Sample records for ground surface rupture

  1. 3D simulation of near-fault strong ground motion:comparison between surface rupture fault and buried fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qifang; Yuan Yifan; Jin Xing


    In this paper,near-fault strong ground motions caused by a surface rupture fault(SRF)and a buried fault(BF) are numerically simulated and compared by using a time-space-decoupled,explicit finite element method combined with a multi-transmitting formula(MTF) of an artificial boundary.Prior to the comparison,verification of the explicit element method and the MTF is conducted.The comparison results show that the final dislocation of the SRF is larger than the BF for the same stress drop on the fault plane.The maximum final dislocation occurs on the fault upper line for the SRF;however,for the BF,the maximum final dislocation is located on the fault central part.Meanwhile,the PGA,PGV and PGD of long period ground motions(≤1 Hz)generated by the SRF are much higher than those of the BF in the near-fault region.The peak value of the velocity pulse generated by the SRF is also higher than the BF.Furthermore,it is found that in a very narrow region along the fault trace,ground motions caused by the SRF are much higher than by the BF.These results may explain why SRFs almost always cause heavy damage in near-fault regions compared to buried faults.

  2. Investigation of topographical effects on rupture dynamics and ground motions (United States)

    Huang, H.; Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.


    Using the curved grid finite-difference method (CG-FDM), we model spontaneous dynamic rupture on vertical strike-slip faults with irregular free surfaces to investigate the effect of topography on near-source ground motion. Four groups of simulations, in which the epicentral distances from the topographical perturbations of the nucleation patch were varied, are modeled in this work. The simulated results show that the presence of irregular topography along the fault trace may increase the ground motion. Whether the irregular topography exhibits higher ground motion overall depends on the irregular topography's ability to prevent the sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear transition. When irregular topography prevents this transition, sub-Rayleigh rupture produces stronger ground motions than those of the sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear transition, although the moment magnitudes does not differ substantially between the two cases. To thoroughly understand the effects of irregular topography on near-source ground motion, we also model spontaneous dynamic rupture on a planar fault in full-space and half-space with varying initial shear stresses, and the corresponding modeling results indicate that the effect of initial shear stress on near-source ground motion is strong. These results may have implications for ground-motion prediction in future earthquakes involving geometrically complex faults.

  3. Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture Interaction with Building Foundations


    Oettle, Nicolas Karl


    Recent earthquakes have provided numerous examples of the devastating effects of earthquake surface fault rupture on structures. Several major cities are built in areas containing active faults that can break the ground surface (e.g., Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, and Seattle). Along with the often spectacular observations of damage, examples of satisfactory performance of structures were also observed. These examples of satisfactory performance indicate that similar ...

  4. Ground-motion signature of dynamic ruptures on rough faults (United States)

    Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Vyas, Jagdish C.


    Natural earthquakes occur on faults characterized by large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. This multi-scale geometrical complexity controls the dynamic rupture process, and hence strongly affects the radiated seismic waves and near-field shaking. For a fault system with given segmentation, the question arises what are the conditions for producing large-magnitude multi-segment ruptures, as opposed to smaller single-segment events. Similarly, for variable degrees of roughness, ruptures may be arrested prematurely or may break the entire fault. In addition, fault roughness induces rupture incoherence that determines the level of high-frequency radiation. Using HPC-enabled dynamic-rupture simulations, we generate physically self-consistent rough-fault earthquake scenarios (M~6.8) and their associated near-source seismic radiation. Because these computations are too expensive to be conducted routinely for simulation-based seismic hazard assessment, we thrive to develop an effective pseudo-dynamic source characterization that produces (almost) the same ground-motion characteristics. Therefore, we examine how variable degrees of fault roughness affect rupture properties and the seismic wavefield, and develop a planar-fault kinematic source representation that emulates the observed dynamic behaviour. We propose an effective workflow for improved pseudo-dynamic source modelling that incorporates rough-fault effects and its associated high-frequency radiation in broadband ground-motion computation for simulation-based seismic hazard assessment.

  5. Surface Rupture and Geotechnical Features of The July 2, 2013 Tanah Gayo Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudrik Rahmawan Daryono


    Full Text Available An assessment of surface rupture and collateral ground failures can help to evaluate the impact of future earthquakes. This paper presents the results of a field survey conducted to map the surface rupture and geotechnical phenomena associated with the ground shaking during the July 2, 2013 earthquakes in Tanah Gayo Highland. The objectives of this survey are to document and to characterize the surface ruptures as well as to identify types of earthquake-induced ground failures. Results of the survey identified four best sites of possible surface rupture. Two locations are obvious surface ruptures that can be traced on primary topographic feature of the active fault segment from the north to the south, crossing Pantan Terong Hill. The fault segment has a total mapped length of 19 km, with WNW trending zone and a dextral rupture offset. The ground shaking also resulted in landslides and liquefaction in areas underlain by very fine-grained tuffaceous sands. Based on the field survey, it can be concluded that the newly defined active fault segment, the Pantan Terong segment, is likely the segment that ruptured at the July 2, 2013 Tanah Gayo earthquake. Due to the soil types and unstable rocky slopes in the hilly Central Aceh region, large-scale landslides are primary risks during an earthquake event in this region.

  6. Wenchuan Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture and Disaster: A Lesson on Seismic Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du


    Full Text Available The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan Faults in China and was a great disaster. Most of the damage and casualties during the quake were concentrated along surface rupture zones: the 240-km-long Beichuan-Yingxiu Fault and the 70-km-long Jiangyou-Guanxian Fault. Although the Longmenshan Faults are well known and studied, the surface Fault ruptures were not considered in mitigation planning, and the associated ground-motion hazard was therefore underestimated. Not considering Fault rupture and underestimating ground-motion hazard contributed to the disastrous effects of the earthquake. The lesson from the Wenchuan earthquake disaster is that the fault rupture hazard must be assessed and considered in mitigation. Furthermore, the deterministic approach is more appropriate for fault rupture hazard assessment than the probabilistic approach.

  7. Low footwall accelerations and variable surface rupture behavior on the Fort Sage Mountains fault, northeast California (United States)

    Briggs, Richard W.; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Brune, James N.; Purvance, Matthew D.; Mahan, Shannon


    The Fort Sage Mountains fault zone is a normal fault in the Walker Lane of the western Basin and Range that produced a small surface rupture (L 5.6 earthquake in 1950. We investigate the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault and find evidence for two paleoearthquakes with surface displacements much larger than those observed in 1950. Rupture of the Fort Sage fault ∼5.6  ka resulted in surface displacements of at least 0.8–1.5 m, implying earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) of 6.7–7.1. An older rupture at ∼20.5  ka displaced the ground at least 1.5 m, implying an earthquake of Mw 6.8–7.1. A field of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) is located less than 1 km from the surface‐rupture trace of this Holocene‐active normal fault. Ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) predict peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 0.2–0.3g for the 1950 rupture and 0.3–0.5g for the ∼5.6  ka paleoearthquake one kilometer from the fault‐surface trace, yet field tests indicate that the Fort Sage PBRs will be toppled by PGAs between 0.1–0.3g. We discuss the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault in the context of the nearby PBRs, GMPEs, and probabilistic seismic hazard maps for extensional regimes. If the Fort Sage PBRs are older than the mid‐Holocene rupture on the Fort Sage fault zone, this implies that current GMPEs may overestimate near‐fault footwall ground motions at this site.

  8. Lithological and rheological constraints on fault rupture scenarios for ground motion hazard prediction. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, W.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.


    This paper tests a new approach to predict a range of ground motion hazard at specific sites generated by earthquakes on specific faults. The approach utilizes geodynamics to link structural, lithological and Theological descriptions of the fault zones to development of fault rupture scenarios and computation of synthetic seismograms. Faults are placed within a regional geomechanical model that is used to calculate stress conditions along the fault. The approach is based upon three hypothesis: (1) An exact solution of the representation relation that u@s empirical. Green`s functions enables very accurate computation of ground motions generated by a given rupture scenario; (2) a general description of the rupture is sufficient; and (3) the structural, lithological and Theological characteristics of a fault can be used to constrain, in advance, possible future rupture histories. Ground motion hazard here refers to three-component, full wave train descriptions of displacement, velocity, and acceleration over the frequency band 0.01 to 25 Hz. Corollaries to these hypotheses are that the range of possible fault rupture histories is narrow enough to functionally constrain the range of strong ground motion predictions, and that a discreet set of rupture histories is sufficient to span the infinite combinations possible from a given range of rupture parameters.

  9. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake. (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath


    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest.

  10. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures (United States)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.


    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  11. Detailed Surface Rupture Geometry from the 2016 Amatrice Earthquake (United States)

    Mildon, Z. K.; Iezzi, F.; Wedmore, L. N. J.; Gregory, L. C.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Wilkinson, M. W.; Faure Walker, J.; Roberts, G.; Livio, F.; Vittori, E.; Michetti, A.; Frigerio, C.; Ferrario, F.; Blumetti, A. M.; Guerrieri, L.; Di Manna, P.; Comerci, V.


    The Amatrice earthquake was generated by co-rupture of the Mt. Vettore and Laga faults at depth. Surface ruptures were observed for 5km along the Mt. Vettore fault, with no clear observations on the Laga fault reported to date. The surface rupture on Mt. Vettore manifests as a 15-20cm pale stripe at the base of a 60-80o dipping bedrock fault scarp and similar magnitude vertical offsets of colluvial deposits. We have measured the strike and dip of the fault alongside the coseismic throw, heave, and slip azimuth along the length of the rupture with high spatial resolution (c.2-6m, >2000 measurements). The slip azimuth is relatively constant between 210-270° even where the rupture faces uphill at its SE termination which is consistent with the regional NW-SE extension direction, defined by focal mechanisms and borehole break-out data. The simplest coseismic throw profile that would be expected is quasi-symmetric. However we found the highest values of throw (Inter Quartile Range 15-19.5cm) are skewed towards the NW end on a 1.7 km section of the fault that is oblique relative to the overall fault strike. In the centre of the rupture, orientated close to the overall fault strike, the throw is lower (IQR 7.5-13cm) and discontinuous along strike. We suggest that the skewed throw profile occurs because the strike, dip and throw must vary systematically in order to preserve the principal strain rate across a fault, in agreement with previous publications. The density of our measurements, crucially including the slip azimuth, allows us to resolve the regional debate over whether normal fault ruptures are primary tectonic features or landslides of hangingwall sediments. If the surface offsets are due to landslides, then the slip azimuth should correlate with the downslope direction of the hangingwall. We show using an available 10m DEM that this is not the case and hence the surface offsets described herein are a primary tectonic feature. This presentation offers new

  12. Analysis of Remote Sensing Images of Ground Ruptures Resulting from the Kunlun Mountain Pass Earthquake in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Xinjian; LI Jianhua; MA Chao; LIU Jiahang


    On November 14, 2001, an earthquake measuring a magnitude of 8.1 occurred to the west of the Kunlun Mountain Pass which is near the border between Xinjiang and Qinghai of China. Since its epicenter is located in an area at an elevation of 4900 m where the environment is extremely adverse, field investigation to this event seems very difficult.We have performed interpretation and analysis of the satellite images of ETM, SPOT, Ikonos, and ERS-1/2SAR to reveal the spatial distribution and deformation features of surface ruptures caused by this large earthquake. Our results show that the rupture zone on the ground is 426 km long, and strikes N90-110°E with evident left-lateral thrusting. In spatial extension, it has two distinct sections. One extends from the Bukadaban peak to the Kunlun Mountain Pass, with a total length of 350 km, and trending N95-110°E. Its fracture plane is almost vertical, with clear linear rupture traces and a single structure, and the maximum left-lateral offset is 7.8 m. This section is the main rupture zone caused by the earthquake,which is a re-fracturing along an old fault. The other is the section from Kushuihuan to the Taiyang Lake. It is 26 km long,trending N90-105°E, with the maximum strike-slip displacement being 3 m, and is a newly-generated seismic rupture. In a 50 km-long section between the Taiyang Lake and the Bukadaban peak, no rupture is found on the ground. The eastern and western rupture zones may have resulted from two earthquakes. The macroscopic epicenter is situated at 65 km east of the Hoh Sai Lake. The largest coseismic horizontal offset in the macroscopic epicenter ranges from 7 m to 8 m. Based on the dislocation partition of the whole rupture zone, it is suggested that this rupture zone has experienced a process of many times of intensification and fluctuation, exhibiting a remarkable feature of segmentation.

  13. Bounding Ground Motions for Hayward Fault Scenario Earthquakes Using Suites of Stochastic Rupture Models (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Xie, X.; Petersson, A.


    The next major earthquake in the San Francisco Bay area is likely to occur on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault system. Attention on the southern Hayward section is appropriate given the upcoming 140th anniversary of the 1868 M 7 rupture coinciding with the estimated recurrence interval. This presentation will describe ground motion simulations for large (M > 6.5) earthquakes on the Hayward Fault using a recently developed elastic finite difference code and high-performance computers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our code easily reads the recent USGS 3D seismic velocity model of the Bay Area developed in 2005 and used for simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Previous work has shown that the USGS model performs very well when used to model intermediate period (4-33 seconds) ground motions from moderate (M ~ 4-5) earthquakes (Rodgers et al., 2008). Ground motions for large earthquakes are strongly controlled by the hypocenter location, spatial distribution of slip, rise time and directivity effects. These are factors that are impossible to predict in advance of a large earthquake and lead to large epistemic uncertainties in ground motion estimates for scenario earthquakes. To bound this uncertainty, we are performing suites of simulations of scenario events on the Hayward Fault using stochastic rupture models following the method of Liu et al. (Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 96, 2118-2130, 2006). These rupture models have spatially variable slip, rupture velocity, rise time and rake constrained by characterization of inferred finite fault ruptures and expert opinion. Computed ground motions show variability due to the variability in rupture models and can be used to estimate the average and spread of ground motion measures at any particular site. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No.W-7405-Eng-48. This is

  14. Rapid Mapping of Surface Rupture from the South Napa Earthquake (United States)

    Trexler, C. C.; Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.


    Rapid documentation (3D data collection technique known as Structure from Motion (SfM), used in conjunction with traditional field reconnaissance, enabled us to rapidly locate and document surface ruptures from the Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. On the morning of the event, our field team used information available on social media to identify locations with potential surface rupture. Preliminary observations of surface rupture (measurements and geo-tagged photographs) were texted to the office-based team member who created digital maps of the rupture trace and shared them online via Twitter in near-real time. We documented many ephemeral features (such as offset roads, curbs, and driveways) along the rupture trace within 12 hours of the event, before these features were destroyed by road and infrastructure repair. We were able to return to most sites again within several days, allowing us to document continuing slip and create time-series datasets of offset features. After the collection and re-collection of data at selected sites, we made detailed measurements remotely using 3D models constructed with SfM. The ability to quantitatively project features into the fault plane using these models allows for accurate measurements of small features often difficult to observe and quantify in the field. Traditionally, even preliminary maps of rupture extent and offset magnitudes are not available for several days after an event because office-based processing and compilation is required. Because we were able to compile our data in real time, we distributed our results while they were still valuable for ongoing scientific response. Our work helped other science teams efficiently target fieldwork and instrument deployment; for example, one geodetic survey team used our surface rupture map to adjust their field deployment plans in an effort to capture rapidly-decaying postseismic movement. With social media and rapid, inexpensive data collection methods like SfM in mind

  15. High Frequency Ground Motion from Finite Fault Rupture Simulations (United States)

    Crempien, Jorge G. F.

    There are many tectonically active regions on earth with little or no recorded ground motions. The Eastern United States is a typical example of regions with active faults, but with low to medium seismicity that has prevented sufficient ground motion recordings. Because of this, it is necessary to use synthetic ground motion methods in order to estimate the earthquake hazard a region might have. Ground motion prediction equations for spectral acceleration typically have geometric attenuation proportional to the inverse of distance away from the fault. Earthquakes simulated with one-dimensional layered earth models have larger geometric attenuation than the observed ground motion recordings. We show that as incident angles of rays increase at welded boundaries between homogeneous flat layers, the transmitted rays decrease in amplitude dramatically. As the receiver distance increases away from the source, the angle of incidence of up-going rays increases, producing negligible transmitted ray amplitude, thus increasing the geometrical attenuation. To work around this problem we propose a model in which we separate wave propagation for low and high frequencies at a crossover frequency, typically 1Hz. The high-frequency portion of strong ground motion is computed with a homogeneous half-space and amplified with the available and more complex one- or three-dimensional crustal models using the quarter wavelength method. We also make use of seismic coda energy density observations as scattering impulse response functions. We incorporate scattering impulse response functions into our Green's functions by convolving the high-frequency homogeneous half-space Green's functions with normalized synthetic scatterograms to reproduce scattering physical effects in recorded seismograms. This method was validated against ground motion for earthquakes recorded in California and Japan, yielding results that capture the duration and spectral response of strong ground motion.

  16. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Minasian, Diane L.


    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M~1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, though we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties, and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, though the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  17. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Minasian, Diane L.


    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3-D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M ~ 1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, although we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, although the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude-dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  18. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.


    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  19. Source Rupture Process and Near-Fault Ground Motions of the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake Sequence Estimated from Strong Motion Data (United States)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.


    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence started with an MJMA 6.5 foreshock on April 14, 2016 occurring along the northern part of the Hinagu fault, central Kyushu, Japan, and the MJMA 7.3 mainshock occurred just 28 h after the foreshock. Both events brought severe ground motions to the near-source region. We analyzed the kinematic source rupture processes of the foreshock and mainshock by the multiple time window linear waveform inversion using strong motion data (e.g., Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). The foreshock (Mw 6.1) was characterized by right-lateral strike-slip occurring on a nearly vertical fault plane along the northern part of the Hinagu fault, and it had two large-slip areas: one near the hypocenter and another at a shallow depth. These two large-slip areas mainly contribute ground motions in the near-source area. For the analysis of the mainshock, we assumed a fault geometry changing strike and dip angles along the Hinagu and Futagawa faults in accordance with the surface ruptures mapped by emergency field surveys (Kumahara et al., 2016). We assigned point sources densely with an interval of 0.2 km on the assumed fault planes in order to reproduce appropriately near-fault ground motions, and estimated spatiotemporal slip history, which was discretized with an interval of 1.8 km on the fault planes. The estimated source model reveals that the rupture of the mainshock started at a northwest-dipping fault plane along the Hinagu fault, which is close to the vertical fault plane of the foreshock, and almost continuously propagated across the junction of the Hinagu and Futagawa faults. Then the rupture propagated northeastward along the Futagawa fault, and stopped to rupture in the western part of the Aso caldera. The significant slip with 3-5 m were observed on the Futagawa fault, and shallowest part has slip ranging from 1 to 2 m. We also tried to reproduce ground motions observed at some near-fault strong motion stations, which recorded significant coseismic

  20. Rupture

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    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  1. Rupture dynamics and ground motions from earthquakes in 2-D heterogeneous media (United States)

    Bydlon, Samuel A.; Dunham, Eric M.


    We perform 2-D simulations of earthquakes on rough faults in media with random heterogeneities (with von Karman distribution) to study the effects of geometric and material heterogeneity on the rupture process and resulting high-frequency ground motions in the near-fault region (out to ˜20 km). Variations in slip and rupture velocity can arise from material heterogeneity alone but are dominantly controlled by fault roughness. Scattering effects become appreciable beyond ˜3 km from the fault. Near-fault scattering extends the duration of incoherent, high-frequency ground motions and, at least in our 2-D simulations, elevates root-mean-square accelerations (i.e., Arias intensity) with negligible reduction in peak velocities. We also demonstrate that near-fault scattering typically occurs in the power law tail of the power spectral density function, quantified by the Hurst exponent and another parameter combining standard deviation and correlation length.

  2. Rupture dynamics and ground motions from earthquakes in 2-D heterogeneous media

    KAUST Repository

    Bydlon, Samuel A.


    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We perform 2-D simulations of earthquakes on rough faults in media with random heterogeneities (with von Karman distribution) to study the effects of geometric and material heterogeneity on the rupture process and resulting high-frequency ground motions in the near-fault region (out to ∼20km). Variations in slip and rupture velocity can arise from material heterogeneity alone but are dominantly controlled by fault roughness. Scattering effects become appreciable beyond ∼3km from the fault. Near-fault scattering extends the duration of incoherent, high-frequency ground motions and, at least in our 2-D simulations, elevates root-mean-square accelerations (i.e., Arias intensity) with negligible reduction in peak velocities. We also demonstrate that near-fault scattering typically occurs in the power law tail of the power spectral density function, quantified by the Hurst exponent and another parameter combining standard deviation and correlation length. Key Points Fault roughness, not material heterogeneity, dominates rupture process Introduce parameter that can be used to quantify near-fault scattering Scattering affects the duration and amplitude of high-frequency ground motions

  3. Modelling ground rupture due to groundwater withdrawal: applications to test cases in China and Mexico (United States)

    Franceschini, A.; Teatini, P.; Janna, C.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Ye, S.; Carreón-Freyre, D.


    The stress variation induced by aquifer overdraft in sedimentary basins with shallow bedrock may cause rupture in the form of pre-existing fault activation or earth fissure generation. The process is causing major detrimental effects on a many areas in China and Mexico. Ruptures yield discontinuity in both displacement and stress field that classic continuous finite element (FE) models cannot address. Interface finite elements (IE), typically used in contact mechanics, may be of great help and are implemented herein to simulate the fault geomechanical behaviour. Two main approaches, i.e. Penalty and Lagrangian, are developed to enforce the contact condition on the element interface. The incorporation of IE incorporation into a three-dimensional (3-D) FE geomechanical simulator shows that the Lagrangian approach is numerically more robust and stable than the Penalty, thus providing more reliable solutions. Furthermore, the use of a Newton-Raphson scheme to deal with the non-linear elasto-plastic fault behaviour allows for quadratic convergence. The FE - IE model is applied to investigate the likely ground rupture in realistic 3-D geologic settings. The case studies are representative of the City of Wuxi in the Jiangsu Province (China), and of the City of Queretaro, Mexico, where significant land subsidence has been accompanied by the generation of several earth fissures jeopardizing the stability and integrity of the overland structures and infrastructure.

  4. The Hunt for Surface Rupture From the 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik Earthquake, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Guralnik, B.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.


    The 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik earthquake in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan is one of the largest historic intraplate reverse-faulting events. Documentation of slip distribution and fault geometry for major historic earthquakes, such as the Chilik event, provide important data on their source physics, seismotectonics, and hazard. These data also provide insight into potential mechanical interaction with other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon Kemin) events. Despite the importance of the Chilik event, very little is known about the earthquake's epicenter and the presence of associated ground rupture. Isoseismal's from historic shaking intensity data gathered immediately following the event were used to estimate the event magnitude and suggest an epicentral location in the northern foothills of the Kungey Ala-too range, 80-100 kilometers east-southeast of Almaty. Researchers who have visited this area report no evidence of ground rupture, suggesting that the event either did not rupture the ground surface or that the isoseismal data do not provide a sufficiently focused estimate of epicentral location. We have reanalyzed the shaking intensity data to update the estimate of the epicentral location. During June 2007 field work and in review of aerial photography, we observed extensive east-west trending and morphologically youthful km-long and 1-5 m high fault scarps on the eastern crest of the Kungey Ala-Too Range along the Kygyz-Kazak border north of Tyup. Contemporary reports of the 1911 Kebin earthquake did not document these structures, despite the thorough investigation of rupture to the west and northwest. The scarp lengths and their offsets indicate that they did not form in the M6.6 1978 Djalanash Tyup earthquake. Although located to the south of the isoseismal epicenter for the Chilik earthquake, the scarps observed near the range crest must be considered as possible candidates for

  5. Hazard-consistent ground motions generated with a stochastic fault-rupture model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Akemi, E-mail: [Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Igarashi, Sayaka, E-mail: [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Sakamoto, Shigehiro, E-mail: [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Uchiyama, Yasuo, E-mail: [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yu, E-mail: [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Muramatsu, Ken, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University, 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Takada, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: [Department of Architecture, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    obtain these acceleration deviations. A similar tendency can be found for some other seismic-source characteristics, meaning that ground motions obtained in this study cannot be generated by simulations of deterministic fault-rupture models with averaged seismic-source characteristics. Generated ground motions incorporate differences between each seismic-source characteristic, and they are effectively available for PRAs of structures.

  6. LiDAR-derived measurements of slip in the most recent ground-rupturing earthquakes along elements of the San Andreas fault system (United States)

    Haddad, D. E.; Madden, C.; Salisbury, J. B.; Arrowsmith, R.; Weldon, R. J.


    Tectonically displaced geomorphic markers record the surface manifestation of earthquake-induced ground ruptures. Of particular interest to earthquake forecast models is the slip produced during the most recent ground-rupturing earthquake. High-resolution digital topography from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is a powerful tool for measuring the most recent meter-scale slip along fault zones. We present surface slip measurements of recent ground-rupturing earthquakes along the Garlock, Owens Valley, Elsinore, and Blackwater-Calico fault zones. Fault scarp traces were mapped using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs), local topographic gradient and relief maps, and aerial photography. An individual slip measurement was made for each offset feature by iteratively reconstructing the topography on either side of the fault and finding the best-matching vertically backslipped value. A goodness-of-fit approach was then used to calculate the best laterally backslipped displacement using a combination of vertical backslip, horizontal backslip, and topographic scaling. Along-strike, reach-averaged surface displacement distributions of the most recent earthquakes were then generated from the LiDAR-derived offsets and compared to published field-derived offset measurements. For the eastern section of the Garlock fault, our LiDAR-derived offsets compared well with those measured in the field and attained an R2 value of 0.88 with reach-averaged slip in the last event of 4.19 m ±0.69 m for the Searles Valley area (2.67 km reach), 4.65 m +0.76/-0.92 m for the Pilot Knob Valley area (24.68 km reach), and 3.45 m +0.82/-0.87 m for the Leach Lake and Avawatz Mountains areas (12.65 km reach), computed from a total of 129 offsets. Our results show that LiDAR-derived offset measurements compare well with field measurements in the comprehensive documentation of along-strike surface slip distributions of the most recent earthquake. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the

  7. Fault geometry, rupture dynamics and ground motion from potential earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault under the Sea of Marmara

    KAUST Repository

    Oglesby, David D.


    Using the 3-D finite-element method, we develop dynamic spontaneous rupture models of earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault system in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, considering the geometrical complexity of the fault system in this region. We find that the earthquake size, rupture propagation pattern and ground motion all strongly depend on the interplay between the initial (static) regional pre-stress field and the dynamic stress field radiated by the propagating rupture. By testing several nucleation locations, we observe that those far from an oblique normal fault stepover segment (near Istanbul) lead to large through-going rupture on the entire fault system, whereas nucleation locations closer to the stepover segment tend to produce ruptures that die out in the stepover. However, this pattern can change drastically with only a 10° rotation of the regional stress field. Our simulations also reveal that while dynamic unclamping near fault bends can produce a new mode of supershear rupture propagation, this unclamping has a much smaller effect on the speed of the peak in slip velocity along the fault. Finally, we find that the complex fault geometry leads to a very complex and asymmetric pattern of near-fault ground motion, including greatly amplified ground motion on the insides of fault bends. The ground-motion pattern can change significantly with different hypocentres, even beyond the typical effects of directivity. The results of this study may have implications for seismic hazard in this region, for the dynamics and ground motion of geometrically complex faults, and for the interpretation of kinematic inverse rupture models.

  8. Rupture features of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake extracted from surface waves (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ling; Hwang, Ruey-Der; Jhuang, Yi-Shan; Lin, Cai-Yi


    This study used the rupture directivity theory to derive the fault parameters of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on the basis of the azimuth-dependent source duration obtained from the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity. Results revealed that the 2010 Chile earthquake featured asymmetric bilateral faulting. The two rupture directions were N171°E (northward) and N17°E (southward), with rupture lengths of approximately 313 and 118 km, respectively, and were related to the locking degree in the source region. The entire source duration was approximately 187 s. After excluding the rise time from the source duration, the northward rupture velocity was approximately 2.02 km/s, faster than the southward rupture velocity (1.74 km/s). On average, the rupture velocity derived from this study was slower than that estimated from finite-fault inversion; however, several historical earthquakes in the Chile region also showed slow rupture velocity when using low-frequency signals, as surface waves do. Two earlier studies through global-positioning-system data analysis showed that the static stress drop of 50-70 bars for the 2010 Chile earthquake was higher than that for subduction-zone earthquakes. Hence, a remarkable feature was that the 2010 Chile earthquake had a slow rupture velocity and a high static stress drop, which suggested an inverse relationship between rupture velocity and static stress drop.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. The Fault Geometry and Surface Ruptures, the Damage Pattern and the Deformation Field of the 6th and 7th of April 2009, Mw=6.3 and Mw=5.6 Earthquakes in L'Aquila (Central Italy) Revealed by Ground and Space Based Observations (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Roberts, Gerald; Foumelis, Michael; Parcharidis, Issaac; Lekkas, Efthimios; Fountoulis, Ioannis


    The 2009 Mw=6.3 L' Aquila earthquake in central Italy despite its moderate magnitude caused significant loss of life and damages, producing the highest death toll in the E.U. since the 1980 Mw=6.9 Irpinia event and the highest economic cost since the 1999 Ms=5.9 Athens earthquake. It is now recognized that such events pose a high risk in most extensional settings, such as Europe at large due both to its high rate of occurrence and proximity to human habitation, forming a typical case study scenario. The deformation pattern of the 6th and 7th of April 2009 Mw=6.3 and Mw=5.6 earthquakes in L' Aquila is revealed by DInSAR analysis and compared with earthquake environmental effects. The DInSAR predicted fault surface ruptures coincide with localities where surface ruptures have been observed in the field, confirming that the ruptures observed near Paganica village are indeed primary. These ruptures are almost one order of magnitude lower than the ruptures that have been produced by other major surrounding faults from historical earthquakes. This event ruptured a small fault segment of the fault system and not one of the major postglacial fault scarps that outcrop in the area. This explains the minor primary surface ruptures that have been reported so that the 2009 L' Aquila event can be characterized as belonging to the lower end member concerning the capacity of the existing seismic sources of the area.These faults have not been activated during the 2009 event, but have the capacity to generate significantly stronger events. DInSAR analysis shows that 66% (or 305 km2) of the area deformed has been subsided whereas the remaining 34% (or 155 km2) has been uplifted. A footwall uplift versus hangingwall subsidence ratio of about 1/3 is extracted from the mainshock. The maximum subsidence (25cm) was recorded about 4.5 km away from the primary surface ruptures and about 9km away from the epicentre. In the immediate hangingwall, subsidence did not exceeded 15cm, showing that

  10. Minor shallow gravitational component on the Mt. Vettore surface ruptures related to MW 6, 2016 Amatrice earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Albano


    Full Text Available On 24th August 2016 a ML 6.0 earthquake occurred near Amatrice (central Italy causing nearly 300 fatalities. The mainshock ruptured a NNW-SSE striking, WSW dipping normal fault. The earthquake produced several coseismic effects at ground, including landslides and ground ruptures. In particular, ground surveys identified a 5.2 km long continuous fracture along the Mt. Vettore flank, both on rock and slope deposits, along one of the active normal fault segments bounding the relief to the west. In this work, we evaluated the contribution of seismically-induced surface instabilities to the observed ground fractures by means of a permanent-displacement approach. The results of a parametric analysis show that the computed seismically-induced gravitational displacements (about 2-10 cm are not enough to explain field observations, testifying to a mean 20-25cm vertical offset. Thus, the observed ground fractures are the result of primary faulting related to tectonics, combined with gravitational phenomena.

  11. Broad belts of shear zones: The common form of surface rupture produced by the 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.M.; Cruikshank, K.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Richard H. Jahns Engineering Geology Lab.; Fleming, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)


    Surface rupturing during the 28 June 1992, Landers, California earthquake, east of Los Angeles, accommodated right-lateral offsets up to about 6 m along segments of distinct, en echelon fault zones with a total length of about 80 km. The offsets were accommodated generally not by faults -- distinct slip surfaces -- but rather by shear zones, tabular bands of localized shearing. In long, straight stretches of fault zones at Landers the rupture is characterized by telescoping of shear zones and intensification of shearing: broad shear zones of mild shearing, containing narrow shear zones of more intense shearing, containing even-narrower shear zones of very intense shearing, which may contain a fault. Thus the ground ruptured across broad belts of shearing with subparallel walls, oriented NW. Each broad belt consists of a broad zone of mild shearing, extending across its entire width (50 to 200 m), and much narrower (a few m wide) shear zones that accommodate most of the offset of the belt and are portrayed by en echelon tension cracks. In response to right-lateral shearing, the slices of ground bounded by the tension cracks rotated in a clockwise sense, producing left lateral shearing, and the slices were forced against the walls of the shear zone, producing thrusting. Even narrower shear zones formed within the narrow shear zones, and some of these were faults. Although the narrower shear zones probably are indicators to right-lateral fault segments at depth, the surface rupturing during the earthquake is characterized not by faulting, but by zones of shearing at various scales. Furthermore, understanding of the formation of the shear zones may be critical to understanding of earthquake faulting because, where faulting is associated with the formation of a shear zone, the faulting occurs late in the development of the shear zone. The faulting occurs after a shear zone or a belt of shear zones forms.

  12. Performance of Irikura Recipe Rupture Model Generator in Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations with Graves and Pitarka Hybrid Approach (United States)

    Pitarka, Arben; Graves, Robert; Irikura, Kojiro; Miyake, Hiroe; Rodgers, Arthur


    We analyzed the performance of the Irikura and Miyake (Pure and Applied Geophysics 168(2011):85-104, 2011) (IM2011) asperity-based kinematic rupture model generator, as implemented in the hybrid broadband ground motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 100(5A):2095-2123, 2010), for simulating ground motion from crustal earthquakes of intermediate size. The primary objective of our study is to investigate the transportability of IM2011 into the framework used by the Southern California Earthquake Center broadband simulation platform. In our analysis, we performed broadband (0-20 Hz) ground motion simulations for a suite of M6.7 crustal scenario earthquakes in a hard rock seismic velocity structure using rupture models produced with both IM2011 and the rupture generation method of Graves and Pitarka (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 2016) (GP2016). The level of simulated ground motions for the two approaches compare favorably with median estimates obtained from the 2014 Next Generation Attenuation-West2 Project (NGA-West2) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) over the frequency band 0.1-10 Hz and for distances out to 22 km from the fault. We also found that, compared to GP2016, IM2011 generates ground motion with larger variability, particularly at near-fault distances (1 s). For this specific scenario, the largest systematic difference in ground motion level for the two approaches occurs in the period band 1-3 s where the IM2011 motions are about 20-30% lower than those for GP2016. We found that increasing the rupture speed by 20% on the asperities in IM2011 produced ground motions in the 1-3 s bandwidth that are in much closer agreement with the GMPE medians and similar to those obtained with GP2016. The potential implications of this modification for other rupture mechanisms and magnitudes are not yet fully understood, and this topic is the subject of ongoing study. We concluded

  13. Evidence of Multiple Ground-rupturing Earthquakes in the Past 4000 Years along the Pasuruan Fault, East Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Marliyani, G. I.; Arrowsmith, R.; Helmi, H.


    Instrumental and historical records of earthquakes, supplemented by paleoeseismic constraints can help reveal the earthquake potential of an area. The Pasuruan fault is a high angle normal fault with prominent youthful scarps cutting young deltaic sediments in the north coast of East Java, Indonesia and may pose significant hazard to the densely populated region. This fault has not been considered a significant structure, and mapped as a lineament with no sense of motion. Information regarding past earthquakes along this fault is not available. The fault is well defined both in the imagery and in the field as a ~13km long, 2-50m-high scarp. Open and filled fractures and natural exposures of the south-dipping fault plane indicate normal sense of motion. We excavated two fault-perpendicular trenches across a relay ramp identified during our surface mapping. Evidence for past earthquakes (documented in both trenches) includes upward fault termination with associated fissure fills, colluvial wedges and scarp-derived debris, folding, and angular unconformities. The ages of the events are constrained by 23 radiocarbon dates on detrital charcoal. We calibrated the dates using IntCal13 and used Oxcal to build the age model of the events. Our preliminary age model indicates that since 2006±134 B.C., there has been at least five ground rupturing earthquakes along the fault. The oldest event identified in the trench however, is not well-dated. Our modeled 95th percentile ranges of the next four earlier earthquakes (and their mean) are A.D. 1762-1850 (1806), A.D. 1646-1770 (1708), A.D. 1078-1648 (1363), and A.D. 726-1092 (909), yielding a rough recurrence rate of 302±63 yrs. These new data imply that Pasuruan fault is more active than previously thought. Additional well-dated earthquakes are necessary to build a solid earthquake recurrence model. Rupture along the whole section implies a minimum earthquake magnitude of 6.3, considering 13km as the minimum surface rupture

  14. Evidence for ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Northern Wadi Araba fault at the archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, Dead Sea Transform fault system, Jordan (United States)

    Haynes, Jeremy M.; Niemi, Tina M.; Atallah, Mohammad


    The archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, in the Wadi Araba, Jordan is located on the northern Wadi Araba fault segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The site contains a Roman-period fort, a late Byzantine Early Umayyad birkeh (water reservoir) and aqueduct, and agricultural fields. The birkeh and aqueduct are left-laterally offset by coseismic slip across the northern Wadi Araba fault. Using paleoseismic and archaeological evidence collected from a trench excavated across the fault zone, we identified evidence for four ground-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon dating from key stratigraphic horizons and relative dating using potsherds constrains the dates of the four earthquakes from the sixth to the nineteenth centuries. Individual earthquakes were dated to the seventh, ninth and eleventh centuries. The fault strand that slipped during the most recent event (MRE) extends to just below the modern ground surface and juxtaposes alluvial-fan sediments that lack in datable material with the modern ground surface, thus preventing us from dating the MRE except to constrain the event to post-eleventh century. These data suggest that the historical earthquakes of 634 or 659/660, 873, 1068, and 1546 probably ruptured this fault segment.

  15. Geologic and structural controls on rupture zone fabric: A field-based study of the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor–Cucapah earthquake surface rupture (United States)

    Teran, Orlando; Fletcher, John L.; Oskin, Michael; Rockwell, Thomas; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Spelz, Ronald; Akciz, Sinan; Hernandez-Flores, Ana Paula; Morelan, Alexander


    We systematically mapped (scales >1:500) the surface rupture of the 4 April 2010 Mw (moment magnitude) 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake through the Sierra Cucapah (Baja California, northwestern Mexico) to understand how faults with similar structural and lithologic characteristics control rupture zone fabric, which is here defined by the thickness, distribution, and internal configuration of shearing in a rupture zone. Fault zone thickness and master fault dip are strongly correlated with many parameters of rupture zone fabric. Wider fault zones produce progressively wider rupture zones and both of these parameters increase systematically with decreasing dip of master faults, which varies from 20° to 90° in our dataset. Principal scarps that accommodate more than 90% of the total coseismic slip in a given transect are only observed in fault sections with narrow rupture zones (Sierra Cucapah are those developed above buried low angle faults due to the transfer of slip to widely distributed steeper faults, which are mechanically more favorably oriented. The results from this study show that the measureable parameters that define rupture zone fabric allow for testing hypotheses concerning the mechanics and propagation of earthquake ruptures, as well as for siting and designing facilities to be constructed in regions near active faults.

  16. A preliminary study on surface ground deformation near shallow foundation induced by strike-slip faulting (United States)

    Wong, Pei-Syuan; Lin, Ming-Lang


    According to investigation of recent earthquakes, ground deformation and surface rupture are used to map the influenced range of the active fault. The zones of horizontal and vertical surface displacements and different features of surface rupture are investigated in the field, for example, the Greendale Fault 2010, MW 7.1 Canterbury earthquake. The buildings near the fault rotated and displaced vertically and horizontally due to the ground deformation. Besides, the propagation of fault trace detoured them because of the higher rigidity. Consequently, it's necessary to explore the ground deformation and mechanism of the foundation induced by strike-slip faulting for the safety issue. Based on previous study from scaled analogue model of strike-slip faulting, the ground deformation is controlled by material properties, depth of soil, and boundary condition. On the condition controlled, the model shows the features of ground deformation in the field. This study presents results from shear box experiment on small-scale soft clay models subjected to strike-slip faulting and placed shallow foundations on it in a 1-g environment. The quantifiable data including sequence of surface rupture, topography and the position of foundation are recorded with increasing faulting. From the result of the experiment, first en echelon R shears appeared. The R shears rotated to a more parallel angle to the trace and cracks pulled apart along them with increasing displacements. Then the P shears crossed the basement fault in the opposite direction appears and linked R shears. Lastly the central shear was Y shears. On the other hand, the development of wider zones of rupture, higher rising surface and larger the crack area on surface developed, with deeper depth of soil. With the depth of 1 cm and half-box displacement 1.2 cm, en echelon R shears appeared and the surface above the fault trace elevated to 1.15 mm (Dv), causing a 1.16 cm-wide zone of ground-surface rupture and deformation

  17. Distribution of surface rupture associated the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and its significance (United States)

    Goto, H.; Kumahara, Y.; Tsutsumi, H.; Toda, S.; Ishimura, D.; Okada, S.; Nakata, T.; Kagohara, K.; Kaneda, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Tsumura, S.; Matsuta, N.; Ishiyama, T.; Sugito, N.; Hirouchi, D.; Ishiguro, S.; Yoshida, H.; Tanaka, K.; Takenami, D.; Kashihara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Moriki, H.


    A Mj 6.5 earthquake hit Kumamoto prefecture, central Kyushu, southwest Japan at 21:26 JST on April 14th. About 28 hours after, The Mj 7.3 earthquake occurred at 01:25 JST on April 16, and caused severe shaking in and around the epicentral region. An ENE-to-NE-trending surface rupture zone associated with the earthquakes appeared along the previously mapped 100-km-long active fault called the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone (FHFZ) (Watanabe et al., 1979; Research Group for Active Tectonics in Kyushu, 1989; Research Group for Active Faults of Japan, 1991; Ikeda et al., 2001; Nakata and Imaizumi ed, 2002). According to our field survey for three months, we found the 31-km-length surface rupture close to the traces of the northeastern part of the FHFZ, and another 5-km-length rupture on a part of the Denokuchi fault. The rupture along the FHFZ shows right-lateral strike slip mainly ( 2.1 m in maximum). The rupture on the Denokuchi fault, far from about 2km east of the FHFZ, is the normal component with down to northwest. These coseismic ruptures of the Mj 7.3 earthquake have been represented to be a characteristic movement of the northeastern part of the FHFZ. The deformations such as a series of the open cracks with NW-SE trending were traceable for a distance of 5.4 km from Kengun to Shirakawa River in and around the downtown of Kumamoto city. Those features followed on tectonic landform by the active fault and on the line of the fringe abnormal in InSAR image (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, 2016) represent small triggered slip. The eyewitness of local resident and our observation revealed that a coseismic small rupture of the Mj 6.5 earthquake had been appeared along the southern end of Mj 7.3 earthquake ruptures. Seismic inversion theory (DPRI, Kyoto Univ, 2016) showed that the coseismic rupture propagated toward NE along the strike of the FHFZ, and an asperity near the surface was recognized from 10 km far from the epicenter toward NE. The area of maximum

  18. Investigation of possibility of surface rupture derived from PFDHA and calculation of surface displacement based on dislocation (United States)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Irikura, K.


    A probability of surface rupture is important to configure the seismic source, such as area sources or fault models, for a seismic hazard evaluation. In Japan, Takemura (1998) estimated the probability based on the historical earthquake data. Kagawa et al. (2004) evaluated the probability based on a numerical simulation of surface displacements. The estimated probability indicates a sigmoid curve and increases between Mj (the local magnitude defined and calculated by Japan Meteorological Agency) =6.5 and Mj=7.0. The probability of surface rupture is also used in a probabilistic fault displacement analysis (PFDHA). The probability is determined from the collected earthquake catalog, which were classified into two categories: with surface rupture or without surface rupture. The logistic regression is performed for the classified earthquake data. Youngs et al. (2003), Ross and Moss (2011) and Petersen et al. (2011) indicate the logistic curves of the probability of surface rupture by normal, reverse and strike-slip faults, respectively. Takao et al. (2013) shows the logistic curve derived from only Japanese earthquake data. The Japanese probability curve shows the sharply increasing in narrow magnitude range by comparison with other curves. In this study, we estimated the probability of surface rupture applying the logistic analysis to the surface displacement derived from a surface displacement calculation. A source fault was defined in according to the procedure of Kagawa et al. (2004), which determined a seismic moment from a magnitude and estimated the area size of the asperity and the amount of slip. Strike slip and reverse faults were considered as source faults. We applied Wang et al. (2003) for calculations. The surface displacements with defined source faults were calculated by varying the depth of the fault. A threshold value as 5cm of surface displacement was used to evaluate whether a surface rupture reach or do not reach to the surface. We carried out the

  19. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake in the NW Anatolia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faruk Ocakoğlu; Sanem Açıkalın


    Surface rupture and source fault of the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake have been a matter of debate that potentially contributes towards the understanding of the active deformation and seismic risk in the highly populated NW Anatolia. Field observations on the two fault segments (namely Kavacık and Uludere faults) in the north of the Eskişehir graben revealed evidences of co-seismic surface rupture and mass movements during the Eskişehir earthquake. Surface rupture was observed as a 2.5 m wide, a 100 m long and ca.20 cm deep asymmetric depression in the Gümüşlü valley, 2 km east of the Uludere village. A trench dug on this depression con firms a prominent high-angle south dipping fault (dominantly left lateral strike slip) and two faint north-dipping antithetics as clear noticeable shear zones in organic-rich thick soil. Mass failures are particularly observed in spring depressions filled with loose torrent and carbonaceous material in front of the fault scarp. Some rock slides of several tens of meters in size that obviously require significantly high ground shaking were also developed on steep fault scarps. The orientation of the principal stress tensor as deduced from the surface rupture of the Eskişehir earthquake displays clear inconsistency with the geometry of prominent faults in the area. We concluded that this disagreement may be explained by a curved surface rupture. The western and eastern tips of this rupture are EW trending and the probable NW-running part in the middle would correspond to the bounding zone between two right-stepping faults.

  20. High-resolution topography along surface rupture of the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California (Mw 7.1) from airborne laser swath mapping (United States)

    Hudnutt, K.W.; Borsa, A.; Glennie, C.; Minster, J.-B.


    In order to document surface rupture associated with the Hector Mine earthquake, in particular, the area of maximum slip and the deformed surface of Lavic Lake playa, we acquired high-resolution data using relatively new topographic-mapping methods. We performed a raster-laser scan of the main surface breaks along the entire rupture zone, as well as along an unruptured portion of the Bullion fault. The image of the ground surface produced by this method is highly detailed, comparable to that obtained when geologists make particularly detailed site maps for geomorphic or paleoseismic studies. In this case, however, for the first time after a surface-rupturing earthquake, the detailed mapping is along the entire fault zone rather than being confined to selected sites. These data are geodetically referenced, using the Global Positioning System, thus enabling more accurate mapping of the rupture traces. In addition, digital photographs taken along the same flight lines can be overlaid onto the precise topographic data, improving terrain visualization. We demonstrate the potential of these techniques for measuring fault-slip vectors.

  1. Surface rupturing earthquakes repeated in the 300 years along the ISTL active fault system, central Japan (United States)

    Katsube, Aya; Kondo, Hisao; Kurosawa, Hideki


    Surface rupturing earthquakes produced by intraplate active faults generally have long recurrence intervals of a few thousands to tens of thousands of years. We here report the first evidence for an extremely short recurrence interval of 300 years for surface rupturing earthquakes on an intraplate system in Japan. The Kamishiro fault of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) active fault system generated a Mw 6.2 earthquake in 2014. A paleoseismic trench excavation across the 2014 surface rupture showed the evidence for the 2014 event and two prior paleoearthquakes. The slip of the penultimate earthquake was similar to that of 2014 earthquake, and its timing was constrained to be after A.D. 1645. Judging from the timing, the damaged area, and the amount of slip, the penultimate earthquake most probably corresponds to a historical earthquake in A.D. 1714. The recurrence interval of the two most recent earthquakes is thus extremely short compared with intervals on other active faults known globally. Furthermore, the slip repetition during the last three earthquakes is in accordance with the time-predictable recurrence model rather than the characteristic earthquake model. In addition, the spatial extent of the 2014 surface rupture accords with the distribution of a serpentinite block, suggesting that the relatively low coefficient of friction may account for the unusually frequent earthquakes. These findings would affect long-term forecast of earthquake probability and seismic hazard assessment on active faults.

  2. Surface rupture zone of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake, Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江娃利; 邓起东; 徐锡伟; 谢新生


    Based on the latest displacement of Huoshan piedmont fault, Mianshan west-side fault and Taigu fault obtained from the beginning of 1990's up to the present, the characteristics of distribution and displacement of surface rupture zone of the 1303 Hongtong M = 8 earthquake, Shanxi Province are synthesized and discussed in the paper. If Taigu fault, Mianshan west-side fault and Huoshan piedmont fault were contemporarily active during the 1303 Hongtong M = 8 earthquake, the surface rupture zone would be 160 km long and could be divided into 3 segments, that is, the 50-km-long Huoshan piedmont fault segment, 35-km-long Mianshan west-side fault segment and 70-km-long Taigu fault segment, respectively. Among them, there exist 4 km and 8 km step regions. The surface rupture zone exhibits right-lateral features. The displacements of northern and central segments are respectively 6~7 m and the southern segment has the maximum displacement of 10 m. The single basin-boundary fault of Shanxi fault-depression system usually corresponds to M ≈ 7 earthquake, while this great earthquake (M = 8) broke through the obstacle between two basins. It shows that the surface rupture scale of great earthquake is changeable.

