heat supply to the ground in the summer period, when the building is cooled, on the operation of the heating system equipped with a heat pump in the next heating season, including electricity consumption. The processes occurring in cooling and heating systems have an unsteady nature. The main results of the calculations are among others the time-dependent values of heat fluxes extracted from or transferred to the ground heat exchanger, the fluxes of heat generated by the heat pump and supplied to the heated building by an additional heat source, the parameters in characteristic points of the systems, the temperature distributions in the ground and the driving electricity consumption in the period under analysis. The paper presents results of analysis of cumulative primary energy consumption of the analyzed systems and cumulative emissions of harmful substances.

  16. Development of the command data system and ground software for the SEDSAT-1 microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, B. Earl

    1996-01-01

    SEDSAT-1 is designed to be a low cost scientific satellite which is to be used to perform a minimum of five tasks which include: (1) the acquisition of a number of important parameters associated with the tethering processes from the payloads perspective (such as accelerations incurred and imaging data of the tether during deployment), (2) to act as a remote sensing platform for making measurements of the Earth's Atmosphere (allowing research to be performed in such areas as vertical lightning observation, visible light spectrography, and cloud cover studies, (3) to act as a general purpose amateur radio communication satellite relaying information back to earth, (4) to demonstrate the feasibility of the deployment in low earth orbit of advanced technology such as the Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells, Nickel Metal Hydride batteries, and multi-chip module technology and, (5) to support student's active participation in applying the disciplines of engineering and science to space-based hardware platforms. The project includes the Three-axis Accelerometer System, TAS, Experiment which is designed to report the accelerations that the satellite undergoes during the tethering operations and during the second phase of the mission when the free floating satellite comes in contact with orbit debris. The SEASIS (SEDS Earth, Atmosphere, and Space Imaging System) is another SEDSAT experiment designed to provide images of the tether during its deployment and the earth during the second phase of the mission. To control these experiments and virtually all other satellite operations the Command Data System, CDS is employed. This system utilizes a moderate complexity micro-controller controlled by tasks operating under a real-time operating system to dynamically monitor and control the satellite. The scope of this researchers efforts has been in the general area of coordinating and assisting the student researchers with the development of the CDS and ground station interfaces. This

  17. Optimization design and compare of different solar-ground source heat pump system of office building in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; He, S.; Fu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two different operation modes of Solar-Ground Source Heat Pump System (SGSHP(S)). With the simulation tool TRNSYS, two different SGSHP system models were built to taking simulation. After making analysis and compare of different simulation results, series operation mode was believed to be better than parallel in the target building.

  18. Formulation of geopotential difference determination using optical-atomic clocks onboard satellites and on ground based on Doppler cancellation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancellation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks (OACs) and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits, respectively, two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 m2 s- 2 based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s s-1) level. Since OACs with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimetre level accuracy in the near future.

  19. Specification requirements summary for the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, E.E.

    1976-02-10

    This document provides a summary of the required program specifications and procedures for the ERDA Phase I Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Program. Also included are document definitions, descriptions, and formats, and a listing of commonly used abbreviations. This document is intended to be used as a guide in document preparation and control.

  20. Flow system boundary by D'Agnese and others (1997) for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the flow-system boundary encompassing the regional ground-water flow model by D'Agnese and others (1997). The boundary encompasses an...

  1. Review article: locomotion systems for ground mobile robots in unstructured environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bruzzone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The world market of mobile robotics is expected to increase substantially in the next 20 yr, surpassing the market of industrial robotics in terms of units and sales. Important fields of application are homeland security, surveillance, demining, reconnaissance in dangerous situations, and agriculture. The design of the locomotion systems of mobile robots for unstructured environments is generally complex, particularly when they are required to move on uneven or soft terrains, or to climb obstacles. This paper sets out to analyse the state-of-the-art of locomotion mechanisms for ground mobile robots, focussing on solutions for unstructured environments, in order to help designers to select the optimal solution for specific operating requirements. The three main categories of locomotion systems (wheeled – W, tracked – T and legged – L and the four hybrid categories that can be derived by combining these main locomotion systems are discussed with reference to maximum speed, obstacle-crossing capability, step/stair climbing capability, slope climbing capability, walking capability on soft terrains, walking capability on uneven terrains, energy efficiency, mechanical complexity, control complexity and technology readiness. The current and future trends of mobile robotics are also outlined.

  2. Development of ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system in Wuhan and its first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    A new digital low-frequency receiver system has been developed at Wuhan University for sensitive reception of low-latitude broadband Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves originating from either natural or artificial sources. These low-frequency radio waves are useful for ionospheric remote sensing, geospace environment monitoring, and submarine communications. This paper presents the principle and architecture of the system framework, including magnetic loop antenna design, low-noise analog front-end and digital receiver with data sampling and transmission. A new structure is adopted in the analog front end to provide high common-mode rejection and to reduce interference. On basis of field programmable gate array (FPGA) device and Universal Serial Bus (USB) architecture, the digital receiver is developed along with time keeping and synchronization module. The validity and feasibility of the self-developed ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system is evaluated by first results of experimental data that show the temporal variation of broadband ELF/VLF wave spectral intensity in Wuhan (30.54 °N, 114.37 °E). In addition to the acquisition of VLF transmitter signals at various frequencies, tweek atmospherics are also clearly captured to occur at multiple modes up to n = 6.

  3. Long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring for ground based augmentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwook; Lee, Jiyun

    2012-08-01

    Extreme ionospheric anomalies can pose a potential integrity threat to ground-based augmentation of the Global Positioning System (GPS), and thus the development of ionospheric anomaly threat models for each region of operation is essential for system design and operation. This paper presents a methodology for automated long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring, which will be used to build an ionospheric anomaly threat model, evaluate its validity over the life cycle of the system, continuously monitor ionospheric anomalies, and update the threat model if necessary. This procedure automatically processes GPS data collected from external networks and estimates ionospheric gradients at regular intervals. If ionospheric gradients large enough to be potentially hazardous to users are identified, manual data examination is triggered. This paper also develops a simplified truth processing method to create precise ionospheric delay estimates in near real-time, which is the key to automating the ionospheric monitoring procedure. The performance of the method is examined using data from the 20 November 2003 and 9 November 2004 ionospheric storms. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of simplified truth processing within long-term ionosphere monitoring. From the case studies, the automated procedure successfully identified extreme ionospheric anomalies, including the two worst ionospheric gradients observed and validated previously based on manual analysis. The automation of data processing enables us to analyze ionospheric data continuously going forward and to more accurately categorize ionospheric behavior under both nominal and anomalous conditions.

  4. Structures of Annulenes and Model Annulene Systems in the Ground and Lowest Excited States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Remigio Salvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces general considerations on structural properties of aromatic, antiaromatic and non-aromatic conjugated systems in terms of potential energy along bond length alternation and distortion coordinates, taking as examples benzene, cyclobutadiene and cyclooctatetraene. Pentalene, formally derived from cyclooctatetraene by cross linking, is also considered as a typical antiaromatic system. The main interest is concerned with [n]annulenes and model [n]annulene molecular systems, n ranging from 10 to 18. The rich variety of conformational and  configurational isomers and of dynamical processes among them is described. Specific attention is devoted to bridged [10]- and [14]annulenes in the ground and lowest excited states as well as to s-indacene and biphenylene. Experimental data obtained from vibrational and electronic spectroscopies are discussed and compared with ab initio calculation results. Finally, porphyrin, tetraoxaporphyrin dication and diprotonated porphyrin are presented as annulene structures adopting planar/non-planar geometries depending on the steric hindrance in the inner macrocycle ring. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation processes from excited state levels have been observed by means of time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A short account is also given of porphycene, the structural isomer of porphyrin, and of porphycene properties.

  5. Development of a ground level enhancement alarm system based upon neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, which triggers an alarm if a ground level enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate at a very low level. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. The highest-level alarm, which we term an "alert," is generated when a 4% increase is recorded at three stations in 3 min averaged data. At this level, the false alarm rate obtained by backtesting over the past 4.4 years is zero. Ten GLEs occurred in this period, and our system produced GLE alarms for nine events. Alarm times for these nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert precedes the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ˜10-30 min. Real-time GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development.

  6. Evaluating Cloud Computing in the Proposed NASA DESDynI Ground Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, John J.; Cinquini, Luca; Mattmann, Chris A.; Zimdars, Paul A.; Cuddy, David T.; Leung, Kon S.; Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Crichton, Dan; Freeborn, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The proposed NASA Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI) mission would be a first-of-breed endeavor that would fundamentally change the paradigm by which Earth Science data systems at NASA are built. DESDynI is evaluating a distributed architecture where expert science nodes around the country all engage in some form of mission processing and data archiving. This is compared to the traditional NASA Earth Science missions where the science processing is typically centralized. What's more, DESDynI is poised to profoundly increase the amount of data collection and processing well into the 5 terabyte/day and tens of thousands of job range, both of which comprise a tremendous challenge to DESDynI's proposed distributed data system architecture. In this paper, we report on a set of architectural trade studies and benchmarks meant to inform the DESDynI mission and the broader community of the impacts of these unprecedented requirements. In particular, we evaluate the benefits of cloud computing and its integration with our existing NASA ground data system software called Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT). The preliminary conclusions of our study suggest that the use of the cloud and OODT together synergistically form an effective, efficient and extensible combination that could meet the challenges of NASA science missions requiring DESDynI-like data collection and processing volumes at reduced costs.

  7. Evaluating Cloud Computing in the Proposed NASA DESDynI Ground Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, John J.; Cinquini, Luca; Mattmann, Chris A.; Zimdars, Paul A.; Cuddy, David T.; Leung, Kon S.; Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Crichton, Dan; Freeborn, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The proposed NASA Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI) mission would be a first-of-breed endeavor that would fundamentally change the paradigm by which Earth Science data systems at NASA are built. DESDynI is evaluating a distributed architecture where expert science nodes around the country all engage in some form of mission processing and data archiving. This is compared to the traditional NASA Earth Science missions where the science processing is typically centralized. What's more, DESDynI is poised to profoundly increase the amount of data collection and processing well into the 5 terabyte/day and tens of thousands of job range, both of which comprise a tremendous challenge to DESDynI's proposed distributed data system architecture. In this paper, we report on a set of architectural trade studies and benchmarks meant to inform the DESDynI mission and the broader community of the impacts of these unprecedented requirements. In particular, we evaluate the benefits of cloud computing and its integration with our existing NASA ground data system software called Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT). The preliminary conclusions of our study suggest that the use of the cloud and OODT together synergistically form an effective, efficient and extensible combination that could meet the challenges of NASA science missions requiring DESDynI-like data collection and processing volumes at reduced costs.

  8. Optimization of ground source heat pumps systems through the implementation of hybrid systems; Optimizacion de las instalaciones de bomba de calor geotermica mediante la implementacion de sistemas hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, M. S.; Martinez, S.

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental aspects to consider in the design of a ground heat pump system is the heat balance in the ground since thermal saturation of the ground produces a decreasing of the performance of the system throughout its useful life. The hybrid geothermal system which combined geothermal heat pump system with other systems for generation or dissipation energy are very suitable for balancing the heat exchanger meters needed for the proper functioning of the system, important aspect to reduce costs and achieve attractive return periods of the initial investment. Energesis Ingenieria has developed and implemented in two office buildings, a design of hybrid systems based on the combination of a geothermal heat pump and air-condensed units (dry coolers) that can ensure energy efficiencies comparable to geothermal pure systems, reducing substantially the investment cost. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  10. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  11. Effects of temperature and ground-state coherence decay on enhancement and amplification in a Delta atomic system

    CERN Document Server

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Karigowda, Asha; Narayanan, Andal; Sanders, Barry C

    2014-01-01

    We study phase-sensitive amplification of electromagnetically induced transparency in a warm $^{85}$Rb vapor wherein a microwave driving field couples the two lower energy states of a $\\Lambda$ energy-level system thereby transforming into a $\\Delta$ system. Our theoretical description includes effects of ground-state coherence decay and temperature effects. In particular, we demonstrate that driving-field enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency is robust against significant loss of coherence between ground states. We also show, that for specific field intensities, a threshold rate of ground-state coherence decay exists at every temperature. This threshold separates the probe-transmittance behavior into two regimes: probe amplification vs. probe attenuation. Thus, electromagnetically induced transparency plus amplification is possible at any temperature in a $\\Delta$ system.