  3. Surface rupture of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I.


    The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake in the Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan is one of the largest historic intraplate reverse-faulting events. Documentation of slip distribution and fault geometry for major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide important data on their source physics and seismotectonics. These data also provide insight into mechanical interaction with other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events. Through detailed aerial photo mapping, examination of historic data (Bogdonovich et al., 1914), and two seasons of fieldwork, we mapped the entire 200 km of the1911 rupture and associated off-fault deformation and mass movements at > 1:50,000. At the 1911 events western end, the south dipping Djel Aryk section closely follows the range front at the southern edge of the Djel Aryk Valley. Mapping by Bogdonovich et al. indicates 1.5 km of rupture west of the Chu River in 1911 but 10-20 m high fault scarps further west in the Djel Aryk Valley indicate late Pleistocene paleoseismic activity. The Lower Chon-Kemin section stretches from the Chon-Kemin gorge to Chundi-Su. The fault dips steeply south and offset landforms indicate a left-lateral slip component. Vertical 1911 displacements are 1-3 m. Most of this portion of the 1911 rupture is located 500-1500 m above the Chon-Kemin Valley on the northern flank of the Kungei-Alatau Range. Bogdonovich et al. do not report 1911 rupture between Dyure River and Chundi-Su despite clear 10-30 m tall scarps offsetting Holocene landforms. The lack of mapped ground rupture in this area in 1911 suggests either a failure of the Bogdonovich team to reach this section of fault or that the earthquake failed to rupture here, despite clearly having done so prehistorically. The Upper Chon-Kemin section comprises steeply dipping to vertical discontinuous fractures located on steep slopes above the valley floor. Bogdonovich et al. report discontinuous

  4. Long-Wavelength Rupturing Instability in Surface-Tension-Driven Benard Convection (United States)

    Swift, J. B.; Hook, Stephen J. Van; Becerril, Ricardo; McCormick, W. D.; Swinney, H. L.; Schatz, Michael F.


    A liquid layer with a free upper surface and heated from below is subject to thermocapillary-induced convective instabilities. We use very thin liquid layers (0.01 cm) to significantly reduce buoyancy effects and simulate Marangoni convection in microgravity. We observe thermocapillary-driven convection in two qualitatively different modes, short-wavelength Benard hexagonal convection cells and a long-wavelength interfacial rupturing mode. We focus on the long-wavelength mode and present experimental observations and theoretical analyses of the long-wavelength instability. Depending on the depths and thermal conductivities of the liquid and the gas above it, the interface can rupture downwards and form a dry spot or rupture upwards and form a high spot. Linear stability theory gives good agreement to the experimental measurements of onset as long as sidewall effects are taken into account. Nonlinear theory correctly predicts the subcritical nature of the bifurcation and the selection between the dry spot and high spots.

  5. Surface Rupture of the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan, Earthquake and its Active Tectonic Implications (United States)

    Kaneda, H.; Nakata, T.; Tsutsumi, H.; Kondo, H.; Sugito, N.; Awata, Y.; Akhtar, S. S.; Majid, A.; Khattak, W.; Awan, A. A.; Yeats, R. S.


    The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of Mw 7.6 struck the westernmost area of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, resulting in the worst earthquake disaster ever recorded along the frontal Himalaya. Although none of the historical Himalayan earthquakes is reported to have produced primary surface rupture, our field mapping reveals that the 2005 earthquake accompanied a NW-trending ~70-km-long distinctive surface rupture with maximum and mean vertical separations of ~7 m and ~3 m, respectively. Typical surface expression of faulting is a NE-side-up fault scarp or warp with surface shortening features at its base and tension cracks on its crest. Bulging and back-tilting are also observed on the upthrown side at many places. The surface rupture is subdivided into three geometrical segments separated by small steps. Location of the hypocenter suggests that the rupture was initiated at a deep portion of the northern-central segment boundary and bilaterally propagated to eventually break three segments. Mapped surface rupture trace clearly shows that neither the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) nor the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) is responsible for the earthquake, but a geomorphologically-evident active fault within the Sub-Himalaya, the Balakot-Garhi fault, is a causative fault, although a part of the Balakot-Garhi fault appears to coincide with the surface trace of the MBT. Cumulative vertical separation of the most extensively recognized fluvial terrace surface is 7-8 times larger than the 2005 separation, implying occurrence of 7-8 similar earthquakes after the surface abandonment. If this deeply-incised fill surface is related to sediment yield increase due to the last major glaciation around 20 ka, the rupture interval and vertical slip rate of the Balakot-Garhi fault are estimated to be on the order of ~3000 years and ~1 mm/yr, respectively. By using the seismologically determined fault dip of ~30 degrees, horizontal shortening rate across the fault is then


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Du; F.C.Xie; Y.J.Wang; O.K.C.Tsui


    It has been a long-standing question whether dewetting of polymer film from non-wettable substrate surfaces wherein the bicontinuous morphology never forms in the dewetting film is due to spinodal instability or heterogeneous nucleation. In this experiment, we use a simple method to make the distinction through introduction of topographical defects of the films by rubbing the sample surface with a rayon cloth. Spinodal dewetting is identified for those films that dewet by a characteristic wavevector, q*, independent of the density of rubbing-induced defects. Heterogeneous nucleation, on the other hand, is identified for those with q* increasing with increasing density of defects. Our result shows that PS films on oxide coated silicon with thickness less than ≈ 13 nm are dominated by spinodal dewetting, but the thicker films are dominated by nucleation dewetting. We also confirm that spinodal dewetting does not necessarily lead to a bicontinuous morphology in the dewetting film, contrary to the classic theory of Cahn.

  7. Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution Resulting from the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake (United States)

    Reitman, N. G.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.


    The 24 September 2013 M7.7 earthquake in Balochistan, Pakistan, produced a ~200 km long left-lateral strike-slip surface rupture along a portion of the Hoshab fault, a moderately dipping (45-75º) structure in the Makran accretionary prism. The rupture is remarkably continuous and crosses only two (0.7 and 1.5 km wide) step-overs along its arcuate path through southern Pakistan. Displacements are dominantly strike-slip, with a minor component of reverse motion. We remotely mapped the surface rupture at 1:5,000 scale and measured displacements using high resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. We mapped 295 laterally faulted stream channels, terrace margins, and roads to quantify near-field displacement proximal (±10 m) to the rupture trace. The maximum near-field left-lateral offset is 15±2 m (average of ~7 m). Additionally, we used pre-event imagery to digitize 254 unique landforms in the "medium-field" (~100-200 m from the rupture) and then measured their displacements compared to the post-event imagery. At this scale, maximum left-lateral offset approaches 17 m (average of ~8.5 m). The width (extent of observed surface faulting) of the rupture zone varies from ~1 m to 3.7 km. Near- and medium-field offsets show similar slip distributions that are inversely correlated with the width of the fault zone at the surface (larger offsets correspond to narrow fault zones). The medium-field offset is usually greater than the near-field offset. The along-strike surface slip distribution is highly variable, similar to the slip distributions documented for the 2002 Denali M7.9 earthquake and 2001 Kunlun M7.8 earthquake, although the Pakistan offsets are larger in magnitude. The 2013 Pakistan earthquake ranks among the largest documented continental strike-slip displacements, possibly second only to the 18+ m surface displacements attributed to the 1855 Wairarapa M~8.1 earthquake.

  8. Rupture Process of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake: Did Shallow Asperities on a Fresh Fault Cause Extreme Ground Motions? (United States)

    Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.; Mostafaei, H.


    The Bam, Iran, earthquake on December 26, 2003 caused heavy damage to the city of Bam including the historic heritage of Arg-e-Bam. This Mw6.5 earthquake rupture created fresh faults 5 km westward away from the Bam fault. The Bam strong-motion station recorded 992 gal in the UD component and two directivity pulses in the horizontal components with a dominant frequency of 1 Hz. We inferred the rupture process of the 2003 Bam earthquake from strong motion data observed by BHRC, together with teleseismic data to constrain global features of the source. Waveform inversions using teleseismic data (e.g. Yamanaka, 2003; Yagi, 2003) have suggested the existence of a shallow asperity. Nakamura et al. (2004) estimated aftershock distribution with vertical dipping that superimposed the fresh faults, not the Bam fault. They proposed fault planes consisting N-S alignment with northward branches beneath the city of Bam. Our preliminary analyses show that two directivity pulses are created by northward rupture near the hypocenter and north-eastward rupture beneath the city. Recent earthquakes occurred on immature faults with shallow asperities have also generated localized extreme-strong motions (e.g., 2003 Miyagi-ken Hokubu, Japan, with Mw6.1; 2000 Tottori, Japan, with Mw6.6). Larger fracture energy is expected for shallow asperities on immature faults than those on mature faults. For example, the 2000 Tottori earthquake has several times larger fracture energy than expected by the scaling between seismic moment and fracture energy. When considering the energy budget, are radiated energy from the immature faults enough to generate the extreme ground motions? Detailed source process inversions might be able to answer this question.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Du; F.C.Xie; Y.J.Wang; O.K.C.Tsui; O.K.C.Tsui


    It has been a long-standing question whether dewetting of polymer film from non-wettable substrate surfaces wherein the bicontinuous morphology never forms in the dewetting film is due to spinodal instability or heterogeneous nucleation.In this experiment,we use a simple method to make the distinction through introduction of topographical defects of the films by rubbing the sample surface with a rayon cloth.Spinodal dewetting is identified for those films that dewet by a characteristic wavevector,q,independent of the density of rubbing-induced defects.Heterogeneous nucleation,on the other hand,is identified for those with q increasing with increasing density of defects.Our result shows that PS films on oxide coated silicon with thickness less than≈13nm are dominated by spinodal dewetting,but the thicker films are dominated by nucleation dewetting.We also confirm that spinodal dewetting does not necessarily lead to a bicontinuous morphology in the dewetting film,contrary to the classic theory of Cahn.

  10. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes (United States)

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.


    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least

  11. The SCEC-USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Comparison Exercise - Simulations of Large Earthquakes and Strong Ground Motions (United States)

    Harris, R.


    I summarize the progress by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Dynamic Rupture Code Comparison Group, that examines if the results produced by multiple researchers' earthquake simulation codes agree with each other when computing benchmark scenarios of dynamically propagating earthquake ruptures. These types of computer simulations have no analytical solutions with which to compare, so we use qualitative and quantitative inter-code comparisons to check if they are operating satisfactorily. To date we have tested the codes against benchmark exercises that incorporate a range of features, including single and multiple planar faults, single rough faults, slip-weakening, rate-state, and thermal pressurization friction, elastic and visco-plastic off-fault behavior, complete stress drops that lead to extreme ground motion, heterogeneous initial stresses, and heterogeneous material (rock) structure. Our goal is reproducibility, and we focus on the types of earthquake-simulation assumptions that have been or will be used in basic studies of earthquake physics, or in direct applications to specific earthquake hazard problems. Our group's goals are to make sure that when our earthquake-simulation codes simulate these types of earthquake scenarios along with the resulting simulated strong ground shaking, that the codes are operating as expected. For more introductory information about our group and our work, please see our group's overview papers, Harris et al., Seismological Research Letters, 2009, and Harris et al., Seismological Research Letters, 2011, along with our website,

  12. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal


    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  13. Timing of Surface-Rupturing Earthquakes on the Philippine Fault Zone in Central Luzon Island, Philippines (United States)

    Tsutsumi, H.; Daligdig, J. A.; Goto, H.; Tungol, N. M.; Kondo, H.; Nakata, T.; Okuno, M.; Sugito, N.


    The Philippine fault zone is an arc-parallel left-lateral strike-slip fault zone related to oblique subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Philippine island arc. The fault zone extends for about 1300 km from the Luzon Island southward to the Mindanao Island. This fault zone has been seismically active with more than 10 earthquakes greater than M7 in the last century. The July 16, 1990, Luzon earthquake was the largest event that produced 120-km-long surface rupture along the Digdig fault. The coseismic displacement was predominantly left-lateral strike-slip with maximum slip of about 6 m. The Philippine fault zone in the Luzon Island consists of four left-stepping en echelon faults: the San Manuel, San Jose, Digdig, and Gabaldon faults from north to south. Historical documents and geomorphic data suggest that the San Manuel and Gabaldon faults ruptured most recently during historical earthquakes in 1796 and 1645, respectively. However, paleoseismic activities and slip rates for these faults were poorly constrained. In order to reconstruct chronology of surface-rupturing earthquakes, we excavated multiple trenches across these faults in the past three years. We have excavated two sites, San Gregorio and Puncan sites, across the Digdig fault. At the both sites, we identified near vertical fault zones that contain evidence for four surface-rupturing earthquakes during the past 2000 years, including the 1990 rupture. The timing of the penultimate earthquake is constrained to prior to 1400 AD, suggesting that the Digdig fault did not rupture during the 1645 earthquake. The average recurrence interval of the Digdig fault is about 600 years. A left-lateral slip rate of 8-13 mm/yr was obtained for the Digdig fault based on stream offsets and age of alluvial fan at San Juan in the central portion of the fault. For the San Jose fault, we excavated two trenches north of downtown San Jose. The sediments exposed on the trench walls were warped into a monocline by

  14. Parameters of Coseismic Reverse- and Oblique-Slip Surface Ruptures of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiwei; YU Guihua; CHEN Guihua; RAN Yongkang; LI Chenxia; CHEN Yuegau; CHANG Chungpai


    On May 12th, 2008, the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured the Beichuan, Pengguan and Xiaoyudong faults simultaneously along the middle segment of the Longmenshan thrust belt at the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. Field investigations constrain the surface rupture pattern, length and offsets related to the Wenchuan earthquake. The Beichuan fault has a NE-trending right- lateral reverse rupture with a total length of 240 km. Reassessment yields a maximum vertical offset of 6.5±0.5 m and a maximum right-lateral offset of 4.9±0.5 m for its northern segment, which are the largest offsets found; the maximum vertical offset is 6.2±0.5 m for its southern segment. The Pengguan fault has a NE-trending pure reverse rupture about 72 km long with a maximum vertical offset of about 3.5 m. The Xiaoyudong fault has a NW-striking left-lateral reverse rupture about 7 km long between the Beichuan and Pengguan faults, with a maximum vertical offset of 3.4 m and left-lateral offset of 3.5 m. This pattern of multiple co-seismic surface ruptures is among the most complicated of recent great earthquakes and presents a much larger danger than if they ruptured individually. The rupture length is the longest for reverse faulting events ever reported.

  15. Surface Fault Rupture from the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake of Aug. 24, 2014 (United States)

    Ponti, D. J.; Dawson, T. E.; Schwartz, D. P.; Brooks, B. A.; DeLong, S. B.; Hecker, S.; Hudnut, K. W.; Kelson, K. I.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Prentice, C. S.; Rosa, C. M.; Rubin, R. S.; Seitz, G. G.; Sickler, R. R.; Wesling, J. R.


    The South Napa earthquake produced the largest and most extensive coseismic surface rupture of any documented California earthquake of similar magnitude. More than 14 km of complex surface faulting, extending from the Napa River at Cuttings Wharf northward beyond the north boundary of Alston Park in the city of Napa, occurred on two principal sub-parallel N-NW trending fault strands. Other minor sub-parallel rupture zones (≤1.5 km in length with ~1-3 cm displacements) were identified near the principal strands. The surface rupture lies primarily NW of the epicenter and W of most of the mapped traces of the West Napa fault zone, but rupture was locally coincident with portions of some mapped late Quaternary and older fault traces. Geomorphic expressions of prior faulting are observed intermittently along the main traces. Surface displacements are predominantly right lateral and typically expressed as discontinuous en echelonleft-stepping fractures within zones that range from pipelines, and residential structures produced significant damage. The ~7 km-long eastern strand had coseismic dextral offsets of 2-8 cm. Its southern end lies 7.5 km NW of the epicenter and 1.1 km E of the western strand, while its northern end approaches the western strand where the two appear to merge a few hundred meters south of Alston Park. Afterslip has been documented along the western strand but was not observed on the eastern strand. It was most rapid in the middle third of the western strand, increasing initial slip by ≥20 cm one day after the mainshock. Repeated measurements suggest total slip may reach ~40 cm along half of the western strand. The complex character and locations of surface rupture produced by this event have significant implications for current approaches to fault hazard mapping in California. Additional contributors: USGS: N. Avdievitch, M. Bennett, B. Collins, T. Holzer, A. Pickering, J. Tinsley. CGS: D. Branum, B. Bryant, C. Davenport, M. Delattre, W

  16. 3D point cloud data from laser scanning along the 2014 South Napa Earthquake surface rupture, California, USA (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Point cloud data collected along a 500 meter portion of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake surface rupture near Cuttings Wharf Road, Napa, CA, USA. The data include 7...

  17. Performance of Irikura's Recipe Rupture Model Generator in Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations as Implemented in the Graves and Pitarka Hybrid Approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitarka, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    We analyzed the performance of the Irikura and Miyake (2011) (IM2011) asperity-­ based kinematic rupture model generator, as implemented in the hybrid broadband ground-­motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (2010), for simulating ground motion from crustal earthquakes of intermediate size. The primary objective of our study is to investigate the transportability of IM2011 into the framework used by the Southern California Earthquake Center broadband simulation platform. In our analysis, we performed broadband (0 -­ 20Hz) ground motion simulations for a suite of M6.7 crustal scenario earthquakes in a hard rock seismic velocity structure using rupture models produced with both IM2011 and the rupture generation method of Graves and Pitarka (2016) (GP2016). The level of simulated ground motions for the two approaches compare favorably with median estimates obtained from the 2014 Next Generation Attenuation-­West2 Project (NGA-­West2) ground-­motion prediction equations (GMPEs) over the frequency band 0.1–10 Hz and for distances out to 22 km from the fault. We also found that, compared to GP2016, IM2011 generates ground motion with larger variability, particularly at near-­fault distances (<12km) and at long periods (>1s). For this specific scenario, the largest systematic difference in ground motion level for the two approaches occurs in the period band 1 – 3 sec where the IM2011 motions are about 20 – 30% lower than those for GP2016. We found that increasing the rupture speed by 20% on the asperities in IM2011 produced ground motions in the 1 – 3 second bandwidth that are in much closer agreement with the GMPE medians and similar to those obtained with GP2016. The potential implications of this modification for other rupture mechanisms and magnitudes are not yet fully understood, and this topic is the subject of ongoing study.

  18. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi


    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  19. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  20. Passive heating of the ground surface (United States)

    Tyburczyk, Anna


    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  1. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyburczyk Anna


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  2. Mechanics of weathered clay-marl rock masses along the rupture surface in homogeneous dry slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Srđan


    Full Text Available Authors analyze stress-strain distribution within slope using the shear stress reduction technique based on finite element method, which was previously confirmed to provide approximately the same results as the Janbu's corrected limit equilibrium method. Results obtained indicate that the largest vertical displacements occur at the slope base and crest, while central part of the slope is exposed to the largest horizontal displacements. Normal and shear stress show maximum values in the middle part of the slope. It was also determined that separate stress-strain relations could be derived for the exact upper and lower part of the rupture surface. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37005

  3. Earthquake Triggering Inferred from Rupture Histories, DInSAR Ground Deformation and Stress-Transfer Modelling: The Case of Central Italy During August 2016-January 2017 (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.; Ganas, A.; Agalos, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Triantafyllou, I.; Kontoes, Ch.; Papoutsis, I.; Diakogianni, G.


    On August 24, October 26 and 30, 2016, Central Apennines (Italy) were hit by three shallow, normal faulting very strong earthquakes rupturing in an NW-SE striking zone. Event 3 (Norcia) occurred between event 1 (Amatrice) at the SE and event 2 (Visso) at the NW of the entire rupture zone. The rupture histories of the three events, as revealed by teleseismic P-wave inversion, showed that all were characterized by bilateral rupture process with stronger rupture directivity towards NW for events 1 and 3 and towards SSE for event 2. Maximum seismic slip of 1.2, 0.8, and 1.4 m in the hypocenter and magnitude of M w 6.2, 6.1, and 6.5 were calculated for the three events, respectively. DInSaR measurements based on Sentinel-1 and 2 satellite images showed ground deformation directivity from events 1 and 2 towards event 3, which is consistent with the rupture process directivity. For events 1, 2, and 3, the maximum ground subsidence was found equal to 0.2, 0.15, and 0.35 m. Based on rupture directivity and ground deformation pattern, we put forward the hypothesis that the area of the second event was stress loaded by the first one and that both the first and second earthquake events caused stress loading in the area, where the third event ruptured. Coulomb stress-transfer modelling yields strong evidence in favor of our hypothesis. The stress in the fault plane of event 2 was increased by 0.19 bars due to loading from event 1. Event 3 fault plane was loaded by an amount of 2 bars, due to the combined stress transfer from the two previous events, despite its proximity to the negative/positive lobe boundary. The three events produced combined stress loading of more than +0.5 bar along the Apennines to the NW and SE of the entire rupture zone. In the SE stress lobe, a series of strong earthquakes of M w 5.3, 5.6, and 5.7 occurred on January 18, 2017, but likely, seismic potential remains in the area. We consider that in the NW and more extensive stress lobe, the seismic

  4. Earthquake Surface Rupture of the Salt Range Thrust at the Himalayan Thrust Front in Pakistan (United States)

    Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Madden, C.; Yeats, R.; Hussain, A.; Akhtar, S. S.; Latif, A.; Waliullah, A.; Ashraf, M.; Ramzan, S.; Dasti, N.


    Considerable evidence from Nepal and India now indicates that the basal detachment of the Himalaya produces great earthquakes that result in large coseismic displacements at the thrust front in India and Nepal (the Main Frontal thrust). In contrast, knowledge of the earthquake potential of the Salt Range thrust in Pakistan (SRT) is virtually absent. It has been clear since the publication of the Salt Range maps of Gee (1989) that the SRT deforms young surficial deposits and is an active fault. What remains uncertain is whether surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, with what frequency those events occur, and what is the size of the associated earthquakes. In a field reconnaissance of the SRT in Spring, 2007, we were able to confirm that this thrust is an active fault, and we discovered numerous localities where the fault nearly reaches the surface, cutting all but the youngest few meters of colluvial deposits. Whereas our observations suggest that surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, a number of characteristics of the Pakistani Himalaya suggests the earthquake behavior of the basal detachment and thrust front may be substantially different than it is in India and Nepal to the southeast. Key differences include an uncertain, but lower, convergence rate at the thrust front (5 to 13 mm/yr), a low tapered thrust wedge, and localization of the basal detachment in a weak evaporite unit. In this sense, the front of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in Iran may be a more appropriate analog for the thrust front in Pakistan than the Himalayan thrust front to the southeast. Future mapping of deformed geomorphic surfaces and paleoseismic trenching along the SRT will provide the first direct evidence of the earthquake potential and recurrence of plate- boundary earthquakes in Pakistan. This knowledge is critical for hazard assessment in north-central Pakistan where more than 7 million people are likely to be affected by a great earthquake on the plate boundary.

  5. Prediction of ground surface displacement caused by grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风琪; 刘晓潭; 童无期; 单智


    Ground surface displacement caused by grouting was calculated with stochastic medium theory. Ground surface displacement was assumed to be caused by the cavity expansion of grouting, slurry seepage, and slurry contraction. A prediction method of ground surface displacement was developed. The reliability of the presented method was validated through a comparison between theoretical results and results from engineering practice. Results show that the present method is effective. The effect of parameters on uplift displacement was illustrated under different grouting conditions. Through analysis, it can be known that the ground surface uplift is mainly caused by osmosis of slurry and the primary influence angle of stratum βdetermines the influence range of surface uplift. Besides, the results show that ground surface uplift displacement decreases notably with increasing depth of the grouting cavity but it increases with increasing diffusion radius of grout and increasing grouting pressure.

  6. Structural features and seismotectonic implications of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake (United States)

    Lin, Aiming


    Field investigations and analyses of satellite images and aerial photographs reveal that the 2016 M w 7.1 (Mj 7.3) Kumamoto earthquake produced a ˜40-km surface rupture zone striking NE-SW on central Kyushu Island, Japan. Coseismic surface ruptures were characterized by shear faults, extensional cracks, and mole tracks, which mostly occurred along the pre-existing NE-SW-striking Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone in the southwest and central segments, and newly identified faults in the northeast segment. This study shows that (i) the Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone triggered the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and controlled the spatial distribution of coseismic surface ruptures; (ii) the southwest and central segments were dominated by right-lateral strike-slip movement with a maximum in-site measured displacement of up to 2.5 m, accompanied by a minor vertical component. In contrast, the northeast segment was dominated by normal faulting with a maximum vertical offset of up to 1.75 m with a minor horizontal component that formed graben structures inside Aso caldera; (iii) coseismic rupturing initiated at the jog area between the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, then propagated northeastward into Aso caldera, where it terminated. The 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake therefore offers a rare opportunity to study the relationships between coseismic rupture processes and pre-existing active faults, as well as the seismotectonics of Aso volcano.

  7. Tectonic interpretation of the 13 february 2001, mw 6.6, El Salvador Earthquake: New evidences of coseismic surface rupture and paleoseismic activity. (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Canora, C.; Villamor, P.; Capote, R.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Berryman, K.; Bejar, M.; Tsige, M.


    In February 2001 a major strike slip earthquake stroke the central part of El Salvador causing hundreds of people killed, thousands injured and extensive damage. After this event the scientific effort was mainly focused on the study of the enormous and catastrophic landslides triggered by this event and no evidences of surface faulting were detected. This earthquake was produced by the reactivation of the Ilopango-San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Recently, a surface rupture displacement on the ground was identified. The analysis of aerial and field photographs taken few hours after the event and the mapping of the conserved ground structures shows a pure strike-slip displacement ranging from 20 to 50 cm, with secondary features indicating dextral shearing. The paleoseismic analysis made through the excavation of six trenches and Radiocarbon dating indicate a minimum slip rate of 2.0 mm/yr and a recurrence of major ruptures (Mw > 6.5) lower than 500 yr. These evidences give interesting local data to increase our understanding about the tectonic behavior and the way how active deformation develops along the northern limit of the forearc sliver related to the Centroamerican subduction area.

  8. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation (United States)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.


    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  9. Surface rupture along the Chon Aksu and Aksu (eastern) segments of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.


    The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake is one of the largest intraplate reverse-faulting events to occur historically. It ruptured a 200 km E-W trending zone in the northern Tien Shan. Description of the characteristics of major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide data on the primary deformation and its initial geomorphic degradation, thus informing paleoseismological investigations. Trace geometry and offset distribution are key parameters for the interpretation of the seismotectonic setting and mechanical interaction with other regional structures. The Chon-Kemin earthquake's relationship to other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events, indicates a strong interaction between structures in this portion of the Tien Shan. We reconnoitered most of the Chon-Kemin rupture belt and associated mass movements and conclude that many of the 1911 features are still well preserved. We emphasized mapping and description of the easternmost 50 km of the rupture, along the Aksu (easternmost) and Chon-Aksu segments. Moving from east to west, 1-3 m high fault scarps and warped Holocene terraces discontinuously cut the piedmonts north and northeast of the town of Anan'evo. The rupture closely follows the mountain front and enters the range just below the Anan'evo landslide (formed in the earthquake). Scarp heights are 2-4 m. West of the Tegermenty River, the left-stepping rupture is continuous and consists of sub parallel strands in places. Between the Sutubulak and the Aksu River crossing, some of the tallest scarps are present, with heights of 6 - 10 m. The generally north-dipping fault zone has low south dips in the near surface as the thrust has driven the hanging wall over the south-sloping piedmont. This change in dip is likely responsible for the formation of E-W extensional faults in the hanging wall. Given the shallow fault dips and tall scarps in this area, 1911 displacement is probably > 10 m

  10. Rupture process of the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with special reference to damaging ground motions: waveform inversion with empirical Green's functions (United States)

    Nozu, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Yosuke


    In this study, the rupture process of the main shock of the Kumamoto earthquake, particularly the generation of strong ground motions in the frequency range relevant to structural damage, was investigated based on the inversion of strong ground motions. Strong-motion records in the near-source region were mainly utilized because the authors were interested in the generation mechanism of damaging ground motions in the near-source region. Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) were applied to avoid uncertainty in the subsurface structure model. Four cases of inversions with different combinations of small events were used to investigate the dependence of the inversion results on the selection of the small events. It was found that the dependence of the final slip distribution and peak slip velocity distribution on the selection of the EGF events is small. The results clearly indicate that a region of significantly large slip and slip velocity existed approximately 15 km northeast of the hypocenter. However, no "asperity" was observed between the hypocenter and Mashiki. Thus, it is not appropriate to conclude that the large-amplitude pulse-like ground motion in Mashiki was generated by the forward-directivity effect associated with the rupture of an asperity. As far as the source effect is concerned, the ground motion in Mashiki cannot be interpreted as the worst case scenario. On the other hand, the rupture of the "asperity" 15 km northeast of the hypocenter should have caused significantly large ground motions in regions close to the asperity. The significant damage of highway bridges in the region can potentially be attributed to the rupture of the asperity. The result of this study was compared with an inversion result obtained from numerical Green's functions for a layered half-space. The two results share the main features in spite of the difference of the Green's functions and stations used. Therefore, it can be concluded that these two source models capture the

  11. Co-seismic secondary surface fractures on southeastward extension of the rupture zone of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake (United States)

    Jayangondaperumal, R.; Thakur, V. C.


    After the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, we mapped surface ground fractures in Tangdhar, Uri, Rajouri and Punch sectors and liquefaction features in Jammu area lying close to the eastern side of the Line of Control (LOC) in Kashmir, India. The NW trending ground fractures occurred largely in the hanging wall zone of the southeastern extension of the causative fault in Tangdhar and Uri sectors. The principal compressive stress deduced from the earthquake induced ground fractures is oriented at N10°, whereas the causative Balakot-Bagh fault strikes 330°. The fault-plane solution indicates primarily SW thrusting of the causative fault with a component of strike-slip motion. The ground fractures reflect pronounced strike-slip together with some tensile component. The Tangdhar area showing left-lateral strike-slip motion lies on the hanging wall, and the Uri region showing right-lateral strike-slip movement is located towards the southeastern extension of the causative fault zone. The shear fractures are related to static stress that was responsible for the failure of causative fault. The tensile fractures with offsets are attributed to combination of both static and dynamic stresses, and the fractures and openings without offsets owe their origin due to dynamic stress. In Punch-Rajouri and Jammu area, which lies on the footwall, the fractures and liquefactions were generated by dynamic stress. The occurrence of liquefaction features in the out board part of the Himalayan range front near Jammu is suggestive of stress transfer ˜ 230 km southeast of the epicenter. The Balakot-Bagh Fault (BBF), the Muzaffarabad anticline, the rupture zone of causative fault and the zone of aftershocks — all are aligned in a ˜ 25 km wide belt along the NW-SE trending regional Himalayan strike of Kashmir region and lying between the MBT and the Riasi Thrust (Murree Thrust), suggesting a seismogenic zone that may propagate towards the southeast to trigger an earthquake in the eastern part of

  12. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian


    Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...... the tower may lead to excitation with frequencies of the same order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic soil-structure interaction has to be accounted for in order to get an accurate prediction of the structural response. In this paper the particular problem of a rigid foundation on a layered subsoil...

  13. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan


    Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...... the tower may lead to excitation with frequencies of the same order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic soilstructure interaction has to be accounted for in order to get an accurate prediction of the structural response. In this paper the particular problem of a rigid foundation on a layered subsoil...

  14. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.


    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during convention

  15. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.


    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  16. Digital Modeling Phenomenon Of Surface Ground Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Voina


    Full Text Available With the development of specialized software applications it was possible to approach and resolve complex problems concerning automating and process optimization for which are being used field data. Computerized representation of the shape and dimensions of the Earth requires a detailed mathematical modeling, known as "digital terrain model". The paper aims to present the digital terrain model of Vulcan mining, Hunedoara County, Romania. Modeling consists of a set of mathematical equations that define in detail the surface of Earth and has an approximate surface rigorously and mathematical, that calculated the land area. Therefore, the digital terrain model means a digital representation of the earth's surface through a mathematical model that approximates the land surface modeling, which can be used in various civil and industrial applications in. To achieve the digital terrain model of data recorded using linear and nonlinear interpolation method based on point survey which highlights the natural surface studied. Given the complexity of this work it is absolutely necessary to know in detail of all topographic elements of work area, without the actions to be undertaken to project and manipulate would not be possible. To achieve digital terrain model, within a specialized software were set appropriate parameters required to achieve this case study. After performing all steps we obtained digital terrain model of Vulcan Mine. Digital terrain model is the complex product, which has characteristics that are equivalent to the specialists that use satellite images and information stored in a digital model, this is easier to use.

  17. First paleoseismic evidence for great surface-rupturing earthquakes in the Bhutan Himalayas (United States)

    Le Roux-Mallouf, Romain; Ferry, Matthieu; Ritz, Jean-François; Berthet, Théo.; Cattin, Rodolphe; Drukpa, Dowchu


    The seismic behavior of the Himalayan arc between central Nepal and Arunachal Pradesh remains poorly understood due to the lack of observations concerning the timing and size of past major and great earthquakes in Bhutan. We present here the first paleoseismic study along the Himalayan topographic front conducted at two sites in southern central Bhutan. Paleoseismological excavations and related OxCal modeling reveal that Bhutan experienced at least two great earthquakes in the last millennium: one between the seventeenth and eighteenth century and one during medieval times, producing a total cumulative vertical offset greater than 10 m. Along with previous studies that reported similar medieval events in Central Nepal, Sikkim, and Assam, our investigations support the occurrence of either (i) a series of great earthquakes between A.D. 1025 and A.D. 1520 or (ii) a single giant earthquake between A.D. 1090 and A.D. 1145. In the latter case, the surface rupture may have reached a total length of 800 km and could be associated with an earthquake of magnitude Mw = 8.7-9.1.

  18. Variations Of Surface Deformation And Lateral Extent Of Ruptures In Sequential Earthquake Deformation Cycles, South Central Alaska (United States)

    Shennan, I.; Barlow, N.; Bruhn, R. L.


    Multidisciplinary studies in south central Alaska provide evidence of at least 7 great earthquakes during the past 4000 yr, including the Mw = 9.2 earthquake of March 27th 1964. Using new data collected in 2009 we demonstrate variations in coseismic deformation by using stratigraphic and microfossil data to reconstruct relative sea-level changes in coastal sediment sequences through earthquake cycles. The key theme that arises over timescales of the last few millennia is one of temporal and spatial variability of surface deformation. Quantitative data show both temporal and spatial similarities and differences for different earthquake cycles. We find there is no fixed recurrence interval between great earthquakes. The shortest interval is between ~180 and 720 years. The longest interval is ~790 - 920 years, which is between the penultimate, ~900 BP, and the 1964 earthquakes. The 1964 rupture involved two segments (Kodiak and Prince William Sound) of the Aleutian Megathrust. Using data from sites in upper Cook Inlet, recording coseismic subsidence in 1964, between Copper River Delta and Cape Suckling, coseismic uplift in 1964, and the Yakataga coast to Icy Bay, no uplift in 1964, we have evidence to suggest simultaneous rupturing ~900BP and ~1500BP of three segments of the megathrust. These are two that formed the 1964 rupture zone and the adjacent segment extending to the Pamplona - Malaspina thrust front in the east. In this scenario the Yakataga seismic gap ruptures in conjunction with the Aleutian megathrust.

  19. Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels


    -small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....

  20. Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels


    -small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....

  1. Power productivity of the ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutu A.I.


    Full Text Available Here there is presented an attempt to estimate the efficiency degree when working with soil surface through the different methods of valorization incident solar radiation. Such technical methods are being analyzed as (solar collectors, photovoltaic cells, solar thermal power plants, power cultures field (bushes, wheat, sunflower, maize, rape, sorghum as well as microalgae crops. Here is the description of advantages and disadvantages for each group in part out of these three. The technical methods are up to date from the efficiency utilization view-point of industrial area. Microalgae crops are similar to technical methods from this point of view.

  2. Effect of position, time in the season, and playing surface on Achilles tendon ruptures in NFL games: a 2009-10 to 2016-17 review. (United States)

    Krill, Michael K; Borchers, James R; Hoffman, Joshua T; Krill, Matthew L; Hewett, Timothy E


    Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures are a potentially career-altering and ending injury. Achilles tendon ruptures have a below average return-to-play rate compared to other common orthopaedic procedures for National Football League (NFL) players. The objective of this study was to monitor the incidence and injury rates (IR) of AT ruptures that occurred during the regular season in order to evaluate the influence of player position, time of injury, and playing surface on rupture rates. A thorough online review was completed to identify published injury reports and public information regarding AT ruptures sustained during regular season and post-season games in the National Football League (NFL) during the 2009-10 to 2016-17 seasons. Team schedules, player position details and stadium information was used to determine period of the season of injury and playing surface. IRs were calculated per 100 team games (TG). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were utilized to compare IRs. During eight monitored seasons, there were 44 AT ruptures in NFL games. A majority of AT ruptures were sustained in the first eight games of the regular season (n = 32, 72.7%). There was a significant rate difference for the first and second four-game segments of the regular season compared to the last two four-game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures (n = 32, 72.7%). The IR on grass was 1.00 per 100 TG compared to 1.08 per 100 TG on artificial turf (IRR: 0.93, p = .80). A significant increase in AT ruptures occurred in the first and second four game segments of the regular season compared to the last two-four game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures compared to offensive or specialist players. There was no difference between AT rupture rates and playing surface in games.

  3. Evolution of the October 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake surface rupture: a decadal view (United States)

    Sousa, F.; Stock, J. M.; Akciz, S. O.


    We report on the first ever decadal scale repetition of a high density 3D aerial laser scan covering practically all of a large earthquake surface rupture. The scan was acquired by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) on May 27, 2012 along a 50 km stretch of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake. This new scan averages 1100 m total width, overlapping with and significantly increasing the breadth of a previous LiDAR scan acquired on April 19, 2000 by the USGS and Aerotech, LLC. Together, the two datasets comprise a 4D (12 year) snapshot of the post-event landscape evolution of a well-defined fault scarp and its immediate environs as well as a test case for characterization of the interplay between landscape evolution through human timescales and offset measurements made on geomorphic features visible in LiDAR derived DEMs. We investigate a 2 km long focus zone of the Lavic Lake fault where it cuts through Neogene volcanic rocks in the Bullion Mountains, a sparsely vegetated area which contains both the maximum horizontal offset measurements from field study and April 2000 LiDAR DEMs and the highest density of April 2000 LiDAR DEM offset measurements. After gridding both the 2000 and 2012 point cloud data for this zone into exactly congruent 0.5 m resolution DEMs we directly subtracted the two raster DEMs. This new raster elucidates specific and quantifiable areas of erosion and aggradation and shows that no measurable post-seismic slip has occurred within the focus zone during the interscan period. An unresolvable (sub-pixel) roughly southward horizontal shift of the 2012 data throughout the entire focus zone is present and could be due to a combination of factors including tectonic motion relative to the modeled plate velocities inherent in the reference frame or inaccuracies in either the April 2000 or May 2012 scan geolocations. Within the focus zone, 28 offset measurements were made previously using the

  4. Post-Earthquake Characterization of Surface Displacements and Spatial Variation of Deformation Kinematics near the Southern End of the Recent West Napa Fault Rupture (United States)

    Lutz, A. T.; Hitchcock, C. S.; Wade, A. M.


    We performed detailed mapping along more than 1.3 km of surface rupture between Cuttings Wharf and CA-12 in order to characterize the location, width, orientation, amount, direction, and kinematics of permanent ground deformation produced in the hours, days, and weeks following the August 24 M6.0 South Napa earthquake. Surface rupture along a 550 m long reach between Middle Ave and South Ave near Los Carneros Ave is expressed as a series of right-stepping, 337° striking intervals roughly 2 to 6 m wide and 30 to 60 m long. The dextral component of displacement produced localized transpressional strain and formed narrow pressure ridges 15 to 20 cm high and 0.5 to 1.5 m wide. Each of these right-stepping reaches are composed of an irregular pattern of smaller scale (0.3 to 8 m long) left-stepping en echelon fractures striking 355° to 030°, with more easterly oriented fractures tending to be longer. In additional to pressure ridges, the deformation field exhibits a broad west-up sense of vertical displacement. Total station survey data from two faulted fence lines indicate 34 ± 4 cm and 30.5 ± 4.5 cm of dextral displacement and 15 ± 4 cm and 12 ± 2 cm of net west-up vertical displacement. The average direction of dextral displacement is 330° ± 5° along this reach. Surface rupture along a 800 m long reach from Las Amigas Road south to Los Carneros Creek is expressed as a series of left-stepping, N20°W striking intervals roughly 1.5 to 4 m wide and 40 to 70 m long. Each of these intervals are composed of a regular pattern of smaller scale (4 to 6 m long) left-stepping en echelon fractures striking 000° to 015°. Multiple measurements indicate a gradual southward decrease in the amount of dextral surface displacement from 12 ± 2 cm near Las Amigas Road to 7.5 ± 1.5 cm near Los Carneros Creek; these dextral displacements are consistently 2 to 3 times larger than co-located net west-up vertical displacements. The dominant direction of dextral displacement is

  5. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA. (United States)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.


    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm

  6. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.


    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  7. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories (United States)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude


    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  8. Which Fault Segments Ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and Which Did Not? New Evidence from Near‐Fault 3D Surface Displacements Derived from SAR Image Offsets

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Guangcai


    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured a complex thrust‐faulting system at the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau and west of Sichuan basin. Though the earthquake has been extensively studied, several details about the earthquake, such as which fault segments were activated in the earthquake, are still not clear. This is in part due to difficult field access to the fault zone and in part due to limited near‐fault observations in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations because of decorrelation. In this study, we address this problem by estimating SAR image offsets that provide near‐fault ground displacement information and exhibit clear displacement discontinuities across activated fault segments. We begin by reanalyzing the coseismic InSAR observations of the earthquake and then mostly eliminate the strong ionospheric signals that were plaguing previous studies by using additional postevent images. We also estimate the SAR image offsets and use their results to retrieve the full 3D coseismic surface displacement field. The coseismic deformation from the InSAR and image‐offset measurements are compared with both Global Positioning System and field observations. The results indicate that our observations provide significantly better information than previous InSAR studies that were affected by ionospheric disturbances. We use the results to present details of the surface‐faulting offsets along the Beichuan fault from the southwest to the northeast and find that there is an obvious right‐lateral strike‐slip component (as well as thrust faulting) along the southern Beichuan fault (in Yingxiu County), which was strongly underestimated in earlier studies. Based on the results, we provide new evidence to show that the Qingchuan fault was not ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a topic debated in field observation studies, but show instead that surface faulting occurred on a northward extension of the Beichuan fault during

  9. Ground-based measurement of surface temperature and thermal emissivity (United States)

    Owe, M.; Van De Griend, A. A.


    Motorized cable systems for transporting infrared thermometers have been used successfully during several international field campaigns. Systems may be configured with as many as four thermal sensors up to 9 m above the surface, and traverse a 30 m transect. Ground and canopy temperatures are important for solving the surface energy balance. The spatial variability of surface temperature is often great, so that averaged point measurements result in highly inaccurate areal estimates. The cable systems are ideal for quantifying both temporal and spatial variabilities. Thermal emissivity is also necessary for deriving the absolute physical temperature, and measurements may be made with a portable measuring box.

  10. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.


    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  11. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar


    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  12. 3D point cloud data from laser scanning along the 2014 South Napa Earthquake surface rupture, California, USA (United States)

    DeLong, Stephen B.


    Point cloud data collected along a 500 meter portion of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake surface rupture near Cuttings Wharf Road, Napa, CA, USA. The data include 7 point cloud files (.laz). The files are named with the location and date of collection and either ALSM for airborne laser scanner data or TLS for terrestrial laser scanner data. The ALSM data re previously released but are included here because they have been precisely aligned with the TLS data as described in the processing section of this metadata. 

  13. Mitigating ground vibration by periodic inclusions and surface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius; Persson, Peter


    -dimensional finite-element model. The laboratory model employs soaked mattress foam placed within a box to mimic a finite volume of soil. The dynamic properties of the soaked foam ensure wavelengths representative of ground vibration in small scale. Comparison of the results from the two models leads......Ground vibration from traffic is a source of nuisance in urbanized areas. Trenches and wave barriers can provide mitigation of vibrations, but single barriers need to have a large depth to be effective-especially in the low-frequency range relevant to traffic-induced vibration. Alternatively...... well-defined behavior can be expected for transient loads and finite structures. However, some mitigation may occur. The paper aims at quantifying the mitigation effect of nearly periodic masses placed on the ground surface using two approaches: a small-scale laboratory model and a three...

  14. Structure of the 1906 near-surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Peninsula segment, near Woodside, California (United States)

    Rosa, C.M.; Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Grove, Karen; Goldman, M.R.


    High-resolution seismic-reflection and refraction images of the 1906 surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault near Woodside, California reveal evidence for one or more additional near-surface (within about 3 meters [m] depth) fault strands within about 25 m of the 1906 surface rupture. The 1906 surface rupture above the groundwater table (vadose zone) has been observed in paleoseismic trenches that coincide with our seismic profile and is seismically characterized by a discrete zone of low P-wave velocities (Vp), low S-wave velocities (Vs), high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios. A second near-surface fault strand, located about 17 m to the southwest of the 1906 surface rupture, is inferred by similar seismic anomalies. Between these two near-surface fault strands and below 5 m depth, we observed a near-vertical fault strand characterized by a zone of high Vp, low Vs, high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios on refraction tomography images and near-vertical diffractions on seismic-reflection images. This prominent subsurface zone of seismic anomalies is laterally offset from the 1906 surface rupture by about 8 m and likely represents the active main (long-term) strand of the San Andreas Fault at 5 to 10 m depth. Geometries of the near-surface and subsurface (about 5 to 10 m depth) fault zone suggest that the 1906 surface rupture dips southwestward to join the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at about 5 to 10 m below the surface. The 1906 surface rupture forms a prominent groundwater barrier in the upper 3 to 5 m, but our interpreted secondary near-surface fault strand to the southwest forms a weaker barrier, suggesting that there has been less or less-recent near-surface slip on that strand. At about 6 m depth, the main strand of the San Andreas Fault consists of water-saturated blue clay (collected from a hand-augered borehole), which is similar to deeply weathered serpentinite observed within the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at

  15. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik


    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  16. Tearing the terroir: Details and implications of surface rupture and deformation from the 24 August 2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake, California (United States)

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Donnellan, Andrea; Ponti, Daniel J.; Rubin, Ron S.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Schwartz, David P.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Rosa, Carla M.; Pickering, Alexandra J; Parker, Jay W.


    The Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake of 24 August 2014 caused slip on several active fault strands within the West Napa Fault Zone (WNFZ). Field mapping identified 12.5 km of surface rupture. These field observations, near-field geodesy and space geodesy, together provide evidence for more than ~30 km of surface deformation with a relatively complex distribution across a number of subparallel lineaments. Along a ~7 km section north of the epicenter, the surface rupture is confined to a single trace that cuts alluvial deposits, reoccupying a low-slope scarp. The rupture continued northward onto at least four other traces through subparallel ridges and valleys. Postseismic slip exceeded coseismic slip along much of the southern part of the main rupture trace with total slip 1 year postevent approaching 0.5 m at locations where only a few centimeters were measured the day of the earthquake. Analysis of airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar data provides slip distributions along fault traces, indicates connectivity and extent of secondary traces, and confirms that postseismic slip only occurred on the main trace of the fault, perhaps indicating secondary structures ruptured as coseismic triggered slip. Previous mapping identified the WNFZ as a zone of distributed faulting, and this was generally borne out by the complex 2014 rupture pattern. Implications for hazard analysis in similar settings include the need to consider the possibility of complex surface rupture in areas of complex topography, especially where multiple potentially Quaternary-active fault strands can be mapped.

  17. Ground Surface Deformations Near a Fault-Bounded Groundwater Aquifer (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Funning, G. J.; Ferretti, A.


    Geodetic data often reveal the presence of groundwater aquifers that are bounded by faults (Schmidt and Bürgmann, 2003; Galloway and Hoffmann, 2007; Bell et al., 2008). Whereas unrestricted groundwater aquifers exhibit a radially symmetric pattern of uplift with diffuse boundaries, aquifers that are bounded by faults have one or more sharp, linear boundaries. Interferometric synthetic aperture (InSAR) data, due to their high spatial density, are particularly well suited to observe fault bounded aquifers, and the Santa Clara Aquifer in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, constitutes an excellent example. The largest ground surface displacements in the Bay Area are due to the inflation of the Santa Clara aquifer, and InSAR data plainly show that the Santa Clara aquifer is partitioned by the Silver Creek fault. This study first develops a general model of the displacements at the surface of the Earth due to fluid diffusion through a buried permeable boundary such as a fault zone. This model is compared to InSAR data from the Silver Creek fault and we find that we are able to infer fault zone poromechanical properties from InSAR data that are comparable to in situ measurements. Our theoretical model is constrained by several geological and hydrological observations concerning the structure of fault zones. Analytical solutions are presented for the ground surface displacements due to a perfectly impermeable fault zone. This end-member family of models, however, does not fit the available data. We therefore make allowance for an arbitrarily layered, variably permeable, one-dimensional fault zone. Time-dependent ground surface deformations are calculated in the Laplace domain using an efficient semi-analytic method. This general model is applicable to other poroelastic regimes including geothermal and hydrocarbon systems. We are able to estimate fault zone hydraulic conductivity by comparing theoretical ground surface displacements in a permeable fault zone to

  18. Potential Energy Surfaces of Nitrogen Dioxide for the Ground State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Ju-Xiang; ZHU Zheng-He; CHENG Xin-Lu; YANG Xiang-Dong


    The potential energy function of nitrogen dioxide with the C2v symmetry in the ground state is represented using the simplified Sorbie-Murrell many-body expansion function in terms of the symmetry of NO2. Using the potential energy function, some potential energy surfaces of NO2(C2v, X2A1), such as the bond stretching contour plot for a fixed equilibrium geometry angle θ and contour for O moving around N-O (R1), in which R1 is fixed at the equilibrium bond length, are depicted. The potential energy surfaces are analysed. Moreover, the equilibrium parameters for NO2 with the C2v, Cs and D8h symmetries, such as equilibrium geometry structures and energies, are calculated by the ab initio (CBS-Q) method.