  12. Methods for Using Ground-Water Model Predictions to Guide Hydrogeologic Data Collection, with Applications to the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claire R. Tiedeman; M.C. Hill; F.A. D' Agnese; C.C. Faunt

    2001-07-31

    Calibrated models of ground-water systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions, by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow-system features that can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new ''value of improved information'' (VOII) method, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. The PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated using a model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The predictions of interest are advective-transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated, the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow-system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  13. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  14. Cloud parameters using Ground Based Remote Sensing Systems and Satellites over urban coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z. T.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Wu, Y.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Determining cloud radiative and microphysical properties are very important as a means to assess their effect on earths energy balance. While MODIS and GOES have been used for estimating cloud properties, assessing cloud properties directly has been difficult due the lack of consistent ground based sensor measurements except in such established places such as the ARM site in Oklahoma. However, it is known that significant aerosol seeding from urban and/or maritime sources can modify cloud properties such as effective radius and cloud optical depth and therefore evaluation of satellite retrievals in such a unique area offers novel opportunities to assess the potential of satellite retrievals to distinguish these mechanisms In our study, we used a multi-filter rotating shadow band radiometer (MFRSR) and micro wave radiometer (MWR) to retrieve the cloud optical depth and cloud droplets effective radius . In particular, we make a statistical study during summer 2013 where water phase clouds dominate and assess the accuracy of both MODIS and GOES satellite cloud products including LWP, COD and Reff. Most importantly, we assess performance against satellite observing geometries. Much like previous studies at the ARM site, we observe significant biases in the effective radius when the solar zenith angle is too large. In addition, we show that biases are also sensitive to the LWP limiting such measurement s in assessing potential aerosol-cloud signatures Finally, we discuss preliminary aerosol-cloud interactions from our ground system where local lidar is used to assess aerosols below clouds and explore the Aerosol Cloud Index.

  15. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  16. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  17. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow...

  18. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  19. Performance evaluation of a 1.6-µm methane DIAL system from ground, aircraft and UAV platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F; Ismail, Syed; Nehrir, Amin R; Hair, John W; Crawford, James H; Leifer, Ira; Shuman, Timothy

    2013-12-16

    Methane is an efficient absorber of infrared radiation and a potent greenhouse gas with a warming potential 72 times greater than carbon dioxide on a per molecule basis. Development of methane active remote sensing capability using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique enables scientific assessments of the gas emission and impacts on the climate. A performance evaluation of a pulsed DIAL system for monitoring atmospheric methane is presented. This system leverages a robust injection-seeded pulsed Nd:YAG pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) laser technology operating in the 1.645 µm spectral band. The system also leverages an efficient low noise, commercially available, InGaAs avalanche photo-detector (APD). Lidar signals and error budget are analyzed for system operation on ground in the range-resolved DIAL mode and from airborne platforms in the integrated path DIAL (IPDA) mode. Results indicate system capability of measuring methane concentration profiles with <1.0% total error up to 4.5 km range with 5 minute averaging from ground. For airborne IPDA, the total error in the column dry mixing ratio is less than 0.3% with 0.1 sec average using ground returns. This system has a unique capability of combining signals from the atmospheric scattering from layers above the surface with ground return signals, which provides methane column measurement between the atmospheric scattering layer and the ground directly. In such case 0.5% and 1.2% total errors are achieved with 10 sec average from airborne platforms at 8 km and 15.24 km altitudes, respectively. Due to the pulsed nature of the transmitter, the system is relatively insensitive to aerosol and cloud interferences. Such DIAL system would be ideal for investigating high latitude methane releases over polar ice sheets, permafrost regions, wetlands, and over ocean during day and night. This system would have commercial potential for fossil fuel leaks detection and industrial monitoring applications.

  20. Ground-water hydrology of Ogden Valley and surrounding area, eastern Weber County, UT, and simulation of ground-water flow in the Valley-fill aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ground-water resources in Ogden Valley, eastern Weber County, Utah, were the subject of a study to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic system in the valley and to estimate the hydrologic effects of future ground-water development. The study area included the drainage basin of the Ogden River upstream from Pineview Reservoir dam and the drainage basin of Wheeler Creek. Ogden Valley and the surrounding area are underlain by rocks that range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary.The consolidated rocks that transmit and yield the most water in the area surrounding Ogden Valley are the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the Wasatch Formation of Tertiary age. Much of the recharge to the consolidated rocks is from snowmelt that infiltrates the Wasatch Formation, which underlies a large part of the study area. Discharge from the consolidated rocks is by streams, evapotranspiration, springs, subsurface outflow, and pumping from wells. Water in the consolidated rocks is a calcium bicarbonate type and has a dissolved-solids concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter.

  1. Secure Web-based Ground System User Interfaces over the Open Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, James H.; Murray, Henry L.; Hunt, Gary R.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype has been developed which makes use of commercially available products in conjunction with the Java programming language to provide a secure user interface for command and control over the open Internet. This paper reports successful demonstration of: (1) Security over the Internet, including encryption and certification; (2) Integration of Java applets with a COTS command and control product; (3) Remote spacecraft commanding using the Internet. The Java-based Spacecraft Web Interface to Telemetry and Command Handling (Jswitch) ground system prototype provides these capabilities. This activity demonstrates the use and integration of current technologies to enable a spacecraft engineer or flight operator to monitor and control a spacecraft from a user interface communicating over the open Internet using standard World Wide Web (WWW) protocols and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The core command and control functions are provided by the COTS Epoch 2000 product. The standard WWW tools and browsers are used in conjunction with the Java programming technology. Security is provided with the current encryption and certification technology. This system prototype is a step in the direction of giving scientist and flight operators Web-based access to instrument, payload, and spacecraft data.

  2. Secure Web-based Ground System User Interfaces over the Open Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, James H.; Murray, Henry L.; Hunt, Gary R.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype has been developed which makes use of commercially available products in conjunction with the Java programming language to provide a secure user interface for command and control over the open Internet. This paper reports successful demonstration of: (1) Security over the Internet, including encryption and certification; (2) Integration of Java applets with a COTS command and control product; (3) Remote spacecraft commanding using the Internet. The Java-based Spacecraft Web Interface to Telemetry and Command Handling (Jswitch) ground system prototype provides these capabilities. This activity demonstrates the use and integration of current technologies to enable a spacecraft engineer or flight operator to monitor and control a spacecraft from a user interface communicating over the open Internet using standard World Wide Web (WWW) protocols and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The core command and control functions are provided by the COTS Epoch 2000 product. The standard WWW tools and browsers are used in conjunction with the Java programming technology. Security is provided with the current encryption and certification technology. This system prototype is a step in the direction of giving scientist and flight operators Web-based access to instrument, payload, and spacecraft data.

  3. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards: November 2012 - October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, W.

    2015-02-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  4. IMPACT OF GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT ON GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ndisturbed ground temperature is one of the most crucial thermogeological parameters needed for shallow geothermal resources assessment. Energy considered to be geothermal is energy stored in the ground at depths where solar radiation has no effect. At depth where undisturbed ground temperature occurs there is no influence of seasonal variations in air temperature from surface. Exact temperature value, and depth where it occurs, is functionally dependent on surface climate parameters and thermogeologic properties of ground. After abovementioned depth, increase of ground temperature is solely dependent on geothermal gradient. Accurately determined value of undisturbed ground temperature is beneficial for proper sizing of borehole heat exchangers. On practical example of building which is being heated and cooled with shallow geothermal resource, influences of undisturbed ground temperature and geothermal gradient, on size of borehole heat exchanger are going to be presented. Sizing of borehole heat exchanger was calculated with commercial software Ground Loop Designer (GLD, which uses modified line source and cylinder source solutions of heat conduction in solids.

  5. Numerical Study of Wake Vortex Interaction with the Ground Using the Terminal Area Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Han, Jongil

    1999-01-01

    A sensitivity study for the in-ground effect on aircraft wake vortices has been conducted using a validated large eddy simulation model. The numerical results are compared with observed data and show good agreement for vortex decay and lateral vortex transport. The vortex decay rate is strongly influenced by the ground, but appears somewhat insensitive to ambient turbulence. In addition, the results show that the ground can affect the trajectory and descent-rate of a wake vortex pair at elevations up to about 3 b(sub o) (where b(sub o) is the initial vortex separation). However, the ground does not influence the average circulation of the vortices until the cores descend to within about 0.6 b(sub o), after which time the ground greatly enhances their rate of demise. Vortex rebound occurs in the simulations, but is more subtle than shown in previous numerical studies.

  6. Apparent chlorofluorocarbon age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system, Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.; Brockman, Allen R.

    2001-01-01

    Apparent ages of ground water are useful in the analysis of various components of flow systems, and results of this analysis can be incorporated into investigations of potential pathways of contaminant transport. This report presents the results of a study in 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Base Civil Engineer, Environmental Directorate, to describe the apparent age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system at the Station. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), dissolved gases, stable isotopes, and water-quality field properties were measured in samples from 14 wells and 16 springs on the Station in March 1997.Nitrogen-argon recharge temperatures range from 5.9°C to 17.3°C with a median temperature of 10.9°C, which indicates that ground-water recharge predominantly occurs in the cold months of the year. Concentrations of excess air vary depending upon geohydrologic setting (recharge and discharge areas). Apparent ground-water ages using a CFC-based dating technique range from 1 to 48 years with a median age of 10 years. The oldest apparent CFC ages occur in the upper parts of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, whereas the youngest apparent ages occur in the Columbia aquifer and the upper parts of the discharge area setting, especially springs. The vertical distribution of apparent CFC ages indicates that groundwater movement between aquifers is somewhat retarded by the leaky confining units, but the elapsed time is relatively short (generally less than 35 years), as evidenced by the presence of CFCs at depth. The identification of binary mixtures by CFC-based dating indicates that convergence of flow lines occurs not only at the actual point of discharge, but also in the subsurface.The CFC-based recharge dates are consistent with expected 3H concentrations measured in the water samples from the Station. The concentration of 3H in ground water ranges from below the USGS laboratory minimum

  7. Scalable and Detail-Preserving Ground Surface Reconstruction from Large 3D Point Clouds Acquired by Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, D.; Serna Morales, A.; Deschaud, J.-E.; Marcotegui, B.; Goulette, F.

    2014-08-01

    The currently existing mobile mapping systems equipped with active 3D sensors allow to acquire the environment with high sampling rates at high vehicle velocities. While providing an effective solution for environment sensing over large scale distances, such acquisition provides only a discrete representation of the geometry. Thus, a continuous map of the underlying surface must be built. Mobile acquisition introduces several constraints for the state-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithms. Smoothing becomes a difficult task for recovering sharp depth features while avoiding mesh shrinkage. In addition, interpolation-based techniques are not suitable for noisy datasets acquired by Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems. Furthermore, scalability is a major concern for enabling real-time rendering over large scale distances while preserving geometric details. This paper presents a fully automatic ground surface reconstruction framework capable to deal with the aforementioned constraints. The proposed method exploits the quasi-flat geometry of the ground throughout a morphological segmentation algorithm. Then, a planar Delaunay triangulation is applied in order to reconstruct the ground surface. A smoothing procedure eliminates high frequency peaks, while preserving geometric details in order to provide a regular ground surface. Finally, a decimation step is applied in order to cope with scalability constraints over large scale distances. Experimental results on real data acquired in large urban environments are presented and a performance evaluation with respect to ground truth measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  8. Proven and Robust Ground Support Systems - GSFC Success and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Donohue, John; Lui, Ben; Greer, Greg; Green, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, Goddard Space Flight Center has developed several successful science missions in-house: the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE), the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) [1], and the Space Technology 5 (ST-5)[2] missions, several Small Explorers, and several balloon missions. Currently in development are the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) [3] and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)[4]. What is not well known is that these missions have been supported during spacecraft and/or instrument integration and test, flight software development, and mission operations by two in house satellite Telemetry and Command (T & C) Systems, the Integrated Test and Operations System (ITOS) and the Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test (ASIST). The advantages of an in-house satellite Telemetry and Command system are primarily in the flexibility of management and maintenance - the developers are considered a part of the mission team, get involved early in the development process of the spacecraft and mission operations-control center, and provide on-site, on-call support that goes beyond Help Desk and simple software fixes. On the other hand, care must be taken to ensure that the system remains generic enough for cost effective re-use from one mission to the next. The software is designed such that many features are user-configurable. Where user-configurable options were impractical, features were designed so as to be easy for the development team to modify. Adding support for a new ground message header, for example, is a one-day effort because of the software framework on which that code rests. This paper will discuss the many features of the Goddard satellite Telemetry and Command systems that have contributed to the success of the missions listed above. These features include flexible user interfaces, distributed parallel commanding and telemetry decommutation, a procedure

  9. Vent System Analysis for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage Transfer Ground Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A

    2013-01-01

    To test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots, NASA is leading the efforts to develop and design the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) payload. The primary objectives of CPST payload are to demonstrate: 1) in-space storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration applications; and 2) in-space transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Ground Test Article (GTA) is a technology development version of the CPST payload. The GTA consists of flight-sized and flight-like storage and transfer tanks, liquid acquisition devices, transfer, and pressurization systems with all of the CPST functionality. The GTA is designed to perform integrated passive and active thermal storage and transfer performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a vacuum environment. The GTA storage tank is designed to store liquid hydrogen and the transfer tank is designed to be 5% of the storage tank volume. The LH2 transfer subsystem is designed to transfer propellant from one tank to the other utilizing pressure or a pump. The LH2 vent subsystem is designed to prevent over-pressurization of the storage and transfer tanks. An in-house general-purpose computer program was utilized to model and simulate the vent subsystem operation. The modeling, analysis, and the results will be presented in the final paper.

  10. Soil management system in hazelnut groves (Corylus sp. versus the presence of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nietupski Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining biodiversity as well as taking advantage of the natural environment’s resistance are the key elements which should be considered when designing integrated plans for the protection of hazelnut groves. An effort has been made in this study to analyse the impact of different soil cultivation methods in hazelnut groves, on the species composition and number of individuals in carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Another aim was to determine which method of inter-row soil management had the least negative effect on assemblages of these beetles. Because of the type of habitat, the xerothermic species characteristic for southeastern Europe, i.e. Calathus ambiguus, Poecilus lepidus, Harpalus calceatus, and H. griseus, were the most numerous. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the captured individuals implied that the optimal soil tillage system in young hazelnut groves is when soil is kept fallow with machines or chemicals, or when soil is covered with manure. The least favourable practice for the appearance of ground beetles of the Carabidae family is the use of polypropylene fabric, bark or sawdust, to cover soil

  11. Seismic Target Classification Using a Wavelet Packet Manifold in Unattended Ground Sensors Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enliang Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in target classification is the extraction of a robust feature, which can effectively represent a specific type of targets. The use of seismic signals in unattended ground sensor (UGS systems makes this problem more complicated, because the seismic target signal is non-stationary, geology-dependent and with high-dimensional feature space. This paper proposes a new feature extraction algorithm, called wavelet packet manifold (WPM, by addressing the neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE algorithm of manifold learning on the wavelet packet node energy (WPNE of seismic signals. By combining non-stationary information and low-dimensional manifold information, WPM provides a more robust representation for seismic target classification. By using a K nearest neighbors classifier on the WPM signature, the algorithm of wavelet packet manifold classification (WPMC is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed WPMC can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve the classification accuracy up to 95.03%. Moreover, compared with state-of-the-art methods, WPMC is more suitable for UGS in terms of recognition ratio and computational complexity.

  12. Design Approach for Solar Photovoltaic Ground Water Pumping System for Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern India has rich resource base for intensive and diversified agriculture, but the production and productivity of this region is quite low due to lack of assured irrigation as even a short dry spell of drought adversely affects the stability of agricultural production. The foremost reason energy squeeze in terms of lack of electricity and substantial increase in diesel price, which refrain farmers from operating required number hours of diesel pumps. This region is endowed with enormous solar energy potential with solar radiation of 4 - 6.4 kWh/m2/day and 250 - 300 bright sunshine days. Therefore, it can be a year round reliable source of energy for ground water pumpingto meet supplementary irrigation requirement. In addition to reliability,environmental pollution would also be reduced. However,in view of initial investment cost, cropping pattern and land holding sizes of the region,solar photovoltaic pumping system should be of appropriatesize and it should be designed keeping in view the solar irradianceround the year and water requirement in different seasons. This technical discusses few important aspects to fulfilthis proposition.

  13. Optimum bleeding rate of open loop ground source heat pump systems determined by hydrogeological modeling in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, W. H.; Kim, N.; Lee, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of open loop ground source heat pump systems operation on hydrological conditions of aquifer. Test bed is located in Chuncheon, Korea. The step drawdown test was conducted in five stages for 300 minutes. The variation of groundwater levels by open loop ground source heat pump systems operation was estimated using Visual MODFLOW. Transmissivity ranged from 2.02×10-4 to 9.36×10-4, and storage coefficient ranged from 0.00067 to 0.021. The amount of optimum bleeding was calculated to be 240 m3/day. When bleeding will be 50, 90, 240 and 450 m3/day for 5 years, groundwater levels may decrease 1.84, 3.31, 8.89 and 17.0 m, respectively. If the amount of bleeding is 50 m3/day, the influence of bleeding will not reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. Regarding the open loop ground source heat pump system installed at the test bed, the amount of optimum bleeding in accordance with the stand are proposed by the government is 90 m3/day, which is 20% of the 450 m3/day circulation quantity of the system. However, if continuous bleeding of more than 90 m3/day occurs, then the radius of influence is expected to reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. These results indicate that amount of optimum bleeding differ in each open loop ground soured heat pump system. Therefore, the debate for the amount of optimum bleeding in open loop ground source heat pump systems is demanded. This work is supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  14. Missile Defense: DOD’s Report Provides Limited Insight on Testing Options for the Ground-based Midcourse Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Cochran Ranking Member Subcommittee on Defense Committee on Appropriations United States Senate The Honorable Howard P. " Buck " McKeon Chairman The...System Component Mission Location Ground Based Interceptor (GBI) The interceptor consists of a silo-based, three-stage booster stack and a “hit-to

  15. Integrated monitoring system for ground deformation hazard assessment in Telese Terme (Benevento province, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, S.; Castiello, G.; Fedi, M.; Florio, G.; Fuschini, V.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.

    2012-04-01

    TeleseTerme plain is characterized by a very articulated stratigraphy (levels of travertine, fluvial-marshy and pyroclastic deposits), that allows the occurrence of underground water circulation with overlapping aquifers. These aquifers are locally in pressure and, because of chemical characteristics and physical properties of the water, they may activate processes of accelerated travertine's corrosion; the consequence is the formation of cavity along the ground water's preferential flow paths, and the activation of subsidence and sinkholes phenomena. In particular test area includes two zones, where in 2002 and 2006 occurred two sinkholes events, classified as "piping sinkholes". The hazard evaluation was carried out trhought an integrated monitoring system, based on "traditional" techniques conduced "in situ", as geological-geomorphological and geophysical (microgravity) surveys, integrated by the most innovative techniques of Remote sensing interferometry(Advanced DInSAR Interferometry Techniques). The last allow to evaluate the ground deformation, characterized by a predominantvertical component (typical deformation of sinkholes and subsidence phenomena), and are well suited to operate a continuous and long monitoring ofvery extended areas. Through an initial analysis of the Permanent Scatterers available in the Telese municipality, we found the envelopes of the areal that contain PS with negative and positive mean velocities; these velocities showed the presence of a possible phenomenon of subsidence detected by ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Through interferometric processing of ENVISAT images, the soil deformations of 2002-2010 year sare evaluated and compared with the data obtainedby survey took "in situ" during the same period. The knowledge of the deformation's evolution of the area made it possible to organize a more focused future monitoring through traditional techniques of relief (with the help of geophysical methodologies). Since the zone affected by

  16. Characterization and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, N. H.; Gilmore, T.; Looney, B. B.; Vangelas, K. M.; Adams, K. M.; Sink, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    Like many US industries and businesses, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for remediation and restoration of soils and ground water contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is an attractive remediation approach and is probably the universal end-stage technology for removing such contamination. Since 2003 we have carried out a multifaceted program at the Savannah River Site designed to advance the state of the art for MNA of chlorinated ethenes in soils and groundwater. Three lines of effort were originally planned: 1) Improving the fundamental science for MNA, 2) Promoting better characterization and monitoring (CM) techniques, and 3) Advancing the regulatory aspects of MNA management. A fourth line, developing enhanced attenuation methods based on sustainable natural processes, was added in order to deal with sites where the initial natural attenuation capacity cannot offset contaminant loading rates. These four lines have been pursued in an integrated and mutually supportive fashion. Many DOE site-cleanup program managers view CM as major expenses, especially for natural attenuation where measuring attenuation is complex and the most critical attenuation mechanisms cannot be determined directly. We have reviewed new and developing approaches to CM for potential application in support of natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water at DOE sites (Gilmore, Tyler, et al., 2006 WSRC-TR- 2005-00199). Although our project is focused on chlorinated ethenes, many of the concepts and strategies are also applicable to a wider range of contaminants including radionuclides and metals. The greatest savings in CM are likely to come from new management approaches. New approaches can be based, for example, on conceptual models of attenuation capacity, the ability of a formation to reduce risks caused by contaminants. Using the mass balance concept as a guide, the integrated mass flux of contaminant is compared to

  17. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  18. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  19. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  20. Ground cover rice production system facilitates soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, however covering paddy rice soils with films (ground cover rice production system: GCRPS can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the vegetation period resulting in increased grain yields in colder regions of rice production with seasonal water shortages. It has been speculated that the increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may result in losses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional scale experiment, conducted by sampling paired adjacent Paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites in the Shiyan region, which is typical for many mountainous areas across China. Parameters evaluated included soil C and N stocks, soil physical and chemical properties, potential carbon mineralization rates, fractions of soil organic carbon and stable carbon isotopic composition of plant leaves. Furthermore, root biomass was quantified at maximum tillering stage at one of our paired sites. Against expectations the study showed that: (1 GCRPS significantly increased soil organic C and N stocks 5–20 years following conversion of production systems, (2 there were no differences between GCRPS and Paddy in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths with the exception of soil bulk density, (3 GCRPS had lower mineralization potential for soil organic C compared with Paddy over the incubation period, (4 GCRPS showed lower δ15N in the soils and plant leafs indicating less NH3 volatilization in GCRPS than in Paddy; and (5 GCRPS increased yields and root biomass in all soil layers down to 40 cm depth. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative rice production technique that not only increases yields using less irrigation water, but that it also is environmentally beneficial due to increased soil C and N stocks at regional scale.

  1. Comparative analyses of different variants of standard ground for automatic control systems of technical processes of oil and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromakov, E. I.; Gazizov, A. T.; Lukin, V. P.; Chimrov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses efficiency (interference resistance) of standard TT, TN, IT networks in control links of automatic control systems (ACS) of technical processes (TP) of oil and gas production. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a standard term used to describe the interference in grounding circuits. Improved EMC of ACS TP can significantly reduce risks and costs of malfunction of equipment that could have serious consequences. It has been proved that an IT network is the best type of grounds for protection of ACS TP in real life conditions. It allows reducing the interference down to the level that is stated in standards of oil and gas companies.