  19. A 3000-year record of ground-rupturing earthquakes along the central North Anatolian fault near Lake Ladik, Turkey (United States)

    Fraser, J.; Pigati, J.S.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Vanneste, K.; Avsar, U.; Altinok, S.


    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a ???1500 km long, arcuate, dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey that extends from the Karliova triple junction to the Aegean Sea. East of Bolu, the fault zone exhibits evidence of a sequence of large (Mw >7) earthquakes that occurred during the twentieth century that displayed a migrating earthquake sequence from east to west. Prolonged human occupation in this region provides an extensive, but not exhaustive, historical record of large earthquakes prior to the twentieth century that covers much of the last 2000 yr. In this study, we extend our knowledge of rupture events in the region by evaluating the stratigraphy and chronology of sediments exposed in a paleoseismic trench across a splay of the NAF at Destek, ???6:5 km east of Lake Ladik (40.868?? N, 36.121?? E). The trenched fault strand forms an uphill-facing scarp and associated sediment trap below a small catchment area. The trench exposed a narrow fault zone that has juxtaposed a sequence of weakly defined paleosols interbedded with colluvium against highly fractured bedrock. We mapped magnetic susceptibility variations on the trench walls and found evidence for multiple visually unrecognized colluvial wedges. This technique was also used to constrain a predominantly dip-slip style of displacement on this fault splay. Sediments exposed in the trench were dated using both charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells to constrain the timing of the earthquake events. While the gastropod shells consistently yielded 14 C ages that were too old (by ???900 yr), we obtained highly reliable 14 C ages from the charcoal by dating multiple components of the sample material. Our radiocarbon chronology constrains the timing of seven large earthquakes over the past 3000 yr prior to the 1943 Tosya earthquake, including event ages of (2?? error): A.D. 1437-1788, A.D. 1034-1321, A.D. 549-719, A.D. 17-585 (1-3 events), 35 B.C.-A.D. 28, 700-392 B.C., 912-596 B.C. Our results

  20. The Surface Rupture of the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake and its Interaction with the 1892 Laguna Salada Rupture - Complex Fault Interaction in an Oblique Rift System (Invited) (United States)

    Rockwell, T. K.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O.; Mueller, K. J.


    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2) demonstrates intimate mechanical interactions between two major fault systems that intersect within and along the western margin of the Sierra Cucapah in Baja California, Mexico. Rupture associated with 2010 earthquake produced ~4 m of dextral oblique slip and propagated through an imbricate stack of east-dipping faults. Toward the north, rupture consistently steps left to structurally deeper faults located farther west and in this manner passes through the core of the Sierra Cucapah to its western margin. The western margin of the Sierra Cucapah is defined by the Laguna Salada fault (LSF), which forms part of an active west-directed oblique detachment system recognized as the source of the large (M7+) February 22, 1892 earthquake. In the central Sierra Cucapah, the fault systems are separated by a narrow horst block, and here the 2010 event produced triggered slip on the LSF. These surface breaks follow the exact trace of the 1892 rupture, but their sense of slip (10-30 cm of pure normal displacement) differs radically from the 5 m of oblique dextral-normal slip produced by the 1892 event. Farther north, the narrow horst block is buried beneath strata of the northern Laguna Salada rift basin, and at this location, west-directed scarps of the LSF accommodate a significant component of dextral slip associated with the primary 2010 surface rupture. Thus, the two fault systems combine to accommodate oblique extension in the northern part of the range and likely have linking structures at fairly shallow depth. Newly identified paleo-scarps extend the known 1892 rupture length from 20 km to as much as 42 km, from the Canon Rojo fault to the Yuha Basin; consistent with a Mw 7.2 event and historical reports of MMI VII damage in San Diego. Both fault systems generate large earthquakes (>M7.2), with the west-directed LSF fault accommodating rapid subsidence in the adjacent basin during M7+ events at ~ 2Ka recurrence. Initial

  1. Diurnal freeze/thaw cycles of the ground surface on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG MeiXue; YAO TanDong; GOU XiaoHua; HIROSE Nozomu; FUJII Hide Yuki; HAO LiSheng; D.F.LEVIA


    The exchange of energy and water between the lithosphere and atmosphere mainly takes place at the ground surface. Therefore, freeze/thaw condition at the ground surface is an important factor in examining the interactions between the land surface and atmosphere. Based on the observation data obtained by CEOP/CAMP-Tibet, the diurnal freeze/thaw cycles of the ground surface near Naqu, central Tibetan Plateau was preliminarily analyzed. The results show that the surface layer was completely frozen for approximately one month. However, the time that the ground surface experienced diurnal freeze/thaw cycles was about 6 months. The high frequency of freeze/thaw cycles at the ground surface significantly influences water and energy exchanges between ground and atmosphere over half a year. The interaction processes between the ground and atmosphere under different soil conditions (such as complete thaw, complete freeze and diurnal freeze/thaw cycles) are issues worthy of further examination.

  2. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.


    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area.

  3. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.


    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  4. Testing long-period ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes using the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah mainshock: Evaluation of finite-fault rupture characterization and 3D seismic velocity models (United States)

    Graves, Robert W.; Aagaard, Brad T.


    Using a suite of five hypothetical finite-fault rupture models, we test the ability of long-period (T>2.0 s) ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes to produce waveforms throughout southern California consistent with those recorded during the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. The hypothetical ruptures are generated using the methodology proposed by Graves and Pitarka (2010) and require, as inputs, only a general description of the fault location and geometry, event magnitude, and hypocenter, as would be done for a scenario event. For each rupture model, two Southern California Earthquake Center three-dimensional community seismic velocity models (CVM-4m and CVM-H62) are used, resulting in a total of 10 ground-motion simulations, which we compare with recorded ground motions. While the details of the motions vary across the simulations, the median levels match the observed peak ground velocities reasonably well, with the standard deviation of the residuals generally within 50% of the median. Simulations with the CVM-4m model yield somewhat lower variance than those with the CVM-H62 model. Both models tend to overpredict motions in the San Diego region and underpredict motions in the Mojave desert. Within the greater Los Angeles basin, the CVM-4m model generally matches the level of observed motions, whereas the CVM-H62 model tends to overpredict the motions, particularly in the southern portion of the basin. The variance in the peak velocity residuals is lowest for a rupture that has significant shallow slip (models may need improvement.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chiba


    Full Text Available There are many methods to express topographical features of ground surface. In which, contour map has been the traditional method and along with development of digital data, surface model such as shaded relief map has been using for ground surface expression. Recently, data acquisition has been developed very much quick, demanding more advanced visualization method to express ground surface so as to effectively use the high quality data. In this study, the authors using the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008 to express ground surface visualization for a variety of map scales. The authors used 30 m mesh data of SRTM to show the topographical features of western Mongolian and micro-topographical features of ground surface in tectonically active regions of Japan. The results show that, compared to traditional and other similar methods, the RRIM can express ground surface more precisely and 3-dimensionally, suggested its advanced usage for many fields of topographical visualization.

  6. Ground Surface Visualization Using Red Relief Image Map for a Variety of Map Scales (United States)

    Chiba, T.; Hasi, B.


    There are many methods to express topographical features of ground surface. In which, contour map has been the traditional method and along with development of digital data, surface model such as shaded relief map has been using for ground surface expression. Recently, data acquisition has been developed very much quick, demanding more advanced visualization method to express ground surface so as to effectively use the high quality data. In this study, the authors using the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) to express ground surface visualization for a variety of map scales. The authors used 30 m mesh data of SRTM to show the topographical features of western Mongolian and micro-topographical features of ground surface in tectonically active regions of Japan. The results show that, compared to traditional and other similar methods, the RRIM can express ground surface more precisely and 3-dimensionally, suggested its advanced usage for many fields of topographical visualization.

  7. Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes at the Spring Lake and North Creek Sites on the Wasatch Fault Zone: Evidence for complex rupture of the Nephi Segment (United States)

    Duross, Christopher; Hylland, Michael D; Hiscock, Adam; Personius, Stephen; Briggs, Richard; Gold, Ryan D.; Beukelman, Gregg; McDonald, Geg N; Erickson, Ben; McKean, Adam; Angster, Steve; King, Roselyn; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon


    The Nephi segment of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) comprises two fault strands, the northern and southern strands, which have evidence of recurrent late Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes. We excavated paleoseismic trenches across these strands to refine and expand their Holocene earthquake chronologies; improve estimates of earthquake recurrence, displacement, and fault slip rate; and assess whether the strands rupture separately or synchronously in large earthquakes. Paleoseismic data from the Spring Lake site expand the Holocene record of earthquakes on the northern strand: at least five to seven earthquakes ruptured the Spring Lake site at 0.9 ± 0.2 ka (2σ), 2.9 ± 0.7 ka, 4.0 ± 0.5 ka, 4.8 ± 0.8 ka, 5.7 ± 0.8 ka, 6.6 ± 0.7 ka, and 13.1 ± 4.0 ka, yielding a Holocene mean recurrence of ~1.2–1.5 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~0.5–0.8 mm/yr. Paleoseismic data from the North Creek site help refine the Holocene earthquake chronology for the southern strand: at least five earthquakes ruptured the North Creek site at 0.2 ± 0.1 ka (2σ), 1.2 ± 0.1 ka, 2.6 ± 0.9 ka, 4.0 ± 0.1 ka, and 4.7 ± 0.7 ka, yielding a mean recurrence of 1.1–1.3 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~1.9–2.0 mm/yr. We compare these Spring Lake and North Creek data with previous paleoseismic data for the Nephi segment and report late Holocene mean recurrence intervals of ~1.0–1.2 kyr for the northern strand and ~1.1–1.3 kyr for the southern strand. The northern and southern strands have similar late Holocene earthquake histories, which allow for models of both independent and synchronous rupture. However, considering the earthquake timing probabilities and per-event vertical displacements, we have the greatest confidence in the simultaneous rupture of the strands, including rupture of one strand with spillover rupture to the other. Ultimately, our results improve the surface-faulting earthquake history of the Nephi segment and enhance our understanding of how structural barriers

  8. Late Quaternary surface deformation and rupture behavior of strong earthquake on the segment north of Mianning of the Anninghe fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN YongKang; CHEN LiChun; CHENG JianWu; GONG HuiLing


    The Anninghe fault is an important active fault along the eastern boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan active tectonic block, and the study of its surface deformation and rupture behavior during strong earthquake in the late Quaternary is of fundamental importance for understanding the future seismic risk of the fault zone or even the entire western Sichuan region.Using the methods of detailed geomorphic and geological survey, digital image analysis, total station instrument survey, excavation of combined trench and dating, we analyze the geomorphologic sequences of the offset strata at several sites where the late Quaternary deformation remnants are fairly well preserved and obtain some new results as follows: Strong earthquake events with left-lateral displacements of about 3 m occurred at the two sites of Zimakua and Yejitong at 1634-1811,1030-1050 and 280-550 a BP, respectively, and the recurrence interval is 520-660 a; The youngest event in the area of Dahaizi-Ganhaizi should be the earthquake of 1536, other events are at 1768-1826, 2755-4108 and 4108-6593 a BP, respectively, with a recurrence interval of 1300-1900 a.The strong earthquake activity shows a clustering character.The possibility of occurrence of a strong earthquake exists on the north segment of the Anninghe fault sometime in the future.

  9. Late Quaternary surface deformation and rupture behavior of strong earthquake on the segment north of Mianning of the Anninghe fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Anninghe fault is an important active fault along the eastern boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan active tectonic block, and the study of its surface deformation and rupture behavior during strong earthquake in the late Quaternary is of fundamental importance for understanding the future seismic risk of the fault zone or even the entire western Sichuan region. Using the methods of detailed geomorphic and geological survey, digital image analysis, total station instrument survey, excavation of combined trench and dating, we analyze the geomorphologic sequences of the offset strata at several sites where the late Quaternary deformation remnants are fairly well preserved and obtain some new results as follows: Strong earthquake events with left-lateral displacements of about 3 m occurred at the two sites of Zimakua and Yejitong at 1634-1811, 1030-1050 and 280-550 a BP, respectively, and the recurrence interval is 520-660 a; The youngest event in the area of Dahaizi-Ganhaizi should be the earthquake of 1536, other events are at 1768-1826, 2755-4108 and 4108-6593 a BP, respectively, with a recurrence interval of 1300-1900 a. The strong earthquake activity shows a clustering character. The possibility of occurrence of a strong earthquake exists on the north segment of the Anninghe fault sometime in the future.

  10. Locally controlled globally smooth ground surface reconstruction from terrestrial point clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Rychkov, Igor


    Approaches to ground surface reconstruction from massive terrestrial point clouds are presented. Using a set of local least squares (LSQR) planes, the "holes" are filled either from the ground model of the next coarser level or by Hermite Radial Basis Functions (HRBF). Global curvature continuous as well as infinitely smooth ground surface models are obtained with Partition of Unity (PU) using either tensor product B-Splines or compactly supported exponential function. The resulting surface function has local control enabling fast evaluation.

  11. Rupture history of the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto earthquake constrained by the local strong motion, teleseismic body and surface waves (United States)

    Hao, J.; Ji, C.; Yao, Z.


    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence occurred near the south end of Median Tectonic line (MTL), where the MTL bifurcates into Hinagu Fault (orienting N205oE) and Futagawa Fault (orienting N235oE). According to JMA, this sequence started as Mw 6.2 foreshock on April 14. The Mw 7.0 mainshock occurred a day later. We have selected 14 3-component strong motion observations, accompanying with waveforms of teleseismic broadband body waves and long period surface waves of the 2016 Kumamoto mainshock to constrain its temporal and spatial distribution of slip. Our result reveals that the Komamoto mainshock had a complicated rupture scenario. Our preferred model is composed of Hinagu (dipping 73o northwest) and Futagawa (dipping 60o) fault segments. To test how rupture across fault interaction, we let Futagawa segment overlap with Hinaga segment and initiate nearly simultaneously. However, the inverted model has negligible fault slip on the overlap portion, illustrating the data resolution. Rupture initiated at JMA hypocenter on the Hinagu segment in dominant right-lateral strike-slip motion. The significant rupture on the Futagawa segment occurred 4-5 s later at a depth about 10 km. The rupture on Futagawa fault segment initiates as pure strike-slip motion but normal fault component increases as the rupture propagates close to the Aso Volcano. The total rupture duration is 15 s. The cumulative seismic moment on the Hinagu segment is 1.40×1019 Nm (Mw 6.7) while that of Futagawa segment is 2.94×1019 Nm (Mw 6.9). Their summation in tensor field yields a total seismic moment of 3.9×1019 Nm (Mw 7.0). The best double couple solution of this cumulative moment tensor has strike, dip, rake angles of 224o, 64o and -152o, respectively, agreeing remarkably with the long period best double couple solutions of USGS W-Phase solution (224o, 66o, -152o) and the GCMT project (222o, 77o, -163o). However, the CLVD component of our solution is negligible, consistent with USGS solution. It

  12. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, B.L.


    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  13. Afterslip-dominated surface rupture in the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake as constrained by structure-from-motion analysis and terrestrial laser scanning (United States)

    DeLong, S. B.; Pickering, A.; Scharer, K. M.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lienkaemper, J. J.


    Near-fault surface deformation associated with the August 24, 2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake included both coseismic and post-seismic slip. Initial synthesis of field observations and initial measurement and modeling of afterslip from traditional survey methods indicate that coseismic slip was minimal (Road, on discontinuous left-stepping en echelon ruptures. By August 26, the surface rupture became nearly continuous, and cultural features extracted from the TLS point clouds indicate horizontal slip magnitudes between 15 and 27 cm, increasing northward. By September 22, slip magnitudes had increased to between 26 and 46 cm. The lower slip magnitudes are to the south at Withers Road, and the general trend is increased slip to the north, but there is more slip variability along the fault trace in the September 15 data. From August 26 to September 15, the west side of the fault trace uplifted between 0.5 and 5 cm relative to east side. Increased relief on the surface rupture itself indicated a slight compressional component of the deformation. These results confirm that post-event air photos can be useful for rapid 3D mapping, and that the unparalleled accuracy of TLS data can be used to quantify even very subtle deformation patterns in three dimensions and document changes through time.

  14. Surface rupture and slip distribution of the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake (New Zealand) from optical satellite image correlation using MicMac (United States)

    Champenois, Johann; Klinger, Yann; Grandin, Raphaël; Satriano, Claudio; Baize, Stéphane; Delorme, Arthur; Scotti, Oona


    Remote sensing techniques, like optical satellite image correlation, are very efficient methods to localize and quantify surface displacements due to earthquakes. In this study, we use the french sub-pixel correlator MicMac (Multi Images Correspondances par Méthodes Automatiques de Corrélation). This free open-source software, developed by IGN, was recently adapted to process satellite images. This correlator uses regularization, and that provides good results especially in near-fault area with a high spatial resolution. We use co-seismic pair of ortho-images to measure the horizontal displacement field during the recent 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura earthquake. Optical satellite images from different satellites are processed (Sentinel-2A, Landsat8, etc.) to present a dense map of the surface ruptures and to analyze high density slip distribution along all major ruptures. We also provide a detail pattern of deformation along these main surface ruptures. Moreover, 2D displacement from optical correlation is compared to co-seismic measurements from GPS, static displacement from accelerometric records, geodetic marks and field investigations. Last but not least, we investigate the reconstruction of 3D displacement from combining InSAR, GPS and optic.

  15. On Offset Stream Measurements and Recent Coseismic Surface Rupture in the Carrizo Section of the San Andreas Fault (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Akciz, S. O.; Delano, J.; Glennie, C. L.; Prentice, C. S.; DeLong, S.


    Recent studies using airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) topographic data have provoked debate about whether the Mw 7.9 Fort Tejon 1857 earthquake produced ~5m or ~10m of surface strike-slip displacement in the Carrizo section of the south-central San Andreas fault. Resolution of this discrepancy is important not only for understanding the proposed role of the Carrizo section in controlling repeated south-central San Andreas rupture but also for understanding the general utility of stream offset measurements for earthquake process studies. To explore if higher-resolution topographic data of the offset features would help reconcile the different interpretations, we used a mobile laser scanning (MLS) backpack-mounted system to survey 11 ~5m offset streams given 'high' quality rankings by previous studies. In our surveys, point density was on the order of 1000s pts/m^2 in comparison to 1-4 pts/m^2 for the ALSM data, enabling us to faithfully make digital elevation models with grid spacing smaller than 10cm. We adapt a geometric method that relies on a small number of user-dependent decisions to produce an offset estimate from a set of geomorphic markers (thalweg, channel margins, channel shoulders) from upstream and downstream locations. We typically derive an ensemble of at least 10 offset measurements per stream channel and from these calculate a mean and standard deviation. We also explore using gradient changes in long profiles of the offset stream reaches to diagnose the possibility of a ~10m channel experiencing 2 ~5m slip events. Preliminary results suggest a tendency towards the higher value offset estimates, although this does not necessarily preclude the possibility of two or more events causing the cumulative offset.

  16. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.


    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  17. Surface fatigue life of CBN and vitreous ground carburized and hardened AISI 9310 spur gears (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Patel, P. R.


    Spur gear surface endurance tests were conducted to investigate CBN ground AISI 9310 spur gears for use in aircraft applications, to determine their endurance characteristics and to compare the results with the endurance of standard vitreous ground AISI 9310 spur gears. Tests were conducted with VIM-VAR AISI 9310 carburized and hardened gears that were finish ground with either CBN or vitreous grinding methods. Test conditions were an inlet oil temeprature of 320 K (116 F), an outlet oil temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The CBN ground gears exhibited a surface fatigue life that was slightly better than the vitreous ground gears. The subsurface residual stress of the CBN ground gears was approximately the same as that for the standard vitreous ground gears for the CBN grinding method used.

  18. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  19. Surface and borehole ground-penetrating-radar developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, E.C.; Sato, M.; Olhoeft, G.


    During the past 80 years, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has evolved from a skeptically received glacier sounder to a full multicomponent 3D volume-imaging and characterization device. The tool can be calibrated to allow for quantitative estimates of physical properties such as water content. Becau

  20. Mitigating ground vibration by periodic inclusions and surface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius; Persson, Peter


    Ground vibration from traffic is a source of nuisance in urbanized areas. Trenches and wave barriers can provide mitigation of vibrations, but single barriers need to have a large depth to be effective-especially in the low-frequency range relevant to traffic-induced vibration. Alternatively, per...

  1. Surface Rupture and Co-seismic Displacement Produced by the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake of May 12th, 2008, Sichuan, China: Eastwards Growth of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shuwen; ZHANG Yueqiao; WU Zhenhan; YANG Nong; MA Yinsheng; SHI Wei; CHEN Zhengle; LONG Changxing; AN Meijian


    An earthquake of Ms 8 struck Wenchuan County, western Sichuan, China, on May 12th, 2008 and resulted in long surface ruptures (>300 km). The first-hand observations about the surface ruptures produced by the earthquake in the worst-hit areas of Yingxiu, Beichuan and Qingchuan, ascertained that the causative structure of the earthquake was in the central fault zones of the Longmenshan tectonic belt. Average co-seismic vertical displacements along the individual fault of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone reach 2.5-4 m and the cumulative vertical displacements across the central and frontal Longmenshan fault belt is about 5-6 m. The surface rupture strength was reduced from north of Beichuan to Qingchuan County and shows 2-3 m dextral strike-slip component. The Wenchuan thrust-faulting earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau under the action of continuous convergence of the Indian and Eurasian continents.

  2. Near-ground cooling efficacies of trees and high-albedo surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, R M [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Daytime summer urban heat islands arise when the prevalence of dark-colored surfaces and lack of vegetation make a city warmer than neighboring countryside. Two frequently-proposed summer heat island mitigation measures are to plant trees and to increase the albedo (solar reflectivity) of ground surfaces. This dissertation examines the effects of these measures on the surface temperature of an object near the ground, and on solar heating of air near the ground. Near-ground objects include people, vehicles, and buildings. The variation of the surface temperature of a near-ground object with ground albedo indicates that a rise in ground albedo will cool a near-ground object only if the object`s albedo exceeds a critical value. This critical value of object albedo depends on wind speed, object geometry, and the height of the atmospheric thermal boundary layer. It ranges from 0.15 to 0.37 for a person. If an object has typical albedo of 0.3, increasing the ground albedo by.

  3. Topographical Anisotropy and Wetting of Ground Stainless Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Bellmann


    Full Text Available Microscopic and physico-chemical methods were used for a comprehensive surface characterization of different mechanically modified stainless steel surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed using high-resolution confocal microscopy, resulting in detailed information about the topographic properties. In addition, static water contact angle measurements were carried out to characterize the surface heterogeneity of the samples. The effect of morphological anisotropy on water contact angle anisotropy was investigated. The correlation between topography and wetting was studied by means of a model of wetting proposed in the present work, that allows quantifying the air volume of the interface water drop-stainless steel surface.

  4. Concentration distributions of thoron and radon near the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katase, Akira [Tohwa Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    One dimensional diffusion model with a constant diffusion coefficient is applied to the thoron concentration distributions in air above the ground. The experimental distributions are well described by the exponential function obtained from the model. Diffusion coefficients and thoron exhalation rates are estimated from the measured distributions, which are the average values for three months. The present values of thoron exhalation are however several times as small as those measured by other researchers. (author)

  5. Ground effects of space weather investigated by the surface impedance (United States)

    Pirjola, R.; Boteler, D.; Trichtchenko, L.


    The objective of this paper is to provide a discussion of the surface impedance applicable in connection with studies of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems. This viewpoint means that the surface impedance is regarded as a tool to determine the horizontal (geo)electric field at the Earth's surface, which is the key quantity for GIC. Thus the approach is different from the traditional magnetotelluric viewpoint. The definition of the surface impedance usually involves wavenumber-frequency-domain fields, so inverse Fourier transforming the expression of the electric field in terms of the surface impedance and the geomagnetic field results in convolution integrals in the time and space domains. The frequency-dependent surface impedance has a high-pass filter character whereas the corresponding transfer function between the electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field is of a low-pass filter type. The relative change of the latter transfer function with frequency is usually smaller than that of the surface impedance, which indicates that the geoelectric field is closer to the time derivative than to the magnetic field itself. An investigation of the surface impedance defined by the space-domain electric and magnetic components indicates that the largest electric fields are not always achieved by the plane wave assumption, which is sometimes regarded as an extreme case for GIC. It is also concluded in this paper that it is often possible to apply the plane wave relation locally between the surface electric and magnetic fields. The absolute value of the surface impedance decreases with an increasing wavenumber although the maximum may also be at a non-zero value of the wavenumber. The imaginary part of the surface impedance usually much exceeds the real part.

  6. Analysis on effect of surface fault to site ground motion using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹炳政; 罗奇峰


    Dynamic contact theory is applied to simulate the sliding of surface fault. Finite element method is used to analyze the effect of surface fault to site ground motions. Calculated results indicate that amplification effect is obvious in the area near surface fault, especially on the site that is in the downside fault. The results show that the effect of surface fault should be considered when important structure is constructed in the site with surface fault.

  7. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  8. Calculation of the local rupture speed of dynamically propagating earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bizzarri


    Full Text Available The velocity at which a propagating earthquake advances on the fault surface is of pivotal importance in the contest of the source dynamics and in the modeling of the ground motions generation. In this paper the problem of the determination of the rupture speed (v_r is considered. The comparison of different numerical schemes to compute vr from the rupture time (t_r shows that, in general, central finite differences schemes are more accurate than forward or backward schemes, regardless the order of accuracy. Overall, the most efficient and accurate algorithm is the five–points stencil method at the second–order of accuracy. It is also shown how the determination of t_r can affect v_r ; numerical results indicate that if the fault slip velocity threshold (v_l used to define t_r is too high (v_l ≥ 0.1 m/s the details of the rupture are missed, for instance the rupture tip bifurcation occurring for 2–D supershear rupture. On the other hand, for v_l ≤ 0.01 m/s the results appear to be stable and independent on the choice of v_l . Finally, it is demonstrated that in the special case of the linear slip–weakening friction law the definitions of t_r from the threshold criterion on the fault slip velocity and from the achievement of the maximum yield stress are practically equivalent.

  9. The Simulation of Grinding Wheels and Ground Surface Roughness Based on Virtual Reality Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The paper describes the feasibility and method of the application of virtual reality technology to grinding process, and introduces the modeling method of object entity in the environment of virtual reality. The simulation process of grinding wheels and ground surface roughness is discussed, and the computation program system of numerical simulation is compiled with Visual C++ programming language. At the same time, the three-dimensional simulation models of grinding wheels and ground surface roughness are ...

  10. Uncertainties and shortcomings of ground surface temperature histories derived from inversion of temperature logs


    Hartmann, Andreas; Rath, Volker


    Analysing borehole temperature data in terms of ground surface history can add useful information to reconstructions of past climates. Therefore, a rigorous assessment of uncertainties and error sources is a necessary prerequisite for the meaningful interpretation of such ground surface temperature histories. This study analyses the most prominent sources of uncertainty. The diffusive nature of the process makes the inversion relatively robust against incomplete knowledge of the thermal diffu...

  11. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.


    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  12. Small-displacement linear surface ruptures of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence detected by ALOS-2 SAR interferometry (United States)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Yarai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Morishita, Yu; Nakano, Takayuki; Miyahara, Basara; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yuji; Ueshiba, Haruka; Kakiage, Yasuaki; Une, Hiroshi


    We constructed and analyzed the ground surface displacement associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence using satellite radar interferometry images of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2. The radar interferogram generally shows elastic deformation caused by the main earthquakes, but many other linear discontinuities showing displacement are also found. Approximately 230 lineaments are identified, some of which coincide with the positions of known active faults, such as the main earthquake faults belonging to the Futagawa and Hinagu fault zones and other minor faults; however, there are much fewer known active faults than lineaments. In each area, the lineaments have a similar direction and displacement to each other; therefore, they can be divided into several groups based on location and major features. Since the direction of the lineaments coincides with that of known active faults or their conjugate faults, the cause of the lineaments must be related to the tectonic stress field of this region. The lineaments are classified into the following two categories: (1) main earthquake faults and their branched subfaults and (2) secondary faults that are not directly related to the main earthquake but whose slip was probably triggered by the main earthquake or aftershocks.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. High-resolution imaging of the surface ruptures associated with the August 24th and October 30th, 2016 earthquakes in Central Italy (United States)

    Perouse, Eugenie; Benedetti, Lucilla; Baize, Stéphane; Bornemann, Pierrick; Delorme, Arthur; Feuillet, Nathalie; Fleury, Jules; Ferry, Matthieu; Jacques, Eric; Jomard, Hervé; Klinger, Yann; Leclerc, Frédérique; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Marc, Odin; Pace, Bruno; Point, Julien; Puliti, Irene; Rizza, Magali; Scooti, Oona; Skupinski, Grzegorz


    We present results from two multidisciplinary field surveys carried out 11-16 September 2016 (post Mw=6.0 August 24 earthquake) and 5-14 November 2016 (post Mw=6.5 October 30 earthquake) in the Castelluccio-Amatrice area, with a focus on the southern Mt Vettore fault, that has been activated during the two events. Field observations and geological measurements (shared with the EMERGEO group) acquired over a ≈ 10 km-wide and 45-km-long area between Preta to the south and Cupi to the north, allowed constraining the extent of the area affected by these events (including the event on October 26th Mw=5.9), and to distinguish the fault segments that ruptured from the ones that did not. Those field observations are complemented with detailed mapping using high resolution Pleiades images (50 cm pixel resolution) acquired before and after the 30th October shock. Our major contribution is a dataset of high-resolution instrumental measurements (scanner 3D Faro, TLS LiDAR Riegl, photogrammetry) of the surface ruptures along the southern tip of the Mt Vettore fault. Acquisition of high-resolution topography of surface rupture outcrops before and after the October 30th earthquake allows to precisely quantifying the 3D kinematics of these two shocks. In addition, geodetic measurements of benchmark points, fixed on both sides of the Mt Vettore fault just after August 24th, also allows deriving co-seismic displacement vectors at three spots along the fault for the October 30th shock (maximum distance between the points is 1.5 km). Our field observations suggest a mean vertical co-seismic displacement of about 10-15 cm for the August 24th event and of about 1m for the October 30th one. Co-seismic displacement for the 30th October shock has been observed over a length of ≈ 7km-long. The largest rupture trace runs along the main cumulative bedrock fault plane (southwest-dipping normal fault plane, with an average strike of N140E and a dip greater than 70°) and cuts through all

  14. Geomorphic features of surface ruptures associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, and implications on triggered slip along active faults (United States)

    Goto, Hideaki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Shinji; Kumahara, Yasuhiro


    The 30-km-long surface ruptures associated with the M w 7.0 ( M j 7.3) earthquake at 01:25 JST on April 16 in Kumamoto Prefecture appeared along the previously mapped 100-km-long active fault called the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone (FHFZ). The surface ruptures appeared to have extended further west out of the main FHFZ into the Kumamoto Plain. Although InSAR analysis by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) indicated coseismic surface deformation in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, the surface ruptures have not been clearly mapped in the central part of the Kumamoto Plain, and whether there are other active faults other than the Futagawa fault in the Kumamoto Plain remained unclear. We produced topographical stereo images (anaglyph) from 5-m-mesh digital elevation model of GSI, which was generated from light detection and ranging data. We interpreted them and identified that several SW-sloping river terraces formed after the deposition of the pyroclastic flow deposits related to the latest large eruption of the Aso caldera (86.8-87.3 ka) are cut and deformed by several NW-trending flexure scarps down to the southwest. These 5.4-km-long scarps that cut across downtown Kumamoto were identified for the first time, and we name them as the Suizenji fault zone. Surface deformation such as continuous cracks, tilts, and monoclinal folding associated with the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was observed in the field along the fault zone. The amount of vertical deformation ( 0.1 m) along this fault associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was quite small compared to the empirically calculated coseismic slip (0.5 m) based on the fault length. We thus suggest that the slip on this fault zone was triggered by the Kumamoto earthquake, but the fault zone has potential to generate an earthquake with larger slip that poses a high seismic risk in downtown Kumamoto area.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Study on the Surface Free Energy of Ground CaO by IGC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    CaO formed by decomposing CaCO3 at 1450℃ was ground in a vibrational mill,then the long-time ground sample was reheated at different temperatures.Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) was used to measure the variation of the sample′s surface free energy under grinding and reheating.It is concluded that the total surface free energy and the London dispersive component of the surface free energy increases with grinding,while the polar component first increases with grinding,and then decreases,and finally disappears.When the long-time ground sample was reheated,its total surface free energy decreases,among which the London component decreases,but the polar component appears again.

  16. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. On Ground Surface Extraction Using Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanner for Cim (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Chikatsu, H.


    Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be capable of improving the accuracy of ground surface extraction for forested areas, in contrast to discrete airborne laser scanners, as technological innovation. For forested areas, fundamental studies for construction information management (CIM) were conducted to extract ground surface using full-waveform airborne laser scanners based on waveform information.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nakano


    Full Text Available Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be capable of improving the accuracy of ground surface extraction for forested areas, in contrast to discrete airborne laser scanners, as technological innovation. For forested areas, fundamental studies for construction information management (CIM were conducted to extract ground surface using full-waveform airborne laser scanners based on waveform information.

  19. Immunolocalization of NGF and its receptors in ovarian surface epithelium of the wild ground squirrel during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. (United States)

    Bao, L; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Li, B; Sheng, X; Han, Y; Weng, Q


    The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) plays an important role in normal ovarian physiology. During each reproductive cycle, the OSE takes part in the cyclical ovulatory ruptures and repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors, tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) and p75, in the OSE cells of the wild ground squirrels during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. There were marked variations in ovarian weight and size between the breeding and the nonbreeding seasons. Histologically, cuboidal cells and squamous cells were identified in the OSE of both seasons. Yet, stronger immunostaining of NGF, TrkA and p75 were observed in cuboidal cells and squamous cells in the breeding season as compared to the nonbreeding season. In addition, plasma gonadotropin concentrations were higher in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season, suggesting that the expression patterns of NGF, TrkA and p75 in the OSE were correlated with changes in plasma gonadotropins. These findings suggested that NGF and its receptor TrkA and p75 may be involved in the regulation of seasonal changes in the OSE of wild ground the OSE of wild ground squirrel.

  20. Topographical changes of ground surface affected by the Tarim Desert Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shengyu; LEI Jiaqiang; XU Xinwen; WANG Lixin; ZHOU Zhibin; LI Hongzhong


    The Tarim Desert Highway is the longest highway crossing the mobile desert in the world. The highway and its sand protection system were established in 1995. This great project must have significant effect on the aeolian environment in its neighborhoods. In 2004, we investigated the topographic changes of ground surface within the sand protection system and its external adjacent area in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. The results showed that (i) the original topographic patterns of ground surface were greatly changed, and erosion as well as deposition was distributed clearly on the ground surface, affected by the road and its sand protection system; (ii) sediment deposited in the sand protection system gradually heightened the ground surface, but each part in the system changed differently: in the sand-blocking belt, a transverse sand ridge was formed in the same direction as the upright sand barrier; in the sand-binding belt, sediment was aggraded on the original surface in a certain thickness; at the initial stages since the establishment of the sand protection system, erosion had taken place in the un-stabilized area named by the deposition belt between the sand-blocking belt and the sand-binding belt, the inner of sand-binding belt, the windward slope of dunes in the sand-binding belt, and the neighboring leeward area of the sand protection system.

  1. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.


    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  2. The Effect of Images on Surface Potential and Resistance Calculation of Grounding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the grounding systems with a two layers soil, the calculation of the surface potential using the image method is sometimes impossible due to singularities, avoiding researchers to use the method for electrodes in the bottom layer. In the literature this problem solution is refereed as unreliable or solved with other more complex methods. This paper presents a new approach to calculate the surface potentials in a two. layer soil, for electrodes in the bottom layer, when images are at surface. The singularities in computing surface voltage, when the first image upwards lies at surface, are analysed and it's shown that a small change in top layer thickness allows an approximate solution. Surface potentials due to grid conductor are also considered and the values of resistance are compared with those from other methodologies. Singularities for a ground rod that crosses the two layers are also treated. The obtained values of resistance are not satisfactory, due to lower segments images that overlap the upper segments. This paper also proposes shifting the surface of the upper part of the ground rod, in the upper layer, or taking the modulus of the mutual resistance, to overcome this difficulty.

  3. Size of craters produced by explosive charges on or above the ground surface (United States)

    Ambrosini, R. D.; Luccioni, B. M.; Danesi, R. F.; Riera, J. D.; Rocha, M. M.

    The results of a series of tests performed with different amounts of explosive at short distances above and below ground level, as well as on the soil surface are briefly described. After an introductory description of both the main features of the blast wave and the mechanics of crater formation, a brief review of empirical methods for crater size prediction is presented. Next, the experimental design and the results obtained are described. The crater dimensions for underground explosions coincide with those found in the literature. For explosions at ground level the results are qualitatively described by empirical equations. For explosive charges situated above ground level, the dimensions of the craters are smaller than those observed in underground and near the surface explosions. Two new single prediction equations for this case are presented.

  4. Geomorphic features of active faults around the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, and no evidence of surface rupture associated with the 2015 Gorkha earthquake along the faults (United States)

    Kumahara, Yasuhiro; Chamlagain, Deepak; Upreti, Bishal Nath


    The M7.8 April 25, 2015, Gorkha earthquake in Nepal was produced by a slip on the low-angle Main Himalayan Thrust, a décollement below the Himalaya that emerges at the surface in the south as the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). The analysis of the SAR interferograms led to the interpretations that the event was a blind thrust and did not produce surface ruptures associated with the seismogenic fault. We conducted a quick field survey along four active faults near the epicentral area around the Kathmandu Valley (the Jhiku Khola fault, Chitlang fault, Kulekhani fault, Malagiri fault and Kolphu Khola fault) from July 18-22, 2015. Those faults are located in the Lesser Himalaya on the hanging side of the HFT. Based on our field survey carried out in the area where most typical tectonic landforms are developed, we confirmed with local inhabitants the lack of any new surface ruptures along these faults. Our observations along the Jhiku Khola fault showed that the fault had some definite activities during the Holocene times. Though in the past it was recognized as a low-activity thrust fault, our present survey has revealed that it has been active with a predominantly right-lateral strike-slip with thrust component. A stream dissecting a talus surface shows approximately 7-m right-lateral offset, and a charcoal sample collected from the upper part of the talus deposit yielded an age of 870 ± 30 y.B.P, implying that the talus surface formed close to 870 y.B.P. Accordingly, a single or multiple events of the fault must have occurred during the last 900 years, and the slip rate we estimate roughly is around 8 mm/year. The fault may play a role to recent right-lateral strike-slip tectonic zone across the Himalayan range. Since none of the above faults showed any relationship corresponding to the April 25 Gorkha earthquake, it is possibility that a potential risk of occurrence of large earthquakes does exist close to the Kathmandu Valley due to movements of these active

  5. Inferring snow pack ripening and melt out from distributed ground surface temperature measurements

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    M.-O. Schmid


    Full Text Available The seasonal snow cover and its melting are heterogeneous both in space and time. Describing and modelling this variability are important because it affects divers phenomena such as runoff, ground temperatures or slope movements. This study investigates the derivation of melting characteristics based on spatial clusters of temperature measurements. Results are based on data from Switzerland where ground surface temperatures were measured with miniature loggers (iButtons at 40 locations, referred to as footprints. At each footprint, ten iButtons have been distributed randomly few cm below the ground surface over an area of 10 m × 10 m. Footprints span elevations of 2100–3300 m a.s.l. and slope angles of 0–55°, as well as diverse slope expositions and types of surface cover and ground material. Based on two years of temperature data, the basal ripening date and the melt-out date are determined for each iButton, aggregated to the footprint level and further analysed. The date of melt out could be derived for nearly all iButtons, the ripening date could be extracted for only approximately half of them because it requires ground freezing below the snow pack. The variability within a footprint is often considerable and one to three weeks difference between melting or ripening of the points in one footprint is not uncommon. The correlation of mean annual ground surface temperatures, ripening date and melt-out date is moderate, making them useful intuitive complementary measured for model evaluation.

  6. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.


    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  7. Ground states for a modified capillary surface equation in weighted Orlicz-Sobolev space

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    Guoqing Zhang


    Full Text Available In this article, we prove a compact embedding theorem for the weighted Orlicz-Sobolev space of radially symmetric functions. Using the embedding theorem and critical points theory, we prove the existence of multiple radial solutions and radial ground states for the following modified capillary surface equation $$\\displaylines{ -\\operatorname{div}\\Big(\\frac{|\

  8. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock shallow borehole temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos


    Full Text Available The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a quartzite outcrop in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth hourly temperature profiles from: (i the cooling periods of the frost seasons of 2000 to 2005, and (ii the warming periods of the thaw seasons of 2002–2003, 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across ground surface are considered to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density is considered to be constant in the borehole and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed to run the model. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima.

  9. A shear wave ground surface vibration technique for the detection of buried pipes (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Papandreou, B.


    A major UK initiative, entitled 'Mapping the Underworld' aims to develop and prove the efficacy of a multi-sensor device for accurate remote buried utility service detection, location and, where possible, identification. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics; the application of this technology for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular pipes, is currently being investigated. Here, a shear wave ground vibration technique for detecting buried pipes is described. For this technique, shear waves are generated at the ground surface, and the resulting ground surface vibrations measured. Time-extended signals are employed to generate the illuminating wave. Generalized cross-correlation functions between the measured ground velocities and a reference measurement adjacent to the excitation are calculated and summed using a stacking method to generate a cross-sectional image of the ground. To mitigate the effects of other potential sources of vibration in the vicinity, the excitation signal can be used as an additional reference when calculating the cross-correlation functions. Measurements have been made at two live test sites to detect a range of buried pipes. Successful detection of the pipes was achieved, with the use of the additional reference signal proving beneficial in the noisier of the two environments.

  10. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock shallow borehole temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic) (United States)

    Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.


    The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic) is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a quartzite outcrop in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth) hourly temperature profiles from: (i) the cooling periods of the frost seasons of 2000 to 2005, and (ii) the warming periods of the thaw seasons of 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across ground surface are considered to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density is considered to be constant in the borehole and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed to run the model. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima).

  11. Broadband ground-motion simulation using a hybrid approach (United States)

    Graves, R.W.; Pitarka, A.


    This paper describes refinements to the hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (2004), which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies (f 1 Hz). In our approach, fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time. The prescribed slip distribution is constrained to follow an inverse wavenumber-squared fall-off and the average rupture speed is set at 80% of the local shear-wave velocity, which is then adjusted such that the rupture propagates faster in regions of high slip and slower in regions of low slip. We use a Kostrov-like slip-rate function having a rise time proportional to the square root of slip, with the average rise time across the entire fault constrained empirically. Recent observations from large surface rupturing earthquakes indicate a reduction of rupture propagation speed and lengthening of rise time in the near surface, which we model by applying a 70% reduction of the rupture speed and increasing the rise time by a factor of 2 in a zone extending from the surface to a depth of 5 km. We demonstrate the fidelity of the technique by modeling the strong-motion recordings from the Imperial Valley, Loma Prieta, Landers, and Northridge earthquakes.

  12. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica) (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo


    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  13. Seasonal Distribution of Trace Metals in Ground and Surface Water of Golaghat District, Assam, India

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    M. Boarh


    Full Text Available A study has been carried out on the quality of ground and surface water with respect to chromium, manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and arsenic contamination from 28 different sources in the predominantly rural Golaghat district of Assam (India. The metals were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometer. Water samples were collected from groundwater and surface water during the dry and wet seasons of 2008 from the different sources in 28 locations (samples. The results are discussed in the light of possible health hazards from the metals in relation to their maximum permissible limits. The study shows the quality of ground and surface water in a sizeable number of water samples in the district not to be fully satisfactory with respect to presence of the metals beyond permissible limits of WHO. The metal concentration of groundwater in the district follows the trend As>Zn>Mn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Cd in both the seasons.

  14. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.


    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  15. Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.


    ‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

  16. Homogenization of seismic surface wave profiling in highly heterogeneous improved ground (United States)

    Lin, C.; Chien, C.


    Seismic surface wave profiling is gaining popularity in engineering practice for determining shear-wave velocity profile since the two-station SASW (Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave) was introduced. Recent developments in the multi-station approach (Multi-station Analysis of Surface Wave, MASW) result in several convenient commercial tools. Unlike other geophysical tomography methods, the surface wave method is essentially a 1-D method assuming horizontally-layered medium. Nevertheless, MASW is increasingly used to map lateral variation of S-wave velocity by multiple surveys overlooking the effect of lateral heterogeneity. MASW typically requires long receiver spread in order to have enough depth coverage. The accuracy and lateral resolution of 2-D S-wave velocity imaging by surface wave is not clear. Many geotechnical applications involves lateral variation in a scale smaller than the geophone spread and wave length. For example, soft ground is often improved to increase strength and stiffness by methods such as jet grouting and stone column which result in heterogeneous ground with improved columns. Experimental methods (Standard Penetration Test, sampling and laboratory testing, etc.) used to assess such ground improvement are subjected to several limitations such as small sampling volume, time-consuming, and cost ineffectiveness. It's difficult to assess the average property of the improved ground and the actual replacement ratio of ground improvement. The use of seismic surface wave method for such a purpose seems to be a good alternative. But what MASW measures in such highly heterogeneous improved ground remains to be investigated. This study evaluated the feasibility of MASW in highly heterogeneous ground with improved columns and investigated the homogenization of shear wave velocity measured by MASW. Field experiments show that MASW testing in such a composite ground behaves similar to testing in horizontally layered medium. It seems to measure some sort


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小祥; 王晓青; 窦爱霞; 董彦芳; 王龙; 金鼎坚


    2010年4月14日的玉树MS7.1地震造成沿甘孜-玉树断裂的一系列NW向地表破裂.利用Trimble GX 3D地面激光三维扫描仪获取了玉树地震断裂SE段禅古寺附近的典型地震地表破裂的精细点云数据.在对点云数据进行校正、分割、滤波等预处理基础上,分析了地震地表破裂不同表面建模方式的原理和方法,选取了无投影的不规则三角网建模方式对该处地表破裂进行三维建模实验,结合精配准高清晰现场纹理照片,制作了地震地表破裂的三维图像;并从模型的多个角度选取剖面进行地震地表破裂精细三维量测分析,得到该处地表破裂的平均垂直位移为74cm,水平位移为10cm.在此基础上进一步分析了玉树地震断裂的性质及其破裂特点.%Yushu Ms 7. 1 earthquake,occurring on April 14,2010,has caused a series of co-seismic surface ruptures. The surface deformation and ruptures caused by earthquake can easily be changed due to natural environment changes and from human activities. Moreover,the complex topography and severe natural environment in the Tibet Plateau make it difficult to acquire original features of surface rupture wholly via traditional surveying methods. However, as a new type of remote sensing technique,due to its characteristics of non-touching,high-resolution,rapid acquisition,terrestrial LIDAR technique can obtain the 3D information of surface rupture quickly and effectively, and provide the comprehensive scientific data for the further quantitative analysis. This paper introduces the characteristic of terrestrial laser scanner-Trimble GX 3D,and based on which the finite point clouds of the typical co-seismic surface rupture located on the southeast segment of Ganzi-Yushu Fault zone near Changu Temple were acquired. Based on the point cloud data prepossessing of registration, segmentation, smoothing and so on, the different principles and methods for surface modelling of co-seismic surface

  18. Achilles Tendon Rupture (United States)

    Achilles tendon rupture Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Achilles (uh-KILL-eez) tendon rupture is an injury that affects the back ... but it can happen to anyone. The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the ...

  19. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena


    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  20. Quaternary Tectonic Tilting Governed by Rupture Segments Controls Surface Morphology and Drainage Evolution along the South-Central Coast of Chile (United States)

    Echtler, H. P.; Bookhagen, B.; Melnick, D.; Strecker, M.


    The Chilean coast represents one of the most active convergent margins in the Pacific rim, where major earthquakes (M>8) have repeatedly ruptured the surface, involving vertical offsets of several meters. Deformation along this coast takes place in large-scale, semi-independent seismotectonic segments with partially overlapping transient boundaries. They are possibly related to reactivated inherited crustal anisotropies; internal seismogenic deformation may be accommodated by structures that have developed during accretionary wedge evolution. Seismotectonic segmentation and the identification of large-scale rupture zones, however, are based on limited seismologic und geodetic observations over short timespans. In order to better define the long-term behavior and deformation rates of these segments and to survey the tectonic impact on the landscape on various temporal and spatial scales, we investigated the south-central coast of Chile (37-38S). There, two highly active, competing seismotectonic compartments influence the coastal and fluvial morphology. A rigorous analysis of the geomorphic features is a key for an assessment of the tectonic evolution during the Quaternary and beyond. We studied the N-S oriented Santa María Island (SMI), 20 km off the coast and only ~70km off the trench, in the transition between the two major Valdivia (46-37S) and Concepción (38-35S) rupture segments. The SMI has been tectonically deformed throughout the Quaternary and comprises two tilt domains with two topographic highs in the north and south that are being tilted eastward. The low-lying and flat eastern part of the island is characterized by a set of emergent Holocene strandlines related to coseismic uplift. We measured detailed surface morphology of these strandlines and E-W traversing ephemeral stream channels with a laser-total station and used these data to calibrate and validate high-resolution, digital imagery. In addition, crucial geomorphic markers were dated by the

  1. Advantages of analytically computing the ground heat flux in land surface models (United States)

    Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Daly, Edoardo


    It is generally accepted that the ground heat flux accounts for a significant fraction of the surface energy balance. In land surface models, the ground heat flux is typically estimated through a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation. Recent research has shown that this approach introduces errors in the estimation of the energy balance. In this paper, we calibrate a land surface model using a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation with four different vertical spatial resolutions. It is found that the thermal conductivity is the most sensitive parameter to the spatial resolution. More importantly, the thermal conductivity values are directly related to the spatial resolution, thus rendering any physical interpretation of this value irrelevant. The numerical solution is then replaced by an analytical solution. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions are identical when fine spatial and temporal resolutions are used. However, when using resolutions that are typical of land surface models, significant differences are found. When using the analytical solution, the ground heat flux is directly calculated without calculating the soil temperature profile. The calculation of the temperature at each node in the soil profile is thus no longer required, unless the model contains parameters that depend on the soil temperature, which in this study is not the case. The calibration is repeated, and thermal conductivity values independent of the vertical spatial resolution are obtained. The main conclusion of this study is that care must be taken when interpreting land surface model results that have been obtained using numerical ground heat flux estimates. The use of exact analytical solutions, when available, is recommended.

  2. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic) (United States)

    Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.


    The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic) is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a massive quartzite outcrop with negligible water content, in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth) hourly temperature profiles from: (i) the cooling periods of the frost season of 2000 to 2005, and (ii) the warming periods of the thaw season of 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across the ground surface are assumed to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the ground Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change into the rock is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density and thermal conductivity are considered to be constant and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed (based in collected data and local meteorological conditions in this area) to run the model in the beginning of each season. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima). The application of this method avoids error propagation induced by the heat exchange calculations from multiple sensors using the Fourier method.

  3. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos


    Full Text Available The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a massive quartzite outcrop with negligible water content, in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth hourly temperature profiles from: (i the cooling periods of the frost season of 2000 to 2005, and (ii the warming periods of the thaw season of 2002–2003, 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across the ground surface are assumed to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the ground Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change into the rock is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density and thermal conductivity are considered to be constant and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed (based in collected data and local meteorological conditions in this area to run the model in the beginning of each season. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima. The application of this method avoids error propagation induced by the heat exchange calculations from multiple sensors using the Fourier method.

  4. Ground surface temperature and humidity, ground temperature cycles and the ice table depths in University Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (United States)

    Fisher, David A.; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne; Davila, Alfonso; McKay, Christopher P.


    In the upper McMurdo Dry Valleys, 90% of the measured ice table depths range from 0 to 80 cm; however, numerical models predict that the ice table is not in equilibrium with current climate conditions and should be deeper than measured. This study explored the effects of boundary conditions (air versus ground surface temperature and humidity), ground temperature cycles, and their diminishing amplitude with depth and advective flows (Darcy flow and wind pumping) on water vapor fluxes in soils and ice table depths using the REGO vapor diffusion model. We conducted a series of numerical experiments that illustrated different hypothetical scenarios and estimated the water vapor flux and ice table depth using the conditions in University Valley, a small high elevation valley. In situ measurements showed that while the mean annual ground surface temperature approximates that in the air, the mean annual ground surface relative humidity (>85%ice) was significantly higher than in the atmosphere ( 50%ice). When ground surface temperature and humidity were used as boundary conditions, along with damping diurnal and annual temperature cycles within the sandy soil, REGO predicted that measured ice table depths in the valley were in equilibrium with contemporary conditions. Based on model results, a dry soil column can become saturated with ice within centuries. Overall, the results from the new soil data and modeling have implications regarding the factors and boundary conditions that affect the stability of ground ice in cold and hyperarid regions where liquid water is rare.

  5. Electric Signals on and under the Ground Surface Induced by Seismic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Takeuchi


    Full Text Available We constructed three observation sites in northeastern Japan (Honjo, Kyowa, and Sennan with condenser-type large plate electrodes (4 × 4 m2 as sensors supported 4 m above the ground and with pairs of reference electrodes buried vertically at 0.5 m and 2.5 m depth (with a ground velocity sensor at Sennan only. Electrical signals of an earthquake (M6.3 in northeastern Japan were detected simultaneously with seismic waves. Their waveforms were damped oscillations, with greatly differing signal amplitudes among sites. Good positive correlation was found between the amplitudes of signals detected by all electrodes. We propose a signal generation model: seismic acceleration vertically shook pore water in the topsoil, generating the vertical streaming potential between the upper unsaturated water zone and the lower saturated water zone. Maximum electric earth potential difference was observed when one electrode was in the saturated water zone, and the other was within the unsaturated water zone, but not when the electrodes were in the saturated water zone. The streaming potential formed a charge on the ground surface, generating a vertical atmospheric electric field. The large plate electrode detected electric signals related to electric potential differences between the electrode and the ground surface.

  6. Kinetics of the forelimb in horses circling on different ground surfaces at the trot. (United States)

    Chateau, Henry; Camus, Mathieu; Holden-Douilly, Laurène; Falala, Sylvain; Ravary, Bérangère; Vergari, Claudio; Lepley, Justine; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Pourcelot, Philippe; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie


    Circling increases the expression of distal forelimb lameness in the horse, depending on rein, diameter and surface properties of the circle. However, there is limited information about the kinetics of horses trotting on circles. The aim of this study was to quantify ground reaction force (GRF) and moments in the inside and outside forelimb of horses trotting on circles and to compare the results obtained on different ground surfaces. The right front hoof of six horses was equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe, allowing the measurement of 3-dimensional GRF, moments and trajectory of the centre of pressure. The horses were lunged at slow trot (3 m/s) on right and left 4 m radius circles on asphalt and on a fibre sand surface. During circling, the inside forelimb produced a smaller peak vertical force and the stance phase was longer in comparison with the outside forelimb. Both right and left circling produced a substantial transversal force directed outwards. On a soft surface (sand fibre), the peak transversal force and moments around the longitudinal and vertical axes of the hoof were significantly decreased in comparison with a hard surface (asphalt). Sinking of the lateral or medial part of the hoof in a more compliant surface enables reallocation of part of the transversal force into a proximo-distal force, aligned with the limb axis, thus limiting extrasagittal stress on the joints.

  7. Physical limits on ground motion at Yucca Mountain (United States)

    Andrews, D.J.; Hanks, T.C.; Whitney, J.W.


    Physical limits on possible maximum ground motion at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the designated site of a high-level radioactive waste repository, are set by the shear stress available in the seismogenic depth of the crust and by limits on stress change that can propagate through the medium. We find in dynamic deterministic 2D calculations that maximum possible horizontal peak ground velocity (PGV) at the underground repository site is 3.6 m/sec, which is smaller than the mean PGV predicted by the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) at annual exceedance probabilities less than 10-6 per year. The physical limit on vertical PGV, 5.7 m/sec, arises from supershear rupture and is larger than that from the PSHA down to 10-8 per year. In addition to these physical limits, we also calculate the maximum ground motion subject to the constraint of known fault slip at the surface, as inferred from paleoseismic studies. Using a published probabilistic fault displacement hazard curve, these calculations provide a probabilistic hazard curve for horizontal PGV that is lower than that from the PSHA. In all cases the maximum ground motion at the repository site is found by maximizing constructive interference of signals from the rupture front, for physically realizable rupture velocity, from all parts of the fault. Vertical PGV is maximized for ruptures propagating near the P-wave speed, and horizontal PGV is maximized for ruptures propagating near the Rayleigh-wave speed. Yielding in shear with a Mohr-Coulomb yield condition reduces ground motion only a modest amount in events with supershear rupture velocity, because ground motion consists primarily of P waves in that case. The possibility of compaction of the porous unsaturated tuffs at the higher ground-motion levels is another attenuating mechanism that needs to be investigated.

  8. New Measurements from Old Boreholes: A Look at Interaction Between Surface Air Temperature and Ground Surface Temperature (United States)

    Heinle, S. M.; Gosnold, W. D.


    We recently logged new field measurements of several boreholes throughout the Midwest, including North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. We then compared these new measurements against measurements previously obtained. Our comparisons included inverse modeling of past and recent measurements as well as climate modeling based on past surface air temperatures obtained from the weather stations. The data show a good correlation between climate warming in the last century and ground surface warming. Of particular importance is that cooling of air temperatures beginning in the mid 1990s reflects in the ground surface temperatures. The boreholes included in the study consist of three boreholes located in north central North Dakota, including two deeper than 200 meters. Two boreholes in the southwestern part of South Dakota, and two from southeastern South Dakota, all approximately 180 meters deep. Also included, were two boreholes (135 meters and over 200 meters deep) located in southwestern Nebraska, and two boreholes in the panhandle of Nebraska, each over 100 meters deep. We obtained historical surface air temperature from climate stations located near the boreholes, both from the United States Historical Climatology Network and from the Western Regional Climate Center.



    Nakano, K.; H. Chikatsu


    Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be...

  10. Efficiency of silver nanoparticles against bacterial contaminants isolated from surface and ground water in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dosoky


    Full Text Available The bactericidal efficiency of silver nanoparticles (AgNP was evaluated against bacteria isolated from surface and ground water samples in Egypt. The AgNP were synthesized by typical one-step synthesis protocol, and were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The bactericidal efficiency of AgNP was evaluated by its application in three concentrations i.e., 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 ppm to water sample, and allowed to interact with bacteria for different duration e.g., 5 min 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h. Then, the bactericidal efficiency of AgNPs was determined by comparing the counted bacteria before and after the treatments. Higher mean values of total bacterial count (TBC, total coliform count (TCC, and total streptococcal count (TFS were detected in surface water than in ground water. Also, the results showed that TBC, TCC and TFS exceeded permissible limits. Application of AgNP at different concentration, the number of bacteria in TBC was significantly reduced in all AgNP-exposed samples as compared to the control group (p<0.05. The highest concentration of AgNP exhibited highest bactericidal efficiency in TBC, where, after two hours, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 mg/L AgNP was found to be sufficient to inhibit 91.85, 89.14 and 74.92%, and 92.33, 85.23 and 53.17% in TBC of surface and ground water, respectively. Moreover, the inhibition efficiency of the highest concentration (0.1 ppm against TCC reached to 98.10 and 99.88% in surface water and 95.54 and 99.20% in ground water after 1 h and 2 h, respectively. Similar results were found against TFS count. The AgNPs were found to be effective against bacteria of water origin.

  11. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.


    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  12. Interpreting Ground Temperature Measurements for Thermophysical Properties on Complex Surfaces of the Moon and Mars (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Hamilton, V. E.; Team, M.


    With the successful deployments of the Diviner radiometer on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the REMS ground temperature sensor on the Curiosity Mars rover, records of ground temperature with high accuracy and finely sampled diurnal and seasonal cycles have become available. The detailed shapes of these temperature profiles allow inferences beyond just bulk thermophysical properties. Subtle (or sometime significant) effects of surface roughness, slope, and lateral and vertical heterogeneity may be identified in the surface brightness temperature data. For example, changes in thermal or physical properties with depth in the shallow subsurface affect the conduction and storage of thermal energy. These affect the surface energy balance and therefore surface temperatures, especially the rate of cooling at night. Making unique determinations of subsurface soil properties requires minimizing the uncertainties introduced by other effects. On Mars, atmospheric aerosol opacity and wind-driven sensible heat fluxes also affect the diurnal and annual temperature profiles. On both bodies, variations in thermal inertia, slopes, roughness, albedo, and emissivity within the radiometer footprint will cause the composite brightness temperature to differ from a kinetic temperature. Nevertheless, we have detected potential effects of complex surfaces in the temperature data from both Diviner and Curiosity. On the Moon, the results reveal a nearly ubiquitous surface structure, created mechanically by impact gardening, that controls the thermal response of the surface. On Mars, the thermal response is controlled primarily by grain size, cementation, lithification, and composition. However, the secondary effects of near-surface layering aid in the interpretation of stratigraphy and in the identification of geologic processes that have altered the surface.

  13. Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve (United States)

    Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart


    -energizing and requires low force compared to current pyrotechnic-based burst disk hermetic valves. This is a novel design for producing a single-use, self-rupturing, hermetically sealed valve for isolation of pressurized gas and/or liquids. This design can also be applied for single-use disposable valves for chemical instruments. A welded foil diaphragm is fully supported by two mated surfaces that are machined to micron accuracies using EDM. To open the valve, one of the surfaces is moved relative to the other to (a) remove the support creating an unsupported diaphragm that ruptures due to over pressure, and/or (b) produce tension in the diaphragm and rupture it.

  14. Modeling ground surface uplift during CO2 sequestration: the case of In Salah, Algeria. (United States)

    Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Finsterle, Stefan; Liu, Hui-Hai


    Observable ground deformation, common in storage projects, carries useful information on processes occurring at the injection depth. The Krechba gas field at In Salah (Algeria) is one of the best known sites for studying ground surface deformation during geological storage. Being the first industrial-scale on-shore CO2 demonstration project, the site is well known for satellite-based ground-deformation monitoring data of remarkable quality. In this work, we carry out coupled fluid flow and geomechanical simulations to understand the uplift at three different CO2 injection wells (KB-501, KB-502, KB-503). Previous numerical studies focused on the KB-502 injection well, where a double-lobe uplift pattern has been observed in the ground-deformation data. The observed uplift patterns at KB-501 and KB-503 are different, but also indicate the influence of deep fracture zone mechanical responses. The current study improves the previous modeling approach by introducing an injection reservoir and a fracture zone, both responding to a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. In addition, we model a stress-dependent permeability and bulk modulus, according to a dual continuum model. Mechanical and hydraulic properties were determined through inverse modeling by matching the simulated spatial and temporal evolution of uplift to the corresponding InSAR observations as well as by matching simulated and measured pressures. The numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with observed spatial and temporal variation of ground surface uplift, as well as with measured pressures. The estimated values for the parameterized mechanical and hydraulic properties are in good agreement with previous numerical results, although with uncertainty.

  15. Coseismic ruptures of the 24 August 2016, Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake (central Italy) (United States)

    Pucci, S.; De Martini, P. M.; Civico, R.; Villani, F.; Nappi, R.; Ricci, T.; Azzaro, R.; Brunori, C. A.; Caciagli, M.; Cinti, F. R.; Sapia, V.; De Ritis, R.; Mazzarini, F.; Tarquini, S.; Gaudiosi, G.; Nave, R.; Alessio, G.; Smedile, A.; Alfonsi, L.; Cucci, L.; Pantosti, D.


    On 24 August 2016, a Mw 6.0 normal-faulting earthquake struck central Italy, causing about 300 fatalities and heavy damage. A geological survey collected the coseismic effects observed at the surface in order to evaluate two competing hypotheses about their nature: surface faulting versus gravitational deformation. We find that the most significant geological effect is a 5.2 km long alignment of ground ruptures along the Mount Vettore Fault System. These ruptures are independent from lithology, topography, morphology, and change in slope and exhibit an average dip-slip displacement of 13 cm. Geometry, kinematics, and dimensional properties of this zone of deformation strongly lead us to favor the primary surface faulting hypothesis that fits well the predicted estimates from experimental scaling law relationships. Our study provides relevant hints for surface faulting in extensional domains, contributing to implement the worldwide database of the moderate earthquakes.

  16. Surface Gap Soliton Ground States for the Nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dohnal, Tomáš; Reichel, Wolfgang


    We consider the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation $(-\\Delta +V(x))u = \\Gamma(x) |u|^{p-1}u$, $x\\in \\R^n$ with $V(x) = V_1(x) \\chi_{\\{x_1>0\\}}(x)+V_2(x) \\chi_{\\{x_10\\}}(x)+\\Gamma_2(x) \\chi_{\\{x_1<0\\}}(x)$ and with $V_1, V_2, \\Gamma_1, \\Gamma_2$ periodic in each coordinate direction. This problem describes the interface of two periodic media, e.g. photonic crystals. We study the existence of ground state $H^1$ solutions (surface gap soliton ground states) for $0<\\min \\sigma(-\\Delta +V)$. Using a concentration compactness argument, we provide an abstract criterion for the existence based on ground state energies of each periodic problem (with $V\\equiv V_1, \\Gamma\\equiv \\Gamma_1$ and $V\\equiv V_2, \\Gamma\\equiv \\Gamma_2$) as well as a more practical criterion based on ground states themselves. Examples of interfaces satisfying these criteria are provided. In 1D it is shown that, surprisingly, the criteria can be reduced to conditions on the linear Bloch waves of the operators $-\\tfrac{d^2}{dx^2} +V_1(x)$ an...

  17. Airborne and terrestrial lidar imaging and analysis of the 4 April 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake rupture (United States)

    Oskin, M. E.; Gold, P. O.; Hinojosa, A.; Arrowsmith, R.; Elliott, A. J.; Taylor, M. H.; Herrs, A. J.; Sartori, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Gonzalez, A.; Kreylos, O.; Cowgill, E.


    We report newly available data sets and preliminary analysis of ground- and airborne-lidar surveys of the 4 April 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake rupture. The hyperarid setting and varied surficial geology of this complex rupture zone presents an ideal setting to advance the use of lidar in post-earthquake scientific response. Terrestrial lidar surveys commenced within two weeks of the earthquake and capture ephemeral geomorphic features of the rupture zone. We recorded approximately 2 km of rupture on the Borrego fault where oblique dextral slip approaches four meters. These data highlight fine-scale features such as centimeter-scale scarps, subtle warping of the ground surface, and striations on the exposed fault free-face. Airborne lidar surveys, collected mid-August, 2010, span the rupture zone for 100 km in a NW-SE direction, from just south of the international border to the tidal flats of the Colorado River delta at the head of the Gulf of California. 3.8 billion point measurements were obtained with an average density of 11 points per square meter. GPS ground control was provided from a combination of PBO stations north of the border and coordination with the occupation of post-earthquake campaign sites in the central and southern portions of the rupture zone. The 3 km average width of the survey captures the complexity of strain-transfer between the multiple fault segments that slipped in 2010, as well as the adjacent zone of surface ruptures attributed to the 1892 Laguna Salada earthquake. This data set provides a new basis for offset measurements to be compared against field data collected immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Quantitative comparison to lower-resolution, pre-event lidar collected by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) illuminates near-field distributed vertical deformation adjacent to the fault rupture. The southeastern half of the lidar survey spans a zone of cryptic dextral deformation, hosted within the

  18. Mise en évidence de déformations en faille inverse avec ruptures de surface cosismiques dans des dépôts colluviaux würmiens du versant nord du mont Ventoux (Provence occidentale, France)Evidence of reverse faulting and coseismic surface ruptures in Würm colluvial deposits from the Mt Ventoux northern slope (Western Provence, France) (United States)

    Dutour, Alain; Philip, Hervé; Jaurand, Erwan; Combes, Philippe

    In western Provence (France), brittle deformation of Quaternary age occurring in the vicinity of the Nı̂mes and Durance faults has been linked to palaeoseisms of significant magnitude. Our new observations made on the southern rim of the Tertiary Malaucène Basin, in the continuation of a thrust to the north of Mt Ventoux, present evidence for reverse faulting deformation in deposits of a Würm colluvial fan. The analysis of a trench section provides clear evidence for: (1) the development of two successive surface ruptures and degradation of associated scarps during the Mid-Upper Würm, and, (2) the continuation of the reverse fault within the Oligocene basement. These tectonic events were associated with earthquakes of at least 6 in magnitude. To cite this article: A. Dutour et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 849-856.

  19. Source rupture process of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake: how did the two subparallel faults rupture? (United States)

    Tanaka, Miho; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Kubo, Hisahiko


    The 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (MW 6.6) occurred about a month after the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (MW 9.0), and it is thought to have been induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. After the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, two subparallel faults (the Itozawa and Yunodake faults) were identified by field surveys. The hypocenter was located nearby the Itozawa fault, and it is probable that the Itozawa fault ruptured before the Yunodake fault rupture. Here, we estimated the source rupture process of the 2011 Hamadori earthquake using a model with two subparallel faults based on strong motion data. The rupture starting point and rupture delay time of the Yunodake fault were determined based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The results show that the Yunodake fault started to rupture from the northern deep point 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture. The estimated slip distribution in the shallow part is consistent with the surface slip distribution identified by field surveys. Time-dependent Coulomb failure function changes (ΔCFF) were calculated using the stress change from the Itozawa fault rupture in order to evaluate the effect of the rupture on the Yunodake fault. The ΔCFF is positive at the rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture; therefore, it is concluded that during the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, the Yunodake fault rupture was triggered by the Itozawa fault rupture.

  20. Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of ground optical materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-yi; WANG Zhuo; WU Yu-lie


    A theoretical model of relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness was established to realize rapid and non-destructive measurement of subsurface damage of ground optical materials. Postulated condition of the model was that subsurface damage depth and peak-to-valley surface roughness are equal to depth of radial and lateral cracks in brittle surface induced by small-radius (radius≤200 μm) spherical indenter, respectively. And contribution of elastic stress field to the radial cracks propagation was also considered in the loading cycle. Subsurface damage depth of ground BK7 glasses was measured by magnetorheological finishing spot technique to validate theoretical ratio of subsurface damage to surface roughness. The results show that the ratio is directly proportional to load of abrasive grains and hardness of optical materials, while inversely proportional to granularity of abrasive grains and fracture toughness of optical materials. Moreover, the influence of the load and fracture toughness on the ratio is more significant than the granularity and hardness, respectively. The measured ratios of 80 grit and 120 grit fixed abrasive grinding of BK7 glasses are 5.8 and 5.4, respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Guskov


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on the process pertaining to interaction of a driving wheel with ground surface and describes methodology for optimization of backbone parameters. The mentioned process has some specific differences in comparison with the process of wheel rolling along hard surface. Ground surface is represented by mixture of sandy and clay particles with plant residues and it has a number of physical and mechanical properties. The main of these properties is resistance of soil against compression and displacement. Compression process determines a track depth and resistance to motion and displacement process determines wheel gripping property and its tangential traction force. While executing the investigations laws of compression and displacement proposed by Prof.V. V. Katsygin as the most adequate reflection of actual processes have been used in the paper. Motion of the driving wheel along ground surface is accompanied by its slipping. It has been determined that the maximum wheel traction force is formed not with 100% slipping as it was supposed until present but the value has been obtained at 45–60 % slipping according to soil category. The developed integral equations with due account of the aspect make it possible to calculate road hold characteristics of driving wheels of the designed wheel tractor and evaluate its traction, speed and economic characteristics. Methodology has been developed for optimization of backbone parameters of wheeled running gear in the designed tractor such as design mass and adhesion weight, width, diameter and air pressure in a tire. The proposed methodology has been introduced in designing practice of wheeled tractors at OJSC “Minsk Tractor Works”.

  2. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL.

  3. Mechanics of Multifault Earthquake Ruptures (United States)

    Fletcher, J. M.; Oskin, M. E.; Teran, O.


    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.2 produced the most complex rupture ever documented on the Pacific-North American plate margin, and the network of high- and low-angle faults activated in the event record systematic changes in kinematics with fault orientation. Individual faults have a broad and continuous spectrum of slip sense ranging from endmember dextral strike slip to normal slip, and even faults with thrust sense of dip slip were commonly observed in the aftershock sequence. Patterns of coseismic slip are consistent with three-dimensional constrictional strain and show that integrated transtensional shearing can be accommodated in a single earthquake. Stress inversions of coseismic surface rupture and aftershock focal mechanisms define two coaxial, but permuted stress states. The maximum (σ1) and intermediate (σ2) principal stresses are close in magnitude, but flip orientations due to topography- and density-controlled gradients in lithostatic load along the length of the rupture. Although most large earthquakes throughout the world activate slip on multiple faults, the mechanical conditions of their genesis remain poorly understood. Our work attempts to answer several key questions. 1) Why do complex fault systems exist? They must do something that simple, optimally-oriented fault systems cannot because the two types of faults are commonly located in close proximity. 2) How are faults with diverse orientations and slip senses prepared throughout the interseismic period to fail spontaneously together in a single earthquake? 3) Can a single stress state produce multi-fault failure? 4) Are variations in pore pressure, friction and cohesion required to produce simultaneous rupture? 5) How is the fabric of surface rupture affected by variations in orientation, kinematics, total geologic slip and fault zone architecture?

  4. Spectrally selective surfaces for ground and space-based instrumentation: support for a resource base (United States)

    McCall, Susan H.; Sinclair, R. Lawrence; Pompea, Stephen M.; Breault, Robert P.


    The performance of space telescopes, space instruments, and space radiator systems depends critically upon the selection of appropriate spectrally selective surfaces. Many space programs have suffered severe performance limitations, schedule setbacks, and spent hundreds of thousands of dollars in damage control because of a lack of readily-accessible, accurate data on the properties of spectrally selective surfaces, particularly black surfaces. A Canadian effort is underway to develop a resource base (database and support service) to help alleviate this problem. The assistance of the community is required to make the resource base comprehensive and useful to the end users. The paper aims to describe the objectives of this project. In addition, a request for information and support is made for various aspects of the project. The resource base will be useful for both ground and space-based instrumentation.

  5. Structural Geology of the Northwestern Portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico: Implications for Seismic Surface Rupture Potential from TA-3 to TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamie N. Gardner: Alexis Lavine; Giday WoldeGabriel; Donathon Krier; David Vaniman; Florie Caporuscio; Claudia Lewis; Peggy Reneau; Emily Kluk; M. J. Snow


    Los Alamos National Laboratory lies at the western boundary of the Rio Grande rift, a major tectonic feature of the North American Continent. Three major faults locally constitute the modem rift boundary, and each of these is potentially seismogenic. In this study we have gathered structural geologic data for the northwestern portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory through high-precision geologic mapping, conventional geologic mapping, stratigraphic studies, drilling, petrologic studies, and stereographic aerial photograph analyses. Our study area encompasses TA-55 and TA-3, where potential for seismic surface rupture is of interest, and is bounded on the north and south by the townsite of Los Alamos and Twomile Canyon, respectively. The study area includes parts of two of the potentially active rift boundary faults--the Pajarito and Rendija Canyon faults-that form a large graben that we name the Diamond Drive graben. The graben embraces the western part of the townsite of Los Alamos, and its southern end is in the TA-3 area where it is defined by east-southeast-trending cross faults. The cross faults are small, but they accommodate interactions between the two major fault zones and gentle tilting of structural blocks to the north into the graben. North of Los Alamos townsite, the Rendija Canyon fault is a large normal fault with about 120 feet of down-to-the-west displacement over the last 1.22 million years. South from Los Alamos townsite, the Rendija Canyon fault splays to the southwest into a broad zone of deformation. The zone of deformation is about 2,000 feet wide where it crosses Los Alamos Canyon and cuts through the Los Alamos County Landfill. Farther southwest, the fault zone is about 3,000 feet wide at the southeastern corner of TA-3 in upper Mortandad Canyon and about 5,000 feet wide in Twomile Canyon. Net down-to-the-west displacement across the entire fault zone over the last 1.22 million years decreases to the south as the fault zone broadens as

  6. The Potential Energy Surface for the Electronic Ground State of H 2Se Derived from Experiment (United States)

    Jensen, P.; Kozin, I. N.


    The present paper reports a determination of the potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of the hydrogen selenide molecule through a direct least-squares fitting to experimental data using the MORBID (Morse oscillator rigid bender internal dynamics) approach developed by P. Jensen [ J. Mol. Spectrosc.128, 478-501 (1988); J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 284, 1315-1340 (1988)]. We have fitted a selection of 303 rotation-vibration energy spacings of H 280Se, D 280Se, and HD 80Se involving J ≤ 5 with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.0975 cm -1 for the rotational energy spacings and 0.268 cm -1 for the vibrational spacings. In the fitting, 14 parameters were varied. On the basis of the fitted potential surface we have studied the cluster effect in the vibrational ground state of H 2Se, i.e., the formation of nearly degenerate, four-member groups of rotational energy levels [see I. N. Kozin, S. Klee, P. Jensen, O. L. Polyansky, and I. M. Pavlichenkov. J. Mol. Spectrosc., 158, 409-422 (1993), and references therein]. The cluster formation becomes more pronounced with increasing J. For example, four-fold clusters formed in the vibrational ground state of H 280Se at J = 40 are degenerate to within a few MHz. Our predictions of the D 280Se energy spectrum show that for this molecule, the cluster formation is displaced towards higher J values than arc found for H 280Se. In the vibrational ground state, the qualitative deviation from the usual rigid rotor picture starts at J = 12 for H 280Se and at J = 18 for D 280Se, in full agreement with predictions from semiclassical theory. An interpretation of the cluster eigenstates is discussed.

  7. Conceptual Tenets of the Theory of Hydration of Heterogeneous Surface with Polar Order of Disperse Ground Layers of Sedimentary Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara G. Makeeva


    Full Text Available The article, basing on the established regularity defines the basic tenets of the theory of hydration of heterogeneous surface with polar order of disperse ground layers of sedimentary genesis. It offers classification and formula for the associated water density, valid corrections for the associated water density, calculates the water film thickness in disperse ground, develops the reliable physicochemical model of the disperse ground, determines the range of applicability of the existing laboratory and field methods.

  8. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (United States)

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M


    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  9. Mapping of permafrost surface using ground-penetrating radar at Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Andreasen, Frank


    Kangerlussuaq Airport is located at 67°N and 51°W in the zone of continuous permafrost in western Greenland. Its proximity to the Greenlandic ice sheet results in a dry sub-arctic climate with a mean annual temperature of −5.7 °C. The airport is built on a river terrace mostly consisting of fluvial...... deposits overlying fine-grained marine melt-water sediments and bedrock. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was performed to study the frozen surface beneath the airfield. The measurements were carried out in late July 2005 on the southern parking area in Kangerlussuaq Airport. Five years earlier...

  10. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece. (United States)

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P


    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  11. Asymmetric Rock Pressure on Shallow Tunnel in Strata with Inclined Ground Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-jun; YANG Chang-yu


    By building a tunnel model with a semi-circular crown, the asymmetric rock pressure applied to the shallow tunnel in strata with inclined ground surface is analyzed. Formulae, which not only include the parameters related to both tunnel structure and surrounding rock mass, but the overburden depth, are developed. The computation for four tunnel models show that the method presented is feasible and convenient. Furthermore, the influence of the overburden depth on the rock pressure is elaborated, and the criterion to identify the deep or shallow tunnels is formulated as well.

  12. Broadband Ground Motion Estimates for Scenario Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Region (United States)

    Graves, R. W.


    Using broadband (0-10 Hz) simulation procedures, we are assessing the ground motions that could be generated by different earthquake scenarios occurring on major strike-slip faults of the San Francisco Bay region. These simulations explicitly account for several important ground motion features, including rupture directivity, 3D basin response, and the depletion of high frequency ground motions that occurs for surface rupturing events. This work compliments ongoing USGS efforts to quantify the ground shaking hazards throughout the San Francisco Bay region. These efforts involve development and testing of a 3D velocity model for northern California (USGS Bay Area Velocity Model, version 05.1.0) using observations from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, characterization of 1906 rupture scenarios and ground motions, and the development and analysis of rupture scenarios on other Bay Area faults. The adequacy of the simulation model has been tested using ground motion data recorded during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and by comparison with the reported intensity data from the 1906 earthquake. Comparisons of the simulated broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions with the recorded motions for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrate that the modeling procedure matches the observations without significant bias over a broad range of frequencies, site types, and propagation distances. The Loma Prieta rupture model is based on a wavenumber-squared refinement of the Wald et al (1991) slip distribution, with the rupture velocity set at 75 percent of the local shear wave velocity and a Kostrov-type slip function having a rise time of about 1.4 sec. Simulations of 1906 scenario ruptures indicate very strong directivity effects to the north and south of the assumed epicenter, adjacent to San Francisco. We are currently analyzing additional earthquake scenarios on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek and San Andreas faults in order to provide a more comprehensive framework for assessing

  13. A study of rupture characteristics of the 40 s subevent of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pacor


    Full Text Available The Irpinia project, as carried out by ISMES under a commission from ENEL, had as objectives the developement of a general methodology to simulate broad-band seismic ground motion at near-source and regional distances, and the application of this methodology to the 1980 Irpinia earthquake. Within this general framework, one goal was the comparison of four previously published models for this earthquake in order to arrive at a plausible description of the source process. The comparative study was cast as an inverse problem: that of inferring the spatial extent and temporal behaviour of the rupture process, from geodetic measurements of surface deformation and near-source recordings of ground velocity. This study was complicated by the fact th the Irpinia earthquake was a complex event, involving at least three distinct rupture episodes in a time span of 40 s. However, this same complexity offers the opportunity of illustrating the use of inversion methodologies to 1 infer the spatial slip distribution on a multiple fault system; 2 address the problem of determining the accuracy of the inferred slip models, and 3 use information describing the static characteristics of an earthquakes as an aid in understanding the kinematics of the rupture. This last point is illustrated for the 40 s subevent through the results of a forward modeling study of high-frequency acceleration waveforms using a rupture model based on the inversion results.

  14. Magnetic mineral characterization close to the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault surface rupture zone of the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, 2008) and its implication for earthquake slip processes (United States)

    Liu, Dongliang; Li, Haibing; Lee, Teh-Quei; Sun, Zhiming; Liu, Jiang; Han, Liang; Chevalier, Marie-Luce


    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake produced two major rupture zones: one in the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone (YBF) and another in the Anxian-Guanxian fault zone (AGF). A shallow trench was dug in Bajiaomiao village, Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province, which experienced a ∼4.3 m vertical offset during this large earthquake. The hanging wall of the YBF in this trench includes fault gouge and breccia. Optical microscope observations and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show obvious differences between the fault gouge and breccia. Moreover, rock magnetism measurements were collected and include mass magnetic susceptibility (MS), Isothermal Remnant Magnetization (IRM), Saturation Isothermal Remnant Magnetization (SIRM), high-temperature thermo-magnetism (K-T) and magnetic hysteresis loops. Several cm-thick magnetic mineral anomalies are observed close to the Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone of the YBF. Magnetite and Fe-sulfide are the main magnetic carrier materials for the fault rocks close to the surface rupture zone, including 3 cm-thick fault gouge and 3 cm-thick fault breccia, while the other fault breccia, further from the surface rupture zone, contains the paramagnetic minerals. The possible magnetic change is attributed to newly-formed magnetite from paramagnetic minerals at high temperatures (>500 °C) during the large earthquake, implying that the YBF has ever experienced high-temperature thermal pressurization earthquake slip dynamics. Moreover, the YBF has also experienced high-temperature frictional melting earthquake slip dynamics, constrained by the multiple vein pseudotachylite. These high-temperature earthquake slip processes may be responsible for the high dip angle thrust characteristic of the YBF.

  15. Ground-state charge transfer as a mechanism for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (United States)

    Lippitsch, Max E.


    A model is presented for the contribution of ground-state charge transfer between a metal and adsorbate to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It is shown that this contribution can be understood using the vibronic theory for calculating Raman intensities. The enhancement is due to vibronic coupling of the molecular ground state to the metal states, the coupling mechanism being a modulation of the ground-state charge-transfer energy by the molecular vibrations. An analysis of the coupling operator gives the selection rules for this process, which turn out to be dependent on the overall symmetry of the adsorbate-metal system, even if the charge transfer is small enough for the symmetry of the adsorbate to remain the same as that of the free molecule. It is shown that the model can yield predictions on the properties of SERS, e.g., specificity to adsorption geometry, appearance of forbidden bands, dependence on the applied potential, and dependence on the excitation wavelength. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. It is also deduced from this model that in many cases atomic-scale roughness is a prerequisite for the observation of SERS. A result on the magnitude of the enhancement can only be given in a crude approximation. Although in most cases an additional electromagnetic enhancement seems to be necessary to give an observable signal, this charge-transfer mechanism should be important in many SERS systems.

  16. Surface Signature Characterization at SPE through Ground-Proximal Methods: Methodology Change and Technical Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A portion of LANL’s FY15 SPE objectives includes initial ground-based or ground-proximal investigations at the SPE Phase 2 site. The area of interest is the U2ez location in Yucca Flat. This collection serves as a baseline for discrimination of surface features and acquisition of topographic signatures prior to any development or pre-shot activities associated with SPE Phase 2. Our team originally intended to perform our field investigations using previously vetted ground-based (GB) LIDAR methodologies. However, the extended proposed time frame of the GB LIDAR data collection, and associated data processing time and delivery date, were unacceptable. After technical consultation and careful literature research, LANL identified an alternative methodology to achieve our technical objectives and fully support critical model parameterization. Very-low-altitude unmanned aerial systems (UAS) photogrammetry appeared to satisfy our objectives in lieu of GB LIDAR. The SPE Phase 2 baseline collection was used as a test of this UAS photogrammetric methodology.

  17. Surface geophysical methods for characterising frozen ground in transitional permafrost landscapes (United States)

    Briggs, Martin; Campbell, Seth; Nolan, Jay; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Lane, John


    The distribution of shallow frozen ground is paramount to research in cold regions, and is subject to temporal and spatial changes influenced by climate, landscape disturbance and ecosystem succession. Remote sensing from airborne and satellite platforms is increasing our understanding of landscape-scale permafrost distribution, but typically lacks the resolution to characterise finer-scale processes and phenomena, which are better captured by integrated surface geophysical methods. Here, we demonstrate the use of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), electromagnetic induction (EMI), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and infrared imaging over multiple summer field seasons around the highly dynamic Twelvemile Lake, Yukon Flats, central Alaska, USA. Twelvemile Lake has generally receded in the past 30 yr, allowing permafrost aggradation in the receded margins, resulting in a mosaic of transient frozen ground adjacent to thick, older permafrost outside the original lakebed. ERI and EMI best evaluated the thickness of shallow, thin permafrost aggradation, which was not clear from frost probing or GPR surveys. GPR most precisely estimated the depth of the active layer, which forward electrical resistivity modelling indicated to be a difficult target for electrical methods, but could be more tractable in time-lapse mode. Infrared imaging of freshly dug soil pit walls captured active-layer thermal gradients at unprecedented resolution, which may be useful in calibrating emerging numerical models. GPR and EMI were able to cover landscape scales (several kilometres) efficiently, and new analysis software showcased here yields calibrated EMI data that reveal the complicated distribution of shallow permafrost in a transitional landscape.

  18. Quality of surface and ground waters, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington, 1973-74 (United States)

    Fretwell, M.O.


    This report describes the quality of the surface and ground waters of the Yakima Indian Reservation in south-central Washington, during the period November 1973-October 1974. The average dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 48 to 116 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in the mountain streams, and from 88 to 372 mg/L in the lowland streams, drains, and a canal. All the mountain streams contain soft water (classified as 0-60 mg/L hardness as CaC03), and the lowland streams, drains, and canal contain soft to very hard water (more than 180 mg/L hardness as CaC03). The water is generally of suitable quality for irrigation, and neither salinity nor sodium hazards are a problem in waters from any of the streams studied. The specific conductance of water from the major aquifers ranged from 20 to 1 ,540 micromhos. Ground water was most dilute in mineral content in the Klickitat River basin and most concentrated in part of the Satus Creek basin. The ground water in the Satus Creek basin with the most concentrated mineral content also contained the highest percentage composition of sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. For drinking water, the nitrate-nitrogen concentrations exceeded the U.S. Public Health Service 's recommended limit of 10 mg/L over an area of several square miles, with a maximum observed concentration of 170 mg/L. (Woodard-USGS).

  19. Mechanism and bounding of earthquake energy input to building structure on surface ground subjected to engineering bedrock motion


    Kojima, K; Sakaguchi, K; Takewaki, I.


    The mechanism of earthquake energy input to building structures is clarified by considering the surface ground amplification and soil–structure interaction. The earthquake input energies to superstructures, soil–foundation systems and total swaying–rocking system are obtained by taking the corresponding appropriate free bodies into account and defining the energy transfer functions. It has been made clear that, when the ground surface motion is white, the input energy to the swaying–rocking m...

  20. Modeling surface and ground water mixing in the hyporheic zone using MODFLOW and MT3D (United States)

    Lautz, Laura K.; Siegel, Donald I.


    We used a three-dimensional MODFLOW model, paired with MT3D, to simulate hyporheic zones around debris dams and meanders along a semi-arid stream. MT3D simulates both advective transport and sink/source mixing of solutes, in contrast to particle tracking (e.g. MODPATH), which only considers advection. We delineated the hydrochemically active hyporheic zone based on a new definition, specifically as near-stream subsurface zones receiving a minimum of 10% surface water within a 10-day travel time. Modeling results indicate that movement of surface water into the hyporheic zone is predominantly an advective process. We show that debris dams are a key driver of surface water into the subsurface along the experimental reach, causing the largest flux rates of water across the streambed and creating hyporheic zones with up to twice the cross-sectional area of other hyporheic zones. Hyporheic exchange was also found in highly sinuous segments of the experimental reach, but flux rates are lower and the cross-sectional areas of these zones are generally smaller. Our modeling approach simulated surface and ground water mixing in the hyporheic zone, and thus provides numerical approximations that are more comparable to field-based observations of surface-groundwater exchange than standard particle-tracking simulations.

  1. Modelling the Influence of Ground Surface Relief on Electric Sounding Curves Using the Integral Equations Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova


    Full Text Available The problem of electrical sounding of a medium with ground surface relief is modelled using the integral equations method. This numerical method is based on the triangulation of the computational domain, which is adapted to the shape of the relief and the measuring line. The numerical algorithm is tested by comparing the results with the known solution for horizontally layered media with two layers. Calculations are also performed to verify the fulfilment of the “reciprocity principle” for the 4-electrode installations in our numerical model. Simulations are then performed for a two-layered medium with a surface relief. The quantitative influences of the relief, the resistivity ratios of the contacting media, and the depth of the second layer on the apparent resistivity curves are established.

  2. Flux of benzo(a)pyrene to the ground surface and its distribution in the ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milukaite, A. [Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania)


    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) has been investigated in bulk atmospheric deposition, moss, needles of pine and some species of vascular plants. At two remote Lithuanian sites, for 1990-1995 the flux of benzo(a)pyrene from the atmosphere to the ground surface varied between 0.3 to 4.8 {mu}g{sup -2} mo{sup -1}. Consequently the territory of Lithuania (65,000 km{sup 2}) yearly was exposed to 624-2574 kg of carcinogen. The distribution of BP in soil and various vascular plant tissues (trifolium tepens, Elitrygea repens, Thymus serpyllum) indicates that benzo(a)pyrene is assimilated by flora. The concentration of BP is different in various organs of vascular plants and mostly depends on the degree of soil pollution. More than 300 samples of moss, mostly Hylocomium spendens and Pleurozium schreberi were analysed for BP. From 3.1 to 896.0 {mu}g kg{sup -1} of BP were measured in the moss samples. The flux of BP to the ground surface correlates well with its concentration in moss. A map of BP flux across Lithuania was created. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Human health impacts of drinking water (surface and ground) pollution Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt (United States)

    Mandour, R. A.


    This study was done on 30 drinking tap water samples (surface and ground) and 30 urine samples taken from patients who attended some of Dakahlyia governorate hospitals. These patients were complaining of poor-quality tap water in their houses, which was confirmed by this study that drinking water is contaminated with trace elements in some of the studied areas. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the contaminant drinking water (surface and ground) in Dakahlyia governorate and its impact on human health. This study reports the relationship between nickel and hair loss, obviously shown in water and urine samples. Renal failure cases were related to lead and cadmium contaminated drinking water, where compatibilities in results of water and urine samples were observed. Also, liver cirrhosis cases were related to iron-contaminated drinking water. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to industrial wastes and agricultural activities that have released hazardous and toxic materials in the drinking water and thereby led to its contamination in these areas. We conclude that trace elements should be removed from drinking water for human safety.

  4. Analysis of selected herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water of the United States (United States)

    Scribner, E.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Zimmerman, L.R.


    One of the primary goals of the US Geological Survey (USGS) Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, is to develop analytical methods for the analysis of herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water that are vital to the study of herbicide fate and degradation pathways in the environment. Methods to measure metabolite concentrations from three major classes of herbicides - triazine, chloroacetanilide and phenyl-urea - have been developed. Methods for triazine metabolite detection cover nine compounds: six compounds are detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; one is detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection; and eight are detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Two metabolites of the chloroacetanilide herbicides - ethane sulfonic acid and oxanilic acid - are detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Alachlor ethane sulfonic acid also has been detected by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Six phenylurea metabolites are all detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; four of the six metabolites also are detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Additionally, surveys of herbicides and their metabolites in surface water, ground water, lakes, reservoirs, and rainfall have been conducted through the USGS laboratory in Lawrence. These surveys have been useful in determining herbicide and metabolite occurrence and temporal distribution and have shown that metabolites may be useful in evaluation of non-point-source contamination. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Dynamic Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake (United States)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo


    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are a series of earthquakes occurred in the Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyushu Region of Japan, including a magnitude 7.0 mainshock which struck at 01:25 JST on April 16, 2016 beneath Kumamoto City, at a depth of about 10 km, and a foreshock earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016, at a depth of about 11 km. This series earthquake killed at least 50 people and injured about 3,000 others in total. Severe damage occurred in Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures, with numerous structures collapsing and catching fire. More than 44,000 people were evacuated from their homes due to the disaster. Kumamoto Prefecture lies at the southern end of the Japan Median Tectonic Line, Japan's longest, where a system of active faults forks in two directions at the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. Specifically, the series of quakes ruptured the 81-km-long Hinagu Fault and 64-km-long Futagawa Fault to its north, as well as lesser but discernable interaction with the farther flung Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. A 27-km section of the Futagawa Fault Zone slid 3.5 meters. The earthquakes are occurring along the Beppu-Shimabara graben, with epicenters moving from west to east over time. In this study, we analyze the dynamic rupture process of this earthquake. Our analyzing procedure is as follows, 1) Obtain the spatial-temporal stress distribution on the fault surface from the kinematic source model inverted from strong motion data (Zhang & Zhen, the abstract of this meeting, No. EGU2017ASC20162770). Estimate the strength excess (yielding stress) and the frictional stress level for each subfault; 2) Estimate the critical slip-weakening distance Dc for each subfault assuming a simple slip-weakening law and according to the method of Mikumo et al. (2003); 3) Reconstruct the dynamic source rupture process using those dynamic source parameters with the slip-weakening friction law; and 4) Simultaneously, simulate the near source ground motions based on the

  6. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia (United States)

    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.


    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  7. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.


    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  8. Martian Surface Temperature and Spectral Response from the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (United States)

    Martin-Torres, Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Zorzano, María-Paz; Serrano, María; Mendaza, Teresa; Hamilton, Vicky; Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team


    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric conditions and, in particular will shed new light into the heat budget of the Martian surface. This is important for studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as the ground and air temperatures measured directly by REMS control the coupling of the atmosphere with the surface [Zurek et al., 1992]. This coupling is driven by solar insolation. The ABL plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. One of the REMS sensors, the ground temperature sensor (GTS), provides the data needed to study the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover. The GTS includes thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 µm and 16-20 µm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012]. These sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and the 8-14 µm thermopile sounds the surface temperature. The infrared radiation reaching the thermopile is proportional to the emissivity of the surface minerals across these thermal wavelengths. We have developed a radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS using a database of thermal infrared laboratory spectra of analogue minerals and their mixtures. [Martín Redondo et al. 2009, Martínez-Frías et al. 2012 - FRISER-IRMIX database]. This method will be used to assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the surface temperature and emissivity values where MSL is operating. Comparisons with orbiter data will be performed. References Gómez-Elvira et al. [2012], REMS: The Environmental Sensor Suite for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Space Science Reviews, Volume 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 583-640. Martín-Redondo et al. [2009] Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:, pp. 1428-1432. Martínez-Frías et al. [2012] FRISER-IRMIX database http

  9. Ground Surface Deformation around Tehran due to Groundwater Recharge: InSAR Monitoring. (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Peyret, M.; Fritz, J. F.; Cherry, J.


    Tehran is located on an active tectonic and seismic zone. The surface deformation monitoring provides a powerful tool for getting a better understanding of faults kinematics and mechanisms. Used in conjunction with GPS networks, InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) provides dense and precise deformation measurements which are essential for mapping complex heterogeneous deformation fields. Moreover, urban and arid areas preserve interferometric phase coherence. The archived acquisitions of ERS that span 9 months between September 1998 and June 1999 reveal wide areas of surface uplift (by as much as 9 cm). This vertical deformation (gradual in time) has probably no tectonic meaning but is rather the ground response to ground water recharge. These zones are all located dowstream of large alluvial fans like the one of Karaj. The variation of effective stress caused by intersticial water draining could explain such surface deformation. It can also be noticed that some faults act as boundary for these deformation zones and fluid motion. The understanding of this deformation is relevant for groundwater monitoring and urban developement management. It is also necessary for discriminating it from tectonic deformation that also occurs on this zone. Due to the lack of attitude control of satellite ERS-2 since February 2001, the last images acquired could not be combined with the former acquisitions. Nevertheless, we expect to be able to enrich our set of images in order to map tectonic deformation on a longer period and to monitor in a more continuous way the deformation due to groundwater evolution. This would allow to quantify the permanent and reversible part of this signal.

  10. Effects of Apparent Supersonic Ruptures for Strike-slip Rupture: Should We Consider it in the Seismic Hazard Analysis? (United States)

    Barrows, M. B.; Shao, G.; Ji, C.


    Recent numerical studies indicated that the supersonic rupture could produce larger off-fault damage at distant sites than the sub-shear rupture, due to the famous "mach cone" effect (Dunham and Archuleta, 2005; Bhat et al, 2007). These results were obtained using the steady-state rupture simulations in a half-space earth. For more realistic layered or 3D earth models, we should also consider the effects of apparent supersonic rupture, i.e., the deep rupture is still in a speed slower than the local shear velocity, but faster than the near surface S or even the P wave velocity. The apparent super-shear rupture could excite the mach effect, but how large it is has not yet been quantitatively addressed. In this study, we explore this possibility by performing numerical simulations for pure strike-slip ruptures on a vertical fault inside various layered earth models.

  11. Geologic Evidence for Late-Stage Equatorial Surface and Ground Ice on Mars (United States)

    Chapman, M. G.