  2. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Irwin Basin Aquifer System, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water pumping in the Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California resulted in water-level declines of about 30 feet from 1941 to 1996. Since 1992, artificial recharge from wastewater-effluent infiltration and irrigation-return flow has stabilized water levels, but there is concern that future water demands associated with expansion of the base may cause a resumption of water-level declines. To address these concerns, a ground-water flow model of the Irwin Basin was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Historical data show that ground-water-level declines in the Irwin Basin between 1941 and 1996, caused the formation of a pumping depression near the pumped wells, and that recharge from the wastewater-treatment facility and disposal area caused the formation of a recharge mound. There have been two periods of water-level recovery in the Irwin Basin since the development of ground water in this basin; these periods coincide with a period of decreased pumpage from the basin and a period of increased recharge of water imported from the Bicycle Basin beginning in 1967 and from the Langford Basin beginning in 1992. Since 1992, artificial recharge has exceeded pumpage in the Irwin Basin and has stabilized water-level declines. A two-layer ground-water flow model was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity, altitude of the bottom of the layers, vertical conductance, storage coefficient, recharge, and discharge were determined using existing geohydrologic data. Rates and distribution of recharge and discharge were determined from

  3. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the perched ground water under seepage-irrigated potato cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Arboleda, F; Mylavarapu, R; Hutchinson, C; Portier, K

    2008-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen rates for potato production in northeast Florida have been declared as a potential source of nitrate pollution in the St. Johns River watershed. This 3-yr study examined the effect of N rates (0, 168, and 280 kg ha(-1)) split between planting and 40 d after planting on the NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Atlantic) in rotation with sorghum sudan grass hybrid (Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese, cv. SX17), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Iron Clay), and greenbean (Phaseolus vulgare cv. Espada). Soil solution from the root zone and water from the perched ground water under potato were sampled periodically using lysimeters and wells, respectively. Fertilization at planting increased the NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water, but no effect of the legumes in rotation with potatoes on nitrate leaching was detected. Fertilization of green bean increased NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under potato planted in the following season. The NO(3)-N concentration in the soil solution within the potato root zone followed a similar pattern to that of the perched ground water but with higher initial values. The NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water was proportional to the rainfall magnitude after potato planting. A significant increase in NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under cowpea planted in summer after potato was detected for the side-dressing of 168 kg ha(-1) N applied to potato 40 d after planting but not at the 56 kg ha(-1) N side-dress. Elevation in NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under sorghum was not significant, supporting its use as an effective N catch crop.

  4. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage...... is related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when...

  5. Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2004-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were obtained from ground water and surface water throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB), New Mexico, and supplemented with selected data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and City of Albuquerque water-quality database in an effort to refine the conceptual model of ground-water flow in the basin. The ground-water data collected as part of this study include major- and minor-element chemistry (30 elements), oxygen-18 and deuterium content of water, carbon-13 content and carbon-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfur-34 content of dissolved sulfate, tritium, and dissolved atmospheric gases including nitrogen, argon, helium, chlorofluorocarbons,

  6. Deconvolution effect of near-fault earthquake ground motions on stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hacıefendioğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The deconvolution effect of the near-fault earthquake ground motions on the stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems are investigated by using the finite element method. Two different earthquake input mechanisms are used to consider the deconvolution effects in the analyses: the standard rigid-base input and the deconvolved-base-rock input model. The Bolu tunnel in Turkey is chosen as a numerical example. As near-fault ground motions, 1999 Kocaeli earthquake ground motion is selected. The interface finite elements are used between tunnel and soil deposit. The mean of maximum values of quasi-static, dynamic and total responses obtained from the two input models are compared with each other.

  7. Quantifying Systemic Efficiency using Exergy and Energy Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pumps: Domestic Space Conditioning and Water Heating Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Although air temperatures over land surfaces show wide seasonal and daily variations, the ground, approximately 10 meters below the earth s surface, remains relatively stable in temperature thereby serving as an energy source or sink. Ground source heat pumps can heat, cool, and supply homes with hot water efficiently by utilizing the earth s renewable and essentially inexhaustible energy resources, saving fossil fuels, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and lowering the environmental footprint. In this paper, evidence is shown that ground source heat pumps can provide up to 79%-87% of domestic hot water energy needs, and up to 77% of space heating needs with the ground s thermal energy resources. The case refers to a 12-month study conducted at a 253 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days and CDD of 723 C-days under simulated occupancy conditions. A single 94.5m vertical bore interfaced the heat pump with the ground. The research shows that this technology is capable of achieving US DOE targets of 25 % and 35% energy savings in HVAC, and in water heating, respectively by 2030. It is also a viable technology to meet greenhouse gas target emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources. The paper quantifies systemic efficiencies using Exergy analysis of the major components, clearly pointing areas for further improvement.

  8. Review on Foreign Air-Ground and Ground-Air Communication Systems%外军空-地和地-空通信装备的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢玲

    2013-01-01

    Communication between air and ground plays a key role in CAS ( Close Air Support ) environ-ment,and it can not only improve combat effectiveness of CAS, but also avoid fire power from partners. In this paper, the performance and applications of modular CAS systems developed by Black Diamond Ad-vanced Technology and Teleplan Globe, current popular soldier video receiver and airborne radio are elab-orated. Then some critical technologies need to be further investigated are summarized, such as software communication system structure, advanced networking waveform and soldier radio waveform, etc.%空-地和地-空通信在近距空中支援( CAS)作战中发挥着关键作用,不仅可提高作战效率,而且可避免友军误伤。重点论述了黑钻先进技术公司和Teleplan Globe公司的模块化近距离空中支援系统以及世界主要公司的机载电台、士兵视频接收机的技术性能及应用,最后总结了应重点研究的空-地和地-空通信关键技术,如软件通信体系结构、先进宽带组网波形和士兵电台波形等。

  9. A computational model of the lexical-semantic system based on a grounded cognition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Mauro; Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a connectionist model of the semantic-lexical system based on grounded cognition. The model assumes that the lexical and semantic aspects of language are memorized in two distinct stores. The semantic properties of objects are represented as a collection of features, whose number may vary among objects. Features are described as activation of neural oscillators in different sensory-motor areas (one area for each feature) topographically organized to implement a similarity principle. Lexical items are represented as activation of neural groups in a different layer. Lexical and semantic aspects are then linked together on the basis of previous experience, using physiological learning mechanisms. After training, features which frequently occurred together, and the corresponding word-forms, become linked via reciprocal excitatory synapses. The model also includes some inhibitory synapses: features in the semantic network tend to inhibit words not associated with them during the previous learning phase. Simulations show that after learning, presentation of a cue can evoke the overall object and the corresponding word in the lexical area. Moreover, different objects and the corresponding words can be simultaneously retrieved and segmented via a time division in the gamma-band. Word presentation, in turn, activates the corresponding features in the sensory-motor areas, recreating the same conditions occurring during learning. The model simulates the formation of categories, assuming that objects belong to the same category if they share some features. Simple exempla are shown to illustrate how words representing a category can be distinguished from words representing individual members. Finally, the model can be used to simulate patients with focalized lesions, assuming an impairment of synaptic strength in specific feature areas.

  10. Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project: Advanced Clothing Ground Study Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky; Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini

    2013-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction & Repurposing (LRR) project is to bring new ideas and technologies that will enable human presence in farther regions of space. The LRR project has five tasks: 1) Advanced Clothing System (ACS) to reduce clothing mass and volume, 2) Logistics to Living (L2L) to repurpose existing cargo, 3) Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) to reprocess materials in space, 4) Trash to Gas (TTG) to extract useful gases from trash, and 5) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) to integrate these logistical components. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The ACS task is to find ways to further reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The ACS task has been broken into a series of studies on length of wear of various garments: 1) three small studies conducted through other NASA projects (MMSEV, DSH, HI-SEAS) focusing on length of wear of garments treated with an antimicrobial finish; 2) a ground study, which is the subject of this report, addressing both length of wear and subject perception of various types of garments worn during aerobic exercise; and 3) an ISS study replicating the ground study, and including every day clothing to collect information on perception in reduced gravity in which humans experience physiological changes. The goal of the ground study is first to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment, and second to learn why. Human factors considerations included in the study consist of the Institutional Review Board approval, test protocol and participants' training, and a web

  11. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow model...

  12. Modelling of Shaded and Unshaded Shallow-Ground Heat Pump System for a Residential Building Block in a Mediterranean Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottarelli, M.; Yousif, C.

    2017-01-01

    Heat pumps may be coupled to shallow-ground geothermal fields and used for the purpose of space heating and cooling of buildings. However, quite often it is not possible to locate the geothermal field in cleared grounds, especially in cities where building density is high and land has a high premium. This leads to the possibility of burying the geothermal field under the basement of new building blocks, before construction of the building. In the present work, the shaded-unshaded arrangement is numerically studied by coupling the software DesignBuilder-EnergyPlus to assess the building’s energy requirement with the software FEFLOW to solve the heat transfer equation in porous media. Assuming a standard residential building block, the coupling between the two software is performed by assigning the thermal energy requirement for air conditioning, as calculated by EnergyPlus, to a flat-panel typology of ground heat exchanger simplified in a 2D FEFLOW’s domain. The results show that it is necessary to opt for a dual-source heat pump (air/geothermal) system to ensure that the ground is not frozen or over-heated at peak times and to improve the overall performance of the system.

  13. Responses of woody species to spatial and temporal ground water changes in coastal sand dune systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Máguas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the relative importance of groundwater in costal dune systems, studies concerning the responses of vegetation to ground water (GW availability variations, particularly in Mediterranean regions, are scarce. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to compare the responses of co-occurring species possessing different functional traits, to changes in GW levels (i.e. the lowering of GW levels in a sand dune ecosystem. For that, five sites were established within a 1 km2 area in a meso-mediterranean sand dune ecosystem dominated by a Pinus pinaster forest. Due to natural topographic variability and anthropogenic GW exploitation, substantial variability in depth to GW between sites was found. Under these conditions it was possible to identify the degree of usage and dependence on GW of different plant species (two deep-rooted trees, a drought adapted shrub, a phreatophyte and a non-native woody invader and how GW dependence varied seasonally and between the heterogeneous sites. Results indicated that the plant species had differential responses to changes in GW depth according to specific functional traits (i.e. rooting depth, leaf morphology, and water use strategy. Species comparison revealed that variability in pre-dawn water potential (Ψpre and bulk leaf δ13C was related to site differences in GW use in the deep-rooted (Pinus pinaster, Myrica faya and phreatophyte (Salix repens species. However, such variation was more evident during spring than during summer drought. The exotic invader, Acacia longifolia, which does not possess a very deep root system, presented the largest seasonal variability in Ψpre and bulk leaf δ13C. In contrast, the response of Corema album, an endemic understory drought-adapted shrub, seemed to be independent of water availability across seasons and sites. Thus, the susceptibility to lowering of GW due to anthropogenic

  14. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  15. An Early Warning System from debris flows based on ground vibration monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Coviello, Velio

    2015-04-01

    Among the different countermeasures that can be adopted for the mitigation of landslide hazard, Early Warning Systems (EWSs) are receiving an increasing attention. EWSs are the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals and communities threatened by a hazard to appropriately act, in sufficient time, to reduce the possibility of harm or loss (UNEP, 2012). An EWS from debris flows can be classified into two main categories: advance and event EWSs. Advance EWSs predict the occurrence of a debris flow by monitoring hydro-meteorological conditions that may lead to its initiation. Despite their widespread adoption, these latter systems are prone to false alarms because they are heavily affected by bias between regional rainfall threshold and local conditions. Event EWSs, on the contrary, detect the occurrence of a debris flow when the process is already in progress. They usually rely on the use of algorithms for processing in real time the monitoring data. Their effectiveness depends on the reliability of those algorithms, which require long development and testing phases. A specific testing field for event EWSs has been equipped in the Gadria instrumented basin, located in the Eastern Italian Alps. A specifically designed monitoring unit capable to record data from different type of sensors and to implement aboard warning algorithms has been installed along a straight reach of the torrent. A flashing light, installed on the bank of the torrent, has been wired to this unit. The flashing light is framed by a fixed video camera that also shoots the passage of debris flows in the torrent. This provides a visual verification of the efficacy of the algorithm under test, particularly useful to show to practitioners and administrators a clear demonstration of the warning outcome. In this work, we present the performance of a warning algorithm that has been experimented in the Gadria testing field in 2013

  16. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141..., and alternative treatment operating criteria, if operation in accordance with the criteria or... specified by the State for State-approved alternative treatment and records of the date and duration of any...