    New imagery data from the Mars Observer Camera suggest that the equatorial canyon of Valles Marineris contained surface and ground ice relatively late in Martian history. Some troughs (or chasmata) of Valles Marineris contain large mounds and mesas of interior layered deposits (ILDs) that formed in the Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian. Although the origin of the ILDs remains controversial, their characteristics suggest that the strongest hypotheses origin are lacustrine or volcanic processes; some workers have suggested a compromise origin, noting that many MOC observations of ILDs are similar to those of terrestrial sub-ice volcanoes that erupt in meltwater lakes. Lacustrine deposition and sub-ice volcanism require that chamata water or ice would have had to remain stable on the surface long enough to form either (1) extremely thick (1 km to > 4 km) deposits of fine-grained suspended lacustrine materials or (2) numerous sub-ice volcanic edifices with heights that compare to those of Hawaiian oceanic volcanoes. However, a dust cover on top of ice or an ice-covered lake could aid in preventing rapid sublimation. If the ILDs are sub-ice volcanoes than new MOLA topographic data can be used to (1) measure the heights of their subaerial caprock and (2) estimate corresponding volumes of ice. For example, the largest ILD mound in the 113,275 km3 void of Juventae Chasma resembles a capped sub-ice volcanic ridge. The mound is about 2 km high; with the highest point of the cap reaching an elevation of about +80 m. GIS measurement indicate that the maximum volume of ice below the elevation of +80 m is 56,423 km3, so roughly half of the Chasma could have been filled with ice. If the ILDs are lacustrine, then the heights of some other mounds that rival the surrounding plateau elevation would have required a volume of water almost equal to their enclosing chasma. Later in the Amazonian, after sublimation of any putative surface water or ice, MOC imagery attests to ground ice

  12. A Comprehensive Laboratory Study to Improve Ground Truth Calibration of Remotely Sensed Near-Surface Soil Moisture (United States)

    Babaeian, E.; Tuller, M.; Sadeghi, M.; Sheng, W.; Jones, S. B.


    Optical satellite and airborne remote sensing (RS) have been widely applied for characterization of large-scale surface soil moisture distributions. However, despite the excellent spatial resolution of RS data, the electromagnetic radiation within the optical bands (400-2500 nm) penetrates the soil profile only to a depth of a few millimeters; hence obtained moisture estimates are limited to the soil surface region. Furthermore, moisture sensor networks employed for ground truth calibration of RS observations commonly exhibit very limited spatial resolution, which consequently leads to significant discrepancies between RS and ground truth observations. To better understand the relationship between surface and near-surface soil moisture, we employed a benchtop hyperspectral line-scan imaging system to generate high resolution surface reflectance maps during evaporation from soil columns filled with source soils covering a wide textural range and instrumented with a novel time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensor array that allows monitoring of near surface moisture at 0.5-cm resolution. A recently developed physical model for surface soil moisture predictions from shortwave infrared reflectance was applied to estimate surface soil moisture from surface reflectance and to explore the relationship between surface and near-surface moisture distributions during soil drying. Preliminary results are very promising and their applicability for ground truth calibration of RS observations will be discussed.

  13. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.


    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  14. Stochastic Earthquake Rupture Modeling Using Nonparametric Co-Regionalization (United States)

    Lee, Kyungbook; Song, Seok Goo


    Accurate predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions are essential in simulation-based seismic hazard assessment. Advanced simulation-based ground motion prediction methods have been proposed to complement the empirical approach, which suffers from the lack of observed ground motion data, especially in the near-source region for large events. It is important to quantify the variability of the earthquake rupture process for future events and to produce a number of rupture scenario models to capture the variability in simulation-based ground motion predictions. In this study, we improved the previously developed stochastic earthquake rupture modeling method by applying the nonparametric co-regionalization, which was proposed in geostatistics, to the correlation models estimated from dynamically derived earthquake rupture models. The nonparametric approach adopted in this study is computationally efficient and, therefore, enables us to simulate numerous rupture scenarios, including large events (M > 7.0). It also gives us an opportunity to check the shape of true input correlation models in stochastic modeling after being deformed for permissibility. We expect that this type of modeling will improve our ability to simulate a wide range of rupture scenario models and thereby predict ground motions and perform seismic hazard assessment more accurately.

  15. [Exceptional iatrogenic ureteral rupture]. (United States)

    Martínez-Vieira, Almudena; Valera-Sánchez, Zoraida; Sousa-Vaquero, José María; Palacios-González, Carmen; García-Poley, Antonio; Bernal-Bellido, Carmen; Alamo-Martínez, José María; Millán-López, Ana; Blanco-Domínguez, Manuel; Galindo-Galindo, Antonio


    Rupture of the ureter is an infrequent event that can have serious consequences. The most frequent cause is surgical iatrogenic ureter disease. Other possible causes are urological procedures and urographic studies. In our patient, which, to our knowledge, is the first to be reported in the literature, the ureteral rupture was produced by a traumatic urinary catheterism, because the balloon was filled inside the ureter. The normal presentation is nephritic colic, although acute abdomen is also a possibility. The possibility of ureteral rupture in abdominopelvic surgery or in urological techniques should be evaluated when patients present these clinical symptoms. Treatment is surgical, although in some cases conservative measures can be used.

  16. Interfaces Supporting Surface Gap Soliton Ground States in the 1D Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dohnal, Tomas; Plum, Michael; Reichel, Wolfgang


    We consider the problem of verifying the existence of $H^1$ ground states of the 1D nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation for an interface of two periodic structures: $$-u" +V(x)u -\\lambda u = \\Gamma(x) |u|^{p-1}u \\ {on} \\R$$ with $V(x) = V_1(x), \\Gamma(x)=\\Gamma_1(x)$ for $x\\geq 0$ and $V(x) = V_2(x), \\Gamma(x)=\\Gamma_2(x)$ for $x1$. The article [T. Dohnal, M. Plum and W. Reichel, "Surface Gap Soliton Ground States for the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation," \\textit{Comm. Math. Phys.} \\textbf{308}, 511-542 (2011)] provides in the 1D case an existence criterion in the form of an integral inequality involving the linear potentials $V_{1},V_2$ and the Bloch waves of the operators $-\\tfrac{d^2}{dx^2}+V_{1,2}-\\lambda$. We choose here the classes of piecewise constant and piecewise linear potentials $V_{1,2}$ and check this criterion for a set of parameter values. In the piecewise constant case the Bloch waves are calculated explicitly and in the piecewise linear case verified enclosures of the Bloch waves are computed ...

  17. Ground Plane and Near-Surface Thermal Analysis for NASA's Constellation Program (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Amundsen, Ruth M.; Scola, Salvatore; Leahy, Frank F.; Sharp, John R.


    Most spacecraft thermal analysis tools assume that the spacecraft is in orbit around a planet and are designed to calculate solar and planetary fluxes, as well as radiation to space. On NASA Constellation projects, thermal analysts are also building models of vehicles in their pre-launch condition on the surface of a planet. This process entails making some modifications in the building and execution of a thermal model such that the radiation from the planet, both reflected albedo and infrared, is calculated correctly. Also important in the calculation of pre-launch vehicle temperatures are the natural environments at the vehicle site, including air and ground temperatures, sky radiative background temperature, solar flux, and optical properties of the ground around the vehicle. A group of Constellation projects have collaborated on developing a cohesive, integrated set of natural environments that accurately capture worst-case thermal scenarios for the pre-launch and launch phases of these vehicles. The paper will discuss the standardization of methods for local planet modeling across Constellation projects, as well as the collection and consolidation of natural environments for launch sites. Methods for Earth as well as lunar sites will be discussed.

  18. Two decades of temperature-time monitoring experiment: air - ground surface - shallow subsurface interactions (United States)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Dedecek, Petr; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan


    Long-term observations (1994-2013) of air and shallow ground temperatures at borehole Prague-Sporilov (50º02'28.5"E, 14º28'40.2"N, 274 m a.s.l.) have been thoroughly analyzed to understand the relationship between these quantities and to describe the mechanism of heat transport at the land-atmosphere boundary layer. Data provided a surprisingly small mean ground-air temperature offset of only 0.31 K with no clear annual course and with the offset value changing irregularly even on a daily scale. Such value is substantially lower than similar values (1-2 K and more) found elsewhere, but may well characterize a mild temperate zone, when all so far available information referred rather to southern locations. Borehole data were correlated with similar observations in a polygon-site under four types of surface conditions (grass, soil, sand and asphalt) completed with registration of meteorological variables (wind direction & velocity, air & soil humidity, direct & reflected solar radiation, precipitation and snow cover). The "thermal orbits" technique proved to be an effective tool for the fast qualitative diagnostics of the thermal regime in the subsurface (conductive versus non-conductive).

  19. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo, E-mail:; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang


    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP.

  20. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong [Shilla General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture.

  1. Numerical modelling of ground-borne noise and vibration in buildings due to surface rail traffic (United States)

    Fiala, P.; Degrande, G.; Augusztinovicz, F.


    This paper deals with the numerical computation of the structural and acoustic response of a building to an incoming wave field generated by high-speed surface railway traffic. The source model consists of a moving vehicle on a longitudinally invariant track, coupled to a layered ground modelled with a boundary element formulation. The receiver model is based on a substructuring formulation and consists of a boundary element model of the soil and a finite element model of the structure. The acoustic response of the building's rooms is computed by means of a spectral finite element formulation. The paper investigates the structural and acoustic response of a multi-story portal frame office building up to a frequency of 150 Hz to the passage of a Thalys high-speed train at constant velocity. The isolation performance of three different vibration countermeasures: a floating-floor, a room-in-room, and base-isolation, are examined.

  2. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.


    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  3. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.


    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  4. Ground Boundary Conditions for Thermal Convection Over Horizontal Surfaces at High Rayleigh Numbers (United States)

    Hanjalić, K.; Hrebtov, M.


    We present "wall functions" for treating the ground boundary conditions in the computation of thermal convection over horizontal surfaces at high Rayleigh numbers using coarse numerical grids. The functions are formulated for an algebraic-flux model closed by transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy, its dissipation rate and scalar variance, but could also be applied to other turbulence models. The three-equation algebraic-flux model, solved in a T-RANS mode ("Transient" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes, based on triple decomposition), was shown earlier to reproduce well a number of generic buoyancy-driven flows over heated surfaces, albeit by integrating equations up to the wall. Here we show that by using a set of wall functions satisfactory results are found for the ensemble-averaged properties even on a very coarse computational grid. This is illustrated by the computations of the time evolution of a penetrative mixed layer and Rayleigh-Bénard (open-ended, 4:4:1 domain) convection, using 10 × 10 × 100 and 10 × 10 × 20 grids, compared also with finer grids (e.g. 60 × 60 × 100), as well as with one-dimensional treatment using 1 × 1 × 100 and 1 × 1 × 20 nodes. The approach is deemed functional for simulations of a convective boundary layer and mesoscale atmospheric flows, and pollutant transport over realistic complex hilly terrain with heat islands, urban and natural canopies, for diurnal cycles, or subjected to other time and space variations in ground conditions and stratification.

  5. Scalable and Detail-Preserving Ground Surface Reconstruction from Large 3D Point Clouds Acquired by Mobile Mapping Systems (United States)

    Craciun, D.; Serna Morales, A.; Deschaud, J.-E.; Marcotegui, B.; Goulette, F.


    The currently existing mobile mapping systems equipped with active 3D sensors allow to acquire the environment with high sampling rates at high vehicle velocities. While providing an effective solution for environment sensing over large scale distances, such acquisition provides only a discrete representation of the geometry. Thus, a continuous map of the underlying surface must be built. Mobile acquisition introduces several constraints for the state-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithms. Smoothing becomes a difficult task for recovering sharp depth features while avoiding mesh shrinkage. In addition, interpolation-based techniques are not suitable for noisy datasets acquired by Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems. Furthermore, scalability is a major concern for enabling real-time rendering over large scale distances while preserving geometric details. This paper presents a fully automatic ground surface reconstruction framework capable to deal with the aforementioned constraints. The proposed method exploits the quasi-flat geometry of the ground throughout a morphological segmentation algorithm. Then, a planar Delaunay triangulation is applied in order to reconstruct the ground surface. A smoothing procedure eliminates high frequency peaks, while preserving geometric details in order to provide a regular ground surface. Finally, a decimation step is applied in order to cope with scalability constraints over large scale distances. Experimental results on real data acquired in large urban environments are presented and a performance evaluation with respect to ground truth measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  6. Monitoring surface geothermal features using time series of aerial and ground-based photographs (United States)

    Bromley, C.; van Manen, S. M.; Graham, D.


    Geothermal systems are of high conservation and scientific value and monitoring of these is an important management tool to assess natural variations and changes resulting from development and utilization. This study examines time series of aerial and ground-based photographs of geothermal areas within the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. A time series of aerial photographs from 1946-2007 of the Broadlands Road Scenic Reserve (Taupo, New Zealand) highlights large changes to this small area as the result of the start of geothermal fluid production for the nearby Wairakei power plant in 1958 and other causes. Prior to the opening of the plant the area was not geothermally active, but expansion of steam zones due to pressure drawdown has resulted in significant thermal changes in the subsurface. These subsurface thermal changes are evident in the aerial photographs as the appearance of hydrothermal eruption craters and areas of thermal bare ground, which are too hot for vegetation to grown on. In addition, in the late 1960’s thermotolerant vegetation started to establish itself in the adjacent area. Changes in the surface area covered by each of these, reflect changes in the geothermal system as well as changes in management (e.g. exclusion of livestock), and a time series of these changes has been produced using ArcMap™. Monthly photographs of surface geothermal expressions in the Rotorua area show changes in colour and size of chloride springs with time. Colour and size changes are difficult to quantify due to varying exposure settings, weather conditions, and vantage points. However, these qualitative descriptions can be combined with quantitative time series such as temperature measurements, to provide better insight into surface changes that have occurred at this geothermal field. This study highlights the value of both qualitative and quantitative data that can be obtained from time series of photographs, including photographs that were obtained before the

  7. A Fault Evolution Model Including the Rupture Dynamic Simulation (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Chen, X.


    We perform a preliminary numerical simulation of seismicity and stress evolution along a strike-slip fault in a 3D elastic half space. Following work of Ben-Zion (1996), the fault geometry is devised as a vertical plane which is about 70 km long and 17 km wide, comparable to the size of San Andreas Fault around Parkfield. The loading mechanism is described by "backslip" method. The fault failure is governed by a static/kinetic friction law, and induced stress transfer is calculated with Okada's static solution. In order to track the rupture propagation in detail, we allow induced stress to propagate through the medium at the shear wave velocity by introducing a distance-dependent time delay to responses to stress changes. Current simulation indicates small to moderate earthquakes following the Gutenberg-Richter law and quasi-periodical characteristic large earthquakes, which are consistent with previous work by others. Next we will consider introducing a more realistic friction law, namely, the laboratory-derived rate- and state- dependent law, which can simulate more realistic and complicated sliding behavior such as the stable and unstable slip, the aseismic sliding and the slip nucleation process. In addition, the long duration of aftershocks is expected to be reproduced due to this time-dependent friction law, which is not available in current seismicity simulation. The other difference from previous work is that we are trying to include the dynamic ruptures in this study. Most previous study on seismicity simulation is based on the static solution when dealing with failure induced stress changes. However, studies of numerical simulation of rupture dynamics have revealed lots of important details which are missing in the quasi-static/quasi- dynamic simulation. For example, dynamic simulations indicate that the slip on the ground surface becomes larger if the dynamic rupture process reaches the free surface. The concentration of stress on the propagating crack

  8. Ruptured episiotomia resutured primarily. (United States)

    Monberg, J; Hammen, S


    In a randomized study, 35 patients with ruptured episiotomy were treated in two ways. One group, treated with Clindamycin and primary resuture, did better than the other group, not resutured but spontaneously healed.

  9. Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare (United States)

    Heel cord tear; Calcaneal tendon rupture ... MRI scan to see what type of Achilles tendon tear you have. An MRI is a type ... partial tear means at least some of the tendon is still OK. A full tear means your ...

  10. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After ultrasound scan, uterine rupture was diagnosed and an ... delivery. The birth weights ranged between 2900 and 3200g. The last 2 .... abdominal pains and signs of shock, at which made up of altered blood and we think that the.

  11. Ground surface thermal regime of rock glaciers in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia (United States)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, Peter


    Numerous lobate- or tongue-shaped debris accumulations, mostly interpreted as rock glaciers, have recently been recognized in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia (49˚ 10' N, 20˚ 08' E). These prominent landforms arise due to creep of voluminous debris-ice mixtures, and as such they are excellent indicators of present or past permafrost existence. Hence rock glaciers are extensively utilized to model the distribution of permafrost in mountain areas. However, commonly applied rules of thumb may not be entirely indicative to discriminate particularly between the inactive (permafrost in disequilibrium with present climate) and relict (without permafrost) rock glaciers, which may substantially complicate permafrost modelling. Accordingly, the information about their thermal state is essential to calibrate and validate regional permafrost models. Limited ground temperature data have been, however, available from the High Tatra Mts. to date and therefore, we bring the updated and enhanced results from the thermal investigations of eleven rock glaciers located in the Slavkovská dolina and Veľká Studená dolina valleys at elevations between 1832 and 2090 m asl. Ground surface temperature (GST) has been continuously monitored at seven rock glaciers between October 2014 and September 2016 using nine Minikin Tie (EMS Brno Inc.) and iButton DS1922L (Maxim Integrated Inc.) loggers with an accuracy of ±0.2 and ±0.5 ˚ C, respectively. In addition, the bottom temperature of snow (BTS) was measured at 306 locations during spring of 2015 and 2016 to map potential permafrost occurrence within all the surveyed rock glaciers and in their immediate surroundings. Mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) of the rock glaciers ranged between -1.3 ˚ C and +2.6 ˚ C and averaged +1.0 ˚ C and +0.8 ˚ C in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, respectively. Two sites continually showed negative MAGST and two other sites were below +0.5 ˚ C and +1.0 ˚ C, respectively. This strongly contrasts with

  12. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture (United States)


    distal tendon . Although these findings overlap with those seen in tendinopathy , the presence of bone marrow edema at the radial tuberosity and fluid in...the bicipitoradial bursa suggests a partial tear rather than tendinopathy .3 When the distal biceps tendon tear is complete, MR imaging shows...Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, 2006 Radiology Corner Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Contributors: CPT Michael

  13. Ground and surface water for drinking: a laboratory study on genotoxicity using plant tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Feretti


    Full Text Available Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L. These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia. No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water.

  14. Ground and surface water for drinking: a laboratory study on genotoxicity using plant tests. (United States)

    Feretti, Donatella; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Gustavino, Bianca; Zerbini, Llaria; Zani, Claudia; Monarca, Silvano; Rizzoni, Marco


    Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L) and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L). These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia). No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water.

  15. Dynamic rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi,Taiwan, earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiming Zhang; Xiaofei Chen


    In this study, we preliminarily investigated the dynamic rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake by using an extended boundary integral equation method, in which the effect of ground surface can be exactly included. Parameters for numerical modeling were carefully assigned based on previous studies. Numerical results indicated that, although many simplifications are assumed, such as the fault plane is planar and all heterogeneities are neglected, distribution of slip is still consistent roughly with the results of kinematic inversion, implying that for earthquakes in which ruptures run up directly to the ground surface, the dynamic processes are controlled by geometry of the fault to a great extent. By taking the common feature inferred by various kinematic inversion studies as a restriction, we found that the critical slip-weakening distance Dc should locate in a narrow region [60 cm, 70 cm], and supershear rupture might occur during this earthquake, if the initial shear stress before the mainshock is close to the local shear strength.

  16. Inherited structures impact on co-seismic surface deformation pattern during the 2013 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake (United States)

    Vallage, Amaury; Klinger, Yann; Grandin, Raphael; Delorme, Arthur; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc


    The understanding of earthquake processes and the interaction of earthquake rupture with Earth's free surface relies on the resolution of the observations. Recent and detailed post-earthquake measurements bring new insights on shallow mechanical behavior of rupture processes as it becomes possible to measure and locate surficial deformation distribution. The 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, offers a nice opportunity to comprehend where and why surficial deformation might differs from at-depth localized slip. This earthquake ruptured the Hoshab fault over 200 km; the motion was mainly left lateral with a small and discontinuous vertical component in the southern part of the rupture. Using images with the finest resolution currently available, we measured the surface displacement amplitude and its orientation at the ground surface (including the numerous tensile cracks). We combined these measurements with the 1:500 scale ground rupture map to focus on the behavior of the frontal rupture in the area where deformation distributes. Comparison with orientations of inherited tectonic structures, visible in older rocks formation surrounding the actual 2013 rupture, shows the control exercised by such structures on co-seismic rupture distribution. Such observation raises the question on how pre-existing tectonic structures in a medium, mapped in several seismically active places around the globe; can control the co-seismic distribution of the deformation during earthquakes.

  17. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.


    Reliable ground‐motion prediction for future earthquakes depends on the ability to simulate realistic earthquake source models. Though dynamic rupture calculations have recently become more popular, they are still computationally demanding. An alternative is to invoke the framework of pseudodynamic (PD) source characterizations that use simple relationships between kinematic and dynamic source parameters to build physically self‐consistent kinematic models. Based on the PD approach of Guatteri et al. (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress distributions to generate a suite of source models in the magnitude Mw 6–8. This set of models shows that local supershear rupture speed prevails for all earthquake sizes, and that the local rise‐time distribution is not controlled by the overall fault geometry, but rather by local stress changes on the faults. Based on these findings, we derive a new set of relations for the proposed PD source characterization that accounts for earthquake size, buried and surface ruptures, and includes local rise‐time variations and supershear rupture speed. By applying the proposed PD source characterization to several well‐recorded past earthquakes, we verify that significant improvements in fitting synthetic ground motion to observed ones is achieved when comparing our new approach with the model of Guatteri et al. (2004). The proposed PD methodology can be implemented into ground‐motion simulation tools for more physically reliable prediction of shaking in future earthquakes.

  18. Ground motion observations of the 2014 South Napa earthquake (United States)

    Baltay, Annemarie S.; Boatwright, John


    Ground motions of the South Napa earthquake (24 August 2014; M 6.0) were recorded at 19 stations within 20 km and 292 stations within 100 km of the rupture surface trace, generating peak ground motions in excess of 50%g and 50  cm/s in and near Napa Valley. This large dataset allows us to compare the ground motion from the earthquake to existing ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in considerable detail.

  19. Large-aperture ground glass surface profile measurement using coherence scanning interferometry. (United States)

    Bae, Eundeok; Kim, Yunseok; Park, Sanguk; Kim, Seung-Woo


    We present a coherence scanning interferometer configured to deal with rough glass surfaces exhibiting very low reflectance due to severe sub-surface light scattering. A compound light source is prepared by combining a superluminescent light-emitting diode with an ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier. The light source is attuned to offer a short temporal coherence length of 15 μm but with high spatial coherence to secure an adequate correlogram contrast by delivering strongly unbalanced optical power to the low reflectance target. In addition, the infrared spectral range of the light source is shifted close to the visible side at a 1,038 nm center wavelength, so a digital camera of multi-mega pixels available for industrial machine vision can be used to improve the correlogram contrast further with better lateral image resolutions. Experimental results obtained from a ground Zerodur mirror of 200 mm aperture size and 0.9 μm rms roughness are discussed to validate the proposed interferometer system.

  20. Atrazine and its degradation products in surface and ground waters in Zhangjiakou District, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A method using the solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyse atrazine and its degradation products at levels of low nanograms per liter in water has been developed. The environmental water samples were filtered and then extracted by SPE with a new sulfonation of poly(divinylbenzene-co-N- vinylpyrrolidone) sorbents MCX. HPLC/APCIMS was used for the analysis of atrazine and its degradation products, desethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), didealkylatrazine (DEDIA), and hydroxyatrazine (HYA). The detection limits ranged from 10-50 ng/L in water samples. Samples were collected from deep wells and a reservoir near a plant that produced atrazine. Atrazine concentration levels in most surface samples were above the limit of the China Surface Water Regulation (3 mg/L). In ground water, the levels of degradation product were more than 0.1 mg/L and 5-10 times greater than those of atrazine. The highest DEA concentration in the groundwater sample taken at the 130 m depth was 7.2 ug/L.

  1. Spectroscopic determination of ground and excited state vibrational potential energy surfaces (United States)

    Laane, Jaan

    Far-infrared spectra, mid-infrared combination band spectra, Raman spectra, and dispersed fluorescence spectra of non-rigid molecules can be used to determine the energies of many of the quantum states of conformationally important vibrations such as out-of-plane ring modes, internal rotations, and molecular inversions in their ground electronic states. Similarly, the fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled molecules, together with electronic absorption spectra, provide the information for determining the vibronic energy levels of electronic excited states. One- or two-dimensional potential energy functions, which govern the conformational changes along the vibrational coordinates, can be determined from these types of data for selected molecules. From these functions the molecular structures, the relative energies between different conformations, the barriers to molecular interconversions, and the forces responsible for the structures can be ascertained. This review describes the experimental and theoretical methodology for carrying out the potential energy determinations and presents a summary of work that has been carried out for both electronic ground and excited states. The results for the out-of-plane ring motions of four-, five-, and six-membered rings will be presented, and results for several molecules with unusual properties will be cited. Potential energy functions for the carbonyl wagging and ring modes for several cyclic ketones in their S1(n,pi*) states will also be discussed. Potential energy surfaces for the three internal rotations, including the one governing the photoisomerization process, will be examined for trans-stilbene in both its S0 and S1(pi,pi*) states. For the bicyclic molecules in the indan family, the two-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the highly interacting ring-puckering and ring-flapping motions in both the S0 and S1(pi,pi*) states have also been determined using all of the spectroscopic methods mentioned above

  2. Ozone treatment of coal- and coffee grounds-based active carbons: Water vapor adsorption and surface fractal micropores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, Ryoichi; Ozawa, Takayoshi; Ando, Junichi [Kanagawa Industrial Technology Research Inst., Ebina, Kanagawa (Japan)


    Characteristics of the adsorption iostherms of water vapor on active carbons from coal and coffee grounds and those ozonized ones from the surface fractal dimension analysis are discussed. The upswing of the adsorption isotherms in the low relative pressure of coffee grounds-based active carbon, of which isotherms were not scarcely affected on ozonization, was attributed to the adsorption of water molecules on the metallic oxides playing the role of oxygen-surface complexes, which formed the corrugated surfaces on the basal planes of micropore walls with the surface fractal dimension D{sub s} > 2. On the other hand, coal-based active carbon with D{sub s} < 2, which indicated the flat surfaces of micropore walls, showed little effect on the upswing even on ozonization, even though the adsorption amounts of water vapor were increased in the low relative pressure.

  3. Groundwater Surface Trends at Van Norden Meadow, California, from Ground Penetrating Radar Profiles (United States)

    Tadrick, N. I.; Blacic, T. M.; Yarnell, S. M.


    Van Norden meadow in the Donner Summit area west of Lake Tahoe is one of the largest sub-alpine meadows in the Sierra Nevada mountain range. As natural water retention basins, meadows attenuate floods, improve water quality and support vegetation that stabilizes stream banks and promotes high biodiversity. Like most meadows in the Sierras however, over-grazing, road-building, and development has resulted in localized stream incision, degradation, and partial conversion from wet to dry conditions in Van Norden. Additionally, a small dam at the base of the meadow has partially flooded the lower meadow creating reservoir conditions. Privately owned since the late 1800s, Van Norden was recently purchased by a local land trust to prevent further development and return the area to public ownership. Restoration of the natural meadow conditions will involve notching the dam in 2016 to reduce currently impounded water volumes from 250 to less than 50 acre-feet. To monitor the effects of notching the dam on the upstream meadow conditions, better understanding of the surface and groundwater hydrology both pre- and post-restoration is required. We surveyed the meadow in summer 2014 with ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map the groundwater surface prior to restoration activities using a 270MHz antenna to obtain a suite of longitudinal and transverse transects. Groundwater level within the meadow was assessed using both piezometer readings and sweeps of the GPR antenna. Seventeen piezometers were added this year to the 13 already in place to monitor temporal changes in the groundwater surface, while the GPR profiles provided information about lateral variations. Our results provide an estimate of the groundwater depth variations across the upper portion of the meadow before notching. We plan to return in 2015 to collect GPR profiles during wetter conditions, which will provide a more complete assessment of the pre-notching groundwater hydrology.

  4. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR - A new method for exploration of ground water and aquifer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Yaramanci


    Full Text Available The Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR method is a fairly new technique in geophysics to assess ground water, i.e. existence, amount and productibility by measurements at the surface. The NMR technique used in medicine, physics and lately in borehole geophysics was adopted for surface measurements in the early eighties, and commercial equipment for measurements has been available since the mid nineties. The SNMR method has been tested at sites in Northern Germany with Quaternary sand and clay layers, to examine the suitability of this new method for groundwater exploration and environmental investigations. More information is obtained by SNMR, particularly with respect to aquifer parameters, than with other geophysical techniques. SNMR measurements were carried out at three borehole locations, together with 2D and 1D direct current geoelectrics and well logging (induction log, gamma-ray log and pulsed neutron-gamma log. Permeabilities were calculated from the grain-size distributions of core material determined in the laboratory. It is demonstrated that the SNMR method is able to detect groundwater and the results are in good agreement with other geophysical and hydrogeological data. Using the SNMR method, the water content of the unsaturated and saturated zones (i.e. porosity of an aquifer can be reliably determined. This information and resistivity data permit in-situ determination of other aquifer parameters. Comparison of the SNMR results with borehole data clearly shows that the water content determined by SNMR is the free or mobile water in the pores. The permeabilities estimated from the SNMR decay times are similar to those derived from sieve analysis of core material. Thus, the combination of SNMR with geoelectric methods promises to be a powerful tool for studying aquifer properties.

  5. Transport and fate of nitrate at the ground-water/surface-water interface (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.; Zamora, C.; Essaid, H.; Wilson, J.T.; Johnson, H.M.; Brayton, M.J.; Vogel, J.R.


    Although numerous studies of hyporheic exchange and denitrification have been conducted in pristine, high-gradient streams, few studies of this type have been conducted in nutrient-rich, low-gradient streams. This is a particularly important subject given the interest in nitrogen (N) inputs to the Gulf of Mexico and other eutrophic aquatic systems. A combination of hydrologic, mineralogical, chemical, dissolved gas, and isotopic data, were used to determine the processes controlling transport and fate of NO3- in streambeds at five sites across the USA. Water samples were collected from streambeds at depths ranging from 0.3 to 3 m at three to five points across the stream and in two to five separate transects. Residence times of water ranging from 0.28 to 34.7 d m-1 in the streambeds of N-rich watersheds played an important role in allowing denitrification to decrease NO3- concentrations. Where potential electron donors were limited and residence times were short, denitrification was limited. Consequently, in spite of reducing conditions at some sites, NO3- was transported into the stream. At two of the five study sites, NO3- in surface water infiltrated the streambeds and concentrations decreased, supporting current models that NO3- would be retained in N-rich streams. At the other three study sites, hydrogeologic controls limited or prevented infiltration of surface water into the streambed, and ground-water discharge contributed to NO 3- loads. Our results also show that in these low hydrologic-gradient systems, storm and other high-flow events can be important factors for increasing surface-water movement into streambeds. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative study of the phosphate levels in some surface and ground water bodies of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fadiran


    Full Text Available The levels of total phosphate in selected surface water and groundwater bodies from Manzini and Lubombo regions of Swaziland were determined using UV spectroscopic method. Samples were collected from three rivers (upstream and downstream of each, three industrial effluents, one reservoir, one pond, one tap water and fifteen boreholes. Mean phosphate levels in the tap water and reservoir varied between 0.08-0.09 mg/L while for the river samples, the range was 0.11-0.37 and for the industrial discharge, it was 0.11-1.60 mg/L PO4–P. For the ground water systems it ranged between 0.10-0.49 mg/L PO4–P. The mean phosphate levels in all the analyzed surface and groundwater samples were below the recommended maximum contaminant level (MCL by SWSC (Swaziland Water Service Corporation – i.e. 1.0 mg/L for drinking water; 2.0 mg/L for rivers and industrial effluents, and the South African criterion of 1.0 mg/L PO4–P, for sewage effluents being discharged into receiving waters. However, pooled mean values for all the sites were higher than the USEPA criterion of 0.03 mg/L maximum for uncontaminated lakes. Dominant factors considered to have influenced the levels of phosphates in both the surface and groundwater samples analyzed include industrial activities (where present, agricultural activities (including livestock, population density, location (urban, suburban or rural, soil/rock type in the vicinity of the sampling point, climate and rainfall pattern of the area or region concerned.

  7. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric


    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  8. A mixed space-time and wavenumber-frequency domain procedure for modelling ground vibration from surface railway tracks (United States)

    Koroma, S. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Hussein, M. F. M.; Ntotsios, E.


    This paper presents a methodology for studying ground vibration in which the railway track is modelled in the space-time domain using the finite element method (FEM) and, for faster computation, discretisation of the ground using either FEM or the boundary element method (BEM) is avoided by modelling it in the wavenumber-frequency domain. The railway track is coupled to the ground through a series of rectangular strips located at the surface of the ground; their vertical interaction is described by a frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness matrix whose elements are represented by discrete lumped parameter models. The effectiveness of this approach is assessed firstly through frequency domain analysis using as excitation a stationary harmonic load applied on the rail. The interaction forces at the ballast/ground interface are calculated using the FE track model in the space-time domain, transformed to the wavenumber domain, and used as input to the ground model for calculating vibration in the free field. Additionally, time domain simulations are also performed with the inclusion of nonlinear track parameters. Results are presented for the coupled track/ground model in terms of time histories and frequency spectra for the track vibration, interaction forces and free-field ground vibration. For the linear track model, the results from the mixed formulation are in excellent agreement with those from a semi-analytical model formulated in the wavenumber-frequency domain, particularly in the vicinity of the loading point. The accuracy of the mixed formulation away from the excitation point depends strongly on the inclusion of through-ground coupling in the lumped parameter model, which has been found to be necessary for both track dynamics and ground vibration predictions.

  9. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1999 (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Spencer, Tracey A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 13 surface-water samples and 3 replicates from 5 sites in the West Branch Canal Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground from February through August 1999, as a part of an investigation of ground-water contamination and natural attenuation processes. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, which are the four major contaminants that were detected in ground water in the Canal Creek area in earlier USGS studies. Field blanks were collected during the sampling period to assess sample bias. Field replicates were used to assess sample variability, which was expressed as relative percent difference. The mean variability of the surface-water replicate analyses was larger (35.4 percent) than the mean variability of ground-water replicate analyses (14.6 percent) determined for West Branch Canal Creek from 1995 through 1996. The higher variability in surface-water analyses is probably due to heterogeneities in the composition of the surface water rather than differences in sampling or analytical procedures. The most frequently detected volatile organic compound was 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane, which was detected in every sample and in two of the replicates. The surface-water contamination is likely the result of cross-media transfer of contaminants from the ground water and sediments along the West Branch Canal Creek. The full extent of surface-water contamination in West Branch Canal Creek and the locations of probable contaminant sources cannot be determined from this limited set of data. Tidal mixing, creek flow patterns, and potential effects of a drought that occurred during the sampling period also complicate the evaluation of surface-water contamination.

  10. Ground surface temperature histories in northern Ontario and Québec for the past 500 years (United States)

    Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude


    We have used 19 temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes from eastern Canada to reconstruct the ground surface temperature histories of the region. The boreholes are located north of 51oN, and west and east of James Bay in northern Ontario and Québec. The 8 boreholes in northern Ontario come from 3 sites in a region of extensive discontinuous permafrost, while the 11 holes from Québec come from 6 sites in a region of sporadic discontinuous permafrost. The depths of the holes range between 400 and 800 m, allowing a reconstruction of the ground surface temperature histories for the past 500 years. Present ground surface temperatures are higher in Québec, perhaps because the region receives more snowfall as shown by meteorological records and proxy data. The ground surface temperature histories indicate a present-day warming of ˜2-2.5oC in Ontario and ˜1-1.5oC in Québec relative to the reference surface temperature 500 years BP. These results are in agreement with available proxy data for the recent warming in eastern North America. Furthermore, they suggest that the higher snowfall and strong cooling during the Little Ice Age could have muted the borehole temperature record of climate change in Québec.

  11. An Upscaling Algorithm to Obtain the Representative Ground Truth of LAI Time Series in Heterogeneous Land Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechan Shi


    Full Text Available Upscaling in situ leaf area index (LAI measurements to the footprint scale is important for the validation of medium resolution remote sensing products. However, surface heterogeneity and temporal variation of vegetation make this difficult. In this study, a two-step upscaling algorithm was developed to obtain the representative ground truth of LAI time series in heterogeneous surfaces based on in situ LAI data measured by the wireless sensor network (WSN observation system. Since heterogeneity within a site usually arises from the mixture of vegetation and non-vegetation surfaces, the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation and land cover types were separately considered. Representative LAI time series of vegetation surfaces were obtained by upscaling in situ measurements using an optimal weighted combination method, incorporating the expectation maximum (EM algorithm to derive the weights. The ground truth of LAI over the whole site could then be determined using area weighted combination of representative LAIs of different land cover types. The algorithm was evaluated using a dataset collected in Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWater experiment. The proposed algorithm can effectively obtain the representative ground truth of LAI time series in heterogeneous cropland areas. Using the normal method of an average LAI measurement to represent the heterogeneous surface produced a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.69, whereas the proposed algorithm provided RMSE = 0.032 using 23 sampling points. The proposed ground truth derived method was implemented to validate four major LAI products.

  12. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.


    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  13. Modeling short wave radiation and ground surface temperature: a validation experiment in the Western Alps (United States)

    Pogliotti, P.; Cremonese, E.; Dallamico, M.; Gruber, S.; Migliavacca, M.; Morra di Cella, U.


    Permafrost distribution in high-mountain areas is influenced by topography (micro-climate) and high variability of ground covers conditions. Its monitoring is very difficult due to logistical problems like accessibility, costs, weather conditions and reliability of instrumentation. For these reasons physically-based modeling of surface rock/ground temperatures (GST) is fundamental for the study of mountain permafrost dynamics. With this awareness a 1D version of GEOtop model ( is tested in several high-mountain sites and its accuracy to reproduce GST and incoming short wave radiation (SWin) is evaluated using independent field measurements. In order to describe the influence of topography, both flat and near-vertical sites with different aspects are considered. Since the validation of SWin is difficult on steep rock faces (due to the lack of direct measures) and validation of GST is difficult on flat sites (due to the presence of snow) the two parameters are validated as independent experiments: SWin only on flat morphologies, GST only on the steep ones. The main purpose is to investigate the effect of: (i) distance between driving meteo station location and simulation point location, (ii) cloudiness, (iii) simulation point aspect, (iv) winter/summer period. The temporal duration of model runs is variable from 3 years for the SWin experiment to 8 years for the validation of GST. The model parameterization is constant and tuned for a common massive bedrock of crystalline rock like granite. Ground temperature profile is not initialized because rock temperature is measured at only 10cm depth. A set of 9 performance measures is used for comparing model predictions and observations (including: fractional mean bias (FB), coefficient of residual mass (CMR), mean absolute error (MAE), modelling efficiency (ME), coefficient of determination (R2)). Results are very encouraging. For both experiments the distance (Km) between location of the driving meteo

  14. Sources of shaking and flooding during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake: a mixture of rupture styles (United States)

    Wei, Shengji; Graves, Robert; Helmberger, Don; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Jiang, Junle


    Modeling strong ground motions from great subduction zone earthquakes is one of the great challenges of computational seismology. To separate the rupture characteristics from complexities caused by 3D sub-surface geology requires an extraordinary data set such as provided by the recent Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Here we combine deterministic inversion and dynamically guided forward simulation methods to model over one thousand high-rate GPS and strong motion observations from 0 to 0.25 Hz across the entire Honshu Island. Our results display distinct styles of rupture with a deeper generic interplate event (~Mw8.5) transitioning to a shallow tsunamigenic earthquake (~Mw9.0) at about 25 km depth in a process driven by a strong dynamic weakening mechanism, possibly thermal pressurization. This source model predicts many important features of the broad set of seismic, geodetic and seafloor observations providing a major advance in our understanding of such great natural hazards.

  15. Urban archaeological investigations using surface 3D Ground Penetrating Radar and Electrical Resistivity Tomography methods (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Yi, Myeong-Jong; Kim, Jung-Ho


    Ongoing and extensive urbanisation, which is frequently accompanied with careless construction works, may threaten important archaeological structures that are still buried in the urban areas. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods are most promising alternatives for resolving buried archaeological structures in urban territories. In this work, three case studies are presented, each of which involves an integrated geophysical survey employing the surface three-dimensional (3D) ERT and GPR techniques, in order to archaeologically characterise the investigated areas. The test field sites are located at the historical centres of two of the most populated cities of the island of Crete, in Greece. The ERT and GPR data were collected along a dense network of parallel profiles. The subsurface resistivity structure was reconstructed by processing the apparent resistivity data with a 3D inversion algorithm. The GPR sections were processed with a systematic way, applying specific filters to the data in order to enhance their information content. Finally, horizontal depth slices representing the 3D variation of the physical properties were created. The GPR and ERT images significantly contributed in reconstructing the complex subsurface properties in these urban areas. Strong GPR reflections and high-resistivity anomalies were correlated with possible archaeological structures. Subsequent excavations in specific places at both sites verified the geophysical results. The specific case studies demonstrated the applicability of ERT and GPR techniques during the design and construction stages of urban infrastructure works, indicating areas of archaeological significance and guiding archaeological excavations before construction work.

  16. The impact of municipal landfill on surface and ground water quality in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nyengera


    Full Text Available Leachate from Richmond municipal landfill, underlain by the Matsheumhlope unconfined aquifer in Bulawayo city and its consequent water resource quality impacts are evaluated. Leachate samples from collection ponds and water samples from a stream, and up and down-gradient boreholes fromthe landfill were tested for nine pollutants. The leachate pollutants found in both surface and ground water included metals (Fe, Pb and Hg and organic compounds that are hazardous to both human and the environmental health. Borehole water quality compliance with the relevant national and international regulations is reported. From borehole water samples, only chloride and nitrate with concentrations of 56.9 mg/ℓ and 2.26 mg/ℓ, respectively, were within the World Health Organisation (WHO recommended limits for drinking water of 250 mg/ℓ and 10 mg/ℓ, respectively. Lead and mercury concentrations of 0.22 mg/ℓ and 0.04 mg/ℓ were 10 times higher than WHO guidelines of 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ℓ, respectively. Both landfill and informal settlement activities near the landfill impact negatively to water resources quality in the area. City council should minimize waste by recycling, pre-treat collected leachate and drill monitoring wells around the landfill to check possible leachate leaks to water resources and take remedial actions, such assubmerged leachate combustion and evaporation.

  17. A study of the efficiency of spur gears made of powder metallurgy materials - ground versus super-finished surfaces


    Li, Xinmin; Sosa, Mario; Andersson, Martin; Olofsson, Ulf


    Power loss is one of the main concerns in gear transmission systems. In this study a recirculating power back-to-back FZG test rig was used to investigate the efficiency of spur gears made of powder metallurgy (PM) material using two different surface manufacturing methods (ground and super-finished). The results were compared with previously presented results of standard gear material from the same test rig. The influence of the material (Wrought steel or PM) and surface roughness on the gea...

  18. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia


    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski


    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  19. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to characterize the interactions between ground water and surface water in mantled karst (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Coplen, T.B.; Bullen, T.D.; Hal, Davis J.


    In the mantled karst terrane of northern Florida, the water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer is influenced by the degree of connectivity between the aquifer and the surface. Chemical and isotopic analyses [18O/16O (??18O), 2H/1H (??D), 13C/12C (??13C), tritium(3H), and strontium-87/strontium-86(87Sr/86Sr)]along with geochemical mass-balance modeling were used to identify the dominant hydrochemical processes that control the composition of ground water as it evolves downgradient in two systems. In one system, surface water enters the Upper Floridan aquifer through a sinkhole located in the Northern Highlands physiographic unit. In the other system, surface water enters the aquifer through a sinkhole lake (Lake Bradford) in the Woodville Karst Plain. Differences in the composition of water isotopes (??18O and ??D) in rainfall, ground water, and surface water were used to develop mixing models of surface water (leakage of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer from a sinkhole lake and a sinkhole) and ground water. Using mass-balance calculations, based on differences in ??18O and ??D, the proportion of lake water that mixed with meteoric water ranged from 7 to 86% in water from wells located in close proximity to Lake Bradford. In deeper parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, water enriched in 18O and D from five of 12 sampled municipal wells indicated that recharge from a sinkhole (1 to 24%) and surface water with an evaporated isotopic signature (2 to 32%) was mixing with ground water. The solute isotopes, ??13C and 87Sr/86Sr, were used to test the sensitivity of binary and ternary mixing models, and to estimate the amount of mass transfer of carbon and other dissolved species in geochemical reactions. In ground water downgradient from Lake Bradford, the dominant processes controlling carbon cycling in ground water were dissolution of carbonate minerals, aerobic degradation of organic matter, and hydrolysis of silicate minerals. In the deeper parts of the Upper

  20. Using distributed temperature sensing to monitor field scale dynamics of ground surface temperature and related substrate heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Read, T.; Verhoef, A.


    We present one of the first studies of the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along fibre-optic cables to purposely monitor spatial and temporal variations in ground surface temperature (GST) and soil temperature, and provide an estimate of the heat flux at the base of the canopy layer

  1. Getting saturated hydraulic conductivity from surface Ground-Penetrating Radar measurements inside a ring infiltrometer (United States)

    Leger, E.; Saintenoy, A.; Coquet, Y.


    Hydraulic properties of soils, described by the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions, strongly influence water flow in the vadoze zone, as well as the partitioning of precipitation between infiltration into the soil and runoff along the ground surface. Their evaluation has important applications for modelling available water resources and for flood forecasting. It is also crucial to evaluate soil's capacity to retain chemical pollutants and to assess the potential of groundwater pollution. The determination of the parameters involved in soil water retention functions, 5 parameters when using the van Genuchten function, is usually done by laboratory experiments, such as the water hanging column. Hydraulic conductivity, on the other hand can be estimated either in laboratory, or in situ using infiltrometry tests. Among the large panel of existing tests, the single or double ring infiltrometers give the field saturated hydraulic conductivity by applying a positive charge on soils, whereas the disk infiltrometer allows to reconstruct the whole hydraulic conductivity curve, by applying different charges smaller than or equal to zero. In their classical use, volume of infiltrated water versus time are fitted to infer soil's hydraulic conductivity close to water saturation. Those tests are time-consuming and difficult to apply to landscape-scale forecasting of infiltration. Furthermore they involve many assumptions concerning the form of the infiltration bulb and its evolution. Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method based on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is highly sensitive to water content variations directly related to the dielectric permittivity. In this study GPR was used to monitor water infiltration inside a ring infiltrometer and retrieve the saturated hydraulic conductivity. We carried out experiments in a quarry of Fontainebleau sand, using a Mala RAMAC system with antennae centered on 1600 MHz. We recorded traces at

  2. Implementing ground surface deformation tools to characterize field-scale properties of a fractured aquifer during a short hydraulic test (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Boudin, Frédérick; Durand, Stéphane


    In naturally fractured reservoirs, fluid flow is governed by the structural and hydromechanical properties of fracture networks or conductive fault zones. In order to ensure a sustained exploitation of resources or to assess the safety of underground storage, it is necessary to evaluate these properties. As they generally form highly heterogeneous and anisotropic reservoirs, fractured media may be well characterized by means of several complementary experimental methods or sounding techniques. In this framework, the observation of ground deformation has been proved useful to gain insight of a fractured reservoir's geometry and hydraulic properties. Commonly, large conductive structures like faults can be studied from surface deformation from satellite methods at monthly time scales, whereas meter scale fractures have to be examined under short-term in situ experiments using high accuracy intruments like tiltmeters or extensometers installed in boreholes or at the ground's surface. To the best of our knowledge, the feasability of a field scale (~ 100 m) characterization of a fractured reservoir with geodetic tools in a short term experiment has not yet been addressed. In the present study, we implement two complementary ground surface geodetic tools, namely tiltmetry and optical leveling, to monitor the deformation induced by a hydraulic recovery test at the Ploemeur hydrological observatory (France). Employing a simple purely elastic modeling approach, we show that the joint use of time constraining data (tilt) and spatially constraining data (vertical displacement) makes it possible to evaluate the geometry (dip, root depth and lateral extent) and the storativity of a hydraulically active fault zone, in good agreement with previous studies. Hence we demonstrate that the adequate use of two complementary ground surface deformation methods offer a rich insight of large conductive structure's properties using a single short term hydraulic load. Ground surface

  3. Earthquake Source and Ground Motion Characteristics of Great Kanto Earthquakes (United States)

    Somerville, P. G.; Sato, T.; Wald, D. J.; Graves, R. W.; Dan, K.


    This paper describes the derivation of a rupture model of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, and the estimation of ground motions that occurred during that earthquake and that might occur during future great Kanto earthquakes. The rupture model was derived from the joint inversion of geodetic and teleseismic data. The leveling and triangulation data place strong constraints on the distribution and orientation of slip on the fault. The most concentrated slip is in the shallow central and western part of the fault. The location of the hypocenter on the western part of the fault gives rise to strong near fault rupture directivity effects, which are largest toward the east in the Boso Peninsula. To estimate the ground motions caused by this earthquake, we first calibrated 1D and 3D wave propagation path effects using the Odawara earthquake of 5 August 1990 (M 5.1), the first earthquake larger than M 5 in the last 60 years near the hypocenter of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. The simulation of the moderate-sized Odawara earthquake demonstrates that the 3D velocity model works quite well at reproducing the recorded long-period (T > 3.33 sec) strong motions, including basin-generated surface waves, for a number of sites located throughout the Kanto basin region. Using this validated 3D model along with the rupture model described above, we simulated the long-period (T > 4 sec) ground motions in this region for the 1923 Kanto earthquake. The largest ground motions occur east of the epicenter along the central and southern part of the Boso Peninsula. These large motions arise from strong rupture directivity effects and are comprised of relatively simple, source-controlled pulses with a dominant period of about 10 sec. Other rupture models and hypocenter locations generally produce smaller long period ground motion levels in this region that those of the 1923 event. North of the epicentral region, in the Tokyo area, 3D basin-generated phases are quite significant, and these phases

  4. On the wettability diversity of C/SiC surface: Comparison of the ground C/SiC surface and ablated C/SiC surface from three aspects (United States)

    Wu, M. L.; Ren, C. Z.; Xu, H. Z.