  17. The dynamics of international information systems anatomy of a grounded theory investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This work probes the efficacy of using the Grounded Theory method to study the factors that lead to failure or success in the creation and ongoing management of IIS within the global enterprises. It details case studies of three large transnational companies.

  18. MIV project: Detailed design of on-board and ground systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisch, Manlio; Thuesen, Gøsta; Jørgensen, John Leif;

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report describes the algorithms used to achieve autonomous and ground supported guidance, navigation and control....

  19. Effects of residential wastewater treatment systems on ground-water quality in west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dennis C.; Hillier, D.E.; Nickum, Edward; Dorrance, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of residential wastewater-treatment systems in Evergreen Meadows, Marshdale, and Herzman Mesa, Colo., has degraded ground-water quality to some extent in each community. Age of community; average lot size; slope of land surface; composition, permeability, and thickness of surficial material; density, size , and orientation of fractures; maintenance of wastewater-treatment systems; and presence of animals are factors possibly contributing to the degradation of ground-water quality. When compared with effluent from aeration-treatment tanks, effluent fom septic-treatment tanks is characterized by greater biochemical oxygen demand and greater concentrations of detergents. When compared with effluent from septic-treatment tanks, effluent from aeration-treatment tanks is characterized by greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved solids. (USGS)

  20. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN); Scudiere, Matthew B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  1. Application Study on Ground Source Heat Pump System%地源热泵系统的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李异; 石新会

    2011-01-01

    为了减少一次性能源的使用和对环境的污染,本文以陕西安康市某综合建筑为例,通过对比地源热泵系统和常规空调系统的初投资和运行费用,论证了地源热泵系统的经济性.%In order to reduce the pollution to environment of the primary energy, a packaged building in Ankang is taken for example, and this paper proves the ground-source heal pumps economy by comparing the initial investment and operating costs of ground-source heat pumps system and conventional air conditioning systems.

  2. New fault location system for power transmission lines using composite fiber-optic overhead ground wire (OPGW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urasawa, K. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)); Kanemaru, K.; Toyota, S.; Sugiyama, K. (Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    A new fault location (FL) method using composite fiber-optic overhead ground wires (OPGWs) is developed to find out where electrical faults occur on overhead power transmission lines. This method locates the fault section by detecting the current induced in the ground wire (GW), i.e. OPGW in this system. Since detected fault information is essentially uncertain, the new FL method treats the fault information oas a current distribution pattern throughout the power line, and applies Fuzzy Theory to realize the human-like manner of fault location used by electrical power engineers. It was confirmed by computer simulations that the fault section can be accurately located using this method under various conditions. This FL system has already been applied to several commercial power transmission lines and successfully located the sections where electrical faults occurred on actual power transmission lines.

  3. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Alka B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS using geographic information systems (GIS. The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval. The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre

  4. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Blanchard, Ian E; Doig, Christopher J; Ghali, William A

    2012-10-03

    Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7-8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based on US data may not be appropriate in a

  5. Detection of 3D tree root systems using high resolution ground penetration radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altdorff, D.; Honds, M.; Botschek, J.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of root systems and its distribution are important for biomass estimation as well as for the prevention of subsurface distribution network damages. Ground penetration radar (GPR) is a promising technique that enables a non-invasive imaging of tree roots. Due to the polarisation-dependent reflection coefficients and complicated three-dimensional root structure, accurate measurements with perpendicularly polarized antennas are needed. In this study, we show GPR data from two planes and one chestnut at two locations with different soil conditions. Perpendicular 10 x 10 cm grid measurements were made with a shielded 250 MHz antenna in combination with a high precision self-tracking laser theodolite that provides geo-referenced traces with a spatial resolution of ~ 2 cm. After selecting potential root hyperbolas within the perpendicular GPR profiles, the corresponding three-dimensional coordinates were extracted and visualized in planar view to reveal any linear structure that indicates a possible tree root. The coordinates of the selected linear structures were projected back to the surface by means of the laser-theodolite to indicate the locations for groundtruthing. Additionally, we interpolated the measured data into a 3D cube where time slices confirmed the locations of linear reflection events. We validated the indicated predictions by excavation of the soil with a suction dredge. Subsequent georeferencing of the true root distribution and comparison with the selected linear events showed that the approach was able to identify the precise position of roots with a diameter between 3 and 10 cm and a depth of up to 70 cm. However, not all linear events were roots; also mouse channels were found in these depths, since they also generate GPR hyperbolas aligned in linear structures. Roots at a second location at depths of 1 to 1.20 m did not generate identifiable hyperboles, which was probably due to an increased electrical conductivity below 86 cm depth. The

  6. Modeling of Rocket Fuel Heating and Cooling Processes in the Interior Receptacle Space of Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propellant to fill the fuel tanks of the spacecraft, upper stages, and space rockets on technical and ground-based launch sites before fueling should be prepared to ensure many of its parameters, including temperature, in appropriate condition. Preparation of fuel temperature is arranged through heating and cooling the rocket propellants (RP in the tanks of fueling equipment. Processes of RP temperature preparation are the most energy-intensive and timeconsuming ones, which require that a choice of sustainable technologies and modes of cooling (heating RP provided by the ground-based equipment has been made through modeling of the RP [1] temperature preparation processes at the stage of design and operation of the groundbased fueling equipment.The RP temperature preparation in the tanks of the ground-based systems can be provided through the heat-exchangers built-in the internal space and being external with respect to the tank in which antifreeze, air or liquid nitrogen may be used as the heat transfer media. The papers [1-12], which note a promising use of the liquid nitrogen to cool PR, present schematic diagrams and modeling systems for the RP temperature preparation in the fueling equipment of the ground-based systems.We consider the RP temperature preparation using heat exchangers to be placed directly in RP tanks. Feeding the liquid nitrogen into heat exchanger with the antifreeze provides the cooling mode of PR while a heated air fed there does that of heating. The paper gives the systems of equations and results of modeling the processes of RP temperature preparation, and its estimated efficiency.The systems of equations of cooling and heating RP are derived on the assumption that the heat exchange between the fuel and the antifreeze, as well as between the storage tank and the environment is quasi-stationary.The paper presents calculation results of the fuel temperature in the tank, and coolant temperature in the heat exchanger, as

  7. Ground state spin 0{sup +} dominance of many-body systems with random interactions and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.; Zhao, Y.M

    2003-07-14

    In this talk we shall show our recent results in understanding the spin{sup parity} 0{sup +} ground state (0 g.s.) dominance of many-body systems. We propose a simple approach to predict the spin I g.s. probabilities which does not require the diagonalization of a Hamiltonian with random interactions. Some findings related to the 0 g.s. dominance will also be discussed.

  8. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  9. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  10. Initial hydraulic heads for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the hydraulic-head values in 16 model layers used to initiate the transient simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  11. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  12. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  13. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  14. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  15. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  16. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  17. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was developed for the central Oahu flow system, which is the largest and most productive ground-water flow system on the island. The model is based on the computer code SHARP which simulates both freshwater and saltwater flow. The ground-water model was developed using average pumping and recharge conditions during the 1950's, which was considered to be a steady-state period. For 1950's conditions, model results indicate that 62 percent (90.1 million gallons per day) of the discharge from the Schofield ground-water area flows southward and the remaining 38 percent (55.2 million gallons per day) of the discharge from Schofield flows northward. Although the contribution of recharge from infiltration of rainfall and irrigation water directly on top of the southern and northern Schofield ground-water dams was included in the model, the distribution of natural discharge from the Schofield ground-water area was estimated exclusive of the recharge on top of the dams. The model was used to investigate the long-term effects of pumping under future land-use conditions. Future recharge was conservatively estimated by assuming no recharge associated with agricultural activities. Future pumpage used in the model was based on the 1995-allocated rates. Model results indicate that the long-term effect of pumping at the 1995-allocated rates will be a reduction of water levels from present (1995) conditions in all ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system. In the Schofield ground-water area, model results indicate that water levels could decline about 30 feet from the 1995 water-level altitude of about 275 feet. In the remaining ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system, water levels may decline from less than 1 foot to as much as 12 feet relative to 1995 water levels. Model results indicate that the bottoms of several existing deep wells in northern and southern Oahu extend below the model

  18. Conceptual Design of the Adaptive Optics System for the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration Ground Station at Table Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Page, Norman A.; Burruss, Rick S.; Truong, Tuan N.; Dew, Sharon; Troy, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The Laser Communication Relay Demonstration will feature a geostationary satellite communicating via optical links to multiple ground stations. The first ground station (GS-1) is the 1m OCTL telescope at Table Mountain in California. The optical link will utilize pulse position modulation (PPM) and differential phase shift keying (DPSK) protocols. The DPSK link necessitates that adaptive optics (AO) be used to relay the incoming beam into the single mode fiber that is the input of the modem. The GS-1 AO system will have two MEMS Deformable mirrors to achieve the needed actuator density and stroke limit. The AO system will sense the aberrations with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using the light from the communication link's 1.55 microns laser to close the loop. The system will operate day and night. The system's software will be based on heritage software from the Palm 3000 AO system, reducing risk and cost. The AO system is being designed to work at r(sub 0) greater than 3.3 cm (measured at 500 nm and zenith) and at elevations greater than 20deg above the horizon. In our worst case operating conditions we expect to achieve Strehl ratios of over 70% (at 1.55 microns), which should couple 57% of the light into the single mode DPSK fiber. This paper describes the conceptual design of the AO system, predicted performance and discusses some of the trades that were conducted during the design process.

  19. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    of global urbanization, planning for urban operations is critical to the execution and success of any military campaign. The U.S. Army describes...for the enemy to prepare for the likely attack direction and to plan coordinated attacks against the incoming ground force. Enemy sensors can also...The Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) is developing an integrated counter IED suite known as the Counter IED & Mine Suite ( CIMS ). According to Eshel

  1. Breeding ecology of ground tits in northeastern Tibetan plateau, with special reference to cooperative breeding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Ran HUO; Yang LI; Wenbo LIAO; Chen WANG

    2011-01-01

    Data on breeding ecology of a color-band marked population of the ground tit Parus humilis were collected in north Qinghai on the Tibetan plateau,during 2008 and 2009.In spring the birds excavated 0.8-3.2 m long nesting burrows under the ground.First-egg laying occurred between late April and late June during which a pair produced one brood.Incubation was done by female alone for 15-16 days and nestling-feeding by both sexes and helpers in any for 23-25 days.Average brood size at fledging was 5.8 (± 1.4 SD,3-8) and all the 27 observed nesting attempts fledged at least one young.At the population level,brood sex ratio did not differ from 1∶1.The birds are a territory-living resident,with annual resight rates being 48% (22 of 46) in adult breeders and 10% (7 of 67) in yearlings.Pairs were socially monogamous,of which 23% (9 of 40) contained one and sometimes two male helpers,most likely being philopatric sons of the breeders.The formation of cooperative groups is similar to the population in central Tibet but differs from that in south Guansu where breeding ground tits exhibit a high level of annual turnover [Current Zoology 57 (6):751-757,2011].

  2. Breeding ecology of ground tits in northeastern Tibetan plateau, with special reference to cooperative breeding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LU, Ran HUO, Yang LI, Wenbo LIAO, Chen WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on breeding ecology of a color-band marked population of the ground tit Parus humilis were collected in north Qinghai on the Tibetan plateau, during 2008 and 2009. In spring the birds excavated 0.8-3.2 m long nesting burrows under the ground. First-egg laying occurred between late April and late June during which a pair produced one brood. Incubation was done by female alone for 15-16 days and nestling-feeding by both sexes and helpers in any for 23-25 days. Average brood size at fledging was 5.8 (± 1.4 SD, 3-8 and all the 27 observed nesting attempts fledged at least one young. At the population level, brood sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. The birds are a territory-living resident, with annual resight rates being 48% (22 of 46 in adult breeders and 10% (7 of 67 in yearlings. Pairs were socially monogamous, of which 23% (9 of 40 contained one and sometimes two male helpers, most likely being philopatric sons of the breeders. The formation of cooperative groups is similar to the population in central Tibet but differs from that in south Guansu where breeding ground tits exhibit a high level of annual turnover [Current Zoology 57 (6: 751–757, 2011].