    The coefficient of thermal conductivity was influenced by the wetting state of material. The wetting state usually depends on the surface wettability. C/SiC is a promising ceramic composites with multi-components. The wettability of C/SiC composites is hard to resort to the classical wetting theory directly. So far, few investigations focused on C/SiC surface wettability diversity after different material removal processes. In this investigation, comparative studies of surface wettability of ground C/SiC surface and laser-ablated C/SiC surface were carried out through apparent contact angle (APCA) measurements. The results showed that water droplets easily reached stable state on ground C/SiC surface; while the water droplets rappidly penetrated into the laser-ablated C/SiC surface. In order to find out the reason for wettability distinctions between the ground C/SiC surface and the laser-ablated C/SiC surface, comparative studies on the surface micro-structure, surface C-O-Si distribution, and surface C-O-Si weight percentage were carried out. The results showed that (1) A large number of micro cracks in the fuzzy pattern layer over laser-ablated C/SiC surfaces easily destoried the surface tension of water droplets, while only a few cracks existed over the ground C/SiC surfaces. (2) Chemical components (C, O, Si) were non-uniformly distributed on ground C/SiC surfaces, while the chemical components (C, O, Si) were uniformly distributed on laser-ablated C/SiC surfaces. (3) The carbon weight percentage on ground C/SiC surfaces were higher than that on laser-ablated C/SiC surfaces. All these made an essential contribution to the surface wettability diversity of C/SiC surface. Although more investigations about the quantitative influence of surface topography and surface chemical composition on composites wettability are still needed, the conslusion can be used in application: the wettability of C/SiC surface can be controlled by different material removal process

  5. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns (United States)

    Suter, Max


    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ≥41.0 km, dips ~70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  6. Impact of the variability of the seasonal snow cover on the ground surface regimes in Hurd Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctic) (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo


    Seasonally snow cover has a great impact on the thermal regime of the active layer and permafrost. Ground temperatures over a year are strongly affected by the timing, duration, thickness, structure and physical and thermal properties of snow cover. The purpose of this communication is to characterize the shallow ground thermal regimes, with special reference to the understanding of the influence snow cover in permafrost spatial distribution, in the ice-free areas of the north western part of Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". We have analyzed and ground temperatures as well as snow thickness data in four sites distributed along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2013: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). At each study site, data loggers were installed for the monitoring of air temperatures (at 1.5 m high), ground temperatures (5, 20 and 40 cm depth) and for snow depth (2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 cm) at 4-hour intervals. The winter data suggests the existence of three types of seasonal stages regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: (a) shallow snow cover with intense ground temperatures oscillations; (b) thick snow cover and low variations of soil temperatures; and (c) stability of ground temperatures. Ground thermal conditions are also conditioned by a strong variability. Winter data indicates that Nuevo Incinerador site experiences more often thicker snow cover with higher ground temperatures and absence of ground temperatures oscillations. Collado Ramos and Ohridski show frequent variations of snow cover thickness, alternating between shallow snow cover with high ground temperature fluctuation and thick snow cover and low ground temperature fluctuation. Reina Sofia in all the years has thick snow cover with little variations in soil

  7. [Heavy metals in the surface sediment of the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay and their potential ecological risk]. (United States)

    Cao, Cong-hua; Zhang, Nai-xing; Wu, Feng-cong; Sun, Bin; Ren, Rong-zhu; Sun, Xu; Lin, Sen; Zhang, Shao-ping


    Based on the monitoring data of heavy metals (Cr, Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) in the surface sediment of the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay from 2003 to 2008, the distribution patterns, factors controlling the distribution, and the potential ecological risks of heavy metals were studied with the data in 2007-08, and the fluctuation trends of heavy metals in the surface sediment over the 6 years were also discussed. The average concentrations of heavy metals Cr, Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu in the surface sediment were 29.47, 0.065, 0.105, 1.145, 9.63, 3.355 microg/g, respectively. Except for Cr, the concentration of heavy metals was high in the central dumping area while low outside the dumping ground, suggesting that the dredged material dumped was the main source of heavy metals. Organic carbon content in the surface sediment had a significant positive correlation with heavy metals except for Cr. Based on the results of ecological risk assessment, Hg had a medium potential ecological risk, while the other heavy metals had low potential ecological risk. The overall risk index (RI) of the heavy metals was 100.50, which was considered as a level of low potential ecological risk. The average concentration of heavy metals showed a decreasing trend over the 6 years, except Hg. In conclusion, the quality of surface sediment in term of heavy metals in the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay is relatively good.

  8. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for detection of ground surface deformation in small mud volcano (Murono, Japan) (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Matta, Nobuhisa


    We perform terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to detect changes in surface morphology of a mud volcano in Murono, north-central Japan. The study site underwent significant deformation by a strong earthquake in 2011, and the surface deformation has continued in the following years. The point cloud datasets were obtained by TLS at three different times in 2011, 2013 and 2014. Those point clouds were aligned by cloud-based registration, which minimizes the closest point distance of point clouds of unchanged ground features, and the TLS-based point cloud data appear to be suitable for detecting centimeter-order deformations in the central domain of the mud volcano, as well as for measurements of topographic features including cracks of paved ground surface. The spatial patterns and accumulative amount of the vertical deformation during 2011-2014 captured by TLS correspond well with those previously reported based on point-based leveling surveys, supporting the validity of TLS survey.

  9. Rupture, waves and earthquakes (United States)

    UENISHI, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  10. Rupture, waves and earthquakes. (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  11. Calculation of Electric Field at Ground Surface and ADSS Cable Prepared Hanging Point near EHV Power Transmission Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bao-Qing


    Full Text Available A simplified model of the 750kV tower is established by CDEGS software which is based on the Method Of Moment. The power frequency electric field distribution on the ground is achieved by software calculation and field-measuring. The validity of the calculation is proved when compare the calculation and experiment results. The model also can be used to calculate the electric field in prepared hanging points on the tower. Results show that the electric field distribution on the ground surface around the tower and prepared hanging points are meet the standard by calculation and experiment.

  12. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation (United States)

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, Charlotte


    One important issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine the resulting field-scale-induced displacements and consequences of overpressures on the mechanical integrity of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated for the first time on an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3 year-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells are accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area shows sub- centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with ASR cycle. Deformations are found to be temporally out phased with the injection and recovery events due to complex groundwater flow. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections.

  13. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L


    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  14. Complete Achilles tendon ruptures. (United States)

    Landvater, S J; Renström, P A


    Achilles tendon ruptures can be treated nonsurgically in the nonathletic or low-end recreational athletic patient, particularly those more than 50 years of age, provided the treating physician does not delay in the diagnosis and treatment (preferably less than 48 hrs and possibly less than 1 week). The patient should be advised of the higher incidence of re-rupture of the tendon when treated nonsurgically. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients who are young and athletic. This is particularly true because the major criticism of surgical treatment has been the complication rate, which has decreased to a low level and to a mild degree, usually not significantly affecting the repair over time. Surgical treatment in these individuals seems to be superior not only in regard to re-rupture but also in assuring the correct apposition of the tendon ends and in placing the necessary tension on the tendon to secure appropriate orientation of the collagen fibers. This in turn allows them to regain full strength, power, endurance, and an early return to sports. Surgery is also recommended for late diagnosed ruptures where there is significant lengthening of the tendon. Surgical technique should involve a medial incision to avoid the sural nerve, absorbable suture, and augmentation with fascia or tendon where there is a gap or late rupture. Postoperatively, the immobilization should be 7 to 10 days in a splint. A walking boot with early motion in plantar flexion or a short leg cast with the tendon under slight tension should thereafter be used for 4 to 5 weeks. An early and well-supervised rehabilitation program should be initiated to restore the patient to the preinjury activity level.

  15. Rupture of the plantar fascia. (United States)

    Pai, V S


    Rupture of the plantar fascia in athletes engaged in sports that require running and jumping has been reported. However, spontaneous degenerative rupture of the plantar fascia is not well documented in the literature. This paper reports a patient with degenerative rupture of the plantar fascia.

  16. Coherence of Mach fronts during heterogeneous supershear earthquake rupture propagation: Simulations and comparison with observations (United States)

    Bizzarri, A.; Dunham, Eric M.; Spudich, P.


    We study how heterogeneous rupture propagation affects the coherence of shear and Rayleigh Mach wavefronts radiated by supershear earthquakes. We address this question using numerical simulations of ruptures on a planar, vertical strike-slip fault embedded in a three-dimensional, homogeneous, linear elastic half-space. Ruptures propagate spontaneously in accordance with a linear slip-weakening friction law through both homogeneous and heterogeneous initial shear stress fields. In the 3-D homogeneous case, rupture fronts are curved owing to interactions with the free surface and the finite fault width; however, this curvature does not greatly diminish the coherence of Mach fronts relative to cases in which the rupture front is constrained to be straight, as studied by Dunham and Bhat (2008a). Introducing heterogeneity in the initial shear stress distribution causes ruptures to propagate at speeds that locally fluctuate above and below the shear wave speed. Calculations of the Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) of ground velocity time histories corroborate the kinematic results of Bizzarri and Spudich (2008a): (1) The ground motion of a supershear rupture is richer in high frequency with respect to a subshear one. (2) When a Mach pulse is present, its high frequency content overwhelms that arising from stress heterogeneity. Present numerical experiments indicate that a Mach pulse causes approximately an ω−1.7 high frequency falloff in the FAS of ground displacement. Moreover, within the context of the employed representation of heterogeneities and over the range of parameter space that is accessible with current computational resources, our simulations suggest that while heterogeneities reduce peak ground velocity and diminish the coherence of the Mach fronts, ground motion at stations experiencing Mach pulses should be richer in high frequencies compared to stations without Mach pulses. In contrast to the foregoing theoretical results, we find no average elevation

  17. Numerical simulation of strong ground motion for the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; SHEN Yang; CHEN XiaoFei


    The Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 is the most destructive earthquake in China in the past 30 years in terms of property damage and human losses. In order to understand the earthquake process and the geo-morphological factors affecting the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground motion caused by the earthquake, incorporating three-dimensional (3D) earth structure, finite-fault rupture,and realistic surface topography. The simulated ground motions reveal that the fault rupture and basin structure control the overall pattern of the peak ground shaking. Large peak ground velocity (PGV) is distributed in two narrow areas: one with the largest PGV values is above the hanging wall of the fault and attributed to the locations of fault asperities and rupture directivity; the other is along the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin and caused by both the directivity of fault rupture and the amplification in the thick sediment basin. Rough topography above the rupture fault causes wave scattering,resulting in significantly larger peak ground motion on the apex of topographic relief than in the valley.Topography and scattering also reduce the wave energy in the forward direction of fault rupture but increase the PGV in other parts of the basin. These results suggest the need for a localized hazard assessment in places of rough topography that takes the topographic effects into account. Finally, had the earthquake started at the northeast end of the fault zone and ruptured to the southwest, Chengdu would have suffered a much stronger shaking than it experienced on 12 May, 2008.

  18. Numerical simulation of strong ground motion for the M_s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 is the most destructive earthquake in China in the past 30 years in terms of property damage and human losses. In order to understand the earthquake process and the geo-morphological factors affecting the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground mo-tion caused by the earthquake, incorporating three-dimensional (3D) earth structure, finite-fault rupture, and realistic surface topography. The simulated ground motions reveal that the fault rupture and basin structure control the overall pattern of the peak ground shaking. Large peak ground velocity (PGV) is distributed in two narrow areas: one with the largest PGV values is above the hanging wall of the fault and attributed to the locations of fault asperities and rupture directivity; the other is along the north-western margin of the Sichuan Basin and caused by both the directivity of fault rupture and the ampli-fication in the thick sediment basin. Rough topography above the rupture fault causes wave scattering, resulting in significantly larger peak ground motion on the apex of topographic relief than in the valley. Topography and scattering also reduce the wave energy in the forward direction of fault rupture but increase the PGV in other parts of the basin. These results suggest the need for a localized hazard as-sessment in places of rough topography that takes the topographic effects into account. Finally, had the earthquake started at the northeast end of the fault zone and ruptured to the southwest, Chengdu would have suffered a much stronger shaking than it experienced on 12 May, 2008.

  19. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.


    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  20. Nutrients in ground water and surface water of the United States; an analysis of data through 1992 (United States)

    Mueller, D.K.; Hamilton, P.A.; Helsel, D.R.; Hitt, K.J.; Ruddy, B.C.


    Historical data on nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species) concentrations in ground-and surface-water samples were compiled from 20 study units of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and 5 supplemental study areas. The resultant national retrospective data sets contained analyses of about 12,000 Found-water and more than 22,000 surface-water samples. These data were interpreted on regional and national scales by relating the distributions of nutrient concentrations to ancillary data, such as land use, soil characteristics, and hydrogeology, provided by local study-unit personnel. The information provided in this report on environmental factors that affect nutrient concentrations in ground and surface water can be used to identify areas of the Nation where the vulnerability to nutrient contamination is greatest. Nitrate was the nutrient of greatest concern in the historical ground-water data. It is the only nutrient that is regulated by a national drinking-water standard. Nitrate concentrations were significantly different in ground water affected by various land uses. Concentrations in about 16 percent of the samples collected in agricultural areas exceeded the drinking-water standard. However, the standard was exceeded in only about 1 percent of samples collected from public-supply wells. A variety of ancillary factors had significant relations to nitrate concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations generally were highest within 100 feet of the land surface. They were also higher in areas where soil and geologic characteristics promoted rapid movement of water to the aquifer. Elevated concentrations commonly occurred in areas underlain by permeable materials, such as carbonate bedrock or unconsolidated sand and gravel, and where soils are generally well drained. In areas where water movement is impeded, denitrification might lead to low concentrations of nitrate in the ground water. Low concentrations were also

  1. Colored grounds of gilt stucco surfaces as analyzed by a combined microscopic, spectroscopic and elemental analytical approach. (United States)

    Sansonetti, A; Striova, J; Biondelli, D; Castellucci, E M


    A survey of gilts applied to stucco surfaces that specifically focuses on the compositions of their colored grounds is reported. Gilt samples of a common geographical (Lombardy in Italy) and temporal provenance (17th-18th century) were studied in the form of polished cross-sections by optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman (microRaman) spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (microFTIR). Comparing samples with superimposed grounds and gilts enabled light to be shed on the choice of specific materials, their stratigraphic functions, decorative effects, and technological performances. Iron oxide pigments were found in the older grounds, sometimes in the presence of lead white (2PbCO(3).Pb(OH)(2)) or minium (Pb(3)O(4)). In more recent grounds, chrome yellow (PbCrO(4)), chrome orange (PbCrO(4).PbO), cinnabar (alpha-HgS) and barium white (BaSO(4)), invariably mixed with lead white, were encountered. Evidence for the use of organic mordants (colophony and wax, or siccative oil) was obtained by microFTIR. This combined microFTIR and microRaman spectroscopic and elemental (SEM-EDS) analytical approach enhances knowledge of the composition of gold grounds, their variability and their chronological evolution.

  2. Study on the applicability of frequency spectrum of micro-tremor and dynamic characteristics of surface ground in Asia area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Ai-lan; IWATATE Takahiro; ODA Yoshiya; GE Xiu-run


    The dynamic characteristics of ground soil using micro-tremor observation in Asia (Zushi and Ogasawara (Japan),Xi'an (China), Manila (Philippines), and Gujarat (India)) are studied. Ground micro-tremor signals were observed and analyzed by fast Fourier transform method (FFT). The response of ground soil to frequency of ground micro-tremor is revealed, and functions with frequency-dependence and frequency-selection of micro-tremor for different foundation soil strata are also researched.The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V, Nakamura technique) of micro-tremor observed at the surface ground was used to evaluate the site's predominant period. This paper also discusses the application of micro-tremor on site safety evaluation, and gives the observed calculation results obtained at multiple points. The experimental foundation and the deduction process of the method are described in detail. Some problems of the method are pointed out. Potential use of the technique's good expandable nature makes it a useable means for preventing and reducing disaster's harmful effects.

  3. The study of single station inverting the sea surface current by HF ground wave radar based on adjoint assimilation technology (United States)

    Han, Shuzong; Yang, Hua; Xue, Wenhu; Wang, Xingchi


    This paper introduces the assimilation technology in an ocean dynamics model and discusses the feasibility of inverting the sea surface current in the detection zone by assimilating the sea current radial velocity detected by single station HF ground wave radar in ocean dynamics model. Based on the adjoint assimilation and POM model, the paper successfully inverts the sea surface current through single station HF ground wave radar in the Zhoushan sea area. The single station HF radar inversion results are also compared with the bistatic HF radar composite results and the fixed point measured results by Annderaa current meter. The error analysis shows that acquisition of flow velocity and flow direction data from the single station HF radar based on adjoint assimilation and POM model is viable and the data obtained have a high correlation and consistency with the flow field observed by HF radar.


    Mohanty, A. K.


    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  5. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  6. Simulated potentiometric surface contours of prepumping conditions in layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These simulated potentiometric surface contours represent prepumping (or steady-state) conditions for model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  7. Simulated potentiometric surface contours of prepumping conditions in layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These simulated potentiometric surface contours represent prepumping (or steady-state) conditions for model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  8. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  9. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  10. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  11. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture (United States)

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion


    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  12. Development of a Remotely Operated, Field-Deployable Tritium Analysis System for Surface and Ground Water Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cable, P.R.; Noakes, J.E. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Spaulding, J.D. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Neary, M. P. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Wasyl, M.S. [Packard Instrument Company, , ()


    The environmental contamination resulting from decades of testing and manufacturing of nuclear materials for a national defense purposes is a problem now being faced by the United States. The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Packard Instrument Company, have developed a prototype unit for remote, near real time, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground water samples.

  13. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Davis, J. Wade; Hormann, Anette M.; Nagel, Susan C.


    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized thataselected subset of chemicalsusedin natural gas drilling operationsandalso surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas–related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operationsmayresult in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water.

  14. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kostik


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  15. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Baker


    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L. LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

  16. Rupture Propagation of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, Earthquake Affected by Poroelastic Stress Changes (United States)

    He, J.; Wang, W.; Xiao, J.


    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake occurred on the curved Hoshab fault. This fault connects with the north-south trending Chaman strike-slip fault to northeast, and with the west-east trending Makran thrust fault system to southwest. Teleseismic waveform inversion, incorporated with coseismic ground surface deformation data, show that the rupture of this earthquake nucleated around northeast segment of the fault, and then propagated southwestward along the northwest dipping Hoshab fault about 200 km, with the maximum coseismic displacement, featured mainly by purely left-lateral strike-slip motion, about 10 meters. In context of the India-Asia collision frame, associating with the fault geometry around this region, the rupture propagation of this earthquake seems to not follow an optimal path along the fault segment, because after nucleation of this event the Hoshab fault on the southwest of hypocenter of this earthquake is clamped by elastic stress change. Here, we build a three-dimensional finite-element model to explore the evolution of both stress and pore-pressure during the rupturing process of this earthquake. In the model, the crustal deformation is treated as undrained poroelastic media as described by Biot's theory, and the instantaneous rupture process is specified with split-node technique. By testing a reasonable range of parameters, including the coefficient of friction, the undrained Poisson's ratio, the permeability of the fault zone and the bulk crust, numerical results have shown that after the nucleation of rupture of this earthquake around the northeast of the Hoshab fault, the positive change of normal stress (clamping the fault) on the fault plane is greatly reduced by the instantaneous increase of pore pressure (unclamping the fault). This process could result in the change of Coulomb failure stress resolved on the Hoshab fault to be hastened, explaining the possible mechanism for southwestward propagation of rupture of the Mw7

  17. The potential surface in the ground electronic state of HCP with the isomerization process: the validity of calculating potential surface with DFT methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The density functional theory (DFT) provides us an effective way to calculate large cluster systems with moderate computational demands. We calculate potential energy surfaces (PES) with several different approaches of DFT. The PES in the ground electronic state are related to HCP's isomerization process. The calculated PES are compared with the “experimental” PES obtained by fitting from the experimental vibrational spectra and that given by the “accurate” quantum chemistry calculation with more expensive computations. The comparisons show that the potential surfaces calculated with DFT methods can reach the accuracy of less than 0.1 eV.

  18. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes (United States)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  19. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo in an Atlantic Coastal Area: Estimation from Ground-Based Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Kassianov


    Full Text Available Tower-based data combined with high-resolution satellite products have been used to produce surface albedo at various spatial scales over land. Because tower-based albedo data are available at only a few sites, surface albedos using these combined data are spatially limited. Moreover, tower-based albedo data are not representative of highly heterogeneous regions. To produce areal-averaged and spectrally-resolved surface albedo for regions with various degrees of surface heterogeneity, we have developed a transmission-based retrieval and demonstrated its feasibility for relatively homogeneous land surfaces. Here, we demonstrate its feasibility for a highly heterogeneous coastal region. We use the atmospheric transmission measured during a 19-month period (June 2009–December 2010 by a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR at five wavelengths (0.415, 0.5, 0.615, 0.673 and 0.87 µm at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Mobile Facility (AMF site located on Graciosa Island. We compare the MFRSR-retrieved areal-averaged surface albedo with albedo derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations, and also a composite-based albedo. We demonstrate that these three methods produce similar spectral signatures of surface albedo; however, the MFRSR-retrieved albedo, is higher on average (≤0.04 than the MODIS-based areal-averaged surface albedo and the largest difference occurs in winter.

  20. Effect of the surface geology on strong ground motions due to the 2016 Central Tottori Earthquake, Japan (United States)

    Kagawa, Takao; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Shohei; Yamamoto, Shinji


    On October 21, 2016, an earthquake with Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) magnitude 6.6 hit the central part of Tottori Prefecture, Japan. This paper demonstrates two notable effects of the surface geology on strong ground motions due to the earthquake. One is a predominant period issue observed over a large area. A seismic intensity of 6 lower on the JMA scale was registered at three sites in the disaster area. However, the peak ground acceleration ranged from 0.3 to 1.4 G at the three sites because of the varying peak periods of observed strong ground motions. The spectral properties of the observations also reflect the damage around the sites. Three-component microtremors were observed in the area; the predominant ground period distributions based on horizontal to vertical spectral ratios were provided by the authors. The peak periods of the strong motion records agree well with predominant periods estimated from microtremor observations at a rather hard site; however, the predominant periods of the microtremors are slightly shorter than those of the main shock at the other two soft sites. We checked the nonlinear effect at the sites by comparing the site responses to small events and the main shock. The peak periods of the main shock were longer than those of the weak motions at the sites. This phenomenon indicates a nonlinear site effect due to large ground motions caused by the main shock. A horizontal component of the accelerogram showed rather pulsating swings that indicate cyclic mobility behavior, especially at a site close to a pond shore; ground subsidence of 20 cm was observed around the site. The peak periods of weak motions agree well with those of the microtremor observations. This implies an important issue that the predominant periods estimated by microtremors are not sufficient to estimate the effect of surface geology for disaster mitigation. We have to estimate the predominant periods under large ground motions considering the nonlinear site

  1. Comparison of MTI and Ground Truth Sea Surface Temperatures at Nauru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.


    This report evaluates MTI-derived surface water temperature near the tropical Pacific island of Nauru. The MTI sea-surface temperatures were determined by the Los Alamos National Laboratory based on the robust retrieval.

  2. Force Restore Technique for Ground Surface Temperature and Moisture Content in a Dry Desert System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.


    The level of the surface temperature as well as surface moisture content is important for the turbulent transports of sensible and latent heat, respectively, but this level is also crucial for the survival of shrubs, plants, insects, and small animals in a desert environment. To estimate the surface

  3. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03 (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  4. Exploration of a Polarized Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Model Using the Ground-Based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Diner


    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of surface reflection is essential for retrieval of aerosols using downward-looking remote sensors. In this paper, observations from the Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI are used to evaluate a surface polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution function (PBRDF model. GroundMSPI is an eight-band spectropolarimetric camera mounted on a rotating gimbal to acquire pushbroom imagery of outdoor landscapes. The camera uses a very accurate photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to acquire Stokes vector measurements in three of the instrument’s bands (470, 660, and 865 nm. A description of the instrument is presented, and observations of selected targets within a scene acquired on 6 January 2010 are analyzed. Data collected during the course of the day as the Sun moved across the sky provided a range of illumination geometries that facilitated evaluation of the surface model, which is comprised of a volumetric reflection term represented by the modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete function plus a specular reflection term generated by a randomly oriented array of Fresnel-reflecting microfacets. While the model is fairly successful in predicting the polarized reflection from two grass targets in the scene, it does a poorer job for two manmade targets (a parking lot and a truck roof, possibly due to their greater degree of geometric organization. Several empirical adjustments to the model are explored and lead to improved fits to the data. For all targets, the data support the notion of spectral invariance in the angular shape of the unpolarized and polarized surface reflection. As noted by others, this behavior provides valuable constraints on the aerosol retrieval problem, and highlights the importance of multiangle observations.

  5. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System (United States)

    Graves, R. W.


    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  6. Creep rupture behavior of welded Grade 91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Triratna [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Basirat, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Alsagabi, Sultan; Sittiho, Anumat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Charit, Indrajit, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)


    Creep rupture behavior of fusion welded Grade 91 steel was studied in the temperature range of 600 – 700 °C and at stresses of 50–200 MPa. The creep data were analyzed in terms of the Monkman-Grant relation and Larson-Miller parameter. The creep damage tolerance factor was used to identify the origin of creep damage. The creep damage was identified as the void growth in combination with microstructural degradation. The fracture surface morphology of the ruptured specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy and deformed microstructure examined by transmission electron microscopy, to further elucidate the rupture mechanisms.

  7. Augmented Repair of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Using an Allograft Tendon Weaving Technique. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Huang, Gan; Ji, Ying; Ao, Rong guang; Yu, Baoqing; Zhu, Ya Long


    Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury, especially in those who are physically active. Although open surgery is a widely used option for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, the optimal treatment is still disputed. In our study, 59 patients with unilateral, closed, acute rupture of the Achilles tendon were treated by open surgery using an allograft weave to augment the repair. All the surgeries were performed within 1 to 4 days after injury. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was recorded as 91.20 (range 88 to 95), 95.34 (range 92 to 98), and 98.27 (range 97 to 99) at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up visit, respectively. At the final follow-up visit, the mean difference between the mid-calf circumference of the injured and uninjured legs was 0.19 (range -0.03 to 1.50) cm (p = .43). At the final follow-up visit, the mean difference between the vertical distances from the plantar surface of the heel to the ground for the injured and uninjured lower extremities was 0.44 (range -0.03 to 0.5) cm (p = .17). Augmented repair using the allograft tendon weaving technique provided satisfactory tendon strength and functional outcomes and a timely return to the patients' activities. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Scientific Ground of a New Optical Device for Contactless Measurement of the Small Spatial Displacements of Control Object Surfaces (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, I. P.; Parinov, I. A.


    It is proposed the computational-experimental ground of newly developed optical device for contactless measurement of small spatial displacements of control object surfaces based on the use of new methods of laser interferometry. The proposed device allows one to register linear and angular components of the small displacements of control object surfaces during the diagnosis of the condition of structural materials for forced elements of goods under exploring by using acoustic non-destructive testing methods. The described results are the most suitable for application in the process of high-precision measurements of small linear and angular displacements of control object surfaces during experimental research, the evaluation and diagnosis of the state of construction materials for forced elements of goods, the study of fast wave propagation in layered constructions of complex shape, manufactured of anisotropic composite materials, the study of damage processes in modern construction materials in mechanical engineering, shipbuilding, aviation, instrumentation, power engineering, etc.

  9. Construction and Testing of Broadband High Impedance Ground Planes (HIGPS) for Surface Mount Antennas (United States)


    mushrooms (with side lengths of 7.6mm). Larger mushrooms (with side lengths of 16mm) were located to the edges of the substrate . The resulting...thickness and substrate permittivity are two of the main design parameters. But these parameters have production constraints, since they are ordered off...plane designs as a meta- substrate for a broadband bow-tie antenna were presented. Consequently, the high impedance ground plane provided a suitable

  10. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour


    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  11. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament. (United States)

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling


    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment.

  12. DEM Development from Ground-Based LiDAR Data: A Method to Remove Non-Surface Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Sharma


    Full Text Available Topography and land cover characteristics can have significant effects on infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes on watersheds. The ability to model the timing and routing of surface water and erosion is affected by the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM. High resolution ground-based Light Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR technology can be used to collect detailed topographic and land cover characteristic data. In this study, a method was developed to remove vegetation from ground-based LiDAR data to create high resolution DEMs. Research was conducted on intensively studied rainfall–runoff plots on the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Southeast Arizona. LiDAR data were used to generate 1 cm resolution digital surface models (DSM for 5 plots. DSMs created directly from LiDAR data contain non-surface objects such as vegetation cover. A vegetation removal method was developed which used a slope threshold and a focal mean filter method to remove vegetation and create bare earth DEMs. The method was validated on a synthetic plot, where rocks and vegetation were added incrementally. Results of the validation showed a vertical error of ±7.5 mm in the final DEM.

  13. Temperature rise in objects due to optical focused beam through atmospheric turbulence near ground and ocean surface (United States)

    Stoneback, Matthew; Ishimaru, Akira; Reinhardt, Colin; Kuga, Yasuo


    We consider an optical beam propagated through the atmosphere and incident on an object causing a temperature rise. In clear air, the physical characteristics of the optical beam transmitted to the object surface are influenced primarily by the effect of atmospheric turbulence, which can be significant near the ground or ocean surface. We use a statistical model to quantify the expected power transfer through turbulent atmosphere and provide guidance toward the threshold of thermal blooming for the considered scenarios. The bulk thermal characteristics of the materials considered are used in a thermal diffusion model to determine the net temperature rise at the object surface due to the incident optical beam. These results of the study are presented in graphical form and are of particular interest to operators of high power laser systems operating over large distances through the atmosphere. Numerical examples include a CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) with: aperture size of 5 cm, varied pulse duration, and propagation distance of 0.5 km incident on 0.1-mm copper, 10-mm polyimide, 1-mm water, and 10-mm glass/resin composite targets. To assess the effect of near ground/ocean laser propagation, we compare turbulent (of varying degrees) and nonturbulent atmosphere.

  14. Evaluation of arsenic and other physico-chemical parameters of surface and ground water of Jamshoro, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas, E-mail: [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Sarfraz, Raja Adil, E-mail: [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jamal, Muhammad Khan, E-mail: [Government Degree College Usta Muhammad, Balochistan 08300 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)


    Arsenic contamination in water has caused severe health problems around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the geological and anthropogenic aspects of As pollution in surface and groundwater resources of Jamshoro Sindh, Pakistan. Hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) is employed for the determination of arsenic in water samples, with detection limit of 0.02 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Arsenic concentrations in surface and underground water range from 3.0 to 50.0, and 13 to 106 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively. In most of the water samples As levels exceeded the WHO provisional guideline values 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The high level of As in under study area may be due to widespread water logging from Indus river irrigation system which causes high saturation of salts in this semi-arid region and lead to enrichment of As in shallow groundwater. Among the physico-chemical parameters, electrical conductivity, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} were found to be higher in surface and ground water, while elevated levels of Ca{sup 2+} and Cl{sup -} were detected only in ground water than WHO permissible limit. The high level of iron was observed in ground water, which is a possible source of As enrichment in the study area. The multivariate technique (cluster analysis) was used for the elucidation of high, medium and low As contaminated areas. It may be concluded that As originate from coal combustion at brick factories and power generation plants, and it was mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the understudy groundwater samples.

  15. Geochemistry of the surface and ground waters of the upper bassin of the river Llobregat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freixes, A.


    Full Text Available In this work the main geochemical characteristics of the surface and ground waters of the Upper basin of the River Llobregat are described and, discussed. The water samples analysed reveal sharply contrasting characteristics. In both the Fonts del Llobregat and River Bastareny catchments, calcium bicarbonated waters with a low mineral content clearly predominate. However, in the catchment of the River Arija, although the waters of the upper course and the main tributaries are also calcium bicarbonated, it is worth noting that at the confluence with the River Llobregat calcium sulphated water is found. The catchment of the River Saldes shows a greater heterogeneity, with calcium bicarbonated, sodium chloridized and calcium sulphated waters, and thus at the confluence with the River Llobregat the water is sodium-calcium bicarbonated-sulphated. Principal components analysis enables us to arrive at a synthesis which clearly explains these characteristics. These results are fundamentally interpreted on the basis of the lithologies drained by the different watercourses.

    [es] En el presente estudio se presentan y discuten las principales características geoquímicas de las aguas superficiales y subterráneas de la Alta cuenca del río Llobregat hasta la entrada del río al embalse de La Baells. El conjunto de aguas analizadas presentan características muy contrastadas. Así, tanto en la subcuenca de las fuentes del Llobregat como en la del río Bastareny predominan las aguas bicarbonatadas cálcicas poco mineralizadas. En la subcuenca del río Arija, sí bien las aguas del curso alto y las de los principales afluentes también son bicarbonatadas cálcicas, destaca el hecho de que en la confluencia con el río Llobregat el agua es sulfatada cálcica. La subcuenca del río Saldes es la que presenta una mayor heterogeneidad, con aguas bicarbonatadas cálcicas, cloruradas sódicas y sulfatadas cálcicas, las cuales provocan que en la confluencia

  16. Study on the rupture characteristics of the overlaying soil with soft interlayer due to fault bedrock dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lei; LI Xiao-jun; HUO Da


    In this paper, the rupture characteristics of the overlaying soil with soft interlayer were studied by plane-strain finite element method. From the results, it can be shown that the existence of soft layer separates rupture process of the overlaying soil into two phases. The depth of a buried soft interlayer will influence the rupture process and the rupture range of the overlaying soil. The deeply buried soft interlayer would bring about a wider range of surface failure. In addition, the thickness of the soft layer also has effect on the rupture process and rupture range of the overlaying soil.

  17. Hydrochemical assessments of surface Nile water and ground water in an industry area – South West Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El-Sayed


    The data obtained were used for mathematical calculations of some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, sodium percentage (Na%, and the suitability of water samples for drinking, domestic, and irrigation purposes was evaluated. The results indicate that most studied surface Nile water samples show excellent to good categories and are suitable for drinking and irrigation. Most studied ground water samples are not suitable for drinking and need treatment for irrigation; few samples are not suitable for any purpose because of pollution from different sources in this area.

  18. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang


    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  19. Vibrational Spectra and Potential Energy Surface for Electronic Ground State of Jet-Cooled Molecule S2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Yan; DING Shi-Liang


    The vibration states of transition molecule S2O, including both bending and stretching vibrations, are studied in the framework of dynamical symmetry groups U1(4) U2(4). We get all the vibration spectra of S2O by fitting 22 spectra data with 10 parameters. The fitting rms of the Hamiltonian is 2.12 cm-1. With the parameters and Lie algebraic theory, we give the analytical expression of the potential energy surface, which helps us to calculate the dissociation energy and force constants of S2O in the electronic ground state.

  20. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 μg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 μg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 μg/L (n = 21 and 3.16 ± 3.5 μg/L (n = 13 average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69% followed by Hex River (46% and Piketberg (39%. Detections were more frequent in surface water (47% than in groundwater (32% and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

  1. Bacteriophages reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces, tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by Escherichia coli O157:H7. (United States)

    Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Menetrez, Marc Y; Dean, Timothy; Senecal, Andre; Sulakvelidze, Alexander


    A bacteriophage cocktail (designated ECP-100) containing three Myoviridae phages lytic for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was examined for its ability to reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces (glass coverslips and gypsum boards), tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by three virulent strains of the bacterium. The hard surfaces and foods contaminated by a mixture of three E. coli O157:H7 strains were treated with ECP-100 (test samples) or sterile phosphate-buffered saline buffer (control samples), and the efficacy of phage treatment was evaluated by comparing the number of viable E. coli organisms recovered from the test and control samples. Treatments (5 min) with the ECP-100 preparation containing three different concentrations of phages (10(10), 10(9), and 10(8) PFU/ml) resulted in statistically significant reductions (P = E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the glass coverslips. Similar treatments resulted in reductions of 100%, 95%, and 85%, respectively, in the number of E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the gypsum board surfaces; the reductions caused by the two most concentrated phage preparations were statistically significant. Treatment with the least concentrated preparation that elicited significantly less contamination of the hard surfaces (i.e., 10(9) PFU/ml) also significantly reduced the number of viable E. coli O157:H7 organisms on the four food samples. The observed reductions ranged from 94% (at 120 +/- 4 h posttreatment of tomato samples) to 100% (at 24 +/- 4 h posttreatment of spinach samples). The data suggest that naturally occurring bacteriophages may be useful for reducing contamination of various hard surfaces, fruits, vegetables, and ground beef by E. coli O157:H7.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd


    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account that the airport "Kyiv" is located in one of the central districts of Kyiv and does not have clearly established sanitary protection zones, the problem of environmental pollution is topical and requires monitoring and research. In order to improve environmental compliance we made assessment of superficial and ground water quality in airport zone. Methods: Water quality was estimated by the biotesting method, hydrochemical analysis, and by oil products detection method. Results We performed analysis of wastewaters of airport “Kyiv” and superficial waters of river Nyvka. The samples took place: above the airport drainage, in the drainage place and below drainage place. We conducted assessment of ground waters, which are sources of water supply, on different distance from an airport (20 m, 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 min. Results of hydrochemical investigations of river indicated excess of nitrogen compounds content compare to regulatory discharge. Thus, it was defined excess of ammonia nitrogen in wastewaters in three times and in place of dispersion – in ten times; the content of nitrite nitrogen in the river sample after discharge exceeds in 22 times norm. Analysis of drinking water in airport zone has showed extremely high level of pollution by nitrite nitrogen exceeding norm in 7-17 times. After analysis it was defined high level of river pollution by oil products (in 26-32 times higher than MPC, and ground water in 1, 5-2 times. Results of biotesting confirmed data of hydrochemical investigations of superficial water state (acute toxicity was observed in drainage area and in place of drainage dispersion. Discussion: Increased content of nitrite indicates the strengthening of decomposition process of organic matter in conditions of slower oxidation of NO into NO. This parameter is major sanitary indicator which indicates pollution of water body. High content of such specific pollutant for aviation transport

  3. Influence of the underlying surface on the antenna system of the ground penetrating radar (United States)

    Balzovsky, E. V.; Buyanov, Yu I.; Shipilov, S. E.


    Simulation results of the antenna system of the radar of subsurface sounding intended for contactless investigation of the road condition are presented. The elements of the antenna system of ground penetrating radar with extended bandwidth made as a combination of electric and magnetic type radiators have been designed. The transmission coefficient between the elements of the antenna array determining their mutual influence has been calculated. Despite the close arrangement of the elements in the array, the level of mutual influence of the elements is not critical. The developed antenna array can be used both for excitation with short ultrawideband pulses and for frequency steering in the range of 0.8-4 GHz.

  4. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, November 1999-September 2000 (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Senus, Michael P.; Spencer, Tracey A.


    The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from November 1999 through September 2000. The report describes the differences between years with below normal and normal precipitation, the effects of seasons, tide stages, and location on volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water, and provides estimates of volatile organic concentration loads to the tidal Gunpowder River. Eighty-four environmental samples from 20 surface-water sites were analyzed. As many as 13 different volatile organic compounds were detected in the samples. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples ranged from below the reporting limit of 0.5 micrograms per liter to a maximum of 50.2 micrograms per liter for chloroform. Chloroform was detected most frequently, and was found in 55 percent of the environmental samples that were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (46 of 84 samples). Carbon tetrachloride was detected in 56 percent of the surface-water samples in the tidal part of the creek (34 of 61 samples), but was only detected in 3 of 23 samples in the nontidal part of the creek. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was detected in 43 percent of the tidal samples (26 of 61 samples), but was detected at only two nontidal sites and only during November 1999. Three samples were collected from the tidal Gunpowder River about 300 feet from the mouth of Canal Creek in May 2000, and none of the samples contained volatile organic compound concentrations above detection levels. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water were highest in the reaches of the creek adjacent to the areas with the highest known levels of ground-water contamination. The load of total volatile organic compounds from Canal Creek to the Gunpowder River is approximately 1.85 pounds per day (0

  5. Road impacts on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, with emphasis on effects to surface and shallow ground-water hydrology : a literature review (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of published research on unpaved road effects on surface-water and shallow ground-water hydrology was undertaken to assist the Baca National Wildlife...

  6. Estimated potentiometric surface by D'Agnese and others (1998), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — D'Agnese and others (1998) developed a potentiometric surface to conceptualize the regional ground-water flow system and to construct numerical flow models of the...

  7. AATSR Land Surface Temperature Product Validation Using Ground Measurements in China and Implications for SLSTR (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Zmuda, Andy; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Ma, Jin


    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most important parameters at the interface between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. It acts as a sensitive indicator of climate change and is an essential input parameter for land surface models. Because of the intense variability at different spatial and temporal scales, satellite remote sensing provides the sole opportunity to acquire LSTs over large regions. Validation of the LST products is an necessary step before their applications conducted by scientific community and it is essential for the developers to improve the LST products.

  8. Activities of the Commission for Ground Surface Protection against Mining Damage in the first quarter of 1985. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroszcz, A.


    Five meetings of the Commission held from January to March 1985 are reported. Underground coal mining in the safety pillar of Bytom was discussed in the light of rock bursts and fatal accidents in the Dymitrow mine. Three coal mines remove the safety pillar: Dymitrow, Szombierki and Rozbark. The Commission discussed: replacing longwall mining with caving by longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, using packings with reduced settling, reducing concentration of mining operations in the area of Bytom center, coordination of underground mining by 3 mines (coordination of mining order, thickness of coal slices or coal seams, concentration of longwall mining in seams with reduced hazards of rock bursts, methods for protection of buildings and industrial plants at the ground surface against ground deformation. The Commission also discussed program of coal mining with hydraulic stowing in the safety pillar of the Batory Steelworks, the Hajduki chemical plant and Chorzow (order of mining, schemes for slice mining, forecasting ground subsidence, methods for protection against mining damage), underground mining with caving or stowing in safety pillars of the Miechowice and Karb mines under Bytom, new regulations on geodetic surveys in underground coal mines.

  9. Environmental impact of highway construction and repair materials on surface and ground waters. Case study: crumb rubber asphalt concrete. (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Nelson, Peter O; Thayumanavan, Pugazhendhi; Williamson, Kenneth J


    The practice of incorporating certain waste products into highway construction and repair materials (CRMs) has become more popular. These practices have prompted the National Academy of Science, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) to research the possible impacts of these CRMs on the quality of surface and ground waters. State department of transportations (DOTs) are currently experimenting with use of ground tire rubber ( crumb rubber) in bituminous construction and as a crack sealer. Crumb rubber asphalt concrete (CR-AC) leachates contain a mixture of organic and metallic contaminants. Benzothiazole and 2(3H)-benzothiazolone (organic compounds used in tire rubber manufacturing) and the metals mercury and aluminum were leached in potentially harmful concentrations (exceeding toxic concentrations for aquatic toxicity tests). CR-AC leachate exhibited moderate to high toxicity for algae ( Selenastrum capriconutum) and moderate toxicity for water fleas ( Daphnia magna). Benzothiazole was readily removed from CR-AC leachate by the environmental processes of soil sorption, volatilization, and biodegradation. Metals, which do not volatilize or photochemically or biologically degrade, were removed from the leachate by soil sorption. Contaminants from CR-AC leachates are thus degraded or retarded in their transport through nearby soils and ground waters.

  10. Determination of barium in surface and ground waters at Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika, E-mail: [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CEA/CTMS), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analica


    Barium can be found in waters up to 1 mg L{sup -1} and came from natural sources such as sedimentary rocks erosion rich in feldspar and barite. Also anthropogenic activities can release this element such as oil and gas industry, agricultural defensives, chemical industry and waste disposal. At high doses, barium can be harmful to human central nervous system and can also cause high blood pressure, heart problems, fatigue and anxiety. The water potability defined by Brazilian's Ministry of Healthy sets barium concentration up to 0.7 mg L{sup -1} and official regulation defines the same limit of this element to superficial waters (according CONAMA resolution 357/2005) and ground waters (Sao Paulo state regulation). In this work, barium was analyzed monthly in superficial waters from 4 different sampling locations, located in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) at Ipanema River, during one year, in order to evaluate the river in different conditions (seasons, temperature and rain period). The ground water was collected every six months. The analytical technique applied was ICP OES and the method conditions were optimized: wavelength, linearity, signal background ratio, detection and quantification limits. Data obtained in this work will contribute to evaluate the presence of barium at CEA region and nearby in order to compare it with current Brazilian regulations. (author)

  11. A case of testicular rupture


    野俣, 浩一郎; 林, 幹男


    A case of testicular rupture is reported. A 26-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of testicular trauma. Ultrasound of the testis was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography revealed a disruption of the tunica albuginea and dense clusters of echoes in the tunica vaginalis. In the case of acute testicular trauma, this echo pattern suggests testicular rupture.

  12. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Fadong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Qiuying [Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Li, Jing [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)


    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious

  13. Be(1010): A test ground for surface electron-phonon coupling (United States)

    Tang, Shu-Jung; Sprunger, Philip; Plummer, Ward; Yang, Wanli; Brouet, Veronique; Zhou, Xingjiang; Shen, Zhi-Xun


    The electron-phonon coupling on the Be(10bar10) surface has been investigated with high-resolution photoemission examining temperature dependence and dispersion distortion near the Fermi energy of the two zone boundary surface states. Two surface states (S1 and S2) coexist in a large gap in the bulk projection at the surface zone boundary barA. S1 is localized near the surface in the middle of the gap while S2 is near the bottom band edge and penetrates into the bulk. Using both a Debye and Einstein model to fit the temperature-dependent surface state line width produces an electron-phonon coupling strength with parameters, λ _S1 = 0.647 and λ _S2 = 0.491, more than two times larger than the bulk value, λ _bulk = 0.24. S2 data was measured with a 3D Debye model but the S1 data required an Einstein model with an optical phonon at energy 64 meV. Direct 2D images of the dispersion of the S1 state show dramatic distortion of the electron band dispersion within 64 meV of the Fermi energy. This data is used to extract the real and imaginary parts of the self-energy. Founded by NSF DMR-0105232 and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725

  14. Locations and types of ruptures involved in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake revealed by SAR image matching (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Takada, Y.; Furuya, M.; Murakami, M.


    Introduction: A catastrophic earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.9 struck China’s Sichuan area on 12 May 2008. The rupture was thought to proceed northeastward along the Longmen Shan fault zone (LMSFZ), but it remained uncertain where and how the faults were involved in the seismic event. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) analysis has an advantage of detecting ground deformation in a vast region with high precision. However, for the Sichuan event, the standard InSAR approach was not helpful in knowing the faults directly related to the seismic rupture, due to a wide coherent loss area in the proximity of the fault zone. Thus, in order to reveal the unknown surface displacements, we conducted a SAR image matching procedure that enables us to robustly detect large ground deformation even in an incoherent area. Although similar approaches can be taken with optical images to detect surface displacements, SAR images are advantageous because of the radar’s all-weather detection capability. In this presentation we will show a strong advantage of SAR data for inland large earthquakes. Analysis Method: We use ALOS/PALSAR data on the ascending orbital paths. We process the SAR data from a level-1.0 product using a software package Gamma. After conducting coregistration between two images acquired before and after the mainshock, we divide the single-look SAR amplitude images into patches and calculate an offset between the corresponding patches by an intensity tracking method. This method is performed by cross-correlating samples of backscatter intensity of a master image with those of a slave image. To reduce the artificial offsets in range component, we apply an elevation dependent correction incorporating SRTM3 DEM data. Results: We have successfully obtained the surface deformation in range component: A sharp displacement discontinuity with a relative motion of 1-2 m appears over a length of 200 km along the LMSFZ, which demonstrates that the main rupture has proceeded

  15. High resolution surface solar radiation patterns over Eastern Mediterranean: Satellite, ground-based, reanalysis data and radiative transfer simulations (United States)

    Alexandri, G.; Georgoulias, A.; Meleti, C.; Balis, D.


    Surface solar radiation (SSR) and its long and short term variations play a critical role in the modification of climate and by extent of the social and financial life of humans. Thus, SSR measurements are of primary importance. SSR is measured for decades from ground-based stations for specific spots around the planet. During the last decades, satellite observations allowed for the assessment of the spatial variability of SSR at a global as well as regional scale. In this study, a detailed spatiotemporal view of the SSR over Eastern Mediterranean is presented at a high spatial resolution. Eastern Mediterranean is affected by various aerosol types (continental, sea, dust and biomass burning particles) and encloses countries with significant socioeconomical changes during the last decades. For the aims of this study, SSR data from satellites (Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility - CM SAF) and our ground station in Thessaloniki, a coastal city of ~1 million inhabitants in northern Greece, situated in the heart of Eastern Mediterranean (Eppley Precision pyranometer and Kipp & Zonen CM-11 pyranometer) are used in conjunction with radiative transfer simulations (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - SBDART). The CM SAF dataset used here includes monthly mean SSR observations at a high spatial resolution of 0.03x0.03 degrees for the period 1983-2005. Our ground-based SSR observations span from 1983 until today. SBDART radiative transfer simulations were implemented for a number of spots in the area of study in order to calculate the SSR. High resolution (level-2) aerosol and cloud data from MODIS TERRA and AQUA satellite sensors were used as input, as well as ground-based data from the AERONET. Data from other satellites (Earth Probe TOMS, OMI, etc) and reanalysis projects (ECMWF) were used where needed. The satellite observations, the ground-based measurements and the model estimates are validated against each other. The good agreement

  16. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.


    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  17. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Kassianov


    Full Text Available We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged spectral surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation. The feasibility of our retrieval for routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements: (1 spectral atmospheric transmission from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm; (2 tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths; and (3 areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations. These integrated datasets cover both temporally long (2008–2013 and short (April–May 2010 periods at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Southern Great Plains site and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE, defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved areal-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE ≤ 0.015 and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between tower-based measurements of daily-averaged surface albedo for completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated.