  3. Accuracy of PARTwear Inertial Sensor and Optojump Optical Measurement System for Measuring Ground Contact Time During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Rahel; Taube, Wolfgang; Wyss, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Ammann, R, Taube, W, and Wyss, T. Accuracy of PARTwear inertial sensor and Optojump optical measurement system for measuring ground contact time during running. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2057-2063, 2016-The aim of this study was to validate the detection of ground contact time (GCT) during running in 2 differently working systems: a small inertial measurement sensor, PARTwear (PW), worn on the shoe laces, and the optical measurement system, Optojump (OJ), placed on the track. Twelve well-trained subjects performed 12 runs each on an indoor track at speeds ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 m·s. GCT of one step per run (total 144) was simultaneously obtained by the PW, the OJ, and a high-speed video camera (HSC), whereby the latter served as reference system. The sampling rate was 1,000 Hz for all methods. Compared with the HSC, the PW and the OJ systems underestimated GCT by -1.3 ± 6.1% and -16.5 ± 6.7% (p-values ≤ 0.05), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients between PW and HSC and between OJ and HSC were 0.984 and 0.853 (p-values measurement systems.

  4. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  5. The analysis of the effect of vertical component of earthquake ground motions on the behavior of equipment base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. K.; Jeon, Y. S.; Choi, I. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of vertical component of earthquake ground motions on the behavior of equipment base isolation system. For this purpose, the base isolation effects are considered when the 3 dimensional shaking tests are performed. The vertical seismic isolation effects are also considered. The Friction Pendulum System (FPS), natural rubber bearing (NRB) and high damping rubber bearing (HDRB) were selected for the isolation. The three kinds of seismic motions which frequency contents are much different are selected for the shaking table test.

  6. Fast switching NMR system for measurements of ground-state quadrupole moments of short-lived nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Minamisono, K; Crawford, H L; Mantica, P F; Matsuta, K; Minamisono, T; Pinter, J S; Stoker, J B

    2008-01-01

    A beta-ray detecting nuclear quadrupole resonance system has been developed at NSCL/MSU to measure ground-state electric quadrupole moments of short-lived nuclei produced as fast rare isotope beams. This system enables quick and sequential application of multiple transition frequencies over a wide range. Fast switching between variable capacitors in resonance circuits ensures sufficient power delivery to the coil in the beta-ray detecting nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The fast switching technique enhances detection efficiency of resonance signals and is especially useful when the polarization and/or production rate of the nucleus of interest are small and when the nuclear spin is large.

  7. Classical probability density distributions with uncertainty relations for ground states of simple non-relativistic quantum-mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radożycki, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    The probability density distributions for the ground states of certain model systems in quantum mechanics and for their classical counterparts are considered. It is shown, that classical distributions are remarkably improved by incorporating into them the Heisenberg uncertainty relation between position and momentum. Even the crude form of this incorporation makes the agreement between classical and quantum distributions unexpectedly good, except for the small area, where classical momenta are large. It is demonstrated that the slight improvement of this form, makes the classical distribution very similar to the quantum one in the whole space. The obtained results are much better than those from the WKB method. The paper is devoted to ground states, but the method applies to excited states too.

  8. Ground-Water Capture Zone Delineation of Hypothetical Systems: Methodology Comparison and Real-World Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, J. A.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2003-12-01

    A capture zone is the aquifer volume through which ground-water flows to a pumping well over a given time of travel. Determining a well's capture zone aids in water-supply management by creating an awareness of the water source. This helps ensure sustainable pumping operations and outlines areas where protection from contamination is critical. We are delineating the capture zones of hypothetical conceptual models that resemble the Fairbanks, Alaska floodplain both in aquifer parameters and boundary conditions. We begin with a very simple hydrogeologic system and gradually add complexity such as heterogeneity, anisotropy, multiple wells, and zones of permafrost. Commonly-used delineation methods are applied to each case. These include calculated fixed-radius, analytical and numerical models. The calculated fixed-radius method uses a mathematical equation with several simplifying assumptions. Analytical techniques employ a series of equations that likewise assume simple conditions, although to a lesser degree than the fixed-radius method. Our chosen numerical model is MODFLOW-2000, which offers a particle-tracking package (MODPATH) for delineating recharge areas. The delineations are overlayed for each conceptual model in order to compare the capture zones produced by the different methods. Contrasts between capture zones increase with the complexity of the hydrogeology. Simpler methods are restricted by their underlying assumptions. When methods can no longer account for complexities in the conceptual model, the resulting delineations remain similar to those of simpler models. Meanwhile, the zones generated by more sophisticated methods are able to change with changes to the conceptual model. Hence, the simpler methods now lack accuracy and credibility. We have found that these simpler techniques tend to overestimate the capture zone. Water-supply managers must consider such inaccuracies when evaluating the costs of each method. In addition to comparing delineation

  9. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  10. A simple approach to the angular momentum distribution in the ground states of many-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Yoshinaga, N

    2002-01-01

    We propose a simple approach to predict the angular momentum I ground state (I g.s.) probabilities of many-body systems that does not require the diagonalization of hamiltonians with random interactions. This method is found to be applicable to {\\bf all} cases that have been discussed: even and odd fermion systems (both in single-j and many-j shells), and boson (both sd and sdg) systems. A simple relation for the highest angular momentum g.s. probability is found. Furthermore, it is suggested for the first time that the 0g.s. dominance in boson systems and in even-fermion systems is given by two-body interactions with specific features.

  11. Moving Away from Ones and Zeros, Designing a Ground Data System Based on Higher Levels of Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankenson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Previous JPL ground systems have been designed with the Ground Data System (GDS) engineer in mind. The focus on these systems has been on packaging and delivery of low level information (frames, packets, telemetry values) to the end user. It was not that long ago when project teams would be huddled over a workstation, examining crude displays of telemetry bits organized in various ways, trying to determine the status of a spacecraft. Understanding the data often required additional levels of GDS expertise, or worse, transformation of the raw data into alternative formats followed by ingestion into other tools so that the data became meaningful. The primary focus was often to answer these types of questions: "Why did this particular frame fail Reed-Solomon decode? Why did this packet get marked as invalid? Why am I missing a block of telemetry from my query?" -- which are completely valid questions to ask from a GDS Engineer's point of view, and large families of tools have been designed to help answer these questions. But these are not the questions that most users care about - which are more like: "Why is the battery state of charge trending down? Show me a summary image report for the last traverse to the target. Show me a data accountability summary for the last DSN pass." Answers to these questions, which are what users are looking for, requires a higher level of abstraction and supporting tools than mining through ones and zeros. JPL has created a next generation capability called the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS) which is designed to support this higher level of abstraction by providing customizable views of the ground system combining collections of lower level information into more meaningful ways. Instead of examining frames, packets, and individual telemetry data points -- MPCS is capable of providing comprehensive summary reports, product status, overall flight/ground event status, as well as payload health summaries. Based on these

  12. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results.

  13. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  14. 基于云计算的卫星地面应用系统设计%Design of satellite ground application system based on Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温志军

    2016-01-01

    Article writing around satellite ground system design of expansion,mainly describes the challenges faced by the satellite ground application system design,in the analysis of the challenge to design under the premise,elaborate scheme design of satellite ground application system of concrete.At last,the paper introduces the satellite ground application system implementation and deployment of the system.%文章的撰写围绕卫星地面系统设计展开,主要内容阐述了卫星地面应用系统设计面临的挑战,在分析设计挑战的前提下,阐述卫星地面应用系统方案设计的具体,最后详细介绍了卫星地面应用系统实现与部署系统。

  15. Many-body Systems Interacting via a Two-body Random Ensemble; 1, Angular Momentum distribution in the ground states

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Yoshinaga, N

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the angular momentum distribution in the ground states of many-body systems interacting via a two-body random ensemble. Beginning with a few simple examples, a simple approach to predict P(I)'s, angular momenta I ground state (g.s.) probabilities, of a few solvable cases, such as fermions in a small single-j shell and d boson systems, is given. This method is generalized to predict P(I)'s of more complicated cases, such as even or odd number of fermions in a large single-j shell or a many-j shell, d-boson, sd-boson or sdg-boson systems, etc. By this method we are able to tell which interactions are essential to produce a sizable P(I) in a many-body system. The g.s. probability of maximum angular momentum $I_{max}$ is discussed. An argument on the microscopic foundation of our approach, and certain matrix elements which are useful to understand the observed regularities, are also given or addressed in detail. The low seniority chain of 0 g.s. by using the same set of two-body interact...

  16. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  17. TT系统接地和防电击简析%Analysis of TT System Grounding and Electric Shock Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚余

    2013-01-01

    阐述IEC 60364-4-41:2005《Low-voltage electrical installations-Part 4-41: Protection for safety-Protection against electric shock》标准规定TT系统内由同一保护电器所保护的所有电气设备必须采用共用接地防电击的原由,举例说明户外农电装置、施工场地、路灯等TT系统应用中的接地和防电击实施方案。着重叙述路灯TT系统共用接地并采用过电流防护电器兼防电击在我国的特殊现实意义。%To elaborate the reason why all electrical equipments protected by the same protective device must adopt common grounding to prevent electric shock as set up in Low-voltage Electrical Installations-Part 4-41:Protection for Safety-Protection against Electric Shock ( IEC 60364 - 4 - 41: 2005) , and to illustrate the implementation plan of grounding and electric shock prevention for outdoor rural power devices, construction sites and street lamps etc. with examples, in particular the special practical significance of TT system of street lamps with common grounding, adopting overcurrent protective devices to prevent against electric shock in China.

  18. Cluster decay of $^{112−122}$Ba isotopes from ground state and as an excited compound system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santhosh K P; Subha P V; Priyanka B

    2016-04-01

    The decay properties of various even-even isotopes of barium in the range $112 \\le A \\le 122$ is studied by modifying the Coulomb and proximity potential model for both the ground and excited state decays, using recent mass tables. Most of the values predicted for ground state decays are within the experimental limit for measurements $(T_{1/2}$less than $10^{30}$s). The minimum $T_{1/2}$ value refers to doubly magic or nearly doubly magic Sn $(Z = 50)$ as the daughter nuclei. A comparison of log$_{10}(T_{1/2})$ value reveals that the exotic cluster decay process slows down due to the presence of excess neutrons in the parent nuclei. The half-lives are also computed using the Universal formulafor cluster decay (UNIV) of Poenaru et al and the Universal decay law (UDL) of Qi et al, and are compared with CPPM values and found to be in good agreement. A comparison of half-life for ground and excited systems reveals that probability of decay increases with a rise in temperature or otherwise, inclusion of excitation energy decreases the $T_{1/2}$ values.

  19. Enviro-Net: From Networks of Ground-Based Sensor Systems to a Web Platform for Sensor Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Nascimento

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems monitoring is essential to properly understand their development and the effects of events, both climatological and anthropological in nature. The amount of data used in these assessments is increasing at very high rates. This is due to increasing availability of sensing systems and the development of new techniques to analyze sensor data. The Enviro-Net Project encompasses several of such sensor system deployments across five countries in the Americas. These deployments use a few different ground-based sensor systems, installed at different heights monitoring the conditions in tropical dry forests over long periods of time. This paper presents our experience in deploying and maintaining these systems, retrieving and pre-processing the data, and describes the Web portal developed to help with data management, visualization and analysis.

  20. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obasi, E. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  1. Evaluations of cirrus contamination and screening in ground aerosol observations using collocated lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hansell, Richard A.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Liu, Gin-Rong; Campbell, James R.; Liew, Soo Chin; Barnes, John E.

    2012-08-01

    Cirrus clouds, particularly subvisual high thin cirrus with low optical thickness, are difficult to screen in operational aerosol retrieval algorithms. Collocated aerosol and cirrus observations from ground measurements, such as the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to systematically examine the susceptibility of operational aerosol products to cirrus contamination. Quality assured aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were also tested against the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) vertical feature mask (VFM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thin cirrus screening parameters for the purpose of evaluating cirrus contamination. Key results of this study include: (1) quantitative evaluations of data uncertainties in AERONET AOT retrievals are conducted; although AERONET cirrus screening schemes are successful in removing most cirrus contamination, strong residuals displaying strong spatial and seasonal variability still exist, particularly over thin cirrus prevalent regions during cirrus peak seasons; (2) challenges in matching up different data for analysis are highlighted and corresponding solutions proposed; and (3) estimates of the relative contributions from cirrus contamination to aerosol retrievals are discussed. The results are valuable for better understanding and further improving ground aerosol measurements that are critical for aerosol-related climate research.

  2. Aerothermal Ground Testing of Flexible Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Ferlemann, Paul G.; Siemers, Paul M., III; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Tobin, Steven A.; Kardell, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Flexible TPS development involves ground testing and analysis necessary to characterize performance of the FTPS candidates prior to flight testing. This paper provides an overview of the analysis and ground testing efforts performed over the last year at the NASA Langley Research Center and in the Boeing Large-Core Arc Tunnel (LCAT). In the LCAT test series, material layups were subjected to aerothermal loads commensurate with peak re-entry conditions enveloping a range of HIAD mission trajectories. The FTPS layups were tested over a heat flux range from 20 to 50 W/cm with associated surface pressures of 3 to 8 kPa. To support the testing effort a significant redesign of the existing shear (wedge) model holder from previous testing efforts was undertaken to develop a new test technique for supporting and evaluating the FTPS in the high-temperature, arc jet flow. Since the FTPS test samples typically experience a geometry change during testing, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the arc jet flow field and test model were developed to support the testing effort. The CFD results were used to help determine the test conditions experienced by the test samples as the surface geometry changes. This paper includes an overview of the Boeing LCAT facility, the general approach for testing FTPS, CFD analysis methodology and results, model holder design and test methodology, and selected thermal results of several FTPS layups.

  3. 浙北地区地源热泵土壤换热性能测试研究%Study on Measurement of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Ground Source in a Ground Source Heat Pump System in Northern Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓勤; 郑锦龙; 郑翀

    2011-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of ground source in Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Northem Zhejiang were experimentally measured. The experimental results showed that the initial ground source temperature in the coldest month was approximately 17.0℃, which was significantly higher than the temperature of the outside environment. The mean thermal conductivity of the ground source was 1.73W/(m· ℃). It indicated that the ground source had good heat transfer capacity and could be used for the ground source heat pump system. The experimental measurement of the heat transfer coefficient was also conducted on a single U type underground heat exchanger at the depth of 60 m. The experimental results showed that the heat dissipating capacity of the single pipe were 3666W in summer and 2508 W in winter, respectively. The heat dissipating capacity could meet the requirement of the ground source heat pump system.%对浙北地区某地源热泵工程土壤换热性能进行了实验测试,结果显示,浙北地区冬季最冷月地下土壤初始温度稳定在17.0℃左右,远高于室外环境温度;土壤的平均导热系数为1.73W/(m·℃),有较强的地下换热能力,适合做地源热泵系统;对60m深的单U形式地下换热器进行换热性能测试,夏季单根盘管散热量3666W,冬季单根盘管散热量2508W,能满足系统工作要求。

  4. Hydrogeologic analysis of the saturated-zone ground-water system, under Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, C. J.; Dudley, W. W.; Stuckless, J. S.

    1994-02-01

    The configuration of the southward-sloping water table under Yucca Mountain is dominated by an abrupt decline of 300 m over a distance of less than 2 km. This northeast-striking zone of large hydraulic gradient (of 0.15 or more) separates an area of moderate gradient (of about 0.015) to the north from an area of very small gradient (0.0001) to the south. The position of the large gradient does not correlate well with any evident geologic feature in the upper 0.5 km of the mountain, but we suggest that buried geologic features are present that can explain all the geohydrologic observations. The three areas of differing hydraulic gradient under Yucca Mountain are parts of hydrogeologic domains that extend more than 70 km to the northeast. On a regional basis, the moderate and very small gradients generally correspond to areas underlain by exceptionally thick Tertiary volcanic sections and a highly transmissive Paleozoic carbonate aquifer, respectively. The regional large gradient and water-table decline are spatially associated with a contact in the Paleozoic rocks between clastic rocks and carbonates. This contact marks a large abrupt drop in the effective base of the hydrologic system because it is the upgradient boundary of the deep carbonate aquifer, which has a thickness of 5 km. An aeromagnetic high follows the regional-scale domain of large gradient under northern Yucca Mountain from outcrops of a magnetite-bearing clastic confining unit to the east, indicating that the regional correlation of the steep water-table decline with the upgradient boundary of the deep carbonate aquifer may extend to Yucca Mountain. Five additional features may be related to an explanation for the large hydraulic gradient: (1) anomalously low heat flow has been measured deep in the volcanic section south of the water-table decline, suggesting underflow of cool water in the deep carbonate aquifer; (2) the lower tuff sequence, of 0.5-1 km in thickness, which underlies most of Yucca

  5. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  6. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  7. Science Data Management During Real-Time Geological Lunar Analogue Missions to the Sudbury and Mistastin Lake Impact Structures: Recommendations for Future Ground Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E.; Beauchamp, M.; Clayton, J.; Marion, C. L.; Moores, J.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Ilsr Team

    2012-03-01

    Simulating planetary missions on Earth can help test data management procedures and help identify needs and gaps in current ground data systems. We present lessons learned from three lunar analogue missions funded by the Canadian Space Agency.

  8. Estimated potentiometric surface by D'Agnese and others (1998), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — D'Agnese and others (1998) developed a potentiometric surface to conceptualize the regional ground-water flow system and to construct numerical flow models of the...

  9. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  10. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  11. Fusion techniques for hybrid ground-penetrating radar: electromagnetic induction landmine detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffin, Matt; Mohamed, Magdi A.; Etebari, Ali; Hibbard, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors have advanced landmine detection far beyond the capabilities of a single sensing modality. Both probability of detection (PD) and false alarm rate (FAR) are impacted by the algorithms utilized by each sensing mode and the manner in which the information is fused. Algorithm development and fusion will be discussed, with an aim at achieving a threshold probability of detection (PD) of 0.98 with a low false alarm rate (FAR) of less than 1 false alarm per 2 square meters. Stochastic evaluation of prescreeners and classifiers is presented with subdivisions determined based on mine type, metal content, and depth. Training and testing of an optimal prescreener on lanes that contain mostly low metal anti-personnel mines is presented. Several fusion operators for pre-screeners and classifiers, including confidence map multiplication, will be investigated and discussed for integration into the algorithm architecture.

  12. Atmospheric electric discharges and grounding systems; Descargas atmosfericas y sistemas de conexion a tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the work made by the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), in the area of atmospheric electric discharges and grounding connections at Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is presented. The work consisted of the revision of the procedures for the design of transmission lines and substations of CFE from which high indexes of interruptions are reported, from this, a program was defined that allowed to improve the existing designs in CFE. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el trabajo realizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), en el area de descargas atmosfericas y conexiones a tierra en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). El trabajo consistio en la revision de los procedimientos de diseno de las areas de transmision y subestaciones de la CFE para los que se reportan altos indices de salidas, a partir de esto se definio un programa que permitio mejorar los disenos existentes en la CFE.

  13. Nuclear orientation of 144Pm in the electronic singlet ground state system PrIn 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, G. A.; Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Hunik, R.; Huiskamp, W. J.

    1980-04-01

    The gamma-ray anisotropy of 144Pm in the Van Vleck paramagnet PrIn 3 is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A simple model, which accounts for the essential experimental features is proposed. The purpose of this model is to extract the exchange interaction between the Pm ion and its nearest Pr neighbours and the crystal field splitting of the Pm ions. Both, the Pr and Pm ions have non-magnetic ground states in which magnetism is induced by external magnetic fields. Therefore, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the Pm nuclei is enhanced. We find an enhancement factor, к = 220. This enhancement is mainly induced by exchange interactions and for fields larger than 0.5 T there are already strong non-linear effects.

  14. A deterministic projector configuration interaction approach for the ground state of quantum many-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Tianyuan

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel approach to solve the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation which combines projection onto the ground state with a path-filtering truncation scheme. The resulting projector configuration interaction (PCI) approach realizes a deterministic version of the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method [Booth, G. H.; Thom, A. J. W.; Alavi, A. J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 131, 054106]. To improve upon the linearized imaginary-time propagator, we develop an optimal projector scheme based on an exponential Chebyshev expansion in the limit of an infinite imaginary time step. After writing the exact projector as a path integral in determinant space, we introduce a path filtering procedure that truncates the size of the determinantal basis and approximates the Hamiltonian. The path filtering procedure is controlled by one real threshold that determines the accuracy of the PCI energy and is not biased towards any determinant. Therefore, the PCI approach can equally well describe static an...

  15. Efficiency of Vertical Geothermal Heat Exchangers in the Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heyi Zeng; Nairen Diao; Zhaohong Fang

    2003-01-01

    Taking the fluid temperature distribution along the borehole depth into account, a new quasi-three-dimensional model for vertical ground heat exchangers has been established, which provides a better understanding of the heat transfer processes in the geothermal heat exchangers. On this basis the efficiency of the borehole has been defined and its analytical expression derived. Comparison with the previous two-dimensional model shows that the quasi-three-dimensional model is more rational and more accurate to depict the practical feature of the conduction of geothermal heat exchanger, and the efficiency notion can be easily used to determine the inlet and outlet temperature of the circulating fluid inside the heat exchanger.

  16. A Deterministic Projector Configuration Interaction Approach for the Ground State of Quantum Many-Body Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyuan; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2016-09-13

    In this work we propose a novel approach to solve the Schrödinger equation which combines projection onto the ground state with a path-filtering truncation scheme. The resulting projector configuration interaction (PCI) approach realizes a deterministic version of the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method [Booth, G. H.; Thom, A. J. W.; Alavi, A. J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 131, 054106]. To improve upon the linearized imaginary-time propagator, we develop an optimal projector scheme based on an exponential Chebyshev expansion in the limit of an infinite imaginary time step. After writing the exact projector as a path integral in determinant space, we introduce a path filtering procedure that truncates the size of the determinantal basis and approximates the Hamiltonian. The path filtering procedure is controlled by one real threshold that determines the accuracy of the PCI energy and is not biased toward any determinant. Therefore, the PCI approach can equally well describe static and dynamic electron correlation effects. This point is illustrated in benchmark computations on N2 at both equilibrium and stretched geometries. In both cases, the PCI achieves chemical accuracy with wave functions that contain less than 0.5% determinants of full CI space. We also report computations on the ground state of C2 with up to quaduple-ζ basis sets and wave functions as large as 200 million determinants, which allow a direct comparison of the PCI, FCIQMC, and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods. The size of the PCI wave function grows modestly with the number of unoccupied orbitals, and its accuracy may be tuned to match that of FCIQMC and DMRG.

  17. Preliminary design of a space system operating a ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Marco; Ponte, Salvatore; Grassi, Michele; Moccia, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radars (GPR) are currently used only in ground campaigns or in few airborne installations. A feasibility analysis of a space mission operating a GPR for archaeological applications is presented in this work with emphasis on spacecraft critical aspects: antenna dimension and power required for achieving adequate depth and accuracy. Sensor parametric design is performed considering two operating altitudes (250 and 500 km) and user requirements, such as minimum skin depth, vertical and horizontal resolution. A 500-km altitude, 6 a.m.-6 p.m. sun-synchronous orbit is an adequate compromise between atmospheric drag and payload transmitted average power (12 kW) to achieve a 3-m penetration depth. The satellite bus preliminary design is then performed, with focus on critical subsystems and technologies. The payload average power requirement can be kept within feasible limits (1 kW) by using NiH2 batteries to supply the radar transmitter, and with a strong reduction of the mission duty cycle ( 40km×1100km are observed per orbit). As for the electric power subsystem, a dual-voltage strategy is adopted, with the battery charge regulator supplied at 126 V and the bus loads at 50 V. The overall average power (1.9 kW), accounting for both payload and bus needs, can be supplied by a 20m2 GaAs solar panel for a three-year lifetime. Finally, the satellite mass is kept within reasonable limits (1.6 tons) using inflatable-rigidisable structure for both the payload antenna and the solar panels.

  18. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  19. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Andújar Márquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain. Experimental results validate the proposed approach.

  20. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-02-29

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach.

  1. Autonomous urban reconnaissance ingress system (AURIS): providing a tactically relevant autonomous door-opening kit for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, David J.; Rufo, Michael A.; Berkemeier, Matthew D.; Alberts, Joel A.

    2012-06-01

    The Autonomous Urban Reconnaissance Ingress System (AURIS™) addresses a significant limitation of current military and first responder robotics technology: the inability of reconnaissance robots to open doors. Leveraging user testing as a baseline, the program has derived specifications necessary for military personnel to open doors with fielded UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), and evaluates the technology's impact on operational mission areas: duration, timing, and user patience in developing a tactically relevant, safe, and effective system. Funding is provided through the US ARMY Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the project represents a leap forward in perception, autonomy, robotic implements, and coordinated payload operation in UGVs. This paper describes high level details of specification generation, status of the last phase of development, an advanced view of the system autonomy capability, and a short look ahead towards the ongoing work on this compelling and important technology.

  2. 大型游乐设施配电系统接地型式的探讨%Discussion on Grounding Type of Large Rides Power Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤小丽; 何贵阳

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the pros and cons of different grounding types of large rides distribution systems , to determine a suitable way for grounding type of large rides distribution system .%分析不同接地型式的配电系统应用在大型游乐设施的利弊情况,确定适合大型游乐设施配电系统的接地型式。

  3. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  4. Active ground system for mean voltage grids; Sistema de aterramento ativo para redes de media tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira, Francisco Pazos [Iberdrola, Bilbao (Spain); Amezua, Aitor; Gutierrez, Itziar [Oldar Electronica, Bilbao (Spain); Garcia, Juanmari [Ingeteam T and D, Bizkaia (SPAIN); Valverde, Victor [EHU/UPV, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    The system described in this paper is based on multifrequency, which combines a new device of power electronic with a control and protection system. The technology facilitates the operation and maintenance of the distribution grid, overcoming some limitations of the traditional systems, and becomes possible improvements in the service quality and continuity of supply (author)

  5. Brief Analysis on the Theory of Fault Line Selection of Single Phase Grounding in Small Current Neutral Grounding System%浅析小电流接地系统单相接地故障选线原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢威

    2015-01-01

    文章纵观小电流接地选线的发展历史,简要概括了小电流接地系统发生单相接故障时系统基本特征,分析了几种选线原理的特点,提出了尚需解决的问题,最后给出了分析结论。%In the view of the history of small current grounding fault line selection, the basic features of small current grounding system when single phase grounding failure occurs were briefly summarized, and several characteristics of fault line selection were analyzed, the problems need to be solved were proposed, and the analysis of ifndings was given.

  6. Ground and aircraft lidar measurements of sea salt and dust plumes with a small wide-field-of-view system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John N.

    2004-12-01

    A small portable lidar system was recently used to derive aerosol optical concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. The mini lidar uses a telescope setup with a relatively wide field of view allowing for measurements from close in (~60 m range) with no near field correction. In order to account for the large dynamic range, a custom logarithmic amplifier is used. Lidar measurements have been made in Hawaii and examples will be shown. More recently the Lidar was mounted on an aircraft for an experiment in the United Arab Emirates. In this case, the Lidar system was used to looking up, forward and down. The Lidar measurements looking up and down provided vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations. The lidar looking forward were used to derive quantitative aerosol extinction values using an existing and a new approach. Preliminary examples of this UAE data are shown. Being able to model aerosol phase functions is important for both satellite and Lidar aerosol retrievals. Mie theory is adequate for spherical particles but complex aerosols such as dust and organics are more difficult to model. Here we discuss phase function measurements we have made with our ground based polar nephelometer for sea salt and more recently for dust in the United Arab Emirates.

  7. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  8. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  9. Ozone ground-based measurements by the GASCOD near-UV and visible DOAS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, G.; Bonasoni, P.; Cervino, M.; Evangelisti, F.; Ravegnani, F.

    1994-01-01

    GASCOD, a near-ultraviolet and visible differential optical spectrometer, was developed at CNR's FISBAT Institute in Bologna, Italy, and first tested at Terra Nova Bay station in Antarctica (74.6 deg S, 164.6 deg E) during the summer expeditions 1988-1990 of PNRA (PNRA is the national research program in Antarctica, 'Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Atartide'). A comparison with coincident O3 total column measurements taken in the same Antarctic area is presented, as is another comparison performed in Italy. Also introduced is an updated model for solar zenith measurements taken from a ground-based, upward-looking GASCOD spectrometer, which was employed for the 1991-92 winter campaign at Aer-Ostersund in Sweden (63.3 deg N, 13.1 deg E) during AESOE (European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment). The GASCOD can examine the spectra from 300 to 700 nm, in 50 nm steps, by moving the spectrometer's grating. At present, it takes measurements of solar zenith radiation in the 310-342 nm range for O3 and in the 405-463 nm range for NO2.

  10. Renaissance: A revolutionary approach for providing low-cost ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA is changing its attention from large missions to a greater number of smaller missions with reduced development schedules and budgets. In relation to this, the Renaissance Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate systems engineering process is presented. The aim of the Renaissance approach is to improve system performance, reduce cost and schedules and meet specific customer needs. The approach includes: the early involvement of the users to define the mission requirements and system architectures; the streamlining of management processes; the development of a flexible cost estimation capability, and the ability to insert technology. Renaissance-based systems demonstrate significant reuse of commercial off-the-shelf building blocks in an integrated system architecture.

  11. A mobile robot system for ground servicing operations on the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, K.; Bennett, R.; Blackwell, M.; Graham, T.; Gatrall, S.; O'Toole, R.; Schempf, H.

    1992-01-01

    A mobile system for space shuttle servicing, the Tessellator, has been configured, designed and is currently being built and integrated. Robot tasks include chemical injection and inspection of the shuttle's thermal protection system. This paper outlines tasks, rationale, and facility requirements for the development of this system. A detailed look at the mobile system and manipulator follow with a look at mechanics, electronics, and software. Salient features of the mobile robot include omnidirectionality, high reach, high stiffness and accuracy with safety and self-reliance integral to all aspects of the design. The robot system is shown to meet task, facility, and NASA requirements in its design resulting in unprecedented specifications for a mobile-manipulation system.

  12. Renaissance: A revolutionary approach for providing low-cost ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA is changing its attention from large missions to a greater number of smaller missions with reduced development schedules and budgets. In relation to this, the Renaissance Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate systems engineering process is presented. The aim of the Renaissance approach is to improve system performance, reduce cost and schedules and meet specific customer needs. The approach includes: the early involvement of the users to define the mission requirements and system architectures; the streamlining of management processes; the development of a flexible cost estimation capability, and the ability to insert technology. Renaissance-based systems demonstrate significant reuse of commercial off-the-shelf building blocks in an integrated system architecture.

  13. An Approach for Predicting the Shape and Size of a Buried Basic Object on Surface Ground Penetrating Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR is one of the radar technology that is widely used in many applications. It is nondestructive remote sensing method to detect underground buried objects. However, the output target is only hyperbolic representation. This research develops a system to identify a buried object on surface GPR based on decision tree method. GPR data of many basic objects (with circular, triangular, and rectangular cross-section are classified and extracted to generate data training model as a unique template for each type of basic object. The pattern of object under test will be known by comparing its data with the training data using a decision tree method. A simple powerful algorithm to extract feature parameters of object which is based on linear extrapolation is proposed. The result showed that tested buried basic objects can be correctly predicted and the developed system works properly.

  14. Data Processing for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mikheeva, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Floyd, S. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Bailey, H.; Bhangoo, J.; Starr, R.; Clark, P. E.; Evans, L. G.

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrometer (XGRS) is onboard the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft to determine the elemental composition of the surface of the asteroid 433Eros. The Eros asteroid is highly non-spherical in physical shape and the development of data management and analysis methodologies are in several areas a divergence from traditional remotely sensed geographical information systems techniques. Field of view and asteroid surface geometry must be derived virtually and then combined with real measurements of solar, spectral and instrument calibration information to derive meaningful scientific results. Spatial resolution of planned geochemical maps will be improved from the initial conditions of low statistical significance per integration by repeated surface flyovers and regional spectral accumulation. This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort of design and development of the NEAR XGRS instrument ground system undertaken by participants at the Goddard Space Flight Center, University of Arizona, Cornell University, Applied Physics Laboratory, and Max Plank institute.

  15. Data Processing for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), X-ray and Gamma-ray Spectrometer (XGRS) Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mikheeva, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Floyd, S. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Bailey, H.; Bhangoo, J.; Starr, R.; Clark, P. E.; Evans, L. G.

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrometer (XGRS) is onboard the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft to determine the elemental composition of the surface of the asteroid 433Eros. The Eros asteroid is highly non-spherical in physical shape and the development of data management and analysis methodologies are in several areas a divergence from traditional remotely sensed geographical information systems techniques. Field of view and asteroid surface geometry must be derived virtually and then combined with real measurements of solar, spectral and instrument calibration information to derive meaningful scientific results. Spatial resolution of planned geochemical maps will be improved from the initial conditions of low statistical significance per integration by repeated surface flyovers and regional spectral accumulation. This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort of design and development of the NEAR XGRS instrument ground system undertaken by participants at the Goddard Space Flight Center, University of Arizona, Cornell University, Applied Physics Laboratory, and Max Plank institute.

  16. Kekulé-based Valence Bond Model.I. The Ground-state Properties of Conjugated π-Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Shu-Hua(黎书华); MA,Jing(马晶); JIANG,Yuan-Sheng(江元生)

    2002-01-01

    The Kekulé-based valence bond ( VB ) method, in which the VB model is solved using covalent Kekulé structures as basis functions, is justified in the present work. This method is dimonstrated to provide satisfactory descriptions for resoance energies and bond ang lengths of benzenoid hydrocarbons, being in good agreement with SCF-MO and experimental results. In additicn, an alternative way of discyssing characters of localizedsubstructures within a polyclic benzenoid system is suggested based upon such sunokufied VB calculations. Finally,the symmetries of VB ground states for nonalternant conjugated systems are also illustrated to be obtainable through these calculations, presenting very useful information for understanding the chemical behaviors of some nonalternant conjugated molecules.

  17. Magnetic ground state of Ti{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}Fe{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saoudi, M.; Deportes, J.; Ouladdiaf, B. E-mail: ouladdiaf@ill.fr

    2001-06-01

    The magnetic ground states of the Laves phases Ti{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}Fe{sub 2} system have been investigated by means of powder neutron diffraction and magnetisation techniques. For x=0.23, a transition is observed from a collinear ferromagnet along the c-axis to a canted one at T{sub f}=200 K. For x=0.27, 0.3, 0.33, an additional first-order transition is observed at T{sub t1}{approx}120 K accompanied by a large magnetovolume anomaly associated to a jump of the magnetic moment of the Fe atoms at the 2a site. The magnetic moment instability in a frustrated lattice should be considered to interpret this transition, although most of the other magnetic states can be discussed within Moriya's theory for itinerant electron systems with competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations.

  18. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnese, Frank A.; O'Brien, G. M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this 'second-generation' regional model was to enhance the knowledge an understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-state representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is situated within the southern Great Basin, a subprovince of the Basin and Range physiographic province, bounded by latitudes 35 degrees north and 38 degrees 15 minutes north and by longitudes 115 and 118 degrees west. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the arid climatic conditions and the complex geology. Ground-water flow generally can be described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as

  19. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available from the FAA, 800... alerting system that meets the performance and environmental standards contained in TSO-C92a or TSO-C92b or... incorporates equipment that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92b or is approved...

  20. Alternative Fuels for use in DoD/Army Tactical Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    Construction Equipment • Bridging • Assured Mobility Systems Robotics • TALON • PackBot • MARCbot • Gladiator • Demonstrators • Technology...Advance Controls; Advance LTC; Fuel Systems; Adv. Turbo •Modern Engine Repower MILITARY* • Variety engines (MY 19XX) • Jet fuel (JP-8