  18. Survival of adenovirus types 2 and 41 in surface and ground waters measured by a plaque assay. (United States)

    Rigotto, C; Hanley, K; Rochelle, P A; De Leon, R; Barardi, C R M; Yates, M V


    To manage artificial recharge systems, it is necessary to understand the inactivation process of microorganisms within aquifers so that requirements regarding storage times and treatment strategies for ground and surface waters can be developed and modeled to improve water management practices. This study was designed to investigate the survival of representative adenoviruses in surface- and groundwaters using a cell culture plaque assay with human lung carcinoma cells (A549) to enumerate surviving viruses. Adenovirus types 2 (Ad2) and 41 (Ad41) were seeded into 50 mL of three sterilized surface waters and groundwaters, and incubated at 10 and 19 °C for up to 301 days. Concentrations of Ad2 and Ad41 were relatively stable in all waters at 10 °C for at least 160 days and in some instances up to 301 days. At 19 °C, virus concentrations were reduced by 99.99% (4 log) after 301 days in surface water. There was approximately 90% (1 log) reduction of both viruses at 19 °C after 160 days of incubation in groundwater samples. There was no overall difference in survival kinetics in surface waters compared to groundwaters. The relatively high stability and long-term survival of adenoviruses in environmental waters at elevated temperatures should be considered in risk assessment models and drinking water management strategies.

  19. Evaluating the effects of urbanization and land-use planning using ground-water and surface-water models (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Steuer, J.J.


    Why are the effects of urbanization a concern? As the city of Middleton, Wisconsin, and its surroundings continue to develop, the Pheasant Branch watershed (fig.l) is expected to undergo urbanization. For the downstream city of Middleton, urbanization in the watershed can mean increased flood peaks, water volume and pollutant loads. More subtly, it may also reduce water that sustains the ground-water system (called "recharge") and adversely affect downstream ecosystems that depend on ground water such as the Pheasant Branch Springs (hereafter referred to as the Springs). The relation of stormwater runoff and reduced ground-water recharge is complex because the surface-water system is coupled to the underlying ground-water system. In many cases there is movement of water from one system to the other that varies seasonally or daily depending on changing conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably determine the effects of urbanization on stream baseflow and spring flows without rigorous investigation. Moreover, mitigating adverse effects after development has occurred can be expensive and administratively difficult. Overlying these concerns are issues such as stewardship of the resource, the rights of the public, and land owners' rights both of those developing their land and those whose land is affected by this development. With the often- contradictory goals, a scientific basis for assessing effects of urbanization and effectiveness of mitigation measures helps ensure fair and constructive decision-making. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Middleton and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, completed a study that helps address these issues through modeling of the hydrologic system. This Fact Sheet discusses the results of this work.

  20. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric


    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  1. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito


    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  2. An Approach for Predicting the Shape and Size of a Buried Basic Object on Surface Ground Penetrating Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas


    Full Text Available Surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR is one of the radar technology that is widely used in many applications. It is nondestructive remote sensing method to detect underground buried objects. However, the output target is only hyperbolic representation. This research develops a system to identify a buried object on surface GPR based on decision tree method. GPR data of many basic objects (with circular, triangular, and rectangular cross-section are classified and extracted to generate data training model as a unique template for each type of basic object. The pattern of object under test will be known by comparing its data with the training data using a decision tree method. A simple powerful algorithm to extract feature parameters of object which is based on linear extrapolation is proposed. The result showed that tested buried basic objects can be correctly predicted and the developed system works properly.

  3. Splenic rupture following colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Francisco Guerra; Ignacio San Francisco; Fernando Pimentel; Luis Ibanez


    Colonoscopy is a safe and routinely performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for different colorectal diseases. Although the most common complications are bleeding and perforation, extracolonic or visceral injuries have also been described. Splenic rupture is a rare complication following colonoscopy, with few cases reported. We report a 60-year-old female who presented to surgical consultation 8 h after a diagnostic colonoscopy. Clinical, laboratory and imaging findings were suggestive for a massive hemoperitoneum. At surgery, an almost complete splenic disruption was evident, and an urgent splenectomy was performed. After an uneventful postoperative period, she was discharged home. Splenic injury following colonoscopy is considered infrequent. Direct trauma and excessive traction of the splenocolic ligament can explain the occurrence of this complication. Many times the diagnosis is delayed because the symptoms are due to colonic insufflation, so the most frequent treatment is an urgent splenectomy. A high index of suspicion needs an early diagnosis and adequate therapy.

  4. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira


    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  5. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mallah


    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra.

  6. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra (United States)

    Mallah, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Tahere; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad


    Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra. PMID:24024054

  7. A semiempirical study of the optimized ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of retinal and its protonated Schiff base (United States)

    Parusel, A. B.; Pohorille, A.


    The electronic ground and first excited states of retinal and its Schiff base are optimized for the first time using the semiempirical AM1 Hamiltonian. The barrier for rotation about the C(11)-C(12) double bond is characterized by variation of both the twist angle delta(C(10)-C(11)-C(12)-C(13)) and the bond length d(C(11)-C(12)). The potential energy surface is obtained by varying these two parameters. The calculated ground state rotational barrier is equal to 15.6 kcal/mol for retinal and 20.5 kcal/mol for its Schiff base. The all-trans conformation is more stable by 3.7 kcal/mol than the 11-cis geometry. For the first excited state, S(1,) the 90 degrees twisted geometry represents a saddle point for retinal with the rotational barrier of 14.6 kcal/mol. In contrast, this conformation is an energy minimum for the Schiff base. It can be easily reached at room temperature from the planar minima since it is separated from them by a barrier of only 0.6 kcal/mol. The 90 degrees minimum conformation is more stable than the all-trans by 8.6 kcal/mol. We are thus able to present a reaction path on the S(1) surface of the retinal Schiff base with an almost barrier-less geometrical relaxation into a twisted minimum geometry, as observed experimentally. The character of the ground and first excited singlet states underscores the need for the inclusion of double excitations in the calculations.

  8. Influence of Holocene stratigraphic architecture on ground surface settlements: A case study from the City of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro


    The Holocene stratigraphic architecture of modern coastal and deltaic plains has peculiar characteristics that may influence ground surface settlements. In the Pisa urban area, the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers, typically formed during the mid-late Holocene (highstand) coastal progradation, is inferred to be responsible for urban ground settlement and building damage, as evidenced by the tilt of several surface structures, among which the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most prominent. On the basis of integrated stratigraphic, sedimentological and geotechnical data from a wide georeferenced database, three facies associations with high deformability potential (Units 1-3) are identified in the uppermost 30 m as opposed to depositional facies (Units 4-5) with higher geotechnical strength. Whereas Unit 1 represents a thick, laterally extensive lagoonal clay deposit, the overlying highly deformable units (Units 2-3) show more discontinuous spatial distribution controlled by the Holocene paleohydrographic evolution of the Arno coastal plain. Unit 2, dated between the Neolithic and the Etruscan age (ca. 5000-2000 yr BP), is composed of swamp clays and silty clays recording lagoon infilling due to Arno Delta progradation. Units 3 and 4, which consist of wet levee deposits and stiff floodplain clays, respectively, formed during the subsequent phases of alluvial plain construction started around the Roman age (from ca. 2000 yr BP). Whereas Units 3 and 4 are recorded within the uppermost 5 m, fluvial and distributary channel sands (Unit 5) cut the underlying deltaic-alluvial succession at various stratigraphic levels, down to Unit 1. The spatial distribution of these units gives rise to three, locally juxtaposed, stratigraphic motifs in Pisa underground, reflecting different potential risks for settlement under building loads. We show how lateral changes in stratigraphic architecture account for the irregular spatial distribution of

  9. Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Surface Ground-Penetrating Radar Monitoring of Infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Léger, Emmanuel; Coquet, Yves


    In this study we used Hydrus-1D to simulate water infiltration from a ring infiltrometer. We generated water content profiles at each time step of infiltration, based on a particular value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity while knowing the other van Genuchten parameters. Water content profiles were converted to dielectric permittivity profiles using the Complex Refractive Index Method relation. We then used the GprMax suite of programs to generate radargrams and to follow the wetting front using arrival time of electromagnetic waves recorded by a Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). Theoretically, the depth of the inflection point of the water content profile simulated at any infiltration time step is related to the peak of the reflected amplitude recorded in the corresponding trace in the radargram. We used this relationship to invert the saturated hydraulic conductivity for constant and falling head infiltrations. We present our method on synthetic examples and on two experiments carried out on sand. We f...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Al-Ghamdi


    Full Text Available Of all the natural resources, water is unarguably the most essential and precious. Life began in water and life is nurtured by water. Ninety seven percent of the world’s water is found in oceans. Only 2.5% of the world’s water are non-saline fresh water. Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Water is scarce and extremely valuable and with the country’s rapid growth, the demand for water is increasing. Seven samples of water are collected, six samples from Wells (1-6 and the last sample from Al-Mallah Valley Dam, Mukhwa (7, Al-Mukhwah, in order to find impurities and pollutants and found some suitable solution. Some physical properties of water are measured such as turbidity, conductivity, pH and also, some pollutants such as iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite fluoride, phosphate as well as calcium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride as well as detection of some microorganisms. The results shown that, the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam has a high percentage of turbidity as a result of contamination of water with clay, plant residues and also some dead animals. On the other hand, the samples of ground water have high conductivity and high value of fluoride, nitrite, nitrate contents as well as Mn and Fe. Also the result of microorganisms showed the presence of some the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam can be treated with a very simple method and become suitable for drinking. Also ground water can be treated with a suitable method to reduce the total hardness and some pollutants. But its content of fluoride is higher than that of gulf specifications so it must be treated before used.

  11. Characterizing Geothermal Surface Manifestation Based on Multivariate Geostatistics of Ground Measurements Data (United States)

    Ishaq; Nur Heriawan, Mohamad; Saepuloh, Asep


    Mt. Wayang Windu is one of geothermal field located in West Java, Indonesia. The characterization of steam spots at surface manifestation zones based on the soil physical measurements of the area is presented in this study. The multivariate geostatistical methods incorporating the soil physical parameter data were used to characterize the zonation of geothermal surface manifestations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of spatial estimation method of multivariate geostatistics using Ordinary Cokriging (COK) to characterize the physical properties of geothermal surface manifestations at Mt. Wayang Windu. The COK method was selected because this method is favorable when the secondary variables has more number than the primary variables. There are four soil physical parameters used as the basis of COK method, i.e. Electrical Conductivity, Susceptibility, pH, and Temperature. The parameters were measured directly at and around geothermal surface manifestations including hot springs, fumaroles, and craters. Each location of surface manifestations was measured about 30 points with 30 x 30 m grids. The measurement results were analyzed by descriptive statistics to identify at the nature of data. The correlation among variables was analyzed using linear regression. When the correlation coefficient among variables is higher, the estimation results is expected to have better Linear Coregionalization Model (LCM). LCM was used to analyze the spatial correlation of each variable based on their variogram and cross-variogram model. In oder to evaluate the performance of multivariate geostatistical using COK method, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was performed. Estimation result using COK method is well applicable for characterizing the surface physics parameters of radar images data.

  12. Quality-control results for ground-water and surface-water data, Sacramento River Basin, California, National Water-Quality Assessment, 1996-1998 (United States)

    Munday, Cathy; Domagalski, Joseph L.


    Evaluating the extent that bias and variability affect the interpretation of ground- and surface-water data is necessary to meet the objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Quality-control samples used to evaluate the bias and variability include annual equipment blanks, field blanks, field matrix spikes, surrogates, and replicates. This report contains quality-control results for the constituents critical to the ground- and surface-water components of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the NAWQA Program. A critical constituent is one that was detected frequently (more than 50 percent of the time in blank samples), was detected at amounts exceeding water-quality standards or goals, or was important for the interpretation of water-quality data. Quality-control samples were collected along with ground- and surface-water samples during the high intensity phase (cycle 1) of the Sacramento River Basin NAWQA beginning early in 1996 and ending in 1998. Ground-water field blanks indicated contamination of varying levels of significance when compared with concentrations detected in environmental ground-water samples for ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, aluminum, and copper. Concentrations of aluminum in surface-water field blanks were significant when compared with environmental samples. Field blank samples collected for pesticide and volatile organic compound analyses revealed no contamination in either ground- or surface-water samples that would effect the interpretation of environmental data, with the possible exception of the volatile organic compound trichloromethane (chloroform) in ground water. Replicate samples for ground water and surface water indicate that variability resulting from sample collection, processing, and analysis was generally low. Some of the larger maximum relative percentage differences calculated for replicate samples occurred between samples having lowest absolute concentration differences and(or) values near

  13. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.


    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  14. Case report: rupture of popliteal artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altino Ono Moraes


    Full Text Available An 83-year-old female patient with a history of prior endovascular treatment to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm presented with intense pain and edema in the left leg, with hyperemia and localized temperature increase. Doppler ultrasonography revealed a voluminous aneurysm of the popliteal artery with a contained rupture, and hematoma involving the popliteal fossa and the medial and anterior surfaces of the knee causing compression of the popliteal vein. Endovascular repair was accomplished with covered stents and the rupture was confirmed. during the procedure The aneurysm was excluded and the signs and symptoms it had caused resolved completely, but during the postoperative period the patient developed sepsis of pulmonary origin and died.

  15. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07 (United States)

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.


    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured

  16. Ab initio ground state phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulski, Hubert; Fernandez, Berta; Henriksen, Christian


    We evaluate the phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface by fitting a representative number of ab initio interaction energies to an analytic function. These energies are calculated at a grid of intermolecular geometries, using the CCSD(T) method and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set ...

  17. Expanding surfaces: The viewer immersed in multiple modes of representation Following the drawing on the ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia


    The experience of the exhibition On the Surface – a retrospective of the work of Metis, the Edinburgh-based atelier of Mark Dorrian and Adrian Hawker, presented in the exhibition space of The Aarhus School of Architecture – is choreographed as a walk over superimposed fragments of architectural...

  18. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Surface- and Ground-Water Interactions in the Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Sacks, L.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.


    A study of the Hillsborough River watershed was conducted between October 1999 through September 2003 to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and interaction between the surface and ground water in the highly karstic uppermost part of the watershed. Information such as locations of ground-water recharge and discharge, depth of the flow system interacting with the stream, and water quality in the watershed can aid in prudent water-management decisions. The upper Hillsborough River watershed covers a 220-square-mile area upstream from Hillsborough River State Park where the watershed is relatively undeveloped. The watershed contains a second order magnitude spring, many karst features, poorly drained swamps, marshes, upland flatwoods, and ridge areas. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is subdivided into two major subbasins, namely, the upper Hillsborough River subbasin, and the Blackwater Creek subbasin. The Blackwater Creek subbasin includes the Itchepackesassa Creek subbasin, which in turn includes the East Canal subbasin. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the highly variable degree of confinement between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers throughout the watershed. Potentiometric-surface maps indicate good hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Hillsborough River, and a poorer connection with Blackwater and Itchepackesassa Creeks. Similar water level elevations and fluctuations in the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers at paired wells also indicate good hydraulic connection. Calcium was the dominant ion in ground water from all wells sampled in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations were near or below the detection limit in all except two wells that may have been affected by

  19. 汶川地震强震动地面倾斜研究%Study of ground surface tilts from strong motion records of the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小波; 李小军


    根据三分量强震动传感器水平摆和竖向摆对倾斜的动力响应差异,利用谱比法计算出汶川Ms8.0地震中近断层强震动的断层法线方向和平行方向的同震地面倾斜.结果表明,本次地震中强震动观测台处地面倾斜一般小于1°,影响频段主要在0.1 Hz以下,发生较大倾斜的台站主要在距地表破裂迹线30 km以内,在100 km之外或水平向加速度幅值均方根在200 cm/s2以下时很少发生0.01°以上的同震地面倾斜.总体上看,上盘区域的倾斜值普遍小于下盘区域,法线方向倾斜值一般大于平行线方向倾斜值.位于前山断裂与中央断裂之间区域的绵竹清平台谱比较低但平缓且频带较宽,可能反应了该区域的运动特殊性,而汶川卧龙台则显示了上盘边缘区域地面倾斜较大.逆冲段与走滑段台站倾斜对比显示,地面倾斜可能受局部场地条件影响较大.%Based on the difference of dynamic response to tilts between horizontal pendulums and vertical pendulum, spectral ratio method was applied to estimate the coseismic surface tilts deduced from strong motion records of the Wen-chuan earthquake. The result shows that the ground surface tilts are generally less than 1 degree and mainly appears within 30 km to fault rupture surface traces, while rarely discovered in the area outside 100 km or root-mean-squared horizontal peak accelerations are less than 200 cm/s2. The frequency band influenced by tilts is less than 0. 1 Hz. In general, tilts in hanging wall is greater than that in footwall in near fault areas, and tilts in normal direction of fault is less than those in parallel direction. The spectral ratio of Qingping station located between central fault and front mount fault is relatively low and stable, which may imply ae special movement feature of the area. The tilts of Wolong station may be controlled by deformation transition from the hanging wall to laterally stationary area. Comparison of tilts

  20. Realization of Multi-Stable Ground States in a Nematic Liquid Crystal by Surface and Electric Field Modification (United States)

    Gwag, Jin Seog; Kim, Young-Ki; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hoon


    Owing to the significant price drop of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the efforts to save natural resources, LCDs are even replacing paper to display static images such as price tags and advertising boards. Because of a growing market demand on such devices, the LCD that can be of numerous surface alignments of directors as its ground state, the so-called multi-stable LCD, comes into the limelight due to the great potential for low power consumption. However, the multi-stable LCD with industrial feasibility has not yet been successfully performed. In this paper, we propose a simple and novel configuration for the multi-stable LCD. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that a battery of stable surface alignments can be achieved by the field-induced surface dragging effect on an aligning layer with a weak surface anchoring. The simplicity and stability of the proposed system suggest that it is suitable for the multi-stable LCDs to display static images with low power consumption and thus opens applications in various fields.

  1. Modeling of ground temperatures in South Shetlands (Antarctic Peninsula): Forcing a land surface model with the reanalysis ERA-Interim (United States)

    João Rocha, Maria; Dutra, Emanuel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Miranda, Pedro; Ramos, Miguel


    This study focus on Livingston Island (South Shetlands Antarctic Peninsula), one of the Earth's regions where warming has been more significant in the last 50 years. Our work is integrated in a project focusing on studying the influence of climate change on permafrost temperatures, which includes systematic and long-term terrain monitoring and also modeling using land surface models. A contribution will be the evaluation of the possibilities for using land surface modeling approaches to areas of the Antarctic Peninsula with lack of data on observational meteorological forcing data, as well as on permafrost temperatures. The climate variability of the Antarctic Peninsula region was studied using the new reanalysis product from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Era-Interim and observational data from boreholes run by our group. Monthly and annual cycles of near surface climate variables are compared. The modeling approach includes the HTESSEL (Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land) forced with ERA-Interim for modeling ground temperatures in the study region. The simulation results of run of HTESSEL are compared against soil temperature observations. The results show a favorable match between simulated and observed soil temperatures. The use of different forcing parameters is compared and the model vs. observation results from different results is analyzed. The main variable needing further improvement in the modeling is snow cover. The developed methodology provides a good tool for the analysis of the influence of climate variability on permafrost of the Maritime Antarctic.

  2. Ground and surface temperature variability for remote sensing of soil moisture in a heterogeneous landscape (United States)

    Giraldo, M.A.; Bosch, D.; Madden, M.; Usery, L.; Finn, M.


    At the Little River Watershed (LRW) heterogeneous landscape near Tifton Georgia US an in situ network of stations operated by the US Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service-Southeast Watershed Research Lab (USDA-ARS-SEWRL) was established in 2003 for the long term study of climatic and soil biophysical processes. To develop an accurate interpolation of the in situ readings that can be used to produce distributed representations of soil moisture (SM) and energy balances at the landscape scale for remote sensing studies, we studied (1) the temporal and spatial variations of ground temperature (GT) and infra red temperature (IRT) within 30 by 30 m plots around selected network stations; (2) the relationship between the readings from the eight 30 by 30 m plots and the point reading of the network stations for the variables SM, GT and IRT; and (3) the spatial and temporal variation of GT and IRT within agriculture landuses: grass, orchard, peanuts, cotton and bare soil in the surrounding landscape. The results showed high correlations between the station readings and the adjacent 30 by 30 m plot average value for SM; high seasonal independent variation in the GT and IRT behavior among the eight 30 by 30 m plots; and site specific, in-field homogeneity in each 30 by 30 m plot. We found statistical differences in the GT and IRT between the different landuses as well as high correlations between GT and IRT regardless of the landuse. Greater standard deviations for IRT than for GT (in the range of 2-4) were found within the 30 by 30 m, suggesting that when a single point reading for this variable is selected for the validation of either remote sensing data or water-energy models, errors may occur. The results confirmed that in this landscape homogeneous 30 by 30 m plots can be used as landscape spatial units for soil moisture and ground temperature studies. Under this landscape conditions small plots can account for local expressions of environmental

  3. The transition of dynamic rupture styles in elastic media under velocity-weakening friction

    KAUST Repository

    Gabriel, A.-A.


    Although kinematic earthquake source inversions show dominantly pulse-like subshear rupture behavior, seismological observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical models indicate that earthquakes can operate with different rupture styles: either as pulses or cracks, that propagate at subshear or supershear speeds. The determination of rupture style and speed has important implications for ground motions and may inform about the state of stress and strength of active fault zones. We conduct 2D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations with a spectral element method to investigate the diversity of rupture styles on faults governed by velocity-and-state-dependent friction with dramatic velocity-weakening at high slip rate. Our rupture models are governed by uniform initial stresses, and are artificially initiated. We identify the conditions that lead to different rupture styles by investigating the transitions between decaying, steady state and growing pulses, cracks, sub-shear and super-shear ruptures as a function of background stress, nucleation size and characteristic velocity at the onset of severe weakening. Our models show that small changes of background stress or nucleation size may lead to dramatic changes of rupture style. We characterize the asymptotic properties of steady state and self-similar pulses as a function of background stress. We show that an earthquake may not be restricted to a single rupture style, but that complex rupture patterns may emerge that consist of multiple rupture fronts, possibly involving different styles and back-propagating fronts. We also demonstrate the possibility of a super-shear transition for pulse-like ruptures. Finally, we draw connections between our findings and recent seismological observations.

  4. A New Approach for Studying Bond Rupture/Closure of a Spiro Benzopyran Photochromic Material: Reactivity Descriptors Derived from Frontier Orbitals and DFT Computed Electrostatic Potential Energy Surface Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on computations technique within the framework of the TD-DFT theory for studying the relationship between structure-properties of reversible conversion of photochromic materials. Specifically, we report on 1′,3′-dihydro-8-methoxy-1′,3′,3′-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro[2H-1-benzopyran-2,2′-(2H-indole] (SP and its isomers. TD-DFT calculated UV-Vis electronic spectra of the closed and open isomers of this photochromic material are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, this paper reports on the results of theoretical investigations of reactivity indices that may govern the conversion between spiropyrans and its isomers. In addition, the solvent and rigidity of the medium significantly control the thermal bleaching of the photogenerated colored isomers and hence the switch ability pattern of the photochromic material. The effect of molecular structure computed by DFT in gas-phase and solvents on Cspiro-O bond length has been shown to correlate with photochromic properties. For this compound, DFT optimized geometry could be used to predict photochromism. Furthermore, in an attempt to predict the driving force for MC → SP, this work explores, for the first time, profitable exploitation of the calculated and visualized mapped electrostatic potential energy surfaces (ESP map. Interestingly, it seems that the electrostatic potential forces over the molecular fragments govern spirobond rupture/closure reactions. Thermodynamically, all-trans-colored isomer (CTT is the most stable merocyanine-like form.

  5. A new accurate ground-state potential energy surface of ethylene and predictions for rotational and vibrational energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, Thibault, E-mail:; Rey, Michaël, E-mail:; Tyuterev, Vladimir G. [Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, UMR CNRS 7331, BP 1039, F-51687, Reims Cedex 2 (France); Nikitin, Andrei [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055 Tomsk, Russia and Quamer, State University of Tomsk (Russian Federation); Szalay, Péter G. [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)


    In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C{sub 2}H{sub 4} obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.–Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm{sup −1} for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm{sup −1} for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm{sup −1}. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm{sup −1} are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} and rovibrational levels of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  6. Comparison of the surface energy budget between regions of seasonally frozen ground and permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Gu, Lianglei; Yao, Jimin; Hu, Zeyong; Zhao, Lin


    Surface energy budgets were calculated using turbulent flux observation data and meteorological gradient data collected in 2008 from two sites: BJ, located in a seasonally frozen ground region, and Tanggula, located in a permafrost region. In 2008, the energy closure ratios for the BJ and Tanggula sites were 0.74 and 0.73, respectively, using 30-min instantaneous energy flux data but 0.87 and 0.99, respectively, using daily average energy flux data. Therefore, the energy closure status is related to the time scale that is used for the study. The variation in the surface energy budget at the two sites was similar: The sensible heat flux (Hs) was relatively high in spring and reduced in summer but gradually increased in autumn. The latent heat flux (LE) was higher in summer and autumn but lower in winter and spring. Comparably, the starting time for the significant increase in LE occurred earlier at the Tanggula site than that at the BJ site, because the freezing and thawing progress of the active layer of permafrost at Tanggula site significantly affected the Hs and LE distributions, but the freezing and thawing processes of the soil at BJ site did not significantly affect the Hs and LE distributions. The monsoon significantly affected the variation in Hs and LE at both the BJ and Tanggula sites. Regarding the diurnal variation of the energy budget at the two sites, the daily maximum of net radiation (Rn) occurred at approximately 14:00 Beijing Time, and the daily maximum of ground heat flux (G0) was earlier than those of Hs and LE. The albedo and Bowen ratio for the two sites were both low in summer but high in winter. The albedo increased significantly but the Bowen ratio became lower or even negative when the surface was covered with deep snow.

  7. Effect of Surface Geology on Ground Motions: The Case of Station TAP056 - Chutzuhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Wen


    Full Text Available In the Tatun mountain area of northern Taiwan are two strong motion stations approximately 2.5 km apart, TAP056 and TAP066 of the TSMIP network. The accelerometer at station TAP056 is often triggered by earthquakes, but that at TAP066 station is not. Comparisons of vertical and horizontal peak ground accelerations reveal PGA in the vertical, east-west, and north-south components at TAP056 station to be 3.89, 7.57, and 5.45 times those at station TAP066, respectively. The PGA ratio does not seem to be related to earthquake source or path. Fourier spectra of earthquake records at station TAP056 always have approximately the same dominant frequency; however, those at station TAP066 are different due to different sources and paths of different events. This shows that spectra at TAP056 station are mainly controlled by local site effects. The spectral ratios of TAP056/TAP066 show the S-wave is amplified at around 8 ~ 10 Hz. The horizontal/vertical spectral ratios of station TAP056 also show a dominant frequency at about 6 and 8 ~ 10 Hz. After dense microtremor surveying and the addition of one accelerometer just 20 meters away from the original observation station, we can confirm that the top soft soil layer upon which the observation station is constructed generates the local site response at station TAP056.

  8. Dynamic rupture of megathrust earthquakes with branching on splay faults (United States)

    Somala, S.; Ampuero, J. P.; Lapusta, N.


    The accretionary prism of subduction margins generally contains splay faults that approach the surface at steeper angles than the megathrust interface. Rupture propagating onto splay faults during megathrust earthquakes can increase seafloor uplift significantly and contribute to the potential of tsunami. Another key aspect of tsunamigenic earthquakes is their relatively low radiation efficiency, which could be related to slow rupture at shallow depth due to frictionally stable fault properties. We present here results of numerical simulations of dynamic rupture on megathrust/splay fault systems that address the mechanical plausibility and characteristics of coseismic slip on splay faults. As a case study, we consider a possible earthquake scenario for the Nankai subduction zone. Previous dynamic rupture simulations (Wendt et. al., 2009) considered a splay fault that cuts through the overriding crust and reaches the surface more than 100 km away from the trench. We examine instead a model geometry based on seismic reflection profiling in Nankai, in which a megasplay fault branches off at around 50 km from the trench, cuts through the sedimentary wedge and reaches the seafloor at about 25 km from the trench. We first investigate the 2D dynamics of this splay fault system, governed by slip-weakening friction law. We compare rupture propagation on this faulting model using a finite-element code (PyLith) and a spectral element code (SEM2DPACK). We report on the favorable conditions for splay faults to rupture, the degree of slip partitioning and the effects of arresting rupture at different depths on the plate-boundary. We also show how well our work correlates with previous works on branched fault systems. We then select a small set of 3D simulations that illustrates the main aspects. Finally the effect of velocity-strengthening fault properties at shallow depth is studied in the context of rate-and-state friction, with particular emphasis on the conditions to produce

  9. Mapping of the cumulative β-ray dose on the ground surface surrounding the Fukushima area (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nguyen, Thanh T.; Hayashi, Gohei; Imanaka, Tetsuji


    A large amount of the fission products released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March 2011 was deposited in a wide area from Tohoku to northern Kanto. A map of the estimated cumulative β-ray dose (70 μm dose equivalent) on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident has been prepared using previously reported calculation methods and the 2-km mesh survey data by MEXT. From this map of estimated dose, areas with a high cumulative β-ray dose on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident were found to be located in the Akogi-Teshichiro to Akogi-Kunugidaira region in Namie Town, and in the southern Futaba Town to the northern Tomioka Town region. The highest estimated cumulative β-ray dose was 710 mSv for one year at Akogi-Teshichiro, Namie Town. PMID:26519736

  10. Surface Slip Gradients and Fault Connectivity at Depth (United States)

    Oglesby, D. D.


    Observational and numerical evidence has implied that it is difficult for earthquake rupture to jump stepovers with widths significantly larger than 4 km [e.g., Harris et al., 1991; Harris and Day, 1999; Wesnousky, 2006]. It has also been shown observationally that if surface slip tapers to zero over a small along-strike distance on the primary fault segment at a stepover, an earthquake has a significantly increased likelihood of jumping the stepover and propagating to a secondary fault segment [Elliott et al., 2009]. This latter result has been attributed to a high slip gradient on the primary segment generating a strong dynamic stress concentration on the second segment, which can facilitate rupture renucleation [Oglesby, 2008]. Recent 3D dynamic earthquake simulations, however, provide an alternative interpretation for this effect: an earthquake on a fault that is disconnected at the surface but is connected (i.e., is a throughgoing structure) at depth also will tend to produce a higher surface slip gradient at the edges of the segments than will a system that is fully disconnected, at least for relatively long segments that are connected at relatively shallow depth. This result raises the possibility that many of the rupture "jumps" that we see at fault stepovers on the surface may in fact reflect through-going ruptures on a continuous subsurface fault. These results may have implications for the pervasiveness of fault connectivity at depth, the likelihood of throughgoing rupture at surface stepovers, ground motion estimates, and seismic hazard.

  11. Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8, Sand (SG, n = 8 and Firm (FG, n = 8. The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee range of motion (KROM, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05 greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05 time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05 changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05 differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.

  12. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier (United States)

    Lazarus, E.


    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  13. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon


    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  14. Mechanics of cutaneous wound rupture. (United States)

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag


    A cutaneous wound may rupture during healing as a result of stretching in the skin and incompatibility at the wound-skin interface, among other factors. By treating both wound and skin as hyperelastic membranes, and using a biomechanical framework of interfacial growth, we study rupturing as a problem of cavitation in nonlinear elastic materials. We obtain analytical solutions for deformation and residual stress field in the skin-wound configuration while emphasizing the coupling between wound rupture and wrinkling in the skin. The solutions are analyzed in detail for variations in stretching environment, healing condition, and membrane stiffness.

  15. One- / Two-Dimensional versus Three-Dimensional Rupture Propagation in Brittle Solids (United States)

    Uenishi, K.


    Source dynamics of normal earthquakes is usually considered in the framework of 3D rupture in brittle solids. However, our understanding of mechanical details of actual 3D rupture is limited and most of the frequently utilized rupture criteria in earthquake science have been derived from 1D (or at most 2D) experiments. Typically, criteria based on 1D frictional observations of sliding materials are quite often employed in seismological simulations, but we are not sure whether these rupture criteria are really valid for the generation and complex propagation process of 3D rupture. Indeed, our recent experimental observations on dynamic rupture of monolithic brittle solids using a high-speed digital video camera system indicate rather complicated histories of rupture development in 3D solid materials but at the same time they show simple final rupture patterns (rupture networks). For example, by concurrently applying high-voltage electric discharge impulses, a controlled and geometrically plain dynamic rupture pattern can be really obtained in cylindrical concrete specimens, but the simple final rupture pattern is formed not by unidirectional rupture propagation but by multi-directional one. Another example of plain final rupture patterns can be found by dynamic experiments of ice spheres that impinge upon a flat polycarbonate or ice plate. Rupture of the ice spheres induced by the mechanical impact (free fall) shows two representative rupture patterns: (i) The ice sphere is mainly divided into three or four large segments of comparable size (similar to orange segments); and (ii) Only some portions near the bottom of the ice sphere are ruptured into pieces upon collision and a relatively large "top"-shaped part remains unbroken. Both experimental observations indicate generation of remarkably simple and frequently flat rupture surfaces in 3D specimens even without the clear existence of planes of weakness, but it seems difficult to explain the dynamic rupture

  16. Monitoring of the ground surface temperature and the active layer in NorthEastern Canadian permafrost areas using remote sensing data assimilated in a climate land surface scheme. (United States)

    Marchand, N.; Royer, A.; Krinner, G.; Roy, A.


    Projected future warming is particularly strong in the Northern high latitudes where increases of temperatures are up to 2 to 6 °C. Permafrost is present on 25 % of the northern hemisphere lands and contain high quantities of « frozen » carbon, estimated at 1400 Gt (40 % of the global terrestrial carbon). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the climate evolution in arctic areas, and more specifically of land areas covered by snow. The objective is to describe the ground temperature year round including under snow cover, and to analyse the active layer thickness evolution in relation to the climate variability. We use satellite data (fusion of MODIS land surface temperature « LST » and microwave AMSR-E brightness temperature « Tb ») assimilated in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) of the Canadian climate model coupled with a simple radiative transfer model (HUT). This approach benefits from the advantages of each of the data type in order to complete two objectives : 1- build a solid methodology for retrieving the ground temperature, with and without snow cover, in taïga and tundra areas ; 2 - from those retrieved ground temperatures, derive the summer melt duration and the active layer depth. We describe the coupling of the models and the methodology that adjusts the meteorological input parameters of the CLASS model (mainly air temperature and precipitations derived from the NARR database) in order to minimise the simulated LST and Tb ouputs in comparison with satellite measurements. Using ground-based meteorological data as validation references in NorthEastern Canadian tundra, the results show that the proposed approach improves the soil temperatures estimates when using the MODIS LST and Tb at 10 and 19 GHz to constrain the model in comparison with the model outputs without satellite data. Error analysis is discussed for the summer period (2.5 - 4 K) and for the snow covered winter period (2 - 3.5 K). Further steps are

  17. Results of ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry monitoring, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1994 (United States)

    Littin, G.R.; Monroe, S.A.


    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1994, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,000 acre-feet, which is an 8-percent increase from the previous year. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer increased by about 9 percent to 5,400 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer increased by about 2 percent to 1,600 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined area during 1994 were recorded in 10 of 16 wells, and the median change was a decline of about 2.3 feet as opposed to a decline of 3.3 feet for the previous year. The median change in water levels in the unconfined area was a rise of 0.1 foot in 1994 as opposed to a decline of 0.5 foot in 1993. Measured low-flow discharge along Moenkopi Wash decreased from 3.0 cubic feet per second in 1993 to 2.9 cubic feet per second in 1994. Eleven low-flow measurements were made along Laguna Creek between Tsegi, Arizona, and Chinle Wash to determine the amount of discharge that would occur as seepage from the N aquifer under optimal base-flow conditions. Discharge was 5.6 cubic feet per second near Tsegi and 1.5 cubic feet per second above the confluence with Chinle Wash. Maximum discharge was 5.9 cubic feet per second about 4 miles upstream from Dennehotso. Discharge was measured at three springs. The changes in discharge at Burro and Whisky Springs were small and within the uncertainty of

  18. Mapping ground surface deformation using temporarily coherent point SAR interferometry: Application to Los Angeles Basin (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Lu, Zhiming; Ding, X.; Jung, H.-S.; Feng, G.; Lee, C.-W.


    Multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is an effective tool to detect long-term seismotectonic motions by reducing the atmospheric artifacts, thereby providing more precise deformation signal. The commonly used approaches such as persistent scatterer InSAR (PSInSAR) and small baseline subset (SBAS) algorithms need to resolve the phase ambiguities in interferogram stacks either by searching a predefined solution space or by sparse phase unwrapping methods; however the efficiency and the success of phase unwrapping cannot be guaranteed. We present here an alternative approach - temporarily coherent point (TCP) InSAR (TCPInSAR) - to estimate the long term deformation rate without the need of phase unwrapping. The proposed approach has a series of innovations including TCP identification, TCP network and TCP least squares estimator. We apply the proposed method to the Los Angeles Basin in southern California where structurally active faults are believed capable of generating damaging earthquakes. The analysis is based on 55 interferograms from 32 ERS-1/2 images acquired during Oct. 1995 and Dec. 2000. To evaluate the performance of TCPInSAR on a small set of observations, a test with half of interferometric pairs is also performed. The retrieved TCPInSAR measurements have been validated by a comparison with GPS observations from Southern California Integrated GPS Network. Our result presents a similar deformation pattern as shown in past InSAR studies but with a smaller average standard deviation (4.6. mm) compared with GPS observations, indicating that TCPInSAR is a promising alternative for efficiently mapping ground deformation even from a relatively smaller set of interferograms. ?? 2011.

  19. Elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures: epicondylitis, biceps and triceps ruptures. (United States)

    Rineer, Craig A; Ruch, David S


    Lateral and medial epicondylitis are common causes of elbow pain in the general population, with the lateral variety being more common than the medial by a ratio reportedly ranging from 4:1 to 7:1. Initially thought to be an inflammatory condition, epicondylitis has ultimately been shown to result from tendinous microtearing followed by an incomplete reparative response. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatment options have been employed in the treatment of epicondylitis, without the emergence of a single, consistent, universally accepted treatment protocol. Tendon ruptures about the elbow are much less frequent, but result in more significant disability and loss of function. Distal biceps tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males as a result of an event that causes a sudden, eccentric contraction of the biceps. Triceps tendon ruptures are exceedingly rare but usually have a similar etiology with a forceful eccentric contraction of the triceps that causes avulsion of the tendon from the olecranon. The diagnosis of these injuries is not always readily made. Complete ruptures of the biceps or triceps tendons have traditionally been treated surgically with good results. With regard to biceps ruptures, there continues to be debate about the best surgical approach, as well as the best method of fixation of tendon to bone. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review of the broad topics of elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures, but rather is a review of recently published information on the topics that will assist the clinician in diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  20. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research. (United States)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten


    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method.

  1. Chromium speciation and fractionation in ground and surface waters in the vicinity of chromite ore processing residue disposal sites. (United States)

    Farmer, John G; Thomas, Rhodri P; Graham, Margaret C; Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Lumsdon, David G; Paterson, Edward


    Chromium concentrations of up to 91 mg l(-1) were found by ICP-OES for ground water from nine boreholes at four landfill sites in an area of S.E. Glasgow/S. Lanarkshire where high-lime chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from a local chemical works had been deposited from 1830 to 1968. Surface water concentrations of up to 6.7 mg l(-1) in a local tributary stream fell to 0.11 mg l(-1) in the River Clyde. Two independent techniques of complexation/colorimetry and speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) showed that Cr was predominantly (>90%) in hexavalent form (CrVI) as CrO4(2-), as anticipated at the high pH (7.5-12.5) of the sites. Some differences between the implied and directly determined concentrations of dissolved CrIII, however, appeared related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content. This was most significant for the ground water from one borehole that had the highest TOC concentration of 300 mg l(-1) and at which ultrafiltration produced significant decreases in Cr concentration with decreasing size fractions, e.g. complex. This showed for the main Cr-containing fraction, 100 kDa-0.45 microm, that the Cr was associated with a dark brown band characteristic of organic (humic) matter. Comparison of gel electrophoresis and FTIR results for ultrafilter retentates of ground water from this borehole with those for a borehole at another site where CrVI predominated suggested the influence of carboxylate groups, both in reducing CrVI and in forming soluble CrIII-humic complexes. The implications of this for remediation strategies (especially those based on the addition of organic matter) designed to reduce highly mobile and carcinogenic Cr(VI)O4(2-) to the much less harmful CrIII as insoluble Cr(OH)3 are discussed.

  2. The study of coastal ground surfaces to predict the ways of increasing efficiency of research mobile robots (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir; Kurkin, Andrey; Belyalov, Vladimir; Tyugin, Dmitry; Zezyulin, Denis


    The increase in spatial scales of studying coastal areas can be achieved by the use of mobile robotic systems (MRS) equipped with scanning equipment, video inspection system and positioning system. The project aims at increasing the capabilities for designing effective ground MRS through the use of advanced methods of forecasting characteristics of vehicle-terrain interaction in coastal zones, where hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere interact. In the period from 14 May to 18 June 2016 there was organized the expedition to Sakhalin Island for conducting full-scale testing autonomous MRS for coastal monitoring and forecasting marine natural disasters [Kurkin A.A., Zeziulin D.V., Makarov V.S., Zaitsev A.I., Belyaev A.M., Beresnev P.O., Belyakov V.V., Pelinovsky E.N., Tyugin D.Yu. Investigations of coastal areas of the Okhotsk sea using a ground mobile robot // Ecological systems and devices. 2016. No. 8. P. 11-17]. Within the framework of the expedition specific areas of terrain in the vicinity of Cape Svobodny were investigated (with the support of SRB AMR FEB RAS). Terrain areas were studied from the standpoint of possibility of the MRS movement. As a result of measuring all the necessary data on the physical-mechanical and geometric characteristics of the coastal zones, required to calculate the force factors acting on the MRS, and, accordingly, the parameters of its motion were received. The obtained data will be used for developing new statistical models of the physical-mechanical and geometrical characteristics of the coastal ground surfaces, creating methodology for assessing the efficiency and finding ways to optimize the design of the MRS.

  3. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine. (United States)

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E


    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant.

  4. Geological structures control on earthquake ruptures: The Mw7.7, 2013, Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan (United States)

    Vallage, A.; Klinger, Y.; Lacassin, R.; Delorme, A.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.


    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, ruptured the Hoshab fault. Left-lateral motion dominated the deformation pattern, although significant vertical motion is found along the southern part of the rupture. Correlation of high-resolution (2.5 m) optical satellite images provided horizontal displacement along the entire rupture. In parallel, we mapped the ground rupture geometry at 1:500 scale. We show that the azimuth of the ground rupture distributes mainly between two directions, N216° and N259°. The direction N216° matches the direction of preexisting geologic structures resulting from penetrative deformation caused by the nearby Makran subduction. Hence, during a significant part of its rupture, the 2013 Balochistan rupture kept switching between a long-term fault front and secondary branches, in which existence and direction are related to the compressional context. It shows unambiguous direct interactions between different preexisting geologic structures, regional stress, and dynamic-rupture stress, which controlled earthquake propagation path.

  5. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil. (United States)

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Carbo, Leandro; Ribeiro, Maria L; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M


    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso, Brazil during September and December 1998 and April 1999. Different water source sampling stations of groundwater (irrigation water well, drinking water well, and water hole) and surface water (dam and river) are set up based on agricultural land use. A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection is used for the determination of these compounds. All compounds are detected at least once in water samples. A temporal trend of pesticide contamination is observed, with the highest contamination frequency occurring in December during the main application season. Metribuzin shows the highest individual detection frequencies throughout the monitoring period, followed by metolachlor, simazine, and DEA. The maximum mean concentrations of pesticides in this study are in the range from 0.14 to 1.7 microg/L. We deduct that the contamination of water resources is predominantly caused by non-point pollution of pesticides used in intensive cash-crop cultures of the Cerrado area. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of pesticide concentrations in water resources of this tropical region is necessary to detect the longer term contamination trends and developing health risks.

  6. Ruptured Pebbles - a coseismic and paleoseismic indicator? (United States)

    Weismüller, Christopher; Reicherter, Klaus


    To increase the understanding of paleo-earthquakes and deformation patterns, and the propagation of surface waves in the proximity of active faults, we use the mainly disregarded features of ruptured or broken pebbles within in a clayey matrix. Deformation of unconsolidated sediments (alluvium, colluvium) due to earthquake ruptures is a long investigated topic, including the degradation of the fault scarp. However, during many trenching studies aligned pebbles along the fault planes have been described, and attributed to coseismic deformation. Over the last decades, we have found many ruptured pebbles in trenches at active faults with historic earthquakes, but also aligned (rotated?) pebbles. Here, we describe ruptured pebbles from a Pleistocene debris flow near the coastline between the towns Carboneras and Mojácar (SE Spain), East of the Sierra Cabrera. The outcrop is on-fault at the transition of the active Carboneras and Palomares faults (major historical earthquakes with M 7 in 1518 and 1522), implying proximity to the earthquakes epicenters. The Carboneras (NE-SW), Gafarillos (E-W) and Palomares (NNE-SSW) faults form major faults in eastern Andalucia. The outcrop contains ruptured pebbles in an only slightly consolidated, Pleistocene debris flow with 50 % matrix content. Similar near-fault ruptured pebbles have already been observed in the Carrizales quarry near Baelo Claudia, S Spain, and many other sites (e.g., Italy, Greece, Russia), but always in the proximity of active faults. We measured the fractures of 100 pebbles as planes, if possible, or trend, in case no measureable plane was accessible. Complementary 3D-models of the outcrop and each ruptured pebble were created using Structure from Motion, allowing us to further study the pebbles morphology and geometry. Mode II and conjugate fractures are prevailing in the pebbles and the lack of surface-loading such as striations and dissolution pits neglects clast-interaction. Un-cemented shear planes

  7. A study of SO2 emissions and ground surface displacements at Lastarria volcano, Antofagasta Region, Northern Chile (United States)

    Krewcun, Lucie G.

    Lastarria volcano (Chile) is located at the North-West margin of the 'Lazufre' ground inflation signal (37x45 km2), constantly uplifting at a rate of ˜2.5 cm/year since 1996 (Pritchard and Simons 2002; Froger et al. 2007). The Lastarria volcano has the double interest to be superimposed on a second, smaller-scale inflation signal and to be the only degassing area of the Lazufre signal. In this project, we compared daily SO2 burdens recorded by AURA's OMI mission for 2005-2010 with Ground Surface Displacements (GSD) calculated from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images for 2003-2010. We found a constant maximum displacement rate of 2.44 cm/year for the period 2003-2007 and 0.80- 0.95 cm/year for the period 2007-2010. Total SO 2 emitted is 67.0 kT for the period 2005-2010, but detection of weak SO2 degassing signals in the Andes remains challenging owing to increased noise in the South Atlantic radiation Anomaly region.

  8. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gatebe


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer, CAR, and AERONET data. A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34–2.30 μm and angular range (180° of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  9. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gatebe


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR and AERONET data. A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34–2.30 μm and angular range (180° of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  10. Assessment of dry season surface, ground, and treated water quality in the Cape Coast municipality of Ghana. (United States)

    Quagraine, E K; Adokoh, C K


    This aim of this monitoring was to assess water quality in a dry season for the Cape Coast municipality in Ghana, which has been experiencing chronic water shortages. Fifteen different sampling stations--four surface, five ground, and six tap water samples--were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological parameters during January to April 2005. Levels or trends in water quality that may be deleterious to sensitive water uses, including drinking, irrigation, and livestock watering have been noted with reference to well-established guidelines. Exceedances to some health-based drinking water guidelines included positive coliform for various water samples; pH for all groundwater samples (pH 5.9+/-0.3); conductivity for 50% groundwater; color for about a third of groundwater and tap water; Mn for 44% tap water, 67% groundwater, and 50% surface water samples. The World Health Organization laundry staining Fe guideline of 0.3 mg/l was exceeded by 75% of surface water, 44% tap water, and 53% groundwater samples. The corresponding Mn guideline of 0.1 mg/l was exceeded by all the water samples. Respectively, all surface water samples and also 75% of the surface water exceeded some known Cu and Zn guideline for the protection of aquatic life. Compared to some historic data for Fosu Lagoon, the current study shows a lowering of approximately 1 pH unit, increase of approximately 65% NH3, one to two orders of magnitude increase in PO4(3-), and more than two orders of magnitude increase in NO3-. In several instances, tap water samples collected at the consumers' end of the distribution system did not reflect on the true quality of the treated water. Mn, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), Cu, and Zn were among the chemical contaminations observed to occur in the distribution system.

  11. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.


    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  12. Dynamic subsidence prediction of ground surface above salt cavern gas storage considering the creep of rock salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new model is proposed to predict the dynamic subsidence of ground surface above salt cavern gas storage during the leaching and storage, which takes into account the creep of rock salt. In the model, the extended form of Gaussian curve is adopted to figure out the shape of subsidence areas. The corresponding theoretical formulas are derived. In addition, parameters are studied to investigate the surface subsidence as a function of the salt ejection rate, internal pressure, buried depth, diameter, height, running time, etc. Through an example, the subsidence of the salt cavern gas storage located at Jiangsu of China obtained by the new model was compared with those by Peter A F formula, Schober & Sroka formula and FLAC3D through simulation. The results showed the proposed model is precise and correct, and can meet the actual engineering demands. The surface subsidence is equidirectional with the increase of salt ejection rate, depth, diameter, height, and running time, but reverse to the increase of internal pressure. The depth, diameter, running time and internal pressure have great effects on the subsidence, whereas the salt ejection rate and height have little influences on it.

  13. Hydro-economic modeling of conjunctive ground and surface water use to guide sustainable basin management (United States)

    Taher Kahil, Mohamed; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David


    Water demands for irrigation, urban and environmental uses in arid and semiarid regions continue to grow, while freshwater supplies from surface and groundwater resources are becoming scarce and are expected to decline with climate change. Policymakers in these regions face hard choices on water management and policies. Hydro-economic modeling is the state-of-the art tool that could be used to guide the design and implementation of sustainable water management policies in basins. The strength of hydro-economic modeling lies in its capacity to integrate key biophysical and socio-economic components within a unified framework. A major gap in developments on hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of surface and groundwater flows, based on the theoretically correct Darcy equations used by the hydrogeological community. The modeling approach taken here is integrated, avoiding the single-tank aquifer assumption, avoiding simplified assumptions on aquifer-river linkages, and bypassing iterations among separate hydrological and economic models. The groundwater flow formulation used in this paper harnesses the standard finite difference expressions for groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water exchange developed in the USGS MODFLOW groundwater model. The methodological contribution to previous modeling efforts is the explicit specification of aquifer-river interactions, important when aquifer systems make a sizable contribution to basin resources. The modeling framework is solved completely, and information among the economic and hydrological components over all periods and locations are jointly and simultaneously determined. This novel framework is applied to the Jucar basin (Spain), which is a good experimental region for an integrated basin scale analysis. The framework is used for assessing the impacts of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices, especially the hydrologic, land use, and economic outcomes. The modeling framework

  14. A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania (United States)

    Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.


    Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the

  15. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992 (United States)

    Rewis, D.L.


    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  16. Application of ESPRIT in Broad Beam HF Ground Wave Radar Sea Surface Current Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dan-hong; Wu Xiong-bin; Wen Bi-yang; Cheng Feng


    HF surface wave radar system OSMAR2000 is a broad-beam sea-state detecting radar. ESPRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique) algorithm is proposed to apply in DOA (direction of arrival) determination of sea echoes. The algorithm of ESPRIT is briefly introduced first. Then discussions are made on the technique for application in the OSMAR2000 framework. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of radial current mapping based on this method. The algorithm manifests significant performance and computational advantages compared with that of MUSIC. Data acquired by OSMAR2000 are processed to give radial current map and the synthesized vector currents are compared with the in-situ measurement with traditional means. The results show the validity of ESPRIT application in DOA determination for broad-beam radar.

  17. W-Band Characterization of Grounded Frequency Selective Surface Arrays Composed of Nonequal Slot Length Subarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Islam


    Full Text Available We present the design and construction of Frequency Selective Surface arrays composed of two subarrays of different slot lengths. We investigated their response variations with the variation of slot length differences of the elementary sub-arrays. Such nonhomogeneous arrays cannot be simulated with Computer Aided Design (CAD programs because the boundary conditions are not fulfilled by the simulator. In infinite array simulation, the periodic boundary conditions are prescribed on the walls of the unit cell, whereas in the case of sub-arrays of unequal slot length such boundary conditions are not applicable. The CAD simulation of such combined array gives incorrect values of amplitude and phase responses. In this work, we investigate the characteristics of such complex arrays by using heuristic experimental approach. The results of the experimental approach demonstrate that the resultant reflection amplitude and phase of such complex array depend on the difference of slot lengths (ΔL of the two sub-arrays.

  18. From Ground Truth to Space: Surface, Subsurface and Remote Observations Associated with Nuclear Test Detection (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Burt, C.; Craven, J.; Kimblin, C.; McKenna, I.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Miller, E.; Yocky, D. A.; Haas, D.


    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) result in numerous signatures that manifest on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Currently, prompt signals, such as the detection of seismic waves provide only generalized locations and the timing and amplitude of non-prompt signals are difficult to predict. As such, research into improving the detection, location, and identification of suspect events has been conducted, resulting in advancement of nuclear test detection science. In this presentation, we demonstrate the scalar variably of surface and subsurface observables, briefly discuss current capabilities to locate, detect and characterize potential nuclear explosion locations, and explain how emergent technologies and amalgamation of disparate data sets will facilitate improved monitoring and verification. At the smaller scales, material and fracture characterization efforts on rock collected from legacy UNE sites and from underground experiments using chemical explosions can be incorporated into predictive modeling efforts. Spatial analyses of digital elevation models and orthoimagery of both modern conventional and legacy nuclear sites show subtle surface topographic changes and damage at nearby outcrops. Additionally, at sites where such technology cannot penetrate vegetative cover, it is possible to use the vegetation itself as both a companion signature reflecting geologic conditions and showing subsurface impacts to water, nutrients, and chemicals. Aerial systems based on RGB imagery, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral imaging can allow for combined remote sensing modalities to perform pattern recognition and classification tasks. Finally, more remote systems such as satellite based synthetic aperture radar and satellite imagery are other techniques in development for UNE site detection, location and characterization.

  19. Surface and Ground Water Quality in Köprüören Basin (Kütahya), Turkey (United States)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Çelik, Mehmet; Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Abadi Berhe, Berihu


    In this study, quality of the water resources in Köprüören Basin, located to the west of Kütahya city in western Anatolia, were investigated. The total catchment area of the basin is 275 km2 and it is located upstream of Kütahya and Eskişehir plains. Therefore, besides 6,000 people residing in the basin, a much larger population will be impacted by the quality of surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. Groundwater flow is from north to south and south to north towards Kocasu stream, which flows to Enne Dam. The surface and ground water quality in this area are negatively affected by the mining activities. In the northern part of the area, there are coal deposits present in Miocene Tunçbilek formation. Ground waters in contact with the coal deposits contain low concentrations of arsenic (up to 30 µg/l). In the southern part, the only silver deposit of Turkey is present, which is developed in metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gümüşköy (Gümüş means silver, köy means village in Turkish). The amount of silver manufactured annually in this silver plant is huge and comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The wastes, enriched in cyanide, arsenic, stibnite, lead and zinc, are stored in waste pools and there is extensive leakage of these heavy metals from these pools. Therefore, surface waters, soils and plants in the affected areas contain high concentrations of arsenic, stibnite and lead. The As, Sb, Pb and Zn concentrations are up to 733 µg/l, 158 µg/l, 48 µg/l, and 286 µg/l in surface waters (in dry season), 6180 ppm, 410 ppm, 4180 ppm, 9950 ppm in soils and 809 ppm, 399 ppm, 800 ppm, 2217 ppm in plants, respectively. Today, most of the As, Sb, Pb and Zn are absorbed by the soils and only a small part are dissolved in water. However, conditions might change in future leading to desorption of these contaminants. Therefore

  20. Which Dynamic Rupture Parameters can be Resolved? (United States)

    Peyrat, S.; Olsen, K.; Madariaga, R.


    We use finite-difference simulations in models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake to examine which dynamic rupture parameters may be recovered for large crustal earthquakes. By trial-and-error inversion Peyrat et al. (2001) found two simple models with constant slip-weakening friction which generated a satisfactory fit between synthetic and observed strong motion data: an asperity model, with spatially-varying initial stress and constant yield stress, and a barrier model with constant initial stress and spatially-varying yield stress. However, there is some evidence from inversion of seismic data for large earthquakes (i.e., Ide and Takeo, 1997, for the 1995 Kobe earthquake), that the slip-weakening distance Dc may vary spatially. In particular, Ide and Takeo found a larger Dc in the shallower parts of the crust compared to the deeper parts. Possible causes of such variation include the increase of elastic rigidity with depth and a fundamentally different friction in the near-surface layers. Here, we examine the effects of laterally and vertically varying Dc on the strong motion synthetics computed by our dynamic rupture models. We generate an alternative barrier model with constant initial and yield stress but spatially-varying Dc which, as our two previous rupture models of the Landers event, generate synthetics in agreement with strong motion data. Thus, we have constructed three well-posed mechanical models of the Landers earthquake that satisfy available strong motion data and which are end-members of a large family of dynamically correct models. Our findings confirm an earlier hypothesis that barrier and asperity models of an earthquake generate similar signature in the seismic radiation (Madariaga, 1979). Therefore, it may not be possible to separate stress and Dc using rupture modeling. Instead, we propose to characterize dynamic rupture propagation by the local non-dimensional parameter κ introduced by Madariaga and Olsen (2000), which is expressed in

  1. High resolution imaging of vadose zone transport using surface and crosswell ground penetrating radar methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Kowalsky, Mike B.; Peterson, John E.


    To effectively clean up many contaminated sites there is a need for information on heterogeneities at scales ranging from one centimeter to tens of meters, as these features can alter contaminant transport significantly. At the Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site heterogeneities of interest can range from localized phenomena such as silt or gravel lenses, fractures, clastic dikes, to large-scale lithologic discontinuities. In the vadose zone it is critical to understand the parameters controlling flow. These features have been suspected of leading to funneling and fingering, additional physical mechanisms that could alter and possibly accelerate the transport of contaminants to underlying groundwater. For example, it has been observed from the studies to date that over relatively short distances there are heterogeneities in the physical structure of the porous medium and structural differences between repacked soil cores and the field site from which the materials initially came (Raymond and Shdo, 1966). Analysis of cores taken from the vadose zone (i.e., soil surface to water table) has been useful in identifying localized zones of contamination. Unfortunately, these analyses are sparse (limited to a few boreholes) and extremely expensive. The high levels of radioactivity at many of the contaminated sites increase drilling and sample costs and analysis time. Cost of drilling and core analysis for the SX tank farm has exceeded $1M per borehole (50 meter deep) for sampling. The inability to track highly mobile species through the vadose zone highlights an important need: the need for methods to describe the complete vadose zone plume and to determine processes controlling accelerated contamination of groundwater at Hanford. A combination of surface and crosswell (i.e. borehole) geophysical measurements is one means to provide this information. The main questions addressed with the radar methods in this study are: (1) What parts of the vadose zone

  2. Estimating Daily Maximum and Minimum Land Air Surface Temperature Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and Ground Truth Data in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thanh Noi


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate quantitatively the land surface temperature (LST derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD11A1 and MYD11A1 Collection 5 products for daily land air surface temperature (Ta estimation over a mountainous region in northern Vietnam. The main objective is to estimate maximum and minimum Ta (Ta-max and Ta-min using both TERRA and AQUA MODIS LST products (daytime and nighttime and auxiliary data, solving the discontinuity problem of ground measurements. There exist no studies about Vietnam that have integrated both TERRA and AQUA LST of daytime and nighttime for Ta estimation (using four MODIS LST datasets. In addition, to find out which variables are the most effective to describe the differences between LST and Ta, we have tested several popular methods, such as: the Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise, Bayesian information criterion (BIC, adjusted R-squared and the principal component analysis (PCA of 14 variables (including: LST products (four variables, NDVI, elevation, latitude, longitude, day length in hours, Julian day and four variables of the view zenith angle, and then, we applied nine models for Ta-max estimation and nine models for Ta-min estimation. The results showed that the differences between MODIS LST and ground truth temperature derived from 15 climate stations are time and regional topography dependent. The best results for Ta-max and Ta-min estimation were achieved when we combined both LST daytime and nighttime of TERRA and AQUA and data from the topography analysis.

  3. Cohesive zone length of metagabbro at supershear rupture velocity (United States)

    Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo


    We investigated the shear strain field ahead of a supershear rupture. The strain array data along the sliding fault surfaces were obtained during the large-scale biaxial friction experiments at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience. These friction experiments were done using a pair of meter-scale metagabbro rock specimens whose simulated fault area was 1.5 m × 0.1 m. A 2.6-MPa normal stress was applied with loading velocity of 0.1 mm/s. Near-fault strain was measured by 32 two-component semiconductor strain gauges installed at an interval of 50 mm and 10 mm off the fault and recorded at an interval of 1 MHz. Many stick-slip events were observed in the experiments. We chose ten unilateral rupture events that propagated with supershear rupture velocity without preceding foreshocks. Focusing on the rupture front, stress concentration was observed and sharp stress drop occurred immediately inside the ruptured area. The temporal variation of strain array data is converted to the spatial variation of strain assuming a constant rupture velocity. We picked up the peak strain and zero-crossing strain locations to measure the cohesive zone length. By compiling the stick-slip event data, the cohesive zone length is about 50 mm although it scattered among the events. We could not see any systematic variation at the location but some dependence on the rupture velocity. The cohesive zone length decreases as the rupture velocity increases, especially larger than √{2} times the shear wave velocity. This feature is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  4. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.


    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging,T2, to the relaxation parameter T2* measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T2data were transformed to pseudo-T2* data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T2* obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources.

  5. Directional site resonances and the influence of near-surface geology on ground motion (United States)

    Bonamassa, Ornella; Vidale, John E.; Houston, Heidi; Schwartz, Susan Y.


    We examine the horizontal motions at close stations from earthquakes in the Loma Prieta and Whittier Narrows sequences to study the shear wave polarizations. We use a dense, six station array recording 10 aftershocks for the former, and use two events and 11 stations across the Los Angeles area for the latter.We compute the average azimuth of strongest shaking in the shear wave as a function of frequency from 1 to 18 Hz for each record of each earthquake. The direction of shaking at a given frequency often correlates much better with an empirical site resonance direction than with the direction of shaking expected from the focal mechanism of the earthquake. The effect tends to be greatest at the frequencies that are the most amplified. This phenomenon can complicate determination of the earthquake source at frequencies higher than 1 Hz.Further, since sites only 25 meters apart show different preferred directions, very near-surface geology is probably responsible. Estimation of directional site resonances may prove useful for seismic design.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of unscarred gravid uterus. (United States)

    Gurudut, Kolala S; Gouda, Hareesh S; Aramani, Sunil C; Patil, Raju H


    Rupture of gravid uterus during pregnancy is a rare entity. Overall incidence of rupture of uterus during pregnancy is 0.07%. The maternal and fetal prognoses are bad especially when the rupture occurs in an unscarred uterus. Fortunately, the sole major risk factor of spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus is preventable, which is "multiparity." In this article, we report the death of a pregnant woman and her unborn child because of spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus.

  7. Estimation of the near surface soil water content during evaporation using air-launched ground-penetrating radar

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood


    Evaporation is an important process in the global water cycle and its variation affects the near sur-face soil water content, which is crucial for surface hydrology and climate modelling. Soil evaporation rate is often characterized by two distinct phases, namely, the energy limited phase (stage-I) and the soil hydraulic limited period (stage-II). In this paper, a laboratory experiment was conducted using a sand box filled with fine sand, which was subject to evaporation for a period of twenty three days. The setup was equipped with a weighting system to record automatically the weight of the sand box with a constant time-step. Furthermore, time-lapse air-launched ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements were performed to monitor the evaporation process. The GPR model involves a full-waveform frequency-domain solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. The accuracy of the full-waveform GPR forward modelling with respect to three different petrophysical models was investigated. Moreover, full-waveform inversion of the GPR data was used to estimate the quantitative information, such as near surface soil water content. The two stages of evaporation can be clearly observed in the radargram, which indicates qualitatively that enough information is contained in the GPR data. The full-waveform GPR inversion allows for accurate estimation of the near surface soil water content during extended evaporation phases, when a wide frequency range of GPR (0.8-5.0 GHz) is taken into account. In addition, the results indicate that the CRIM model may constitute a relevant alternative in solving the frequency-dependency issue for full waveform GPR modelling.

  8. A Kinematic Rupture Model Generator Using Irikura's Recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitarka, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In this project we developed GEN_SRF4 a computer program for generating kinematic rupture models, compatible with the SRF format, using Irikura and Miyake (2011) asperity-­based earthquake rupture model (IM2011, hereafter). IM2011, also known as Irkura’s recipe, has been widely used to model and simulate ground motion from earthquakes in Japan. An essential part of the method is its kinematic rupture generation technique, which is based on a deterministic rupture asperity modeling approach. The source model simplicity and efficiency of IM2011 at reproducing ground motion from earthquakes recorded in Japan makes it attractive to developers and users of the Southern California Earthquake Center Broadband Platform (SCEC BB platform). Besides writing the code the objective of our study was to test the transportability of IM2011 to broadband simulation methods used by the SCEC BB platform. Here we test it using the Graves and Pitarka (2010) method, implemented in the platform. We performed broadband (0.1--10 Hz) ground motion simulations for a M6.7 scenario earthquake using rupture models produced with both GEN_SRF4 and rupture generator of Graves and Pitarka (2016), (GP2016 hereafter). In the simulations we used the same Green’s functions, and same high frequency approach for calculating the low-­frequency and high-­frequency parts of ground motion, respectively.

  9. Hydrophilic anthropogenic markers for quantification of wastewater contamination in ground- and surface waters. (United States)

    Kahle, Maren; Buerge, Ignaz J; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas


    Hydrophilic, persistent markers are useful to detect, locate, and quantify contamination of natural waters with domestic wastewater. The present study focused on occurrence and fate of seven marker candidates including carbamazepine (CBZ), 10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxycarbamazepine (DiOH-CBZ), primidone (PMD), crotamiton (CTMT), N-acetyl-4-aminoantipyrine (AAA), N-formyl-4-aminoantipyrine (FAA), and benzotriazole (BTri) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), lakes, and groundwater. In WWTPs, concentrations from 0.14 microg/L to several micrograms per liter were observed for all substances, except CTMT, which was detected at lower concentrations. Loads determined in untreated and treated wastewater indicated that removal of the potential markers in WWTPs is negligible; only BTri was partly eliminated (average 33%). In lakes, five compounds, CBZ, DiOH-CBZ, FAA, AAA, and BTri, were consistently detected in concentrations of 2 to 70 ng/L, 3 to 150 ng/L, less than the limit of quantification to 30 ng/L, 2 to 80 ng/L, and 11 to 920 ng/L, respectively. Mean per capita loads in the outflows of the lakes suggested possible dissipation in surface waters, especially of AAA and FAA. Nevertheless, concentrations of CBZ, DiOH-CBZ, and BTri correlated with the actual anthropogenic burden of the lakes by domestic wastewater, indicating that these compounds are suitable for quantification of wastewater contamination in lakes. Marker candidates were also detected in a number of groundwater samples. Carbamazepine concentrations up to 42 ng/L were observed in aquifers with significant infiltration of river water, receiving considerable wastewater discharges from WWTPs. Concentration ratios between compounds indicated some elimination of BTri and DiOH-CBZ during subsurface passage or in groundwater, while CBZ and PMD appeared to be more stable and thus are promising wastewater markers for groundwater. The wastewater burden in groundwater, estimated with the markers CBZ and PMD

  10. Ab initio potential energy surface and excited vibrational states for the electronic ground state of Li2H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢国森; 先晖; 谢代前


    A 285-pomt multi-reference configuration-interaction involving single and double excitations ( MRS DCI) potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of L12H is determined by using 6-311G (2df,2pd)basis set.A Simons-Parr-Finlan polynomial expansion is used to fit the discrete surface with a x2 of 4.64×106 The equn librium geometry occurs at Rc=0.172 nm and,LiHL1=94.10°.The dissociation energy for reaction I2H(2A)→L12(1∑g)+H(2S) is 243.910 kJ/mol,and that for reaction L12H(2A’)→HL1(1∑) + L1(2S) is 106.445 kl/mol The inversion barrier height is 50.388 kj/mol.The vibrational energy levels are calculated using the discrete variable representation (DVR) method.

  11. Hydraulic properties of samples retrieved from the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project Hole-1 (WFSD-1) and the surface rupture zone: Implications for coseismic slip weakening and fault healing (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Yang, Tao; Niemeijer, André


    In this study, we report the hydraulic properties of samples recovered from the first borehole of the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling and from outcrops associated with the surface rupture zone of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Compositional and microstructural analyses have also been performed on selected samples. Using the pore pressure oscillation method, the permeability measurements show that (1) fault gouge samples have low permeabilities, decreasing from 2 × 10-18 m2 at an effective pressure (Pe) of 10 MPa (equivalent to an in situ depth of 600 m) to 9 × 10-21 m2 at 155 MPa. (2) Intact and cemented samples are impermeable with permeabilities less than 2 × 10-20 m2 at 10 MPa. (3) Fractured samples have variable permeabilities, ranging from 3 × 10-15 to 1 × 10-20 m2 at 10 MPa, and are most insensitive to changes in the effective pressure. (4) Granitic cataclasites have a moderate permeability at low pressure (i.e., 10-16 to 10-17 m2 at 10 MPa); which decreases rapidly with increasing Pe. Hydraulic conduction of the fault is believed to be influenced by the permeability of the fractures developed, which is controlled by the density, aperture, and/or connectivity of the fractures. Microstructural and compositional analyses of the samples indicate that the fault zone heals through chemically mediated fracture closure related to mineral precipitation, possibly assisted by pressure solution of stressed fracture asperities. Although other weakening mechanisms remain possible, our laboratory measurements combined with numerical modeling reveal that thermal/thermochemical pressurization, perhaps leading to gouge fluidization, played an important role in the dynamic weakening of the Wenchuan earthquake, at least in the study area.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂华; 闵伟; 宋方敏; 焦德成; 许洪泰


    地震地表破裂是活动断裂填图的重要内容之一,晚第四纪地貌是保存地震地表破裂等活动断裂最新变形的基本载体,利用不同地貌全面获取断裂的活动信息非常重要.通过对鲜水河断裂带东南段进行野外填图、探槽开挖等调查,讨论了1786年磨西地震地表破裂在青藏高原冰川、冰缘地貌区和高原边缘的流水堆积和强剥蚀地貌区的保存特征.地震裂缝和断错等微地貌在高原冰川、冰缘地貌区记录保存完整.高原边缘的流水堆积具有强侵蚀和快速堆积等不稳定性,在探槽中可以获得不完整的地震地表破裂记录.而强剥蚀区缺少记录地震地表破裂的最新堆积地貌,只能依靠与地震动和断裂破裂具有间接关系的古滑坡等推测地震影响区和地表破裂范围.结合鲜水河断裂带东南段的几何结构和构造环境认为,鲜水河断裂带康定-田湾段是1786年地震的发震构造,该地震破裂长度约80km.%The co-seismic rupture is one of the important contents in active tectonic mapping. As the late Quaternary landform is a basic recording medium for the recent deformation of active fault, such as the co-seismic rupture, it is quite useful to acquire the activity information of the active fault from various landforms. We implemented a field work along the southeastern segment of the Xianshuihe Fault, mapped the rupture and excavated some trenches. The preservation characteristics of the surface rupture of the 1786 Moxi earthquake were discussed for the glacial area of the Tibetan plateau,the fluvial and flooding area and seriously eroded area at the margin of the Tibetan plateau, respectively. The cracks and offsets were preserved continuously in the glacial landforms such as the moraines and glacial outwashes along Kangding to Yajiageng segment. As the landforms in the fluvial and flooding area were unstable under strong erosion and rapid deposition, the surface rupture can be

  13. Division Tenorrhaphy: A Novel Technique for Chronic or Failed Nonoperatively Treated Achilles Tendon Rupture. (United States)

    Doty, Jesse; Katsuura, Yoshihiro; Richardson, Nicholas


    Here we describe a modified open technique for the repair of a ruptured Achilles tendon using multiple looped sutures with the creation of interdigitating tendon stumps maximizing surface area for suture application as well as allowing for significant tissue overlay. This technique produces a high strength repair that is useful in cases of extensive degeneration or poor-quality tissue. Degenerative tissue may be encountered with chronic ruptures or failed nonoperative treatment, as well as those ruptures that occur at the proximal myotendinous junction. We present 2 cases in which the technique was utilized: one of a failed nonoperatively treated rupture and another of a chronic rupture. The technique was found to be successful for both patients with improvement in visual analogue scale, Achilles tendon total rupture score, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Score, and Foot and Ankle Disability Index. Level IV.

  14. Propose a Wall Shear Stress Divergence to Estimate the Risks of Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available Although wall shear stress (WSS has long been considered a critical indicator of intracranial aneurysm rupture, there is still no definite conclusion as to whether a high or a low WSS results in aneurysm rupture. The reason may be that the effect of WSS direction has not been fully considered. The objectives of this study are to investigate the magnitude of WSS (WSS and its divergence on the aneurysm surface and to test the significance of both in relation to the aneurysm rupture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD was used to compute WSS and wall shear stress divergence (WSSD on the aneurysm surface for nineteen patients. Our results revealed that if high WSS is stretching aneurysm luminal surface, and the stretching region is concentrated, the aneurysm is under a high risk of rupture. It seems that, by considering both direction and magnitude of WSS, WSSD may be a better indicator for the risk estimation of aneurysm rupture (154.

  15. Effect of cloud-to-ground lightning and meteorological conditions on surface NOx and O3 in Hong Kong (United States)

    Fei, Leilei; Chan, L. Y.; Bi, Xinhui; Guo, Hai; Liu, Yonglin; Lin, Qinhao; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying


    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, meteorological conditions and corresponding surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) variations in relation to thunderstorm and lightning activities over Hong Kong at Kwai Chung (urban), Tung Chung (new town) and Tap Mun (background) during active lightning seasons from 2009 to 2013 were studied by analyzing respective air quality monitoring station data along with CG lightning and meteorological data. We observed NOx enhancement and significant O3 decline on lightning days. Influences of land use types, lightning activities and meteorological conditions on surface NOx and O3 were examined. NOx and O3 concentrations shifted towards higher and lower levels, respectively, during lightning days especially in the dominant wind directions. Principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis were employed to examine the influence of thunderstorm related lightning and meteorological parameters on surface NOx and O3. Wind speed was supposed to be the most important meteorological parameter affecting the concentration of NOx, and lightning activities were observed to make a positive contribution to NOx. Negative contribution of hot, cloudy and wet weather and positive contribution of wind speed were found to affect the concentration of O3. Lightning parameters were also found to make a small positive contribution to O3 concentration at Tap Mun and Tung Chung, but the net effect of lightning activities and corresponding meteorological conditions was the decrease of O3 on lightning days. Reasonably good agreement between the predicted and observed NOx and O3 values indicates that PCA/APCS-MLR is a valuable method to study the thunderstorm induced NOx and O3 variations.

  16. Interactions between surface water and ground water and effects on mercury transport in the north-central Everglades (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Krupa, Steven L.; Gefvert, Cynthia; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill; King, Susan A.; Giddings, Jefferson B.


    The hydrology of the north-central Everglades was altered substantially in the past century by canal dredging, land subsidence, ground-water pumping, and levee construction. Vast areas of seasonal and perennial wetlands were converted to uses for agriculture, light industry, and suburban development. As the catchment area for the Everglades decreased, so did the sources of water from local precipitation and runoff from surrounding uplands. Partly in response to those alterations, water-resources managers compartmentalized the remaining wetlands in the north-central Everglades into large retention basins, called Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). In spite of efforts to improve how water resources are managed, the result has been frequent periods of excessive drying out or flooding of the WCAs because the managed system does not have the same water-storage capacity as the pre-drainage Everglades. Linked to the hydrological modifications are ecological changes including large-scale invasions of cattail, loss of tree islands, and diminishing bird populations in the Everglades. Complex interactions among numerous physical, chemical, and biological factors are responsible for the long-term degradation of the ecological character of the Everglades.Over the past 15 years, a new set of smaller wetland basins, called Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been designed and constructed by water-resources engineers on the former wetlands adjacent to WCAs. The purpose of STAs is to remove excess nutrients from agricultural drainage water prior to its input to WCAs. STAs tend to be about one-tenth the size of a WCA, and they are located on former wetlands on the northwestern side of WCAs on sites that were managed as farmland for much of the twentieth century in an area referred to as the Everglades Agricultural Area, or EAA. The objective of the present investigation was to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project

  17. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.W.


    All geothermal operations begin similarly in that oil field type drilling methods are used to produce a geothermal well that will produce naturally occurring steam or hot water. In some cases, parallel wells are drilled for the purpose of injecting water into one of the 2 to provide additional water that can be heated and returned from the remaining bore, thus enhancing the output. All geothermal operations also conclude similarly, with the heat-spent condensate (brine) being re-injected into the ground, if for no other purpose than disposal. In steam operations (vs. hot water), a condensing unit is required to convert any remaining steam into brine before re-injection. The potential rupture disk applications are outlined.

  18. Quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture. (United States)

    Ramseier, L E; Werner, C M L; Heinzelmann, M


    Ruptures of the patellar and/or quadriceps tendon are rare injuries that require immediate repair to re-establish knee extensor continuity and to allow early motion. We evaluated 36 consecutive patients with quadriceps or patellar tendon rupture between 1993 and 2000. There were 37 primary ruptures, 3 reruptures, 21 quadriceps and 19 patellar tendon ruptures. Follow up examination (>24 months postoperatively) included the patient's history, assessment of risk factors, clinical examination of both knees, isometric muscle strength measurements and three specific knee scores, Hospital for Special Surgery Score, Knee Society Score and Turba Score, and a short form SF-36. We evaluated 29 patients (26 men) with 33 ruptures (16 patellar tendon, 17 quadriceps tendon). Seven patients were lost to follow up. We found no difference between the range of motion and muscle strength when the injured leg was compared to the non-injured leg. Risk factors did not influence the four scores, patient satisfaction, pain, muscle strength or range of motion. Multiple injured patients had a significant reduction in muscle strength and circumference, however patient satisfaction did not differ to the non-multiple injured patient group.

  19. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults. (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo


    Many of Earth's great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent 'flapping' of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  20. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J.; Bhat, Harsha S.; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo


    Many of Earth’s great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent ‘flapping’ of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  1. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  2. 3D dynamic rupture simulation and local tomography studies following the 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, Roby

    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake was the first major earthquake in southern Haiti in 250 years. As this event could represent the beginning of a new period of active seismicity in the region, and in consideration of how vulnerable the population is to earthquake damage, it is important to understand the nature of this event and how it has influenced seismic hazards in the region. Most significantly, the 2010 earthquake occurred on the secondary Leogâne thrust fault (two fault segments), not the Enriquillo Fault, the major strike-slip fault in the region, despite it being only a few kilometers away. We first use a finite element model to simulate rupture along the Leogâne fault. We varied friction and background stress to investigate the conditions that best explain observed surface deformations and why the rupture did not to jump to the nearby Enriquillo fault. Our model successfully replicated rupture propagation along the two segments of the Leogâne fault, and indicated that a significant stress increase occurred on the top and to the west of the Enriquillo fault. We also investigated the potential ground shaking level in this region if a rupture similar to the Mw 7.0 2010 Haiti earthquake were to occur on the Enriquillo fault. We used a finite element method and assumptions on regional stress to simulate low frequency dynamic rupture propagation for the segment of the Enriquillo fault closer to the capital. The high-frequency ground motion components were calculated using the specific barrier model, and the hybrid synthetics were obtained by combining the low-frequencies ( 1Hz) from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The average horizontal peak ground acceleration, computed at several sites of interest through Port-au-Prince (the capital), has a value of 0.35g. Finally, we investigated the 3D local tomography of this region. We considered 897 high-quality records from the earthquake catalog as recorded by

  3. Differences in rates of decrease of environmental radiation dose rates by ground surface property in Fukushima City after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Miyake, Masao; Hayakawa, Takehito; Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Yayoi; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Hazama, Akihiro; Fukushima, Tetsuhito


    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, the environmental radiation dose in Fukushima City increased. On 11 April, 1 mo after the earthquake, the environmental radiation dose rate at various surfaces in the same area differed greatly by surface property. Environmental radiation measurements continue in order to determine the estimated time to 50% reduction in environmental radiation dose rates by surface property in order to make suggestions for decontamination in Fukushima. The measurements were carried out from 11 April to 11 November 2011. Forty-eight (48) measurement points were selected, including four kinds of ground surface properties: grass (13), soil (5), artificial turf (7), and asphalt (23). Environmental radiation dose rate was measured at heights of 100 cm above the ground surface. Time to 50% reduction of environmental radiation dose rates was estimated for each ground surface property. Radiation dose rates on 11 November had decreased significantly compared with those on 11 April for all surface properties. Artificial turf showed the longest time to 50% reduction (544.32 d, standard error: 96.86), and soil showed the shortest (213.20 d, standard error: 35.88). The authors found the environmental radiation dose rate on artificial materials to have a longer 50% reduction time than that on natural materials. These results contribute to determining an order of priority for decontamination after nuclear disasters.

  4. Quantification of Fault-Zone Plasticity Effects with Spontaneous Rupture Simulations (United States)

    Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Day, S. M.; Cui, Y.


    Previous studies have shown that plastic yielding in crustal rocks in the fault zone may impose a physical limit to extreme ground motions. We explore the effects of fault-zone non-linearity on peak ground velocities (PGVs) by simulating a suite of surface-rupturing strike-slip earthquakes in a medium governed by Drucker-Prager plasticity using the AWP-ODC finite-difference code. Our simulations cover magnitudes ranging from 6.5 to 8.0, three different rock strength models, and average stress drops of 3.5 and 7.0 MPa, with a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear-wave velocity of 500 m/s. Friction angles and cohesions in our rock models are based on strength criteria which are frequently used for fractured rock masses in civil and mining engineering. For an average stress drop of 3.5 MPa, plastic yielding reduces near-fault PGVs by 15-30% in pre-fractured, low strength rock, but less than 1% in massive, high-quality rock. These reductions are almost insensitive to magnitude. If the stress drop is doubled, plasticity reduces near-fault PGVs by 38-45% and 5-15% in rocks of low and high strength, respectively. Because non-linearity reduces slip rates and static slip near the surface, plasticity acts in addition to, and may partially be emulated by, a shallow velocity-strengthening layer. The effects of plasticity are exacerbated if a fault damage zone with reduced shear-wave velocities and reduced rock strength is present. In the linear case, fault-zone trapped waves result in higher near-surface peak slip rates and ground velocities compared to simulations without a low-velocity zone. These amplifications are balanced out by fault-zone plasticity if rocks in the damage zone exhibit low-to-moderate strength throughout the depth extent of the low-velocity zone (˜ 5 km). We also perform dynamic non-linear simulations of a high stress drop (8 MPa) M 7.8 earthquake rupturing the southern San Andreas fault along 250 km from Indio to Lake Hughes. Non-linearity in

  5. Investigation of the influence of topographic irregularities and two dimensional effects on the intensity of surface ground motion with one- and two-dimensional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yılmazoğlu


    Full Text Available In this work, the surface ground motion that occurs during an earthquake in ground sections having different topographic forms has been examined with one and two dynamic site response analyses. One-dimensional analyses were undertaken using the Equivalent-Linear Earthquake Response Analysis program based on the equivalent linear analysis principle and the Deepsoil program which is able to make both equivalent linear and nonlinear analyses and two-dimensional analyses using the Plaxis software. The viscous damping parameters used in the dynamic site response analyses undertaken with the Plaxis software were obtained using the DeepSoil program. In the dynamic site response analyses, the synthetic acceleration over a 475 yr replication period representing the earthquakes in Istanbul was used as the basis of the bedrock ground motion. The peak ground acceleration obtained different depths of soils and acceleration spectrum values have been compared. The surface topography and layer boundaries in the 5-5' section were selected in order to examine the effect of the land topography and layer boundaries on the analysis results were flattened and compared with the actual status. The analysis results showed that the characteristics of the surface ground motion changes in relation to the varying local soil conditions and land topography.

  6. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten


    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether...... untreated ruptures are associated with changes over time in magnetic resonance imaging findings, serologic markers, or self-reported breast symptoms. A baseline magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 1999 on 271 women who were randomly chosen from a larger cohort of women having cosmetic...... breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations...

  7. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.W.


    Potential rupture disk applications in geothermal operations are reviewed. Several wells manifolded together, to form the geothermal feed, cause erratic pressure. Rupture disks are used for relief. Flash tanks are equipped with rupture disks. Brine separators, heat exchanger shells, and turbine casings are protected by rupture disks. An analysis of geothermal steam will determine the rupture disk metal. Reverse Buckling disks are recommended over tension loaded disks for dealing with geothermal pressure cycling. Erratic temperature suggests that metals which retain tensile strength with temperature be used (Inconel is mentioned). In summary, geothermal projects represent an excellent rupture disk market.

  8. Influence of surface-normal ground acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake (United States)

    Huang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Keefer, D.K.; Jibson, R.W.


    The 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake triggered numerous landslides throughout a large area in the Central Range, to the east, southeast, and south of the fault rupture. Among them are two large rock avalanches, at Tsaoling and at Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan. At Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan, the entire thickness (30-50 m) of the Miocene Changhukeng Shale over an area of 1 km2 slid down its bedding plane for a distance of about 1 km. Initial movement of the landslide was nearly purely translational. We investigate the effect of surface-normal acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide using a block slide model. We show that this acceleration, currently not considered by dynamic slope-stability analysis methods, significantly influences the initiation of the landslide.

  9. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K


    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  10. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K


    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  11. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  12. A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data (United States)

    Onana, Vincent De Paul; Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Ruth, Julia; Studinger, Michael; Harbeck, Jeremy P.


    Snow accumulation over an ice sheet is the sole mass input, making it a primary measurement for understanding the past, present, and future mass balance. Near-surface frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars image isochronous firn layers recording accumulation histories. The Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm (SAMPA) was designed and developed to trace annual accumulation layers in polar firn from both airborne and ground-based radars. The SAMPA algorithm is based on the Radon transform (RT) computed by blocks and angular orientations over a radar echogram. For each echogram's block, the RT maps firn segmented-layer features into peaks, which are picked using amplitude and width threshold parameters of peaks. A backward RT is then computed for each corresponding block, mapping the peaks back into picked segmented-layers. The segmented layers are then connected and smoothed to achieve a final layer pick across the echogram. Once input parameters are trained, SAMPA operates autonomously and can process hundreds of kilometers of radar data picking more than 40 layers. SAMPA final pick results and layer numbering still require a cursory manual adjustment to correct noncontinuous picks, which are likely not annual, and to correct for inconsistency in layer numbering. Despite the manual effort to train and check SAMPA results, it is an efficient tool for picking multiple accumulation layers in polar firn, reducing time over manual digitizing efforts. The trackability of good detected layers is greater than 90%.

  13. Evaluation of the toxicological properties of ground- and surface-water samples from the Aral Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, K. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Erdinger, L. [University of Heidelberg, Department for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ingel, F. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, A.N.Sysin Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khussainova, S. [Scientific Center of Pediatrics and Chrildren' s Surgery, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Utegenova, E. [Kazakh Sanitary-Epidemiological Station, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Bresgen, N. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Eckl, P.M. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)]. E-mail:


    In order to determine whether there is a potential health risk associated with the water supply in the Aral Sea Basin, ground- and surface-water samples were collected in and around Aralsk and from the Aral Sea in 2002. Water samples from Akchi, a small town close to Almaty, served as controls. Bioassays with different toxicological endpoints were employed to assess the general toxicological status. Additionally, the samples were analysed for microbial contamination. The samples were tested in the primary hepatocyte assay for their potential to induce micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations as cumulative indicators for genotoxicity. In parallel, the effects on cell proliferation evidenced by mitotic index and cytotoxicity such as the appearance of necrotic and apoptotic cells, were determined. Furthermore, samples were examined using the Microtox assay for general toxicity. Chemical analysis according to European regulations was performed and soil and water samples were analysed for DDT and DDE. The results obtained indicated no increased cyto- or genotoxic potential of the water samples, nor levels of DDT or DDE exceeding the thresholds levels suggested by WHO. Our data therefore do not support the hypothesis that the contamination of the drinking water in and around Aralsk is responsible for the health effects previously described such as increased rates of liver disease and in particular liver cancer. Microbiological analysis, however, revealed the presence of contamination in most samples analysed.

  14. Characteristics of Ground Surface Temperatures as in situ Observed in Elevational Permafrost on the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Luo, D.; Jin, H.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.


    Elevational permafrost is primarily distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) at mid-latitudes, where the average elevation is higher than 4,000 m a.s.l. The topography, including the elevation and aspect, obviously is the decisive controlling factor of thermal regimes of elevational permafrost, which is warm and extremely sensitive to anthropogenic activities and climate changes. Due to the harsh weather conditions and unfavorable logistics accommodations, however, the elevational permafrost on the QTP, especially in the rugged topography, is hard to be plotted through ground-based field investigations. The exact distribution of elevational permafrost could be simulated through GST. In this study, we set up three monitoring sites of GST at the beginning of 2015. One located in the rugged mountain of the source area of the Yellow River, one located in the sunny slope of the Bayan Har Mountain Pass, and one another located in a degrading alpine meadow of the source area of the Yangtze River. Based on these GST records, the daily, monthly, seasonal and year-average values of GST, freezing and thawing indices calculated from GST, and empirical Stefan Equation to calculate the ALT, as well as the GIPL-2.0 model to simulate the freezing and thawing processes of the active layer were integrative executed for these three sites. Results demonstrate that GST could be a much more reliable driving parameter to simulate the active layer and permafrost than the air temperature and land surface temperature.

  15. [Effects of ground surface mulching in tea garden on soil water and nutrient dynamics and tea plant growth]. (United States)

    Sun, Li-tao; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhao-tang


    Taking a 2-year-old tea garden in Qingdao of Shandong Province as test object, this paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil water and nutrient dynamics and tea plant growth. Four treatments were installed, i.e., no mulching (CK), straw mulching (T1), plastic film mulching (T2), and straw plus plastic film mulching (T3). Comparing with CK, mulching could keep the soil water content at a higher level, and enhance the water use efficiency. In treatments T1 and T3, the tea growth water use efficiency and yield water use efficiency increased by 43%-48% and 7%-13%, respectively, compared with CK. Also in treatments T1 and T3, the contents of soil organic matter, available-N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N increased significantly, with the soil fertility improved, and the leaf nitrate-N content and nitrate reductase activity increased, which promoted the tea growth and yield (12%-13% higher than CK) and made the peak period of bud growth appeared earlier. Considering the tea growth and yield, water and nutrient use efficiency, environment safety and economic benefit, straw mulching could be an effective ground surface mulching mode for young tea garden.

  16. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.


    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Insights into rupture processes of a laboratory-earthquake in dry and lubricated faults (United States)

    Bayart, Elsa; Svetlizky, Ilya; Fineberg, Jay


    Our understanding of the dynamics of earthquakes requires us to understand the mechanisms of transition from static to sliding friction. The weakening of a fault is mediated by the propagation of rapid interfacial ruptures (earthquakes) that detach the solid contacts forming the frictional interface. By measuring the real contact area and strain fields near rough frictional interfaces, we have shown that these ruptures correspond to true shear cracks [1]. In particular, dynamic ruptures may spontaneously arrest at various locations along the interface. We show that a fracture-mechanics-based criterion can predict the location of the rupture arrest [2]. These results shed light on the selection of an earthquake's magnitude and arrest. Another interesting question is how interstitial fluids act to weaken a fault. By performing stick-slip experiments where the contacting surfaces are covered by a thin lubricating layer, we show that the established framework of fracture mechanics can also describe the measured strain fields when rupture of the interface takes place. A surprising result is that, although reducing the frictional strength of the interface (friction coefficient), lubricants actually significantly increase the fracture energy (amount of dissipated energy) during rupture. Thus surface lubrication, while strongly reducing the residual stresses in the wake of rupture propagation, actually toughens the contacting surfaces. [1] Svetlizky, I. & Fineberg, J. Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion. Nature 509, 205-208 (2014). [2] Bayart, E., Svetlizky, I. & Fineberg, J. Fracture mechanics determine the lengths of interface ruptures that mediate frictional motion. Nature Physics (2015).

  18. Rupture of Achilles Tendon : Usefulness of Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Ki, Won Woo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Song Mun; Shin, Myeong Jin [Ulsan Medical College, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    To differentiate a complete rupture of Achilles tendon from an incomplete one which is important because its treatment is quite different. And it is necessary to know the exact site of the rupture preoperatively. Fifteen cases of fourteen patients which were diagnosed as Achilles tendon rupture by ultrasonography and surgery were reviewed. We compared sonographic rupture site with surgical findings. Ultrasonographic criteria for differentiation of complete and incomplete rupture was defined as follows : the discreteness, which means the proximal intervening hypoechogenicity to the interface echogenicity of distal margin of ruptured tendon : the slant sign, which represents the interface of ruptured distal margin which was seen over the 3/4 of the thickness of the tendon without intervening low echogeneicity : the invagination sign, which means the echogenic invagination from Kager triangle into posterior aspect of Achilles tendon over the half thickness of the tendon. The sites of complete tendon rupture were exactly corresponded to surgical finding in four cases of ten complete ruptures. And the discrepancy between sonographic and surgical findings in the site of complete rupture was 1.2 {+-} 0.4 cm in six cases. Three of ten complete ruptures showed the discreteness sign, all of ten showed the slant sign and two of ten showed the invagination sign. It is helpful to differentiate a complete from incomplete rupture of the Achilles tendon and to localize the site of the complete rupture with the ultrasonographic evaluation

  19. The effects of nutrient losses from agriculture on ground and surface water quality: the position of science in developing indicators for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Scholefield, D.; Cabral, F.; Hofmans, G.


    The magnitude of current nutrient losses from agriculture to ground and surface water calls for effective environmental policy, including the use of regulation. Nutrient loss is experienced in many countries despite differences in the organisation and intensity of agricultural production. However, a

  20. Validation of the Cooray‐Rubinstein (C‐R) formula for a rough ground surface by using three‐dimensional (3‐D) FDTD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Dongshuai; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Zhenhui


    In this paper, we have extended the Cooray‐Rubinstein (C‐R) approximate formula into the fractal rough ground surface and then validate its accuracy by using three‐dimensional (3‐D) finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD...

  1. Where’s the Ground Surface? – Elevation Bias in LIDAR-derived Digital Elevation Models Due to Dense Vegetation in Oregon Tidal Marshes (United States)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a powerful resource for coastal and wetland managers and its use is increasing. Vegetation density and other land cover characteristics influence the accuracy of LIDAR-derived ground surface digital elevation models; however the degree to wh...

  2. Dynamic Rupture Model of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Megathrust Earthquake (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes


    The M 9.1-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 caused violent shaking and generated a tsunami wave that was up to 50 m high along the northern coast of Sumatra. While various finite-source models have been proposed, here we present a physically realistic dynamic rupture model of the megathrust earthquake. To accomplish this, we use SeisSol, a highly parallelized software package that runs on modern supercomputers. Numerically, it follows an ADER-DG scheme to solve the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. SeisSol accommodates unstructured tetrahedral meshes that decrease computational expense by allowing for a high-resolution mesh where required, including along the non-planar subducting fault and to capture the bathymetry, as well as a lower resolution mesh in other regions. In the SeisSol model, the slip interface follows the geometry of Slab1.0 to the south and aftershock locations to the north. 4 km resolution bathymetry from GEBCO is incorporated at the ocean floor. Material properties are taken from Crust1.0 and are laterally homogeneous, but vertically varying. The model results are constrained by the overall characteristics of the rupture, including the magnitude, propagation speed, and extent along strike, as well as surface displacements recorded with GPS satellites. We aim to resolve the influence of source dynamics on ground displacement and the potential impacts on tsunami generation in the framework of the ASCETE project ("Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events",

  3. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996 (United States)

    Parnell, J.M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  4. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner


    Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place...

  5. Transport of a nematicide in surface and ground waters in a farmed tropical catchment with volcanic substratum (United States)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Moussa, R.


    Assessment of water-pollution risks in agricultural regions requires studying pesticide transport processes in soil and water compartments at the catchment scale. In tropical regions, banana (Musa spp.) plantations are located in zones with abundant rainfalls and soils with high infiltration rates, which lead to washout and leaching of soil-applied pesticides, causing severe diffuse pollution of water resources. The aim of this paper is to determine how the nematicide cadusafos [S,S-di-sec-butyl O-ethyl phosphorodithioate], used in banana plantations, contaminates water and soils at the two scales of subcatchment and catchment. The study site was a small banana-growing catchment on the tropical volcanic island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean (FWI). The catchment is located in pedoclimatic conditions where rainfall is abundant (> 4000 mm/year), and soil permeable (saturated hydraulic conductivity of Andosol Ks > 30 mm/h). Two campaigns of nematicide application were conducted, one in 2003 over 40% of the catchment and one in 2006 over 12%. For 100 days after application, we monitored the surface water and groundwater flows and the cadusafos concentrations in the soil and in surface and ground waters in a 2400 m² subcatchment and a 17.8 ha catchment. The results show that at the subcatchment scale the high retention in the A horizon of the soil limited the transport of cadusafos by runoff, whereas the lower retention of the molecule in the B horizon favoured percolation towards the shallow groundwater. The contamination levels of surface water, as well as shallow and deep groundwaters, reflected the geological structure of the Féfé catchment: i.e. a shallow aquifer in the most recent volcanic deposits that is rapidly exposed to pollution and a deeper aquifer that is relatively protected from the pollution coming from the treated fields. Comparing the losses of cadusafos at the subcatchment and at the catchment scales revealed that the nematicide re-infiltrated in

  6. Modelling earthquake ruptures with dynamic off-fault damage (United States)

    Okubo, Kurama; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann; Rougier, Esteban


    Earthquake rupture modelling has been developed for producing scenario earthquakes. This includes understanding the source mechanisms and estimating far-field ground motion with given a priori constraints like fault geometry, constitutive law of the medium and friction law operating on the fault. It is necessary to consider all of the above complexities of a fault systems to conduct realistic earthquake rupture modelling. In addition to the complexity of the fault geometry in nature, coseismic off-fault damage, which is observed by a variety of geological and seismological methods, plays a considerable role on the resultant ground motion and its spectrum compared to a model with simple planer fault surrounded by purely elastic media. Ideally all of these complexities should be considered in earthquake modelling. State of the art techniques developed so far, however, cannot treat all of them simultaneously due to a variety of computational restrictions. Therefore, we adopt the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which can effectively deal with pre-existing complex fault geometry such as fault branches and kinks and can describe coseismic off-fault damage generated during the dynamic rupture. The advantage of FDEM is that it can handle a wide range of length scales, from metric to kilometric scale, corresponding to the off-fault damage and complex fault geometry respectively. We used the FDEM-based software tool called HOSSedu (Hybrid Optimization Software Suite - Educational Version) for the earthquake rupture modelling, which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We firstly conducted the cross-validation of this new methodology against other conventional numerical schemes such as the finite difference method (FDM), the spectral element method (SEM) and the boundary integral equation method (BIEM), to evaluate the accuracy with various element sizes and artificial viscous damping values. We demonstrate the capability of the FDEM tool for

  7. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms (United States)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  8. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly