WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground station subsystem

  1. Design of a Free and Open Source Data Processing, Archiving, and Distribution Subsystem for the Ground Receiving Station of the Philippine Scientific Earth Observation Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranas, R. K. D.; Jiao, B. J. D.; Magallon, B. J. P.; Ramos, M. K. F.; Amado, J. A.; Tamondong, A. M.; Tupas, M. E. A.

    2016-06-01

    The Philippines's PHL-Microsat program aims to launch its first earth observation satellite, DIWATA, on the first quarter of 2016. DIWATA's payload consists of a high-precision telescope (HPT), spaceborne multispectral imager (SMI) with liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), and a wide field camera (WFC). Once launched, it will provide information about the Philippines, both for disaster and environmental applications. Depending on the need, different remote sensing products will be generated from the microsatellite sensors. This necessitates data processing capability on the ground control segment. Rather than rely on commercial turnkey solutions, the PHL-Microsat team, specifically Project 3:DPAD, opted to design its own ground receiving station data subsystems. This paper describes the design of the data subsystems of the ground receiving station (GRS) for DIWATA. The data subsystems include: data processing subsystem for automatic calibration and georeferencing of raw images as well as the generation of higher level processed data products; data archiving subsystem for storage and backups of both raw and processed data products; and data distribution subsystem for providing a web-based interface and product download facility for the user community. The design covers the conceptual design of the abovementioned subsystems, the free and open source software (FOSS) packages used to implement them, and the challenges encountered in adapting the existing FOSS packages to DIWATA GRS requirements.

  2. DESIGN OF A FREE AND OPEN SOURCE DATA PROCESSING, ARCHIVING, AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSYSTEM FOR THE GROUND RECEIVING STATION OF THE PHILIPPINE SCIENTIFIC EARTH OBSERVATION MICRO-SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. D. Aranas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines’s PHL-Microsat program aims to launch its first earth observation satellite, DIWATA, on the first quarter of 2016. DIWATA’s payload consists of a high-precision telescope (HPT, spaceborne multispectral imager (SMI with liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF, and a wide field camera (WFC. Once launched, it will provide information about the Philippines, both for disaster and environmental applications. Depending on the need, different remote sensing products will be generated from the microsatellite sensors. This necessitates data processing capability on the ground control segment. Rather than rely on commercial turnkey solutions, the PHL-Microsat team, specifically Project 3:DPAD, opted to design its own ground receiving station data subsystems. This paper describes the design of the data subsystems of the ground receiving station (GRS for DIWATA. The data subsystems include: data processing subsystem for automatic calibration and georeferencing of raw images as well as the generation of higher level processed data products; data archiving subsystem for storage and backups of both raw and processed data products; and data distribution subsystem for providing a web-based interface and product download facility for the user community. The design covers the conceptual design of the abovementioned subsystems, the free and open source software (FOSS packages used to implement them, and the challenges encountered in adapting the existing FOSS packages to DIWATA GRS requirements.

  3. Information measuring subsystem oil pumping station “Parabel”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyashina Galina S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information-measurement subsystem oil pumping station (OPS “Parabel”, located on the site of the main pipeline “Alexandrov-Anzhero” (OJSC “AK” Transneft "”. Developed on the basis of a modern microprocessor equipment, automation, as well as high-speed digital data channels. The simple solution to meet the requirements set out in the guidance document "Automation and remote control of trunk pipelines. «General provisions» (RD-35.240.0000-KTN-207-08.

  4. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  5. Arcing and discharges in high-voltage subsystems of Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.

    1988-01-01

    Arcing and other types of electrical discharges are likely to occur in high-voltage subsystems of the Space Station. Results from ground and space experiments on the arcing of solar cell arrays are briefly reviewed, showing that the arcing occurs when the conducting interconnects in the arrays are at negative potential above a threshold, which decreases with the increasing plasma density. Furthermore, above the threshold voltages the arcing rate increases with the plasma density. At the expected operating voltages (approximately 200 V) in the solar array for the space station, arcing is expected to occur even in the ambient ionospheric plasma. If the ionization of the contaminants increases the plasma density near the high-voltage systems, the adverse effects of arcing on the solar arrays and the space station are likely to be enhanced, In addition to arcing other discharge processes are likely to occur in high-voltage subsystems. For example, Paschen discharge is likely to occur when the neutral density N sub n greater that 10 to the 12th cu cm, the corresponding neutral pressure P greater than 3 x 10 to the -5 Torr.

  6. HTS filter and front-end subsystem for GSM1800 wireless base station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The first HTS front-end subsystem for wireless base station in China was developed. This demonstration system, which aims at the application in GSM1800 mobile communication base station, consists of a single RF path, i.e. one filter and one LNA, integrated with the pulse tube cooler. The subsystem works at a pass band of 1710-1785 MHz with a gain of 18 dB and at a temperature of 70 K. The accomplishment of such a demonstration subsystem can boost the development of HTS commercial subsystem.

  7. Status of the Space Station water reclamation and management subsystem design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdigian, R. M.; Mortazavi, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    A development status report is presented for the NASA Space Station's water reclamation and management (WRM) system, for which the candidate phase change-employing processing technologies are an air evaporation subsystem, a thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation subsystem, and the vapor compression distillation subsystem. These WRM candidates employ evaporation to effect water removal from contaminants, but differ in their control of the vapor/liquid interface in zero-gravity and in the recovery of the latent heat of vaporization.

  8. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  9. The Architecture of the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Ground Stations: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John D.; Wilson, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD) will be NASA's first long-duration demonstration of laser communications (lasercom) in space, providing geosynchronous-satellite-hosted bidirectional relay services between two Earth ground stations. LCRD will leverage and enhance existing ground stations. Ground Station 1 (GS-1) will leverage the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) built by JPL, while Ground Station 2 (GS-2) will leverage the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) Ground Terminal (LLGT) built by MIT Lincoln Laboratory. While each ground system has unique telescopes and integrated optics, many of the backend subsystems (e.g., communications, environmental monitoring, control, user simulators) will be common to both terminals. Here we provide an overview of the architecture of the LCRD ground stations, and the planned enhancements to the existing facilities.

  10. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  11. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  12. SCaN Network Ground Station Receiver Performance for Future Service Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Polly; Lee, Dennis; Cheng, Michael; Lau, Chi-Wung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Examine the impact of providing the newly standardized CCSDS Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes to the SCaN return data service on the SCaN SN and DSN ground stations receivers: SN Current Receiver: Integrated Receiver (IR). DSN Current Receiver: Downlink Telemetry and Tracking (DTT) Receiver. Early Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) prototype of the SN User Service Subsystem Component Replacement (USS CR) Narrow Band Receiver. Motivate discussion of general issues of ground station hardware design to enable simple and cheap modifications for support of future services.

  13. International Space Station Program Phase 3 Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Franks, G. D.; Knox, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Testing of the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Segment baseline configuration of the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was conducted as part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and development program. This testing was designed to answer specific questions regarding the control and performance of the baseline ARS subassemblies in the ISS U.S. Segment configuration. These questions resulted from the continued maturation of the ISS ECLSS configuration and design requirement changes since 1992. The test used pressurized oxygen injection, a mass spectrometric major constituent analyzer, a Four-Bed Molecular Sieve Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, and a Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly to maintain the atmospheric composition in a sealed chamber at ISS specifications for 30 days. Human metabolic processes for a crew of four were simulated according to projected ISS mission time lines. The performance of a static feed water electrolysis Oxygen Generator Assembly was investigated during the test preparation phases; however, technical difficulties prevented its use during the integrated test. The Integrated ARS Test (IART) program built upon previous closed-door and open-door integrated testing conducted at MSFC between 1987 and 1992. It is the most advanced test of an integrated ARS conducted by NASA to demonstrate its end-to-end control and overall performance. IART test objectives, facility design, pretest analyses, test and control requirements, and test results are presented.

  14. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper

  15. Centimeter Accuracy for the French Transportable Laser Ranging Station (FTLRS) through Sub-System Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, J.; Pierron, F.; Samain, E.; Barlier, F.

    The French Transportable Laser Ranging Station (FTLRS)is a highly mobile satellite laserranging (SLR) system dedicated to the trackingof geodetic satellites equipped withretroreflectors. This station weighs only 300kg witha 13-cm diameter telescope and is housedin eight containers.The reliability of such a station and its accuracy of 2 cmin real field experiment conditionswere demonstrated during a first field campaign carried outfrom October 1996 to February1997 near Ajaccio on Corsica Island, France. The results ofthis probatory experiment suggestedthat several technical improvements and some modificationswere necessary for JASON-1validation and calibration phase and for new applicationssuch as the Time Transfer by LaserLink (T2L2) experiment. A first change concerns theuse of a new laser wavelength (green instead ofinfrared) and of a new avalanche photodiode with atime walk compensation system. Anotherchange is the installation of a coaxial cabletransmitting directly the signal coming from thereturn detector. Finally, a new calibration systemwas developed with several other changes.A short description of the system is first given.Then, the major changes and the main resultsof ground accuracy tests are summarized and presented.

  16. Ground control stations for unmanned air vehicles (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Natarajan

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available "During the last five decades, the world has witnessed tremendous growth in the military aircraft technology and the air defence weapons technology. Use of manned aircraft for routine reconnaissance/surveillance missions has become a less preferred option due to possible high attrition rate. Currently, the high political cost of human life has practically earmarked the roles of reconnaissance and surveillance missions to the unmanned air vehicles (UAVs. Almost every major country has a UAV program of its own and this interest has spawned intensive research in the field of UAVs. Presently, the UAVs come in all shapes and sizes, from palm top micro UAVs to giant strategic UAVs that can loiter over targets for extended periods of time. Though UAVs are capable of operating at different levels of autonomy, these are generally controlled from a ground control station (GCS. The GCS is the nerve centre of activity during UAV missions and provides necessary capability to plan and execute UAV missions. The GCS incorporates facilities, such as communication, displays, mission planning and data exploitation. The GCS architecture is highly processor-oriented and hence the computer hardware and software technologies play a major role in the realisation of this vital system. This paper gives an overview of the GCS, its architecture and the current state-of-the-art in various subsystem technologies.

  17. International Space Station Atmosphere Control and Supply, Atmosphere Revitalization, and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem - Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 ACS, AR, and WRM design and detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for Node 1.

  18. The Tesat transportable adaptive optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucke, Karen; Seiter, Christoph; Heine, Frank; Gregory, Mark; Tröndle, Daniel; Fischer, Edgar; Berkefeld, Thomas; Feriencik, Mikael; Feriencik, Marco; Richter, Ines; Meyer, Rolf

    2016-03-01

    Tesat together with Synopta have built a Transportable Adaptive Optical Ground Station (TAOGS) under contract of German Aerospace Center DLR for communication with the 1st and 2nd generation of Tesat's spaceborne Laser Communication Terminals (LCTs), which employ coherent homodyne optical communication with 1064 nm and binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. The TAOGS is able to communicate with space segments on low earth orbit (LEO, high pointing and tracking dynamics, 5.625 Gbps), and with space segments on geostationary orbit (GEO, low pointing dynamics, up to 40,000 km distance, optical data rate of 2.8125 Gbps and user data rate of 1.8 Gbps). After an alignment and testing phase at the location of Izana, Tenerife, using the TDP1 LCT on geostationary Alphasat as counter terminal, the TAOGS is now fully functioning. Several up-links, down-links and bi-directional links have been performed. Experimental results of some of these links are presented. An outlook to further activities is given.

  19. Design and early development of a UAV terminal and a ground station for laser communications

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    A free-space laser communication system has been designed and partially developed as an alternative to standard RF links from UAV to ground stations. This project belongs to the SINTONIA program (acronym in Spanish for low environmental-impact unmanned systems), led by BR&TE (Boeing Research and Technology Europe) with the purpose of boosting Spanish UAV technology. A MEMS-based modulating retroreflector has been proposed as a communication terminal onboard the UAV, allowing both the laser transmitter and the acquisition, tracking and pointing subsystems to be eliminated. This results in an important reduction of power, size and weight, moving the burden to the ground station. In the ground station, the ATP subsystem is based on a GPS-aided two-axis gimbal for tracking and coarse pointing, and a fast steering mirror for fine pointing. A beacon-based system has been designed, taking advantage of the retroreflector optical principle, in order to determine the position of the UAV in real-time. The system man...

  20. Design and early development of a UAV terminal and a ground station for laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo; Sánchez Pena, José M.

    2011-11-01

    A free-space laser communication system has been designed and partially developed as an alternative to standard RF links from UAV to ground stations. This project belongs to the SINTONIA program (acronym in Spanish for low environmental-impact unmanned systems), led by BR&TE (Boeing Research and Technology Europe) with the purpose of boosting Spanish UAV technology. A MEMS-based modulating retroreflector has been proposed as a communication terminal onboard the UAV, allowing both the laser transmitter and the acquisition, tracking and pointing subsystems to be eliminated. This results in an important reduction of power, size and weight, moving the burden to the ground station. In the ground station, the ATP subsystem is based on a GPS-aided two-axis gimbal for tracking and coarse pointing, and a fast steering mirror for fine pointing. A beacon-based system has been designed, taking advantage of the retroreflector optical principle, in order to determine the position of the UAV in real-time. The system manages the laser power in an optimal way, based on a distance-dependent beam-divergence control and by creating two different optical paths within the same physical path using different states of polarization.

  1. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  2. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    Oceanographic upwelling studies required ground truth measurements of meteorological parameters and sea surface temperature to be made from a research vessel which did not have the necessary facilities. A ship-borne station was therefore designed...

  3. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  4. JERS-1 Workshop on the Ground Station for ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai

    1990-11-01

    Presented in viewgraph format, the present status of the ground station and future plan for utilizing earth observation satellites in Thailand is outlined. Topics addressed include: data acquisition system; operation status of LANDSAT, SPOT, and MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1); remote sensors of satellites; data output form; data correction level; data system in Thailand; ground station for MOS-1 satellite in Thailand; and future plan.

  5. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2016-10-25

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  6. Preliminary designs for modular OTEC platform station-keeping subsystems. Final report. MR and S Report No. 6042-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-29

    This volume of the report presents the results of the third through the sixth tasks of the Station Keeping Subsystem (SKSS) design studies for 10/40 MW/sub e/ capacity OTEC Modular Experiment platforms (MEP). Tasks 3 through 6 are: (3) complete preliminary designs for one SKSS for each of the two platforms (SPAR and BARGE); (4) development and testing recommendations for the MEP SKSS; (5) cost-time analysis; and (6) commercial plant recommendations. The overall conclusions and recommendations for the modular, as well as the commercial, OTEC platform station keeping subsystems are delineated. The basic design assumptions made during the process, the technical approach followed, and the results of design iterations, reliability and performance analyses are given. A complete description of the preliminary design SKSS concept is presented. The summary cost estimates for each of the alternative SKSS concepts considered are presented and a time schedule for the recommended concept is provided. The effects of varying some of the important parameters used in SKSS design on the performance and cost of the mooring system are investigated and results presented. The tests required and other developmental recommendations in order to verify and confirm the basic design assumptions are discussed. Finally, the experience gained in the MEP preliminary designs are extended to future commercial OTEC plants' SKSS designs. (WHK)

  7. Laboratory Results and Status Update for Pathfinder at LBT, The LINC-NIRVANA NGS Ground- Layer AO Subsystem

    CERN Document Server

    Kopon, Derek; Bertram, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kürster, Martin; Berwein, Jürgen; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Viotto, Valentina; Bergomi, Maria; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Baumeister, Harald; De Bonis, Fulvio; Hofferbert, Ralph; Brunelli, Alessandro; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Pott, Jorg-Uwe; Bizenberger, Peter; Briegel, Florian; Meschke, Daniel; Mohr, Lars; Zhang, Xianyu; Kittmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The full LINC-NIRVANA instrument will be one of the most complex ground-based astronomical systems ever built. It will consist of multiple subsystems, including two multi-conjugate ground layer AO systems (MCAO) that drive the LBT adaptive secondaries, two mid-high layer AO systems with their own Xynetics 349 actuator DM's , a fringe tracker, a beam combiner, and the NIR science camera. In order to mitigate risk, we take a modular approach to instrument testing and commissioning by decoupling these subsystems individually. The first subsystem tested on-sky will be one of the ground-layer AO systems, part of a test-bed known as the Pathfinder. The Pathfinder consists of a 12-star pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) that drives one of the LBT's adaptive secondaries, a support structure known as "The Foot," and the infrared test camera (IRTC), which is used for acquisition and alignment. The 12 natural guide stars are acquired by moveable arms called "star enlargers," each of which contains its own optical path. The...

  8. Hybrid Ground Station Technology for RF and Optical Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Hoppe, D.; Charles, J.; Vilnrotter, V.; Sehic, A.; Hanson, T.; Gam, E.

    2012-01-01

    To support future enhancements of NASA's deep space and planetary communications and tracking services, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a hybrid ground station that will be capable of simultaneously supporting RF and optical communications. The main reason for adding optical links to the existing RF links is to significantly increase the capacity of deep space communications in support of future solar system exploration. It is envisioned that a mission employing an optical link will also use an RF link for telemetry and emergency purposes, hence the need for a hybrid ground station. A hybrid station may also reduce operations cost by requiring fewer staff than would be required to operate two stations. A number of approaches and techniques have been examined. The most promising ones have been prototyped for field examination and validation.

  9. A Ground Control Station for the UAV Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Sławomir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper implementation of a ground control station for UAV flight simulator is shown. The ground control station software is in cooperation with flight simulator, displaying various aircraft flight parameters. The software is programmed in C++ language and utilizes the windows forms for implementing graphical content. One of the main aims of the design of the application was to simplify the interface, simultaneously maintaining the functionality and the eligibility. A mission can be planned and monitored using the implemented map control supported by waypoint list.

  10. Cooperating expert systems for Space Station - Power/thermal subsystem testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carla M.; Weeks, David J.; Sundberg, Gale R.; Healey, Kathleen L.; Dominick, Jeffrey S.

    1988-01-01

    The Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP) is a NASA-sponsored series of increasingly complex demonstrations to show the benefits of integrating knowledge-based systems with conventional process control in real-time, real-world problem domains that can facilitate the operations and availability of major Space Station distributed systems. This paper describes the system design, objectives, approaches, and status of each of the testbed knowledge-based systems. Simplified schematics of the systems are shown.

  11. Laboratory results and status update for Pathfinder, the LINC-NIRVANA NGS ground-layer AO subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopon, Derek; Conrad, Al; Bertram, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kürster, Martin; Berwein, Juergen; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Viotto, Valentina; Bergomi, Maria; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Baumeister, Harald; De Bonis, Fulvio; Hofferbert, Ralph; Brunelli, Alessandro; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Bizenberger, Peter; Briegel, Florian; Meschke, Daniel; Mohr, Lars; Zhang, Xianyu; Kittmann, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The full LINC-NIRVANA instrument will be one of the most complex ground-based astronomical systems ever built. It will consist of multiple subsystems, including two multi-conjugate ground layer AO systems (MCAO) that drive the LBT adaptive secondaries, two mid-high layer AO systems with their own Xynetics 349 actuator DM's, a fringe tracker, and a beam combiner. In order to mitigate risk, we take a modular approach to instrument testing and commissioning by decoupling these subsystems individually. The first subsystem tested on-sky will be one of the ground-layer AO systems, part of a test-bed known as the Pathfinder. The Pathfinder consists of a 12-star pyramid WFS that drives one of the LBT's adaptive secondaries, a support structure known as "The Foot," and the infrared test camera (IRTC), which is used for acquisition and alignment. The 12 guide stars are acquired by moveable arms called "star enlargers," each of which contains its own optical path. The Pathfinder will be shipped from MPIA in Heidelberg, Germany to the LBT mountain lab on Mt. Graham, Arizona in February. The system will be unpacked, assembled in the LBT clean room, and internally optically aligned. We present the results of our system tests, including star enlarger alignment and system alignment. We also present our immediate plans for on-sky closed loop tests on the LBT scheduled for early Fall. Because plans for all ELTs call for ground layer correction, the Pathfinder provides valuable preliminary information not only for the full LINC-NIRVANA system, but also for future advanced MCAO systems.

  12. NUTS: Ground station with GNU Radio and USRP

    OpenAIRE

    Vea, Karl David

    2015-01-01

    Study and describe GNU Radio together with USRP as alternative ground station. Describe and analyze GMSK signal. NGHam link protcol implementation. Simulation on demodulation considering how frequency synchronization can be achieved. Discuss if and how GNU Radio suits the uneversity satellite project.

  13. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  14. Pathfinder first light: alignment, calibration, and commissioning of the LINC-NIRVANA ground-layer adaptive optics subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopon, Derek; Conrad, Al; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Herbst, Tom; Viotto, Valentina; Farinato, Jacopo; Bergomi, Maria; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Marafatto, Luca; Baumeister, Harald; Bertram, Thomas; Berwein, Jürgen; Briegel, Florian; Hofferbert, Ralph; Kittmann, Frank; Kürster, Martin; Mohr, Lars; Radhakrishnan, Kalyan

    2014-08-01

    We present descriptions of the alignment and calibration tests of the Pathfinder, which achieved first light during our 2013 commissioning campaign at the LBT. The full LINC-NIRVANA instrument is a Fizeau interferometric imager with fringe tracking and 2-layer natural guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems on each eye of the LBT. The MCAO correction for each side is achieved using a ground layer wavefront sensor that drives the LBT adaptive secondary mirror and a mid-high layer wavefront sensor that drives a Xinetics 349 actuator DM conjugated to an altitude of 7.1 km. When the LINC-NIRVANA MCAO system is commissioned, it will be one of only two such systems on an 8-meter telescope and the only such system in the northern hemisphere. In order to mitigate risk, we take a modular approach to commissioning by decoupling and testing the LINC-NIRVANA subsystems individually. The Pathfinder is the ground-layer wavefront sensor for the DX eye of the LBT. It uses 12 pyramid wavefront sensors to optically co-add light from natural guide stars in order to make four pupil images that sense ground layer turbulence. Pathfinder is now the first LINC-NIRVANA subsystem to be fully integrated with the telescope and commissioned on sky. Our 2013 commissioning campaign consisted of 7 runs at the LBT with the tasks of assembly, integration and communication with the LBT telescope control system, alignment to the telescope optical axis, off-sky closed loop AO calibration, and finally closed loop on-sky AO. We present the programmatics of this campaign, along with the novel designs of our alignment scheme and our off-sky calibration test, which lead to the Pathfinder's first on-sky closed loop images.

  15. ERTS-1 DCS technical support provided by Wallops Station. [ground truth stations and DCP repair depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    1975-01-01

    Wallops Station accepted the tasks of providing ground truth to several ERTS investigators, operating a DCP repair depot, designing and building an airborne DCP Data Acquisition System, and providing aircraft underflight support for several other investigators. Additionally, the data bank is generally available for use by ERTS and other investigators that have a scientific interest in data pertaining to the Chesapeake Bay area. Working with DCS has provided a means of evaluating the system as a data collection device possibly applicable to ongoing Earth Resources Program activities in the Chesapeake Bay area as well as providing useful data and services to other ERTS investigators. The two areas of technical support provided by Wallops, ground truth stations and repair for DCPs, are briefly discussed.

  16. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  17. Pathfinder first light: alignment, calibration, and commissioning of the LINC-NIRVANA ground-layer adaptive optics subsystem

    CERN Document Server

    Kopon, Derek; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Herbst, Tom; Viotto, Valentina; Farinato, Jacopo; Bergomi, Maria; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Marafatto, Luca; Baumeister, Harald; Bertram, Thomas; Berwein, Jürgen; Briegel, Florian; Hofferbert, Ralph; Kittmann, Frank; Kürster, Martin; Mohr, Lars; Radhakrishnan, Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    We present descriptions of the alignment and calibration tests of the Pathfinder, which achieved first light during our 2013 commissioning campaign at the LBT. The full LINC-NIRVANA instrument is a Fizeau interferometric imager with fringe tracking and 2-layer natural guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems on each eye of the LBT. The MCAO correction for each side is achieved using a ground layer wavefront sensor that drives the LBT adaptive secondary mirror and a mid-high layer wavefront sensor that drives a Xinetics 349 actuator DM conjugated to an altitude of 7.1 km. When the LINC-NIRVANA MCAO system is commissioned, it will be one of only two such systems on an 8-meter telescope and the only such system in the northern hemisphere. In order to mitigate risk, we take a modular approach to commissioning by decoupling and testing the LINC-NIRVANA subsystems individually. The Pathfinder is the ground-layer wavefront sensor for the DX eye of the LBT. It uses 12 pyramid wavefront sensors to opt...

  18. Laser based bi-directional Gbit ground links with the Tesat transportable adaptive optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Frank; Saucke, Karen; Troendle, Daniel; Motzigemba, Matthias; Bischl, Hermann; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Henninger, Hennes; Meyer, Rolf; Richter, Ines; Sodnik, Zoran

    2017-02-01

    Optical ground stations can be an alternative to radio frequency based transmit (forward) and receive (return) systems for data relay services and other applications including direct to earth optical communications from low earth orbit spacecrafts, deep space receivers, space based quantum key distribution systems and Tbps capacity feeder links to geostationary spacecrafts. The Tesat Transportable Adaptive Optical Ground Station is operational since September 2015 at the European Space Agency site in Tenerife, Spain.. This paper reports about the results of the 2016 experimental campaigns including the characterization of the optical channel from Tenerife for an optimized coding scheme, the performance of the T-AOGS under different atmospheric conditions and the first successful measurements of the suitability of the Alphasat LCT optical downlink performance for future continuous variable quantum key distribution systems.

  19. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight cal...

  20. Computer Aided Design of Transformer Station Grounding System Using CDEGS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikolovski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer-aided design of a transformer station grounding system. Fault conditions in a transformer station can produce huge damage to transformer station equipment if the grounding system is not designed properly. A well designed grounding system is a very important part of the project for transformer station design as a whole. This paper analyses a procedure for transformer grounding system design and spatial distribution of touch and step voltage on the ground surface level, using the CDEGS (Current Distribution Electromagnetic Interference Grounding and Soil Structure Analysis software. Spatial distribution is needed for checking and finding dangerous step and touch voltages above and around the transformer station. Apparent earth resistivity data is measured and analyzed using the RESAP module of the CDEGS software. Because of the very high current flow into the grounding system during a single line to ground fault or a three phase fault in the transformer station, very high and dangerous potentials can be induced on the metallic structures including the fence, which can cause dangerous situations for people and animals near the station and for the personnel inside the station. The PLOT module of CDEGS is used to view the results of the scalar potential, step and touch voltage on the surface. Graphic displays include equipotent contour lines and potential profiles (gradients in 3D and 2D perspective and apparent soil resistivity (Wm versus inter electrode spacing (m. The results of alternative grid designs may be displayed simultaneously for the purpose of comparison.

  1. Characteristics of train noise in above-ground and underground stations with side and island platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2011-04-01

    Railway stations can be principally classified by their locations, i.e., above-ground or underground stations, and by their platform styles, i.e., side or island platforms. However, the effect of the architectural elements on the train noise in stations is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to determine the different acoustical characteristics of the train noise for each station style. The train noise was evaluated by (1) the A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level ( LAeq), (2) the amplitude of the maximum peak of the interaural cross-correlation function (IACC), (3) the delay time ( τ1) and amplitude ( ϕ1) of the first maximum peak of the autocorrelation function. The IACC, τ1 and ϕ1 are related to the subjective diffuseness, pitch and pitch strength, respectively. Regarding the locations, the LAeq in the underground stations was 6.4 dB higher than that in the above-ground stations, and the pitch in the underground stations was higher and stronger. Regarding the platform styles, the LAeq on the side platforms was 3.3 dB higher than on the island platforms of the above-ground stations. For the underground stations, the LAeq on the island platforms was 3.3 dB higher than that on the side platforms when a train entered the station. The IACC on the island platforms of the above-ground stations was higher than that in the other stations.

  2. System and method for transferring telemetry data between a ground station and a control center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Timothy J. (Inventor); Ly, Vuong T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems, computer-implemented methods, and tangible computer-readable media for coordinating communications between a ground station, a control center, and a spacecraft. The method receives a call to a simple, unified application programmer interface implementing communications protocols related to outer space, when instruction relates to receiving a command at the control center for the ground station generate an abstract message by agreeing upon a format for each type of abstract message with the ground station and using a set of message definitions to configure the command in the agreed upon format, encode the abstract message to generate an encoded message, and transfer the encoded message to the ground station, and perform similar actions when the instruction relates to receiving a second command as a second encoded message at the ground station from the control center and when the determined instruction type relates to transmitting information to the control center.

  3. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  4. Subsystem ETH

    CERN Document Server

    Dymarsky, Anatoly; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the qualitative picture of Canonical Typicality, we propose a refined formulation of the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH) for chaotic quantum systems. The new formulation, which we refer to as subsystem ETH, is in terms of the reduced density matrix of subsystems. This strong form of ETH clarifies which set of observables defined within the subsystem will thermalize. We discuss the limits when the size of the subsystem is small or comparable to its complement. Finally, we provide numerical evidence for the proposal in case of one-dimensional Ising spin-chain.

  5. Functional Performance of an Enabling Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Architecture for Deep Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Greenwood, Zachary W.; Kayatin, Matthew J.; Newton, Robert L.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monsi C.; Takada, Kevin C.; Miller, Lee A.; Scott, Joseph P.; Stanley, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    A subsystem architecture derived from the International Space Station's (ISS) Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) has been functionally demonstrated. This ISS-derived architecture features re-arranged unit operations for trace contaminant control and carbon dioxide removal functions, a methane purification component as a precursor to enhance resource recovery over ISS capability, operational modifications to a water electrolysis-based oxygen generation assembly, and an alternative major atmospheric constituent monitoring concept. Results from this functional demonstration are summarized and compared to the performance observed during ground-based testing conducted on an ISS-like subsystem architecture. Considerations for further subsystem architecture and process technology development are discussed.

  6. A framework for recovery-oriented, COTS-based ground station networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, James William

    The complexity of space communication has limited our access to space systems and kept mission operations costs high. Ultimately, this results in reduced mission capabilities and yields. In particular, ground stations, the access point between space and terrestrial networks, suffer from monolithic designs, narrow interfaces, and unreliability that raise significant financial barriers for low-cost, experimental satellite missions. This research reduces these barriers by developing technology for recovery-oriented, flexible access networks built from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Based on our extensive small satellite experiences, we decomposed ground station services and captured them in an extensible framework that simplified reuse of ground station services and improved portability across heterogeneous installations. This capability, combined with selective customization through virtual machine technology, allowed us to deliver "just in time" ground stations for QuakeSat-1 at a fraction of the price of current commodity solutions. This decomposition is also informed by principles of robust system design. Thus, our ground station reference implementation called Mercury was a candidate for recursive recovery (RR), a high availability technique whose effectiveness in reducing recovery time has been demonstrated on research prototypes of Internet server systems. Augmenting Mercury to implement RR reduced recovery time of typical ground station software failures by a factor of four, dropping recovery time to within the "window of recovery" and effectively eliminating the adverse effects of these failures. Since the time of failures cannot be predicted, RR allowed us to mitigate the effects of the failures and greatly reduce their potential impact on ground station operations. Our ground station architecture harnessed the benefits of COTS components, including rapid prototyping and deployment, while overcoming the challenges of COTS reliability and mission

  7. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  8. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  9. Software-Defined Ground Stations - Enhancing Multi-Mission Support Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 1 proposal to NASA requests $99,055.69 to enhance multiple mission support in ground stations through the use of software defined radios and virtual...

  10. Fault Detection and Isolation of Satellite Formations using a Ground Station Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development a fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm for a formation of satellites but processed at a ground station. The algorithm...

  11. Effect of Surface Geology on Ground Motions: The Case of Station TAP056 - Chutzuhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Wen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Tatun mountain area of northern Taiwan are two strong motion stations approximately 2.5 km apart, TAP056 and TAP066 of the TSMIP network. The accelerometer at station TAP056 is often triggered by earthquakes, but that at TAP066 station is not. Comparisons of vertical and horizontal peak ground accelerations reveal PGA in the vertical, east-west, and north-south components at TAP056 station to be 3.89, 7.57, and 5.45 times those at station TAP066, respectively. The PGA ratio does not seem to be related to earthquake source or path. Fourier spectra of earthquake records at station TAP056 always have approximately the same dominant frequency; however, those at station TAP066 are different due to different sources and paths of different events. This shows that spectra at TAP056 station are mainly controlled by local site effects. The spectral ratios of TAP056/TAP066 show the S-wave is amplified at around 8 ~ 10 Hz. The horizontal/vertical spectral ratios of station TAP056 also show a dominant frequency at about 6 and 8 ~ 10 Hz. After dense microtremor surveying and the addition of one accelerometer just 20 meters away from the original observation station, we can confirm that the top soft soil layer upon which the observation station is constructed generates the local site response at station TAP056.

  12. International Space Station EXPRESS Pallet. Ground Demonstration Baseline Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This publication is comprised of the viewgraphs from the presentations of the EXPRESS Pallet Baseline Design Review meeting held July 20, 1995. Individual presentations addressed general requirements and objectives; mechanical, electrical, and data systems; software; operations and KSC (Kennedy Space Center) integration; payload candidates; thermal considerations; ground vs. flight demo; and recommended actions.

  13. Federated Ground Station Network Model and Interface Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Common Ground Architecture® CIA confidentiality, integrity, availability CONOPS concept of operations CSR certificate signing request DMZ de...MGSN describes its services and implements RPC using XML-RPC. Use of XML-RPC implies use of the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) as the transport ... transport protocol. This means that the large numbers of languages with XML support are already close to compatible with SOAP, if a library does not

  14. The SPectral Ocean Color (SPOC) Small Satellite Mission: From Payload to Ground Station Development and Everything in Between

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Cotten, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    This work introduces the mission concept, technologies, and development status for the measuring SPectral Ocean Color (SPOC) small satellite mission, which will use a hyperspectral imager to map sensitive coastal regions and off coast water quality near the state of Georgia and beyond. SPOC is being developed by The University of Georgia's Small Satellite Research Laboratory (SSRL) with funds from NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP). The project is led by undergraduates from a wide range of backgrounds and supervised by a multidisciplinary team of Principal Investigators. Using optical components, electronics boards, a grating spectrometer, and a CMOS array the students will assemble and integrate the payload components and ensure their compatibility with the other subsystems. In-house development and assembly includes building the hyperspectral imager, as well integrating it into the satellite, and testing of the different subsystems of the satellite. The mission will collect spectral data along a 300 km swath using the grating spectrometer to diffract the incoming radiation into the 440-865 nm spectral range. The resulting images will be 75 km x 300 km in size, have a 120 m spatial resolution, and a spectral resolution of 2 nm, covering 100 spectral bands. The resulting dataset will allow for spectral analysis comparisons with some of NASA's legacy satellites. The work describes the timeline and current progress of the SPOC mission. Focus will be equally distributed to all the different systems of the satellite including their development, testing, and integration. Particular emphasis is given to Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS), command and data handling (CDH), payload, power generation, S-Band/X-Band transceivers, and the development of ground station capabilities (S-Band/X-Band).

  15. Optimal link budget to maximize data receiving from remote sensing satellite at different ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godse, Vinay V.; Rukmini, B.

    2016-10-01

    Earth observation satellite plays a significant role for global situation awareness. The earth observation satellite uses imaging payloads in RF and IR bands, which carry huge amount of data, needs to be transferred during visibility of satellite over the ground station. Location of ground station plays a very important role in communication with LEO satellites, as orbital speed of LEO satellite is much higher than earth rotation speed. It will be accessible for particular equatorial ground station for a very short duration. In this paper we want to maximize data receiving by optimizing link budget and receiving data at higher elevation links. Data receiving at multiple ground stations is preferred to counter less pass duration due to higher elevation links. Our approach is to calculate link budget for remote sensing satellite with a fixed power input and varying different minimum elevation angles to obtain maximum data. The minimum pass duration should be above 3 minutes for effective communication. We are proposing to start process of command handling as soon as satellite is visible to particular ground station with low elevation angle up to 5 degree and start receiving data at higher elevation angles to receive data with higher speed. Cartosat-2B LEO earth observation satellite is taken for the case study. Cartosat-2B will complete around 14 passes over equator in a day, out of which only 4-5 passes will be useful for near equator ground stations. Our aim is to receive data at higher elevation angles at higher speed and increase amount of data download, criteria being minimum pass duration of 3 minutes, which has been set for selecting minimum elevation angle.

  16. Ground-remote control for space station telerobotics with time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a ground-remote telerobot control architecture which could be used for control of Space Station Freedom manipulators. The architecture provides two local-site operator control stations representing potential earth-based and remote Space Station-based operator control stations. A unified control system at the remote site provides autonomous, shared, and teleoperation control for single-and dual-arm task execution. An operational laboratory system which demonstrates the feasibility of various technologies in the proposed architecture, including teleoperation, shared control, and supervised autonomy, is described. Enhancements to the system currently under development, including remote site implementation in Ada, integration and control of a redundant 7-DOF manipulator, and local site advanced operator aids, are also described.

  17. Debris measure subsystem of the nanosatellite IRECIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, M.; di Ciolo, L.; Ortenzi, A.; Petrozzi, M.; del Re, V.

    2003-09-01

    The on board resources, needed to perform the mission tasks, are very limited in nano-satellites. This paper proposes an Electronic real-time system that acquires space debris measures. It uses a piezo-electric sensor. The described device is a subsystem on board of the IRECIN nanosatellite composed mainly by a r.i.s.c. microprocessor, an electronic part that interfaces to the debris sensor in order to provide a low noise electrical and suitable range to ADC 12 bit converter, and finally a memory in order to store the data. The microprocessor handles the Debris Measure System measuring the impacts number, their intensity and storing their waves form. This subsystem is able to communicate with the other IRECIN subsystems through I2C Bus and principally with the "Main Microprocessor" subsystem allowing the data download directly to the Ground Station. Moreover this subsystem lets free the "Main Microprocessor Board" from the management and charge of debris data. All electronic components are SMD technology in order to reduce weight and size. The realized Electronic board are completely developed, realized and tested at the Vitrociset S.P.A. under control of Research and Development Group. The proposed system is implemented on the IRECIN, a modular nanosatellite weighting less than 1.5 kg, constituted by sixteen external sides with surface-mounted solar cells and three internal Al plates, kept together by four steel bars. Lithium-ions batteries are added for eclipse operations. Attitude is determined by two three-axis magnetometers and the solar panels data. Control is provided by an active magnetic control system. The spacecraft will be spin-stabilized with the spin-axis normal to the orbit. debris and micrometeoroids mass and velocity.

  18. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  19. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-05-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  20. Space station operations task force. Panel 2 report: Ground operations and support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Concept embodied in this report provides for safe multi-user utilization of the Space Station, eases user integration, and gives users autonomy and flexibility. It provides for meaningful multi-national participation while protecting U.S. interests. The concept also supports continued space operations technology development by maintaining NASA expertise and enabling technology evolution. Given attention here are pre/post flight operations, logistics, sustaining engineering/configuration management, transportation services/rescue, and information systems and communication.

  1. The computation of the terrain correction close to ground stations in GTE software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Martina; Sampietro, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    In many geophysical and geodetic applications related to the gravitational field, the detailed modeling of the vertical component of the gravitational attraction due to topographic masses, represents a major issue. In fact, the increasing resolution of recently developed DTM, the increasing number of observation points and the increasing accuracy of gravity data demand the computation of a very accurate terrain correction (TC) of a fine DTM on large areas. As well known, classical methods such as prism or point masses approximations are indeed too slow while Fourier based techniques are usually too approximate if compared to the required accuracy. In 2016 GReD and Politecnico di Milano developed a new software, called GTE, based on an hybrid FFT-prism algorithm to compute TC for airborne observations. In this work we present the improvements of the GTE software to compute TC also at ground level. This requires to modify the FFT algorithm previously implemented and to properly handle the DTM slope close to the observation ground station. In order to resolve the latter problem, different algorithms, namely triangulated polyhedrons, ultra high resolution squared prisms and segmented concentric cylindrical rings centred on the station, have been tested to define an optimal method. Some tests to analyse the computational time and the accuracy obtained with each method are here presented and the performances of the improved GTE software to compute terrain corrections on ground stations are presented too. In details, the performed tests show that the algorithm is able to compute the TC from a DTM of 1001 × 1001 cells on the same grid in less than 5 minutes with accuracies of the order of 0.002 mGal, degradating to 0.2 mGal when computed on the ground stations.

  2. Steerable Space Fed Lens Array for Low-Cost Adaptive Ground Station Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Popovic, Zoya; Rondineau, Sebastien; Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Fed Lens Array (SFLA) is an alternative to a phased array antenna that replaces large numbers of expensive solid-state phase shifters with a single spatial feed network. SFLA can be used for multi-beam application where multiple independent beams can be generated simultaneously with a single antenna aperture. Unlike phased array antennas where feed loss increases with array size, feed loss in a lens array with more than 50 elements is nearly independent of the number of elements, a desirable feature for large apertures. In addition, SFLA has lower cost as compared to a phased array at the expense of total volume and complete beam continuity. For ground station applications, both of these tradeoff parameters are not important and can thus be exploited in order to lower the cost of the ground station. In this paper, we report the development and demonstration of a 952-element beam-steerable SFLA intended for use as a low cost ground station for communicating and tracking of a low Earth orbiting satellite. The dynamic beam steering is achieved through switching to different feed-positions of the SFLA via a beam controller.

  3. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  4. Ground-based gamma-ray telescopes as ground stations in deep-space lasercom

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of information to be transmitted from deep-space rapidly increases, the radiofrequency technology has become a bottleneck in space communications. RF is already limiting the scientific outcome of deep-space missions and could be a significant obstacle in the developing of manned missions. Lasercom holds the promise to solve this problem, as it will considerably increase the data rate while decreasing the energy, mass and volume of onboard communication systems. In RF deep-space communications, where the received power is the main limitation, the traditional approach to boost the data throughput has been increasing the receiver's aperture, e.g. the 70-m antennas in the NASA's Deep Space Network. Optical communications also can benefit from this strategy, thus 10-m class telescopes have typically been suggested to support future deep-space links. However, the cost of big telescopes increase exponentially with their aperture, and new ideas are needed to optimize this ratio. Here, the use of ground-...

  5. Transportable optical ground station for high-speed free-space laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Amita; Brechtelsbauer, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Near real-time data downlinks from aircrafts, satellites and high altitude platforms via high-speed laser commu- nication links is an important research topic at the Institute of Communications and Navigation of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Ground stations for such scenarios are usually fixed at a certain location. With a mo- tivation to provide a ground station that is quickly and easily deployed anywhere in the world, a transportable optical ground station (TOGS) has been developed. TOGS features a pneumatically deployable Cassegrain-type telescope with main mirror diameter of 60 cm, including optical tracking and receiving system. For calibration of position and attitude, multiple sensors like dual-antenna GPS and inclination sensors have been installed. In order to realize these systems, robust software that operates and controls them is essential. The software is platform independent and is aimed to be used on both mobile and ground terminals. It includes implementa- tion of accurate pointing, acquisition and tracking algorithms, hardware drivers, and user interfaces. Important modules of the software are GPS tracking, optical tracking, star- and satellite tracking, and calibration of the TOGS itself. Recently, a first successful data-downlink from an aircraft to TOGS using GPS tracking has been performed. To streamline the software development and testing process, some simulation environments like mount simulator, aircraft path simulator, tracking camera simulator and tracking error analysis tool have also been developed. This paper presents the overall hardware/software structure of the TOGS, and gives results of the tracking accuracy improvement techniques like GPS extrapolation and optical tracking.

  6. Remote Sensing and Remote Control Activities in Europe and America: Part 2--Remote Sensing Ground Stations in Europe,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Development tasks and products of remote sensing ground stations in Europe are represented by the In-Sec Corporation and the Schlumberger Industries Corporation. The article presents the main products of these two corporations.

  7. Subsystem density-functional theory as an effective tool for modeling ground and excited states, their dynamics and many-body interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtal, Alisa; Sinha, Debalina; Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-05-01

    Subsystem density-functional theory (DFT) is an emerging technique for calculating the electronic structure of complex molecular and condensed phase systems. In this topical review, we focus on some recent advances in this field related to the computation of condensed phase systems, their excited states, and the evaluation of many-body interactions between the subsystems. As subsystem DFT is in principle an exact theory, any advance in this field can have a dual role. One is the possible applicability of a resulting method in practical calculations. The other is the possibility of shedding light on some quantum-mechanical phenomenon which is more easily treated by subdividing a supersystem into subsystems. An example of the latter is many-body interactions. In the discussion, we present some recent work from our research group as well as some new results, casting them in the current state-of-the-art in this review as comprehensively as possible.

  8. A compact and low cost TT&C S-Band Ground Station for low orbit satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacola, Luiz C.; Ferrari, Carlos A.

    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE's) S-Band Ground Station for satellite control and monitoring is revised consdiering the current software and hardware technology. A Ground Station concept for low orbit satellites is presented. The front-end uses a small antenna and low cost associated equipment without loss of performance. The baseband equipment is highly standardized and developed on a personal computer IBM compatible using extensively Digital Signal Processing (DSP). A link budget for ranging, telecommand and telemetry is also presented.

  9. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of ESA SMOS Mission, the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) has been selected as a core validation site. Its reasonable homogeneous characteristics make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products before attempting other more complex areas. Close to SMOS....... For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April - May 2008, a control area of 10 × 10 km2 was chosen at the VAS study area where a network of ground soil moisture (SM) measuring stations is being set up based on an original definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units attending to climatic...... of the following instruments: (i) L-band EMIRAD radiometer (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) L-band HUT-2D imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish Institute of Maritime Research, FIMR...

  10. Micro-earthquakes"Justunderneath"Seismic Stations as Ground Truth Events1 Application to the 2008 Wenchuan Aftershock Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chun; Wu Zhongliang; Jiang Changsheng

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the aftershock sequence of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake,we considered 26 microearthquakes"just underneath"seismic stations.Making use of such special station-event configurations to determine the depth of these micro-earthquakes provided accurate relocation of aftershocks with a reference set of"ground truth (GT) events".

  11. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  12. Chemical Characterization of the Aerosol During the CLAMS Experiment Using Aircraft and Ground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Martins, J.; Artaxo, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Remer, L.; Yamasoe, M.; Fattori, A.

    2002-05-01

    During the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment Nuclepore filters were collected in two ground stations and aboard the University of Wasghington's Convair 580 Reserarch Aircraft. The two ground stations were chosen in strategic positions to characterize the chemical composition, the mass concentration, black carbon (BC) content, and the absorption properties of the aerosol particles at the surface level. One of the stations was located at the Cheasapeake lighthouse (25 km from the coast) and the other one was located at the Wallops Island. Aerosol particles where collected in two stages, fine (d2.5um) and coarse mode (2.5ground stations were estimated by principal component analyses mainly in the Wallops Island, where a longer time series was collected. One of the main urban components identified in the aerosol during the experiment was sulfate. Black carbon

  13. Global manifestations of a substorm onset observed by a multi-satellite and ground station network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With a favorable constellation of spacecraft and ground stations, a study is made on the global manifestations of a substorm onset. The onset occurred simultaneously and conjugately in both hemispheres, confirmed by observations of the auroral breakup from IMAGE FUV-WIC and a sudden intensification of a westward electrojet from ground-based magnetometers. Concurrently with the onset, field-aligned and Hall currents in the auroral ionosphere are observed by CHAMP, which are consistent with the signature of a Harang discontinuity. Immediately after the onset a magnetic field dipolarization is clearly observed by Double Star TC-1, located near the central magnetotail and subsequently, by the Cluster quartet. The observations can be explained by a dawnward propagation of the substorm current wedge at a speed of about 300 km/s.

  14. A Comparison of OMPS Total Column Ozone Data with Data from Ground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Yang, E. S.; Haffner, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The total column ozone dataset from Suomi NPP Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) has been recently reprocessed with new instrument calibrations. An overview will be presented systematically comparing ozone values to an ensemble of Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers. The comparisons were made as a function of latitude, solar zenith angle, reflectivity and total ozone. The nadir mapper overpass data are derived from the single best match measurement, almost always located within one degree of the ground station and usually made within an hour and half of local noon. The total column ozone measurements from the Nadir Profiler instrument have also been compared to the ground-based measurements and these results will also be shown. An additional level 3 gridded product, 1 degree by 1 degree has been produced with corrections implemented in order to minimize the cross-track biases. This corrected data set yields a less noisy product and a smoother gridded ozone map.

  15. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  16. Ground Motion Uncertainty and Variability (single-station sigma): Insights from Euroseistest, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktenidou, O. J.; Roumelioti, Z.; Abrahamson, N. A.; Cotton, F.; Pitilakis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent improvements in networks and data, the global aleatory uncertainty (sigma) in GMPEs is still large. One reason is the ergodic approach, where we combine data in space to make up for lack of data in time. By estimating the systematic site response, we can make site-specific GMPEs and use a lower, site-specific uncertainty: single-station sigma. In this study we use the EUROSEISTEST database (http://euroseisdb.civil.auth.gr), which has two distinct advantages: good existing knowledge of site conditions at all stations, and careful relocation of the recorded events. Constraining the site and source parameters as best we can, we minimise the within- and between-events components of the global, ergodic sigma. Following that, knowledge of the site response from empirical and theoretical approaches permits us to move on to single-station sigma. The variability per site is not clearly correlated to the site class. We show that in some cases knowledge of Vs30 is not sufficient, and that site-specific data are needed to capture the response, possibly due to 2D/3D effects from complex geometry. Our values of single-station sigma are low compared to the literature. This may be due to the good ray coverage we have in all directions for small, nearby records. Indeed, our single-station sigma values are similar to published single-path values, which means that they may correspond to a fully -rather than partially- non-ergodic approach. We find larger ground motion variability for short distances and small magnitudes. This may be related to the uncertainty in the depth affecting nearby records more, or to stress drop and causing trade-offs between the source and site terms for small magnitudes.

  17. Advanced Software Ground Station and UAV Development for NLoS Control Using Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr AbdElHamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs have gained much attention due to their various applications in different sections. However, their communication range is limited to utilized communication equipment. Therefore, utilization of GSM channels opens a new prospect towards long distance UAV missions and mobile command and control centers. This paper demonstrates new design and development of a small-scale UAV and a Ground Control Station (GCS using GSM bidirectional communications for Non-Line of Sight (NLoS long range control. GCSs are considered the front end node in UAV guidance process. Therefore, the proposed GCS employs a two-layer framework to consider all ground pilot requirements. Moreover, a new exploitation of global weather forecast data is added to the GCS. On the other hand, the proposed airborne system utilizes a new integration of different Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS components and excludes short range receivers. The ground and flight tests show that stable bidirectional GSM communication is established, reliable hardware integration is accomplished, real time performance is achieved, GCS functional fidelity is obtained, and low cost is maintained. Finally, some qualitative aspects of the proposed platform are presented to address the detailed features.

  18. Data Distribution System (DDS) and Solar Dynamic Observatory Ground Station (SDOGS) Integration Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kim; Bialas, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DDS SDOGS Integration Manager (DSIM) provides translation between native control and status formats for systems within DDS and SDOGS, and the ASIST (Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test) control environment in the SDO MOC (Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission Operations Center). This system was created in response for a need to centralize remote monitor and control of SDO Ground Station equipments using ASIST control environment in SDO MOC, and to have configurable table definition for equipment. It provides translation of status and monitoring information from the native systems into ASIST-readable format to display on pages in the MOC. The manager is lightweight, user friendly, and efficient. It allows data trending, correlation, and storing. It allows using ASIST as common interface for remote monitor and control of heterogeneous equipments. It also provides failover capability to back up machines.

  19. Mesospheric CO above Troll station, Antarctica observed by a ground based microwave radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Straub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mesospheric carbon monoxide (CO data acquired by the ground-based microwave radiometer of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS radiometer stationed at Troll station in Antarctica (72° S, 2.5° E, 1270 a.m.s.l.. The data set covers the period from February 2008 to January 2010, however, due to very low CO concentrations below approximately 80 km altitude in summer, profiles can only be retrieved during Antarctic winter. CO is measured for approximately 2 h each day and profiles are retrieved approximately every half hour. The retrieved profiles, covering the pressure range from 1 to 0.01 hPa (approximately 48 to 80 km, are compared to measurements from Aura/MLS and SD-WACCM. This intercomparison reveals a low bias of 0.5 to 1 ppmv at 0.1 hPa (approximately 64 km and 2.5 to 3.5 ppmv at 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km of the BAS microwave radiometer compared to both reference datasets. One explanation for this low bias could be the known high bias of MLS which is in the same order of magnitude. The ground based radiometer shows high and significant correlation (coefficients higher than 0.9/0.65 compared to MLS/SD-WACCM at all altitudes compared with both reference datasets. doi:10.5285/DE3E2092-406D-47A9-9205-3971A8DFB4A9

  20. Mesospheric CO above Troll station, Antarctica observed by a ground based microwave radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Straub

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mesospheric carbon monoxide (CO data acquired by the ground-based microwave radiometer of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS radiometer stationed at Troll station in Antarctica (72° S, 2.5° E, 1270 m a.s.l.. The dataset covers the period from February 2008 to January 2010, however, due to very low CO concentrations below approximately 80 km altitude in summer, profiles are only presented during the Antarctic winter. CO is measured for approximately 2 h each day and profiles are retrieved approximately every half hour. The retrieved profiles, covering the pressure range from 1 to 0.01 hPa (approximately 48 to 80 km, are compared to measurements from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite (Aura/MLS and Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with Specified Dynamics (SD-WACCM. This intercomparison reveals a low bias of 0.5 to 1 ppmv at 0.1 hPa (approximately 64 km and 2.5 to 3.5 ppmv at 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km of the BAS microwave radiometer compared to both reference datasets. One explanation for this low bias could be the known high bias of MLS which is on the same order of magnitude. The ground based radiometer shows high and significant correlation (coefficients higher than 0.9/0.7 compared to MLS/SD-WACCM at all altitudes compared with both reference datasets. The dataset can be accessed under http://dx.doi.org/10/mhq.

  1. The study of single station inverting the sea surface current by HF ground wave radar based on adjoint assimilation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuzong; Yang, Hua; Xue, Wenhu; Wang, Xingchi

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces the assimilation technology in an ocean dynamics model and discusses the feasibility of inverting the sea surface current in the detection zone by assimilating the sea current radial velocity detected by single station HF ground wave radar in ocean dynamics model. Based on the adjoint assimilation and POM model, the paper successfully inverts the sea surface current through single station HF ground wave radar in the Zhoushan sea area. The single station HF radar inversion results are also compared with the bistatic HF radar composite results and the fixed point measured results by Annderaa current meter. The error analysis shows that acquisition of flow velocity and flow direction data from the single station HF radar based on adjoint assimilation and POM model is viable and the data obtained have a high correlation and consistency with the flow field observed by HF radar.

  2. Network analysis of geomagnetic substorms using the SuperMAG database of ground-based magnetometer stations

    CERN Document Server

    Dods, J; Gjerloev, J W

    2016-01-01

    The overall morphology and dynamics of magnetospheric substorms is well established in terms of the observed qualitative auroral features seen in ground-based magnetometers. This paper focuses on the quantitative characterization of substorm dynamics captured by ground-based magnetometer stations. We present the first analysis of substorms using dynamical networks obtained from the full available set of ground-based magnetometer observations in the Northern Hemisphere. The stations are connected in the network when the correlation between the vector magnetometer time series from pairs of stations within a running time window exceeds a threshold. Dimensionless parameters can then be obtained that characterize the network and by extension, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the substorm under observation. We analyze four isolated substorm test cases as well as a steady magnetic convection (SMC) event and a day in which no substorms occur. These test case substorms are found to give a consistent characteristic netwo...

  3. Weather-related Ground Motions Recorded by Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. F.; Chi, W. C.; Lai, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    Broadband seismometers record ground motions, which can be induced by weather-related processes. Analyzing such signals might help to better understand those natural processes. Here, we used continuous seismic data, meteorological data and stream data to analyze the weather-related ground motions during typhoon cases and rainy season case in Taiwan. We detected some long period seismic signals at the station Mahsi (MASB) during three meteorological cases (Typhoon Kalmaegi in 2008, Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and the East Asian rainy season in 2012). The amplitude of the seismic waveform correlated with the amount of the precipitation and the derivative of water level and discharge in the nearby river. According to the relationships of waveforms in main and minor rainfall events, we derived apparent source time functions (ASTFs) and used the ASTFs to estimate and quantify the precipitation of main rainfall events in the cases. The estimated precipitation has high correlation coefficients (> 0.82) with the observation. It shows that the long period seismic data may be applied to rainfall monitoring.

  4. Analysis of the preliminary optical links between ARTEMIS and the Optical Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Chueca, Sergio; Alonso, Angel; Viera, Teodora; Sodnik, Zoran

    2002-12-01

    In the frame of the SILEX project, the European Space Agency (ESA) has put into orbit two Laser Communication Terminals, to establish an experimental free space optical communication link between a GEO satellite (ARTEMIS) and a LEO satellite (SPOT IV), to relay earth observation data. In order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of these, and other, optical communications systems, ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreement for building the Optical Ground Station (OGS), in the Teide Observatory of the IAC. With ARTEMIS placed in a circular parking orbit at about 31000 kilometres, its optical payload has been preliminary tested with the OGS. First results and analysis are presented on the space-to-ground bi-directional link, including pointing acquisition and tracking performance, Bit-Error Rate (BER) and transmitted beam divergence effects related with atmospheric models and predictions. Future plans include deeper optical bi-directional communication tests of OGS, not only with ARTEMIS but also with OSCAR-40 (downlink) and SMART-1 (up-link) satellites, in order to do a full characterisation of the performances of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence and a comparison with theoretical predictions.

  5. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  6. Feasibility of utilizing Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescopes as free-space optical communication ground stations

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo; Cabrero, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The signals that will be received on Earth from deep-space probes in future implementations of free-space optical communication will be extremely weak, and new ground stations will have to be developed in order to support these links. This paper addresses the feasibility of using the technology developed in the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce costs by economy-scale production, enabling optical communications in the large telescopes that will be needed for future deep-space links.

  7. Some unusual discrete VLF emissions observed at a low-latitude ground station at Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the VLF emissions data obtained during occasional whistler campaigns at the low-latitude ground station Agra (geomagnetic latitude 17°1' N, L = 1.15 has yielded some unusual discrete VLF emissions of the rising type. These include (1 emissions occurring at time intervals increasing in ge ommetrical progression, (2 emissions occuring simulta neously in different frequency ranges and (3 emissions observed during daytime. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. It is shown that the increasing time delay between different components of the emissions match closely with the propagation time delays between different hops of a whistler of dispersion 19 s1/2, the unusual occurrence of the emissions in two different frequency ranges approximately at the same time may possibly be linked with their generation at two different locations, and the occurrence of emissions during daytime may be due to propagation under the influence of equatorial anomaly.

  8. Performance evaluation of optical channel transmission between UAVs and Ground Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatziefremidis Antonis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Free space optical (FSO communications links is a promising solution for the provision of high data rate point to point communications. In particular deploying FSO technology for mobile links between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs and fixed Ground Stations (GS introduces several interesting challenges. In this paper, we investigate the ability of a mobile FSO system to operate in different atmospheric conditions. Specifically, we characterize the quality of the optical channel with a proper model in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER and average Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and we report a detailed optical amplification model able to support a constant Quality of Service for different distances from 1 km up to 35 km at 10 Gbps with 1550 nm wavelength. An extensive comparative analysis among different FSO configurations links considering the altitude of the UAV, the wavelength and the atmospheric conditions is provided. The results show that there is degradation at the BER over a slanted path compared to a horizontal path at the same conditions.

  9. Desain Antena Helix Quadrifilar pada Frekuensi 2,4 GHz Untuk Perangkat Ground Station Satelit Nano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivin Violita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini akan dibuat desain antena helix quadrifilar untuk ground station satelit nano yang bekerja pada frekuensi S-band 2,4 GHz. Antena ini membutuhkan arus yang berbeda fase 900 untuk mengeksitasi pencatuannya. Untuk menghasilkan arus tersebut tanpa menambah perangkat pencatu tambahan, maka antena ini menggunakan metode self-phased. Pada metode self-phased, digunakan lilitan kawat yang berbeda dimensi. Antena ini terdiri dari dua lilitan kawat tembaga yang memiliki dimensi berbeda, yang kemudian disebut smaller loop dan larger loop. Perbedaan dimensi ini akan menyebabkan resistansi smaller loop bersifat kapasitif dan resistansi larger loop bersifat induktif. Reflektor parabola ditambahkan pada antena helix quadrifilar untuk meningkatkan gain dan direktivitas. Hasil simulasi serta implementasi menunjukkan bahwa antena helix quadrifilar telah memenuhi kriteria desain . Antena ini menggunakan metode pencatuan self-phased. Pola radiasi yang dihasilkan merupakan directional. Nilai return loss dari hasil pengukuran bernilai -21.45 dB dengan VSWR 1.17. Bandwidth yang didapatkan adalah 18,53% dari frekuensi tengah 2.4 GHz atau sebesar 444.8 MHz. Impedansi hasil pengukuran sebesar 57.68 Ω. Gain antena helix quadrifilar dengan reflektor parabola adalah 20,61 dB.

  10. Apparent chlorofluorocarbon age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system, Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.; Brockman, Allen R.

    2001-01-01

    Apparent ages of ground water are useful in the analysis of various components of flow systems, and results of this analysis can be incorporated into investigations of potential pathways of contaminant transport. This report presents the results of a study in 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Base Civil Engineer, Environmental Directorate, to describe the apparent age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system at the Station. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), dissolved gases, stable isotopes, and water-quality field properties were measured in samples from 14 wells and 16 springs on the Station in March 1997.Nitrogen-argon recharge temperatures range from 5.9°C to 17.3°C with a median temperature of 10.9°C, which indicates that ground-water recharge predominantly occurs in the cold months of the year. Concentrations of excess air vary depending upon geohydrologic setting (recharge and discharge areas). Apparent ground-water ages using a CFC-based dating technique range from 1 to 48 years with a median age of 10 years. The oldest apparent CFC ages occur in the upper parts of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, whereas the youngest apparent ages occur in the Columbia aquifer and the upper parts of the discharge area setting, especially springs. The vertical distribution of apparent CFC ages indicates that groundwater movement between aquifers is somewhat retarded by the leaky confining units, but the elapsed time is relatively short (generally less than 35 years), as evidenced by the presence of CFCs at depth. The identification of binary mixtures by CFC-based dating indicates that convergence of flow lines occurs not only at the actual point of discharge, but also in the subsurface.The CFC-based recharge dates are consistent with expected 3H concentrations measured in the water samples from the Station. The concentration of 3H in ground water ranges from below the USGS laboratory minimum

  11. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  12. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  13. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  14. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  15. Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Barry R.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

  16. AFSC/ABL: ShoreZone Ground Stations, web-posted database in ArcGIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The web-posted Alaska Shore Station Database is a compilation of hundreds of intertidal sites that were visited and evaluated throughout the coastal waters of...

  17. Virtual Quantum Subsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Zanardi, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    The physical resources available to access and manipulate the degrees of freedom of a quantum system define the set $\\cal A$ of operationally relevant observables. The algebraic structure of $\\cal A$ selects a preferred tensor product structure i.e., a partition into subsystems. The notion of compoundness for quantum system is accordingly relativized. Universal control over virtual subsystems can be achieved by using quantum noncommutative holonomies

  18. Virtual quantum subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, P

    2001-08-13

    The physical resources available to access and manipulate the degrees of freedom of a quantum system define the set A of operationally relevant observables. The algebraic structure of A selects a preferred tensor product structure, i.e., a partition into subsystems. The notion of compoundness for quantum systems is accordingly relativized. Universal control over virtual subsystems can be achieved by using quantum noncommutative holonomies

  19. Vertical profiling of atmospheric refractivity using GPS STD data from a single ground-based station: Simulations and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zus, F.; Dick, G.; Heise, S.; Wickert, J.; Ramatschi, M.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a ray-tracing operator to compute the signal travel time delay due to the neutral atmosphere, known as Slant Total Delay (STD), between a GPS satellite and a ground-based receiving station. Having developed a rapid and precise forward operator we constructed the tangent-linear (adjoint) operator to estimate refractivity in the vicinity of a single station. The refractivity retrievals potentially complement refractivity retrievals from radio occultation data and can be considered a valuable input for Numerical Weather Prediction. In a first experiment (simulation) we study the feasibility for vertical profiling of refractivity using STDs from a single station. The simulation cycle consists of the computation of STDs given a refractivity profile, the addition of noise to mimic observation errors and the retrieval of a refractivity profile from the artificial STDs by a non-linear least-square analysis. Clearly, besides the noise level, the elevation range plays an important role regarding the quality of the refractivity retrieval; near-horizon STDs corrupted by noise allow a significantly better refractivity retrieval than STDs close to the zenith without any noise. The simulation study suggests that near-horizon STDs provide additional information when compared to Zenith Total Delays (ZTDs). In a second experiment (application) we replace the artificial STDs in the simulation by STDs retrieved from GPS phase-observations. The procedure is repeated station-by-station for 200 stations in Germany. We do not find a significant benefit from STDs over ZTDs in the retrieved refractivity profile since near-horizon STDs are rarely available and representative errors due to asymmetry are non-negligable. We attempt to mitigate the latter problem by the additional estimation of horizontal gradients, and indeed, we find strong evidence that STDs retrieved from GPS phase-observations contain asymmetric information. The former problem still poses a serious limitation

  20. Assessment of NASA Airborne Laser Altimetry Data Using Ground-Based GPS Data near Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Hawley, Robert L.; Lutz, Eric R.; Studinger, Michael; Sonntag, John G.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Andrews, Lauren C.; Neumann, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    A series of NASA airborne lidars have been used in support of satellite laser altimetry missions. These airbornelaser altimeters have been deployed for satellite instrument development, for spaceborne data validation, and to bridge the data gap between satellite missions. We used data from ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of an 11 km long track near Summit Station, Greenland, to assess the surface elevation bias and measurement precision of three airborne laser altimeters including the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS), and the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL). Ground-based GPS data from the monthly ground-based traverses, which commenced in 2006, allowed for the assessment of nine airborne lidar surveys associated with ATM and LVIS between 2007 and 2016. Surface elevation biases for these altimeters over the flat, ice-sheet interior are less than 0.12 m, while assessments of measurement precision are 0.09 m or better. Ground-based GPS positions determined both with and without differential post-processing techniques provided internally consistent solutions. Results from the analyses of ground-based and airborne data provide validation strategy guidance for the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) elevation and elevation-change data products.

  1. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  2. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  3. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    , soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over this control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft which contained onboard a payload constituted...

  4. ADS-B地面站的规划与建设%Planning and Construction of ADS-B Ground Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智强

    2011-01-01

    随着广播式自动相关监视(ADS-B)技术的推广应用,作为ADS-B体系的组成部分的ADS-B地面站已经成为保障ADS-B使用效能的重要环节。在探讨ADS-B基本理论的基础上,对ADS-B地面站的架构、功能、规划与建设等方面进行了分析,并提出了相关设计方法和理念。%With the broadened application of automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast(ADS-B) technology,ADS-B ground station,as a constituent part of the ADS-B system,has become an important link in ensuring the efficacy of ADS-B.Based on the ADS-B basic theory,the architecture,function,planning,and construction of ADS-B ground station are analyzed,and the related design methods and concepts are presented.

  5. Conceptual Design of the Adaptive Optics System for the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration Ground Station at Table Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Page, Norman A.; Burruss, Rick S.; Truong, Tuan N.; Dew, Sharon; Troy, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The Laser Communication Relay Demonstration will feature a geostationary satellite communicating via optical links to multiple ground stations. The first ground station (GS-1) is the 1m OCTL telescope at Table Mountain in California. The optical link will utilize pulse position modulation (PPM) and differential phase shift keying (DPSK) protocols. The DPSK link necessitates that adaptive optics (AO) be used to relay the incoming beam into the single mode fiber that is the input of the modem. The GS-1 AO system will have two MEMS Deformable mirrors to achieve the needed actuator density and stroke limit. The AO system will sense the aberrations with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using the light from the communication link's 1.55 microns laser to close the loop. The system will operate day and night. The system's software will be based on heritage software from the Palm 3000 AO system, reducing risk and cost. The AO system is being designed to work at r(sub 0) greater than 3.3 cm (measured at 500 nm and zenith) and at elevations greater than 20deg above the horizon. In our worst case operating conditions we expect to achieve Strehl ratios of over 70% (at 1.55 microns), which should couple 57% of the light into the single mode DPSK fiber. This paper describes the conceptual design of the AO system, predicted performance and discusses some of the trades that were conducted during the design process.

  6. Use of a Closed-Loop Tracking Algorithm for Orientation Bias Determination of an S-Band Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Schrage, Dean S.; Piasecki, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed project completed installation and checkout testing of a new S-Band ground station at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio in 2015. As with all ground stations, a key alignment process must be conducted to obtain offset angles in azimuth (AZ) and elevation (EL). In telescopes with AZ-EL gimbals, this is normally done with a two-star alignment process, where telescope-based pointing vectors are derived from catalogued locations with the AZ-EL bias angles derived from the pointing vector difference. For an antenna, the process is complicated without an optical asset. For the present study, the solution was to utilize the gimbal control algorithms closed-loop tracking capability to acquire the peak received power signal automatically from two distinct NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) spacecraft, without a human making the pointing adjustments. Briefly, the TDRS satellite acts as a simulated optical source and the alignment process proceeds exactly the same way as a one-star alignment. The data reduction process, which will be discussed in the paper, results in two bias angles which are retained for future pointing determination. Finally, the paper compares the test results and provides lessons learned from the activity.

  7. Migration strategies for service-enabling ground control stations for unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroculick, Joseph B.

    2011-06-01

    Future unmanned systems will be integrated into the Global Information Grid (GIG) and support net-centric data sharing, where information in a domain is exposed to a wide variety of GIG stakeholders that can make use of the information provided. Adopting a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach to package reusable UAV control station functionality into common control services provides a number of benefits including enabling dynamic plug and play of components depending on changing mission requirements, supporting information sharing to the enterprise, and integrating information from authoritative sources such as mission planners with the UAV control stations data model. It also allows the wider enterprise community to use the services provided by unmanned systems and improve data quality to support more effective decision-making. We explore current challenges in migrating UAV control systems that manage multiple types of vehicles to a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service-oriented analysis involves reviewing legacy systems and determining which components can be made into a service. Existing UAV control stations provide audio/visual, navigation, and vehicle health and status information that are useful to C4I systems. However, many were designed to be closed systems with proprietary software and hardware implementations, message formats, and specific mission requirements. An architecture analysis can be performed that reviews legacy systems and determines which components can be made into a service. A phased SOA adoption approach can then be developed that improves system interoperability.

  8. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions observed during daytime at a low latitude Indian ground station Jammu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Singh; J Singh; R P Patel; A K Singh; R P Singh; Rejesh Singh; P A Ganai

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports quasi-periodic pulsing hiss emissions recorded during daytime in the frequency range of 50 Hz –15 kHz at low latitude station Jammu (geomag.lat.=22° 26′N; =1.17). It is noted that pulsing VLF emissions are a rare phenomena at low latitudes.The various spectrograms of pulsing VLF hiss emissions presented in this paper clearly show band limited spectrums regularly pulsing with almost equal period of the order of few seconds in the frequency range of ∼3-8 kHz. Generation and propagation mechanism of these emissions are briefly discussed.

  9. VLBI collimation tower technique for time-delay studies of a large ground station communications antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Young, L. E.; Rusch, W. V. T.

    1983-01-01

    A need for an accurate but inexpensive method for measuring and evaluating time delays of large ground antennas for VLBI applications motivated the development of the collimation tower technique. Supporting analytical work which was performed primarily to verify time delay measurement results obtained for a large antenna when the transmitter was at a collimation distance of 1/25 of the usual far field criterion is discussed. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental results are also given.

  10. Comparison of total ozone and erythemal UV data from OMI with ground-based measurements at Rome station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based total ozone and surface UV irradiance measurements have been collected since 1992 using Brewer spectrophotometer and Erythemal Dose Rates (EDRs have been determined by a broad-band radiometer (model YES UVB-1 operational since 2000 at Rome station. The methodology to retrieve the EDR and the Erythemal Daily Dose (EDD from the radiometer observations is described. Ground-based measurements were compared with satellite-derived total ozone and UV data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. OMI, onboard the NASA EOS Aura spacecraft, is a nadir viewing spectrometer that provides total ozone and surface UV retrievals. The results of the validation exercise showed satisfactory agreement between OMI and Brewer total ozone data, for both OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS ozone alghorithms (biases of −1.8% and −0.7%, respectively. Regarding UV data, OMI data overestimate ground-based erythemally weighted data retrieved from both Brewer and YES Radiometer (biases about 20%, probably because of the effect of absorbing aerosols in an urban site such as Rome.

  11. Teachers guide for building and operating weather satellite ground stations for high school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R. J.; Gotwald, T.

    1981-01-01

    A number of colleges and universities are operating APT direct readout stations. However, high school science teachers have often failed to realize the potential of meteorological satellites and their products as unique instructional tools. The ability to receive daily pictures from these satellites offers exciting opportunities for secondary school teachers and students to assemble the electronic hardware and to view real time pictures of Earth from outer space. The station and pictures can be used in the classroom to develop an approach to science teaching that could span many scientific disciplines and offer many opportunities for student research and participation in scientific processes. This can be accomplished with relatively small expenditures of funds for equipment. In most schools some of the equipment may already be available. Others can be constructed by teachers and/or students. Yet another source might be the purchase of used equipment from industry or through the government surplus channels. The information necessary for individuals unfamiliar with these systems to construct a direct readout for receiving real time APT photographs on a daily basis in the classroom is presented.

  12. Primary Dendrite Array Morphology: Observations from Ground-based and Space Station Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard; Erdmann, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Influence of natural convection on primary dendrite array morphology during directional solidification is being investigated under a collaborative European Space Agency-NASA joint research program, "Microstructure Formation in Castings of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST)". Two Aluminum-7 wt pct Silicon alloy samples, MICAST6 and MICAST7, were directionally solidified in microgravity on the International Space Station. Terrestrially grown dendritic monocrystal cylindrical samples were remelted and directionally solidified at 18 K/cm (MICAST6) and 28 K/cm (MICAST7). Directional solidification involved a growth speed step increase (MICAST6-from 5 to 50 micron/s) and a speed decrease (MICAST7-from 20 to 10 micron/s). Distribution and morphology of primary dendrites is currently being characterized in these samples, and also in samples solidified on earth under nominally similar thermal gradients and growth speeds. Primary dendrite spacing and trunk diameter measurements from this investigation will be presented.

  13. Primary Dendrite Array: Observations from Ground-Based and Space Station Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Surendra N.; Grugel, Richard N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Influence of natural convection on primary dendrite array morphology during directional solidification is being investigated under a collaborative European Space Agency-NASA joint research program, Microstructure Formation in Castings of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST). Two Aluminum-7 wt pct Silicon alloy samples, MICAST6 and MICAST7, were directionally solidified in microgravity on the International Space Station. Terrestrially grown dendritic monocrystal cylindrical samples were remelted and directionally solidified at 18 K per centimeter (MICAST6) and 28 K per centimeter (MICAST7). Directional solidification involved a growth speed step increase (MICAST6-from 5 to 50 millimeters per second) and a speed decrease (MICAST7-from 20 to 10 millimeters per second). Distribution and morphology of primary dendrites is currently being characterized in these samples, and also in samples solidified on earth under nominally similar thermal gradients and growth speeds. Primary dendrite spacing and trunk diameter measurements from this investigation will be presented.

  14. Ground-based aerosol measurements during CHARMEX/ADRIMED campaign at Granada station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Muñoz, Maria Jose; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Navas-Guzman, Francisco; Guerro-Rascado, Juan Luis; Titos, Gloria; Lyamani, Hassan; Valenzuela, Antonio; Cazorla, Alberto; Olmo, Francisco Jose; Mallet, Marc; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of ChArMEx/ADRIMED (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/; Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) projects, a field experiment based on in situ and remote sensing measurements from surface and airborne platforms was performed. The ADRIMED project aimed to capture the high complexity of the Mediterranean region by using an integrated approach based on intensive experimental field campaign and spaceborne observations, radiative transfer calculations and climate modelling with Regional Climate Models better adapted than global circulation models. For this purpose, measurements were performed at different surface super-sites (including Granada station) over the Occidental Mediterranean region during summer 2013 for creating an updated database of the physical, chemical, optical properties and the vertical distribution of the major "Mediterranean aerosols". Namely, measurements at Granada station were performed on 16 and 17 July 2013, in coincidence with the overpasses of the ATR aircraft over the station. The instrumentation used for the campaign includes both remote sensing instruments (a multiwavelength Raman lidar and a sun photometer) and in-situ measurements (a nephelometer, a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP), an Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), a high volume sampler of PM10 and an aethalometer). During the measurement period a mineral dust event was detected, with similar dust load on both days. According to in-situ measurements, the event reached the surface level on 16 of June. Vertically resolved lidar measurements indicated presence of mineral dust layers up to 5 km asl both on 16 and 17 June 2013. Temporal evolution analysis indicated that on 17 June the dust layer decoupled from the boundary layer and disappeared around 14:00 UTC. In addition, lidar and sun-photometer data were used to retrieve volume concentration profiles by means of LIRIC (Lidar

  15. Narrow multibeam satellite ground station antenna employing a linear array with a geosynchronous arc coverage of 60 deg. I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, N.; Gans, M. J.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of using an appropriately squinted linear scan in narrow multibeam satellite ground station antennas employing phased arrays is demonstrated. This linear scan has the potential of reducing the complexity of a narrow-beam planar array to that of a linear array. Calculations for such antennas placed at cities throughout the U.S. show that the peak beam pointing error in covering the 70 deg W to 130 deg W geosynchronous equatorial arc (GEA) is under 5/1000th of a degree. Communication at a 300 MBd rate in the 12/14 GHz band can be made feasible, for a grating lobe-free scan and 0.5 deg beamwidth antenna, by using a relatively simple time equalization.

  16. Pressure Garment Subsystem Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Constellation program pressure garment subsystem (PGS) team has created a technical roadmap that communicates major technical questions and how and when the questions are being answered in support of major project milestones. The roadmap is a living document that guides the team priorities. The roadmap also communicates technical reactions to changes in project priorities and funding. This paper presents the roadmap and discusses specific roadmap elements in detail as representative examples to provide insight into the meaning and use of the roadmap.

  17. Tropospheric ozone variability during the East Asian summer monsoon as observed by satellite (IASI), aircraft (MOZAIC) and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Sarah; Boynard, Anne; Hao, Nan; Huang, Fuxiang; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Barret, Brice; Ghude, Sachin D.; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project, as well as observations from ground-based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years 2008-2013 of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon seen by a decrease in the tropospheric 0-6 km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. The year-to-year variability is found to be mainly dependent on meteorology. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric 0-6 km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project for the EASM of 2008-2013 are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (12 %) between the 0-6 km O3 column derived from IASI and aircraft data. IASI captures very well the inter-annual variation of tropospheric O3 observed by the aircraft data over the studied domain. Analysis of vertical profiles of the aircraft data shows a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at 10-20° N than elsewhere. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with a decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  18. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  19. Multiple ground-based observations at Zhongshan Station during the April/May 1998 solar events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Ruiyuan(刘瑞源); HU; Hongqiao(胡红桥); HE; Longsong(贺龙松); LIU; Yonghua(刘勇华); LIU; Shunlin(刘顺林); LI; Shenggui(李胜桂); N.; Sato; B.; J.; Fraser

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous observations at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica, during May 1-7, 1998 are presented to show the responses of the polar ionosphere to the April/May 1998 solar events. One of the main geo-effects of the solar events resulted in the major magnetic storm on May 4. At the storm onset on May 2 the ionosphere F2 layer abruptly increased in altitude, the geomagnetic H-component started negative deviation and the spectral amplitude of the ULF wave intensified. Both large isolated riometer absorption and large negative deviation of the geomagnetic H-component occurred at about 0639UT. There was a time lag of about one hour and ten minutes between the storm onset and the IMF southward turning, as measured by the WIND satellite. The polar ionosphere was highly disturbed, as shown by frequent large deviations of the geomagnetic H-component, large riometer absorption events and strong ULF waves in all the courses of the storm. The absorption increased greatly causing the digisonde to be blackout most of the time. However, the data still showed a substantial decrease in the F2 electron density and oscillation of the F2 layer peak height with an amplitude exceeding 200 km.

  20. Modeling of ground albedo neutrons to investigate seasonal cosmic ray-induced neutron variations measured at high-altitude stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, G.; Pazianotto, M. T.; Federico, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates seasonal cosmic ray-induced neutron variations measured over a long-term period (from 2011 to 2016) in both the high-altitude stations located in medium geomagnetic latitude and Antarctica (Pic-du-Midi and Concordia, respectively). To reinforce analysis, modeling based on ground albedo neutrons simulations of extensive air showers and the solar modulation potential was performed. Because the local environment is well known and stable over time in Antarctica, data were used to validate the modeling approach. A modeled scene representative to the Pic-du-Midi was simulated with GEANT4 for various hydrogen properties (composition, density, and wet level) and snow thickness. The orders of magnitudes of calculated thermal fluence rates are consistent with measurements obtained during summers and winters. These variations are dominant in the thermal domain (i.e., En 20 MeV) is weakly impacted. The role of hydrogen content on ground albedo neutron generation was investigated with GEANT4 simulations. These investigations focused to mountain environment; nevertheless, they demonstrate the complexity of the local influences on neutron fluence rates.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Marey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR and the thermal-infrared (TIR radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT are examined for the 12 year period from 2002–2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System aircraft CO profiles (April 2009–December 2011 are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO

  4. Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. The primary contaminants of interest are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. In general, the hydrogeology of Solid Waste Management Unit 12 consists of a surficial aquifer, composed of sand to clayey sand, overlain by dense clay that extends from about land surface to a depth of about 8 to 10 feet and substantially limits local recharge. During some months in the summer, evapotranspiration and limited local recharge result in ground-water level depressions in the forested area near wells 12MW-12S and 12MW-17S, seasonally reflecting the effects of evapotranspiration. Changes in surface-water levels following Hurricane Gaston in 2004 resulted in a substantial change in the ground-water levels at the site that, in turn, may have caused lateral shifting of the contaminant plume. Hydraulic conductivity, determined by slug tests, is higher along the axis of the plume in the downgradient part of the forests than adjacent to the plume, implying that there is some degree of lithologic control on the plume location. Hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, sulfur-hexafluoride measurements, and historical data indicate that ground-water flow rates are substantially slower in the forested area relative to upgradient areas. The ground-water contamination, consisting of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, extends eastward in the surficial aquifer from the probable source area near a former underground storage tank. Engineered remediation approaches include a permeable reactive barrier and phytoremediation. The central part of the permeable reactive barrier along the

  5. Ground Sampling Strategy and Measurements during the CNES CAROLS Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, M. Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of soil moisture (SM) in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems, and of the environmental factors influencing it, will enable the acquisition of in situ data simultaneous to the observations from SMOS in the area of the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS). The variability of SM depends on intrinsic and extrinsic soil factors. It is necessary to define a sampling strategy that integrates the relationships between the hydrological variables, particularly SM, and the parameters of the landscape at different spatial scales SM data acquisition for the CAROLS (Combined Airborne Radio - instruments for Ocean and Land Studies) Campaign extended over an area of 27 x 35 km2, within the VAS site, demands a selection of sampling points which are representative of larger areas. The total area was sub-divided in Environmental Units which were homogeneous with respect to landscape, geological material, land use (or vegetation cover) and soil type (mainly soil texture and geomorphologic aspects). The most representative units of the area correspond to (i) vineyards over stony-sandy soil, (ii) vineyard over clayey soil, (iii) cereal with partly fallow land, (iv) forest areas with sub-arbustive and dense shrub-land divided into Northern and Southern exposure, and (v) mixed vineyards and forest vegetation. The sampling strategy during the CNES CAROLS campaign was designed with the following threefold criteria: (i) Within each Environmental Unit, an area of 1 x 1 km2 was selected where a simple random sampling of about 35 plots/km2 was defined and where volumetric SM samples were obtained with small cylinders, together with ThetaProbe and surface temperature measurements. Soil samples were processed to obtain volumetric soil moisture, texture, bulk density and organic material for each measurement plot (ii) A selection of 10 stationary points, each one respectively and nearly close to 10 thermopluviometric stations, representative of the different units of the area

  6. Environmental Control Subsystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Jacob; Zelik, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B, part of Launch Complex 39, is currently undergoing construction to prepare it for NASA's Space Launch System missions. The Environmental Control Subsystem, which provides the vehicle with an air or nitrogen gas environment, required development of its local and remote display screens. The remote displays, developed by NASA contractors and previous interns, were developed without complete functionality; the remote displays were revised, adding functionality to over 90 displays. For the local displays, multiple test procedures were developed to assess the functionality of the screens, as well as verify requirements. One local display screen was also developed.

  7. HETE Satellite Power Subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The HETE (High-Energy Transient Experiment) satellite a joint project between MIT's Center for Space Research and AeroAstro. is a high-energy gamma-ray burst/X-Ray/UV observatory platform. HETE will be launched into a 550 km circular orbit with an inclination of 37.7°, and has a design lifetime of 18 months. This paper presents a description of the spacecraft's power subsystem, which collects, regulates, and distributes power to the experiment payload modules and to the various spacecraft sub...

  8. Time-transfer experiments between satellite laser ranging ground stations via one-way laser ranging to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Skillman, D. R.; Mcgarry, J.; Hoffman, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has long been used to measure the distance from a ground station to an Earth-orbiting satellite in order to determine the spacecraft position in orbit, and to conduct other geodetic measurements such as plate motions. This technique can also be used to transfer time between the station and satellite, and between remote SLR sites, as recently demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, where two-way and one-way measurements were obtained at the same time. Here we report a new technique to transfer time between distant SLR stations via simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft at lunar distance. The major objectives are to establish accurate ground station times and to improve LRO orbit determination via these measurements. The results of these simultaneous LR measurements are used to compare the SLR station times or transfer time from one to the other using times-of-flight estimated from conventional radio frequency tracking of LRO. The accuracy of the time transfer depends only on the difference of the times-of-flight from each ground station to the spacecraft, and is expected to be at sub-nano second level. The technique has been validated by both a ground-based experiment and an experiment that utilized LRO. Here we present the results to show that sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy are achievable. Both experiments were carried out between the primary LRO-LR station, The Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) station, and its nearby station, Mobile Laser System (MOBLAS-7), both at Greenbelt, Maryland. The laser transmit time from both stations were recorded by the same event timer referenced to a Hydrogen maser. The results have been compared to data from a common All

  9. Introduction of a terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility: IN-orbit and Networked Optical ground stations experimental Verification Advanced testbed (INNOVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Morio; Munemasa, Yasushi; Takenaka, Hideki; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kunimori, Hiroo; Kubooka, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Taira, Shinichi; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Nakazawa, Isao; Akioka, Maki

    2014-03-01

    A terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility, named IN-orbit and Networked Optical ground stations experimental Verification Advanced testbed (INNOVA) is introduced. Many demonstrations have been conducted to verify the usability of sophisticated optical communications equipment in orbit. However, the influence of terrestrial weather conditions remains as an issue to be solved. One potential solution is site diversity, where several ground stations are used. In such systems, implementing direct high-speed optical communications links for transmission of data from satellites to terrestrial sites requires that links can be established even in the presence of clouds and rain. NICT is developing a terrestrial free-space optical communications network called INNOVA for future airborne and satellitebased optical communications projects. Several ground stations and environmental monitoring stations around Japan are being used to explore the site diversity concept. This paper describes the terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility, the monitoring stations around Japan for free-space laser communications, and potential research at NICT.

  10. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Retrievals with Ground Truth from the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station Cooling Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-09

    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at the Squaw Creek reservoir at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station near Granbury Texas. Temperatures calculated for thirty-four images covering the period May 2000 to March 2002 are compared with water temperatures measured at 10 instrumented buoy locations supplied by the Savannah River Technology Center. The data set was used to examine the effect of image quality on temperature retrieval as well as to document any bias between the sensor chip arrays (SCA's). A portion of the data set was used to evaluate the influence of proximity to shoreline on the water temperature retrievals. This study found errors in daytime water temperature retrievals of 1.8 C for SCA 2 and 4.0 C for SCA 1. The errors in nighttime water temperature retrievals were 3.8 C for SCA 1. Water temperature retrievals for nighttime appear to be related to image quality with the largest positive bias for the highest quality images and the largest negative bias for the lowest quality images. The daytime data show no apparent relationship between water temperature retrieval error and image quality. The average temperature retrieval error near open water buoys was less than corresponding values for the near-shore buoys. After subtraction of the estimated error in the ground truth data, the water temperature retrieval error was 1.2 C for the open-water buoys compared to 1.8 C for the near-shore buoys. The open-water error is comparable to that found at Nauru.

  11. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Whistler-triggered VLF noise bursts observed on the DE-1 satellite and simultaneously at Antarctic ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. J.; Carpenter, D. L.; Inan, U. S.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of whistler-triggered very low-frequency noise bursts on the ground at Anarctic stations, Halley and Siple, and on the high-altitude satellite DE-1 are reported. Results of a case study from June 25, 1982 in which the satellite data were recorded near 25 deg south magnetic latitude and the L = 4.7 magnetic shell, are presented. Analysis indicates that the chorus bursts that are triggered in whistler ducts travel downwards in the ducts to low altitudes in the ionosphere, and that propagation to DE-1 is by upward reflection into a nonducted mode. A means of estimating the propagation characteristics of the wave bursts is provided by comparisons of nonducted signals from the Siple transmitter and discrete periodic emissions. The ducted-nonducted mode conversion process is a mechanism for the large-scale spreading into the magnetosphere of coherent whistler-mode wave energy which is generated, amplified, or triggered in small localized ducts. The DE-1 data show that a strong interaction exists between whistler-triggered noise bursts and prevailing hiss levels.

  13. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  14. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....

  15. The Digital Electronic Subsystem of Marsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltecca, L.; Pecora, M.; Scandelli, L.

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding) is one of the Instrument of the ESA Mars Express mission, to be launched in June 2003 with a Soyuz/Fregate. Its primary objective is to map the distribution of water, both liquid and solid, in the upper portions of the crust of Mars. Secondary objectives are subsurface geologic probing, surface characterisation and ionosphere sounding. The MARSIS instrument is a low-frequency nadir-looking pulse limited radar sounder and altimeter with ground penetration capabilities, which uses synthetic aperture techniques and a secondary-receiving antenna to isolate subsurface reflections. Functionally and also from the responsibility point of view of each organisation involved in MARSIS, the instrument can be split into three subsystems: - Antenna: ANT - Radio Frequency Subsystem: RFS (TX+RX) - Digital Electronics Subsystem: DES MARSIS is an international co-operation between Italian Space Agency (ASI) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The experiment has an Italian Principal investigator (from Infocom Dept. of University of Rome "La Sapienza"), an U.S. Co-PI (from Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and Co-I~@~Ys from Italy, the U.S. and other countries. Italy is the lead for the experiment definition with the participation of the U.S.. In particular Alenia Spazio/Rome is the Prime Contractor of the industrial team and also supplier of part of the RF subsystem. Laben (a company of Finmeccanica) is the supplier of the Digital Electronic Subsystem (DES), including its basic and application SW, as subcontractor of ALS. The purpose of this paper is to describe the DES from HW and SW point of view, including the Test Equipment and the special simulator developed used for DES validation.

  16. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) subsystems and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs.

  17. Quantifying the spatio-temporal pattern of the ground impact of space weather events using dynamical networks formed from the SuperMAG database of ground based magnetometer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Joe; Chapman, Sandra; Gjerloev, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative understanding of the full spatial-temporal pattern of space weather is important in order to estimate the ground impact. Geomagnetic indices such as AE track the peak of a geomagnetic storm or substorm, but cannot capture the full spatial-temporal pattern. Observations by the ~100 ground based magnetometers in the northern hemisphere have the potential to capture the detailed evolution of a given space weather event. We present the first analysis of the full available set of ground based magnetometer observations of substorms using dynamical networks. SuperMAG offers a database containing ground station magnetometer data at a cadence of 1min from 100s stations situated across the globe. We use this data to form dynamic networks which capture spatial dynamics on timescales from the fast reconfiguration seen in the aurora, to that of the substorm cycle. Windowed linear cross-correlation between pairs of magnetometer time series along with a threshold is used to determine which stations are correlated and hence connected in the network. Variations in ground conductivity and differences in the response functions of magnetometers at individual stations are overcome by normalizing to long term averages of the cross-correlation. These results are tested against surrogate data in which phases have been randomised. The network is then a collection of connected points (ground stations); the structure of the network and its variation as a function of time quantify the detailed dynamical processes of the substorm. The network properties can be captured quantitatively in time dependent dimensionless network parameters and we will discuss their behaviour for examples of 'typical' substorms and storms. The network parameters provide a detailed benchmark to compare data with models of substorm dynamics, and can provide new insights on the similarities and differences between substorms and how they correlate with external driving and the internal state of the

  18. Climatology of clouds and precipitation over East Antarctica using ground-based remote sensing at the Princess Elizabeth station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Lhermitte, Stef; Van Tricht, Kristof; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    The surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly dependent on the interaction between clouds and precipitation. Our understanding of these processes is challenged by the limited availability of observations over the area and problems in Antarctic climate simulations by state-of-the-art climate models. Improvements are needed in this field, as the Antarctic ice sheet is expected to become a dominant contributor to sea level rise in the 21st century. In 2010, an observational site was established at the Princess Elisabeth (PE) Antarctic station. PE is located in the escarpment area of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (72°S, 23°E). The instruments consist of several ground-based remote sensing instruments: a ceilometer (measuring cloud-base height and vertical structure), a 24-GHz Micro Rain Radar (MRR; providing vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity), and a pyrometer (measuring effective cloud base temperature). An automatic weather station provides info on boundary-layer meteorology (temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, pressure), as well as broadband radiative fluxes and snow height changes. This set of instruments can be used to infer the role of clouds in the Antarctic climate system, their interaction with radiation and their impact on precipitation. Cloud and precipitation characteristics are derived from 5-year-long measurement series, which is unprecedented for the Antarctic region. Here, we present an overview of the cloud and precipitation climatology. Statistics on cloud occurrence are calculated on annual / seasonal basis and a distinction between liquid / mixed phase and ice clouds is made. One can discriminate between liquid-bearing and ice-only clouds by investigating the ceilometer attenuated backscatter, since liquid phase clouds have a much higher signal. Furthermore, by using pyrometer measurements, we are able to identify the range of temperatures at which liquid / ice clouds are

  19. Validation of ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY columnar methane by solar FTIR spectrometry at the Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane total-vertical column retrievals from ground-based solar FTIR measurements at the Permanent Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E, 2964 m a.s.l., Germany are used to validate column averaged methane retrieved from ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY spectra by WFM-DOAS (WFMD version 0.4 and 0.41 for 153 days in 2003. Smoothing errors are estimated to be below 0.10% for FTIR and 0.14% for SCIAMACHY-WFMD retrievals and can be neglected for the assessment of observed bias and day-to-day-scatter. In order to minimize the altitude-difference effect, dry-air column averaged mixing ratios (XCH4 have been utilized. From the FTIR-time series of XCH4 an atmospheric day-to-day variability of 1% was found, and a sinusoidal annual cycle with a ≈1.6% amplitude. To obtain the WFMD bias, a polynomial fitted to the FTIR series was used as a reference. The result is WFMD v0.4/FTIR=1.008±0.019 and WFMD v0.41/FTIR=1.058±0.008. WFMD v0.41 was significantly improved by a time-dependent bias correction. It can still not capture the natural day-to-day variability, i.e., the standard deviation calculated from the daily-mean values is 2.4% using averages within a 2000-km radius, and 2.7% for a 1000-km radius. These numbers are dominated by a residual time-dependent bias in the order of 3%/month. The latter can be reduced, e.g., from 2.4% to 1.6% as shown by an empirical time-dependent bias correction. Standard deviations of the daily means, calculated from the individual measurements of each day, are excluding time-dependent biases, thus showing the potential precision of WFMD daily means, i.e., 0.3% for a 2000-km selection radius, and 0.6% for a 1000-km selection radius. Therefore, the natural variability could be captured under the prerequisite of further advanced time-dependent bias corrections, or the use of other channels, where the icing issue is less prominent.

  20. Studies of Geomagnetic Pulsations Using Magnetometer Data from the CHAMP Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite and Ground-Based Stations: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Sutcliffe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We review research on geomagnetic pulsations carried out using magnetic field measurements from the CHAMP low-Earth-orbit (LEO satellite and ground-based stations in South Africa and Hungary. The high quality magnetic field measurements from CHAMP made it possible to extract and clearly resolve Pi2 and Pc3 pulsations in LEO satellite data. Our analyses for nighttime Pi2 pulsations are indicative of a cavity mode resonance. However, observations of daytime Pi2 pulsation events identified in ground station data show no convincing evidence of their occurrence in CHAMP data. We also studied low-latitude Pc3 pulsations and found that different types of field line resonant structure occur, namely discrete frequencies driven by a narrow band source and L-dependent frequencies driven by a broad band source.

  1. Optimizing the configuration of precipitation stations in a space-ground integrated sensor network based on spatial-temporal coverage maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guan, Qingfeng; Chen, Nengcheng; Tong, Daoqin; Hu, Chuli; Peng, Yuling; Dong, Xianyong; Yang, Chao

    2017-05-01

    The two major rainfall observation techniques, ground-based measurements and remote sensing, have distinct coverage characteristics. Large-scale spatial coverage and long-term temporal coverage cannot be achieved simultaneously by using only ground-based precipitation stations or space-borne sensors. Given the temporal discontinuity of satellite coverage and limited ground-based observation resources, we propose a method for siting precipitation stations in conjunction with satellite-based rainfall sensors to maximize the total spatial-temporal coverage of weighted demand in a continuous observation period. Considering the special principles of deploying precipitation stations and the requirement for continuous coverage in space and time, a time-continuous maximal covering location problem (TMCLP) model is introduced. The maximal spatial coverage range of a precipitation station is determined based on the minimum density required and the site-specific terrain conditions. The coverage of a satellite sensor is calculated for each time period when it passes overhead. The polygon intersection point set (PIPS) is refined to identify finite candidate sites. By narrowing the continuous search space to a finite dominating set and discretizing the continuous observation period to sequential sub-periods, the siting problem is solved using the TMCLP model and refined PIPS. According to specific monitoring purposes, different weighting schemes can be used to evaluate the coverage priority of each demand object. The Jinsha River Basin is selected as the study region to test the proposed method. Satellite-borne precipitation radar is used to evaluate the satellite coverage. The results show that the proposed method is effective for precipitation station configuration optimization, and the model solution achieves higher coverage than the real-world deployment. The applicability of the proposed method, site selection criteria, deployment strategies in different observation modes

  2. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  3. Telemetry, Telecommand and Communication Subsystem Design for Small Spacecrafts using COTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Noman

    2016-07-01

    Universities collaborations with space industry has played a pivotal role in the development of student satellites. Student satellites are characterized by their small size, low weight, cheap design, short development periods and flexible launching. Given these features, young scientists with deep interests in spacecraft field can develop their own satellites by adhering to design methodology and restrictions observed in a student satellite. Numerous student satellite mission have flown in past and there are many missions coming in future that adopt cheap, reliable, Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components to design and launch the student satellites. Multiple experiments are performed on these satellites in order to determine the space environmental characteristics through these small and low cost missions. Development of student satellite has brought space communication interest amongst the university students and young scientists and their innovative ideas bring the new technologies in the satellite industry field. Communication subsystem is an integral part of any satellite despite of the nature of mission. In this paper, reliable and cost efficient design of Telemetry, Telecommand and Communication subsystem for student satellite has been presented using (COTS) components. The link budget analysis for Telemetry downlink and Telecommand uplink is given for Global Education Network for Satellite Operations (GENSO) compatible small sized ground station. Keeping in view the nature of student satellite mission, all communications to and from ground station are in the UHF/ VHF amateur radio frequency band. Satellite TM/TC is compatible with any GENSO type ground receiving terminals. Circular Polarization with 4 pi radian coverage can be achieved by using the combination of Monopole wire antennas.

  4. Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Ghulam; Nader, Ronnie; Koudelka, Otto

    2011-09-01

    Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC) available for public use. The gateway has a maximum range of tracking and detection of 22,000 km and sensitivity such that it can receive and discriminate the signals from a satellite transmitter with power˜0.1 W. The capability is enough to receive the faintest low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. This gateway virtually connects participating internet clients around the world to a remote satellite ground station (GS), providing a broad community for multinational cooperation. The goal of the GS is to lower financial and engineering barriers that hinder access to science and engineering data from orbit. The basic design of the virtual GS on a user side is based on free software suites. Using these and other software tools the GS is able to provide access to orbit for a multitude of users without each having to go through the costly setups. We present the design and implementation of the virtual GS in a higher education and scientific outreach settings. We also discuss the basic architecture of the single existing system and the benefits of a proposed distributed system. Details of the software tools and their applicability to synchronous round-the-world tracking, monitoring and processing performed by students and teams at Graz University of Technology, Austria, EXA-Ecuador, University of Michigan, USA and JAXA who have participated in various mission operations and have investigated real-time satellite data download and image acquisition and processing. Students and other remote users at these

  5. Custom electronic subsystems for the laboratory telerobotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassell, R. L.; Butler, P. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Zimmermann, S. D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station Program presents new opportunities for the application of telerobotic and robotic systems. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) is a highly advanced 7 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) telerobotic/robotic manipulator. It was developed and built for the Automation Technology Branch at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) for work in research and to demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware and software systems for future NASA applications in the hazardous environment of space. The LTM manipulator uses an embedded wiring design with all electronics, motor power, and control and communication cables passing through the pitch-yaw differential joints. This design requires the number of cables passing through the pitch/yaw joint to be kept to a minimum. To eliminate the cables needed to carry each pitch-yaw joint's sensor data to the VME control computers, a custom-embedded electronics package for each manipulator joint was developed. The electronics package collects and sends the joint's sensor data to the VME control computers over a fiber optic cable. The electronics package consist of five individual subsystems: the VME Link Processor, the Joint Processor and the Joint Processor power supply in the joint module, the fiber optics communications system, and the electronics and motor power cabling.

  6. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Robert N.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the functions of the thermal control subsystem engineers in the design of spacecraft. The goal of the thermal control subsystem that will be used in a spacecraft is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and all the flight systems within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to the end of the mission. For most thermal control subsystems the mass, power and control and sensing systems must be kept below 10% of the total flight system resources. This means that the thermal control engineer is involved in all other flight systems designs. The two concepts of thermal control, passive and active are reviewed and the use of thermal modeling tools are explained. The testing of the thermal control is also reviewed.

  7. Hydrogeologic setting, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at the Lake Wheeler Road research station, 2001-03 : North Carolina Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Bolich, Richard E.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a 2-year field study of the regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system at the Lake Wheeler Road research station in Wake County, North Carolina, indicate both disconnection and interaction among components of the ground-water system. The three components of the ground-water system include (1) shallow, porous regolith; (2) a transition zone, including partially weathered rock, having both secondary (fractures) and primary porosity; and (3) deeper, fractured bedrock that has little, if any, primary porosity and is dominated by secondary fractures. The research station includes 15 wells (including a well transect from topographic high to low settings) completed in the three major components of the ground-water-flow system and a surface-water gaging station on an unnamed tributary. The Lake Wheeler Road research station is considered representative of a felsic gneiss hydrogeologic unit having steeply dipping foliation and a relatively thick overlying regolith. Bedrock foliation generally strikes N. 10? E. to N. 30? E. and N. 20? W. to N. 40? W. to a depth of about 400 feet and dips between 70? and 80? SE. and NE., respectively. From 400 to 600 feet, the foliation generally strikes N. 70? E. to N. 80? E., dipping 70? to 80? SE. Depth to bedrock locally ranges from about 67 to 77 feet below land surface. Fractures in the bedrock generally occur in two primary sets: low dip angle, stress relief fractures that cross cut foliation, and steeply dipping fractures parallel to foliation. Findings of this study generally support the conceptual models of ground-water flow from high to low topographic settings developed for the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces in previous investigations, but are considered a refinement of the generalized conceptual model based on a detailed local-scale investigation. Ground water flows toward a surface-water boundary, and hydraulic gradients generally are downward in recharge areas and upward in discharge areas; however, local

  8. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  9. Recent developments for the Large Binocular Telescope Guiding Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golota, T.; De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Lesser, M.; Leibold, T.; Miller, D.; Meeks, R.; Hahn, T.; Storm, J.; Sargent, T.; Summers, D.; Hill, J.; Kraus, J.; Hooper, S.; Fisher, D.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) has eight Acquisition, Guiding, and wavefront Sensing Units (AGw units). They provide guiding and wavefront sensing capability at eight different locations at both direct and bent Gregorian focal stations. Recent additions of focal stations for PEPSI and MODS instruments doubled the number of focal stations in use including respective motion, camera controller server computers, and software infrastructure communicating with Guiding Control Subsystem (GCS). This paper describes the improvements made to the LBT GCS and explains how these changes have led to better maintainability and contributed to increased reliability. This paper also discusses the current GCS status and reviews potential upgrades to further improve its performance.

  10. High altitude clouds impacts on the design of optical feeder link and optical ground station network for future broadband satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulenard, S.; Ruellan, M.; Roy, B.; Riédi, J.; Parol, F.; Rissons, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optical links at 1.55μm are envisaged to cope with the increasing capacity demand from geostationary telecom satellite operators without the need of Radio Frequency (RF) coordination. Due to clouds blockages, site diversity techniques based on a network of Optical Ground Stations (OGS) are necessary to reach the commonly required link availability (e.g. 99.9% over the year). Evaluation of the N Optical Ground Station Network (N-OGSN) availability is based on Clouds Masks (CMs) and depends on the clouds attenuation taken in the optical communication budget link. In particular, low attenuation of high semitransparent clouds (i.e. cirrus) could be incorporated into the budget link at the price of larger or more powerful optical terminals. In this paper, we present a method for the calibration of the attenuation at 1.55 μm of high semitransparent clouds. We perform OGS localization optimization in Europe and we find that the incorporation of thin cirrus attenuation in the budget link reduces by 20% the number of handover (i.e. switches OGS) and the handover rate. It is also shown that the minimum number of station required in Europe to reach 99.9% link availability is 10 to 11. When the zone of research is enlarged the Africa, this number is reduced to 3 to 4.

  11. Temporal evolution of chlorine and related species observed with ground-based FTIR at Syowa Station, Antarctica during late winter and spring in 2007 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Saeki, Kosuke; Murata, Isao; Nagahama, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Masanori

    2017-04-01

    Vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, and HCl and vertical column of ClONO2 were retrieved from solar spectra taken with a ground-based Fourier-Transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) installed at Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0S, 39.6E) from March to December, 2007 and September to November, 2011. We analyzed temporal variation of these species combined with ClO data taken by Aura/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellite sensor at 18 and 22 km over Syowa Station. In early July, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) started to be formed over Syowa Station. With the return of sunlight at Syowa Station in early July, ClONO2 and HCl showed depleted values while ClO showed enhanced values. At two altitudes (18 and 22 km), when ClO concentrations started to decline in early September, HCl started to increase rapidly, while the increase in ClONO2 was gradual. The Cly partitioning between HCl, ClONO2, and ClO showed difference at different altitudes. At the altitudes of 18 km, where ozone was almost depleted, ClO and HNO3 amounts are low, so conversion to HCl was favored rather than ClONO2. Whereas, at 22 km, sufficient ozone still remained, at an amount that ClONO2 formation from ClO and NOy species continued to occur at this altitude.

  12. Ground based observations of Pc3-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation power at Antarctic McMurdo station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maclennan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The two horizontal geomagnetic components and, measured by a fluxgate magnetometer at Antarctic McMurdo station (corrected geomagnetic coordinates 80.0° S, 327.5° E, are analyzed for the period May-June 1994; the spectral powers are calculated and integrated over three frequency intervals corresponding to the nominal ranges. The time dependence of those integrated powers and their correlations with northern auroral indices and solar wind speed are considered. The observations are compared with previous results reported from Terra Nova Bay station (located near McMurdo at the same corrected geomagnetic latitude during Antarctic summer intervals. The differences found between the two stations are discussed in terms of the seasonal dependence of geomagnetic field line configurations in the near cusp region.

  13. Ground-based multi-station spectroscopic imaging with ALIS. - Scientific highlights, project status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändström; Gustavsson, Björn; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Sandahl, Ingrid; Sergienko, Tima; Steen, Ake

    2005-08-01

    The Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) was first proposed at the ESA-PAC meeting in Lahnstein 1989. The first spectroscopic imaging station was operational in 1994, and since then up to six stations have been in simultaneous operation. Each station has a scientific-grade CCD-detector and a filter-wheel for narrow-band interference-filters with six positions. The field-of-view is around 70°. Each imager is mounted in a positioning system, enabling imaging of a common volume from several sites. This enables triangulation and tomography. Raw data from ALIS is freely available at ("http://alis.irf.se") and ALIS is open for scientific colaboration. ALIS made the first unambiguous observations of Radio-induced optical emissions at high latitudes, and the detection of water in a Leonid meteor-trail. Both rockets and satellite coordination are considered for future observations with ALIS.

  14. Realiability Of Heat Supply Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiarz Bożena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the reliability analysis of subsystem of heat supply in the example of 47 thousand inhabitants’ city. The analysis was made on the basis of operational data made available by the Municipal Heating Company, between the years 2001 ÷ 2012. To describe the quantitative reliability of heat supply subsystem reliability indicators are used. Main times between failure and unitary failure rates including the month of their occurrence, type and diameter of the heating network, thermal power region were working out. Knowing the characteristics of the time to repair for the heating network, the reliability of heat supply subsystem for different thermal power region, considering the district heating system configuration can be determined.

  15. System design and realization of the software for UAV ground station%某型无人机地面站软件的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建新; 张秋阳; 谢习华

    2011-01-01

    For the requirements of the flight monitoring and controlling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the key technologies to realize the ground navigation station system of UAV were discussed. A flight control ground station (CGS)software , with the advantage of convenient and powerful, was developed based on the active controls of Visual Basic and visualization development tool Through the introduction of highly accurate multimedia timer,the synchronous communication was complied. By using serial communication, and the application of modularization ,functions such as real time display of remote test data,database storage,fault alarm and timing delivery of remote control orders were well realized by the method of modular design. The task of the UAV ground station system was fulfilled with satisfaction and it also has good expansibility.%针对某型无人机飞行监测和控制的要求,主要讨论某型无人机地面站关键技术的实现.以VB可视化语言为开发工具,嵌入Mapx控件,设计了一套操作方便、功能强大的飞控地面站软件系统.软件基于模块化设计思想,采用串口通信方式,利用高精度多媒体定时器实现同步通信,实现了遥测数据的实时显示、数据存储、故障提示和遥控指令的定时发送等功能.经过实际调试系统运行良好,通信实时性很高,很好地完成了各部分功能,并具有很好的扩展性.

  16. Significance of spatial variability in precipitation for process-oriented modelling: results from two nested catchments using radar and ground station data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tetzlaff

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of considering the spatial distribution of rainfall for process-oriented hydrological modelling is well-known. However, the application of rainfall radar data to provide such detailed spatial resolution is still under debate. In this study the process-oriented TACD (Tracer Aided Catchment model, Distributed model had been used to investigate the effects of different spatially distributed rainfall input on simulated discharge and runoff components on an event base. TACD is fully distributed (50x50m2 raster cells and was applied on an hourly base. As model input rainfall data from up to 7 ground stations and high resolution rainfall radar data from operational C-band radar were used. For seven rainfall events the discharge simulations were investigated in further detail for the mountainous Brugga catchment (40km2 and the St. Wilhelmer Talbach (15.2km2 sub-basin, which are located in the Southern Black Forest Mountains, south-west Germany. The significance of spatial variable precipitation data was clearly demonstrated. Dependent on event characteristics, localized rain cells were occasionally poorly captured even by a dense ground station network, and this resulted in inadequate model results. For such events, radar data can provide better input data. However, an extensive data adjustment using ground station data is required. For this purpose a method was developed that considers the temporal variability in rainfall intensity in high temporal resolution in combination with the total rainfall amount of both data sets. The use of the distributed catchment model allowed further insights into spatially variable impacts of different rainfall estimates. Impacts for discharge predictions are the largest in areas that are dominated by the production of fast runoff components. The improvements for distributed runoff simulation using high resolution rainfall radar input data are strongly dependent on the investigated scale, the event

  17. Ozone tropospheric and stratospheric trends (1995-2012) at six ground-based FTIR stations (28°N to 79°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Corinne; De Mazière, Martine; Demoulin, Philippe; Servais, Christian; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Schneider, Matthias; Kohlepp, Regina; Barthlott, Sabine; García, Omaira; Mellqvist, Johan; Persson, Glenn; Palm, Mathias; Notholt, Justus; Hannigan, James; Coffey, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), contributing ground-based stations have joined their efforts to homogenize and optimize the retrievals of ozone profiles from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) solar absorption spectra. Using the optimal estimation method, distinct vertical information can be obtained in four layers: ground-10 km, 10-18 km, 18-27 km, and 27-42 km, in addition to total column amounts. In a previous study, Vigouroux et al. (2008)1 applied a bootstrap resampling method to determine the trends of the ozone total and four partial columns, over the period 1995-2004 at Western European stations. The updated trends for the period 1995-2009 have been published in the WMO 2010 report2. Here, we present the updated trends and their uncertainties, for the 1995-2012 period, for the different altitude ranges, above five European stations (28°N-79°N) and above the station Thule, Greenland (77°N). In this work, the trends have been estimated using a multiple regression model including some explanatory variables responsible for the ozone variability, such as the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the solar flux, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). A major result is the significant positive trend of ozone in the upper stratosphere, observed at the Jungfraujoch (47°N), which is a typical mid-latitude site, as well as at the high latitude stations. This positive trend in the upper stratosphere at Jungfraujoch provides a sign of ozone recovery at mid-latitudes. 1 Vigouroux, C., De Mazière, M., Demoulin, P., Servais, C., Hase, F., Blumenstock, T., Kramer, I., Schneider, M., Mellqvist, J., Strandberg, A., Velazco, V., Notholt, J., Sussmann, R., Stremme, W., Rockmann, A., Gardiner, T., Coleman, M., and Woods, P. : Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone trends over Western Europe from ground-based FTIR network observations, ACP, 8, 6865-6886, 2008. 2 Douglass, A., and

  18. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  19. UGV: security analysis of subsystem control network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott-McCune, Sam; Kobezak, Philip; Tront, Joseph; Marchany, Randy; Wicks, Al

    2013-05-01

    Unmanned Ground vehicles (UGVs) are becoming prolific in the heterogeneous superset of robotic platforms. The sensors which provide odometry, localization, perception, and vehicle diagnostics are fused to give the robotic platform a sense of the environment it is traversing. The automotive industry CAN bus has dominated the industry due to the fault tolerance and the message structure allowing high priority messages to reach the desired node in a real time environment. UGVs are being researched and produced at an accelerated rate to preform arduous, repetitive, and dangerous missions that are associated with a military action in a protracted conflict. The technology and applications of the research will inevitably be turned into dual-use platforms to aid civil agencies in the performance of their various operations. Our motivation is security of the holistic system; however as subsystems are outsourced in the design, the overall security of the system may be diminished. We will focus on the CAN bus topology and the vulnerabilities introduced in UGVs and recognizable security vulnerabilities that are inherent in the communications architecture. We will show how data can be extracted from an add-on CAN bus that can be customized to monitor subsystems. The information can be altered or spoofed to force the vehicle to exhibit unwanted actions or render the UGV unusable for the designed mission. The military relies heavily on technology to maintain information dominance, and the security of the information introduced onto the network by UGVs must be safeguarded from vulnerabilities that can be exploited.

  20. Force protection demining system (FPDS) detection subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachery, Karen N.; Schultz, Gregory M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2005-06-01

    This study describes the U.S. Army Force Protection Demining System (FPDS); a remotely-operated, multisensor platform developed for reliable detection and neutralization of both anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. The ongoing development of the prototype multisensor detection subsystem is presented, which integrates an advanced electromagnetic pulsed-induction array and ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar array on a single standoff platform. The FPDS detection subsystem is mounted on a robotic rubber-tracked vehicle and incorporates an accurate and precise navigation/positioning module making it well suited for operation in varied and irregular terrains. Detection sensors are optimally configured to minimize interference without loss in sensitivity or performance. Mine lane test data acquired from the prototype sensors are processed to extract signal- and image-based features for automatic target recognition. Preliminary results using optimal feature and classifier selection indicate the potential of the system to achieve high probabilities of detection while minimizing false alarms. The FPDS detection software system also exploits modern multi-sensor data fusion algorithms to provide real-time detection and discrimination information to the user.

  1. 融合Google Earth的无人机遥控遥测地面站设计%Design of UAV Remote Telemetry Ground Control Station Using Google Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文辉; 王琪; 马璐

    2014-01-01

    According to the requirement of flight monitoring and control of UAV, this paper put forward a design of UAV remote telemetry ground control station software. The UAV remote telemetry ground control station software, which consists of five parts including system debugging, route planning, flight monitoring, video capturing and data replaying. Based on Google Earth COM API secondary development and Visual C++6.0 development environment, it uses modular design concept, serial communication, virtual aviation instrument, and vedio capturing technology to develop.%针对无人机飞行监测和控制的要求,设计了一款飞行监测和控制的无人机遥控遥测地面站系统软件.无人机遥控遥测地面站系统软件包括系统调试、航迹规划、飞行监测、视频捕捉和数据回放等功能模块,融合Google Earth COM API二次开发技术基础上运用Visual C++6.0作为系统开发环境,采用模块化理念并嵌入串口通信技术、虚拟航空仪表技术、视频捕捉技术等进行软件开发.

  2. Simultaneous PMC and PMSE observations with a ground-basedlidar and SuperDARN HF radar over Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Kawahara, Takuya D.; Ogawa, Tadahiko; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Sessai Yukimatu, Akira; Abo, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    A Rayleigh-Raman lidar system had been installed by the 52nd JapaneseAntarctic Research Expedition on February, 2011 at Syowa Station Antarctica(69.0°S, 39.5°E). Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) was detected by the lidar at22:30UT (+3hr for LT) on Feb 4th, 2011, the first day of a routineoperation. This event is the first time to detect PMC over Syowa Station bya lidar. In the same night, SuperDARN HF radar with oblique incidence beamsalso detected Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) during 21:30UT to23:00UT. Although these signals were detected at different times andlocations, PMC motion estimated using horizontal wind velocities obtained bya collocated MF radar strongly suggests that they have a common origin (i.e.ice particle). We consider that this event occurred in the end of PMCactivity period at Syowa Station in the austral summer season (2010-2011),since the lidar did not detected any PMC signals on other days in February,2011. This is consistent with satellite-born PMC observations by AIM/CIPSand atmospheric temperature observations by AURA/MLS instruments.

  3. Carbon monoxide observations from ground stations in France and Europe and long trends in the free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chevalier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous CO measurements performed at 3 high-altitude stations in France are analyzed for the first time. Data are provided by the new PAES (Pollution Atmospherique à l'Echelle Synoptique network since 2002 for the Puy de Dôme and 2004 for the Pic du Midi and the Donon. CO measurements of 5 another European stations have been analysed to put the PAES stations in an European perspective. The January 2002–April 2005 CO mean levels of surface stations capture the stratification revealed by climatological CO profiles from the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service Aircraft. The deviation between the free tropospheric reference MOZAIC and surface data above 2000 m is less than 10% and this deviation can be explained in term of spatial variability, as evidenced by MOPITT CO retrievals at 700 hPa. This suggests that, averaged at a seasonal time scale (4 months, surface data at stations above 2000 m are representative of background CO concentration.

    This paper focuses then on trends since the 1980s–1990s. The comparison between old (1982–1983 and recent CO mixing ratio (2005 at the Pic du Midi leads to a 10% decrease, consistent with the continuous data series at Zugspitze (ZSP from 1991 to 2004. This decrease was found to be mainly due to a negative trend of January–April mean levels. The decrease in CO sources over France and Europe appears to be responsible for that trend. The stable values of June–September mean levels suggest that the summertime oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere related to OH radicals is important enough to counterbalance any CO inputs into the troposphere. Our study shows a recent change in CO evolution since 2000 over Western Europe, with a slowed down decrease in CO concentration. Studying specifically the interactions between CO, CH4 and OH turns out to be needed, however, to find definitive explanations to those observations.

  4. Ground landslide hazard potency using geoelectrical resistivity analysis and VS30, case study at geophysical station, Lembang, Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohadi, Supriyanto; Sakya, Andi Eka; Masturyono, Murjaya, Jaya; Sunardi, Bambang; Rasmid, Ngadmanto, Drajat; Susilanto, Pupung; Nugraha, Jimmi; Pakpahan, Suliyanti

    2017-07-01

    We have conducted geoelectric resistivity and shear wave velocity (Vs30) study to identify the landslide potential hazard, around Geophysics Station Lembang, Bandung (107,617° E and 6,825° S). The the geoelectric analysis using Dipole-Dipole resitivity configuration, while shear wave velocity analysis performed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW). The study results indicate that the assumed soil or clay depth from the electrical resistivity observation was in accordance with the confirmed soil or clay depth by the MASW investigation. Based on these conditions, indicate the high potential of landsliding in this area, landslide potential supported by high slope angle in this area.

  5. VLBI collimation-tower technique for time-delay studies of a large ground-station communications antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Young, L. E.; Rusch, W. V. T.

    1985-01-01

    A need for an accurate but inexpensive method for measuring and evaluating time delays of large ground antennas for VLBI applications motivated the development of the collimation tower technique. Supporting analytical work which was performed primarily to verify time delay measurement results obtained for a large antenna when the transmitter was at a collimation distance of 1/25 of the usual far field criterion is discussed. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental results are also given.

  6. The SPICE Digital Shape Kernel (DSK) Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, N. J.

    2017-06-01

    The DSK subsystem is the component of SPICE concerned with detailed shape models. The DSK subsystem enables SPICE-based applications to conveniently and efficiently use detailed shape data in geometry computations performed by SPICE routines.

  7. Holonomic Quantum Computation in Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan

    2009-08-01

    We introduce a generalized method of holonomic quantum computation (HQC) based on encoding in subsystems. As an application, we propose a scheme for applying holonomic gates to unencoded qubits by the use of a noisy ancillary qubit. This scheme does not require initialization in a subspace since all dynamical effects factor out as a transformation on the ancilla. We use this approach to show how fault-tolerant HQC can be realized via 2-local Hamiltonians with perturbative gadgets.

  8. Holonomic quantum computation in subsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Oreshkov, Ognyan

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a generalized method of holonomic quantum computation (HQC) based on encoding in subsystems. As an application, we propose a scheme for applying holonomic gates to unencoded qubits by the use of a noisy ancillary qubit. This scheme does not require initialization in a subspace since all dynamical effects factor out as a transformation on the ancilla. We use this approach to show how fault-tolerant HQC can be realized via 2-local Hamiltonians with perturbative gadgets.

  9. Atmosphere Impact and Ground Station Selection for Satellite-to-Ground Laser Communication%星地链路激光通信地面站址选择及大气影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄岩; 赵义武; 陈纯毅

    2014-01-01

    综合考虑我国方量的地理分布和气候特点,提出了一项星地激光通信的地面多址布站方案,仿真分析了大气散射引起的衰减及大气湍流对星地链路的影响.利用卫星工具包(STK)软件分析了地球静止轨道(GEO)卫星与5个地面站的链路特性.结果表明,西藏的阿里站同时具有最理想的经度和纬度,地平角为52°,最有利于开展星地激光通信.在一定天气条件下,随着波长的增加,对应的散射引起的功率衰减减小;随着能见度的降低,大气散射引起的光功率平均衰减增加;随着地平角的升高,大气引起的功率平均衰减减小;波长越长,闪烁指数越小;随着接收孔径直径的增大,闪烁指数快速减小;随着海拔高度的增加,闪烁方差减小.该研究为星地激光通信外场实验提供了一定的理论依据.%A multiple ground stations scheme satellite-to-ground laser communication is proposed with the geographical distribution of cloud cover and climatic features considered.The effect of attenuation caused by atmospheric scattering and atmospheric turbulence is analyzed for different paths from geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites to five ground stations.Link characteristics between the GEO satellite and the five ground stations are simulated using the satellite tool kit (STK) software.The results show that Ali region in Tibet has the best longitude and latitude conditions with a horizontal angle of 52 °,which is most beneficial to laser satelliteto-ground communications.The power attenuation shows a decreasing trend as the wavelength increases due to scattering under the same weather conditions.The optical power attenuation is intensified as visibility falls.The average power attenuation caused by atmosphere decreases along with the rise of horizontal angle.The longer the wavelength λ,the smaller the scintillation index; the scintillation index decreases rapidly when the diameter of receiving aperture

  10. Compilation and Analysis of 20- and 30-GHz Rain Fade Events at the ACTS NASA Ground Station: Statistics and Model Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    Since the beginning of the operational phase of the NASA Research Center's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS), signal-fade measurements have been recorded at the NASA Ground Station located in Cleveland, Ohio, with the use of the 20- and 30-GHz beacon signals. Compilations of the daily data have been statistically analyzed on a monthly and yearly basis. Such analyses have yielded relevant parameters as (1) cumulative monthly and yearly probability distributions of signal attenuation by rain, (2) attenuation duration versus attenuation threshold probabilities, and (3) rate-of-fade probabilities. Not only are such data needed for a realistic data base to support the design and performance analysis of future satellite systems, but they are necessary to assess predictions made with the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model.

  11. Low-cost approach for a software-defined radio based ground station receiver for CCSDS standard compliant S-band satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, M. A.; Butt, B. M.; Klinkner, S.

    2016-10-01

    A major concern of a university satellite mission is to download the payload and the telemetry data from a satellite. While the ground station antennas are in general easy and with limited afford to procure, the receiving unit is most certainly not. The flexible and low-cost software-defined radio (SDR) transceiver "BladeRF" is used to receive the QPSK modulated and CCSDS compliant coded data of a satellite in the HAM radio S-band. The control software is based on the Open Source program GNU Radio, which also is used to perform CCSDS post processing of the binary bit stream. The test results show a good performance of the receiving system.

  12. Retrievals of formaldehyde from ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations at the Jungfraujoch station and comparisons with GEOS-Chem and IMAGES model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, B.; Hendrick, F.; Van Roozendael, M.; Müller, J.-F.; Stavrakou, T.; Marais, E. A.; Bovy, B.; Bader, W.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; Lejeune, B.; Pinardi, G.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2015-04-01

    As an ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation pathways leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, HCHO profiles have been successfully retrieved from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar spectra and UV-visible Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) scans recorded during the July 2010-December 2012 time period at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.). Analysis of the retrieved products has revealed different vertical sensitivity between both remote sensing techniques. Furthermore, HCHO amounts simulated by two state-of-the-art chemical transport models (CTMs), GEOS-Chem and IMAGES v2, have been compared to FTIR total columns and MAX-DOAS 3.6-8 km partial columns, accounting for the respective vertical resolution of each ground-based instrument. Using the CTM outputs as the intermediate, FTIR and MAX-DOAS retrievals have shown consistent seasonal modulations of HCHO throughout the investigated period, characterized by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum. Such comparisons have also highlighted that FTIR and MAX-DOAS provide complementary products for the HCHO retrieval above the Jungfraujoch station. Finally, tests have revealed that the updated IR parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database have a cumulative effect and significantly decrease the retrieved HCHO columns with respect to the use of the HITRAN 2008 compilation.

  13. Retrievals of formaldehyde from ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations at the Jungfraujoch station and comparisons with GEOS-Chem and IMAGES model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As an ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs, formaldehyde (HCHO plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation pathways leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, HCHO profiles have been successfully retrieved from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR solar spectra and UV-visible Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS scans recorded during the July 2010–December 2012 time period at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.. Analysis of the retrieved products has revealed different vertical sensitivity between both remote sensing techniques. Furthermore, HCHO amounts simulated by two state-of-the-art chemical transport models (CTMs, GEOS-Chem and IMAGES v2, have been compared to FTIR total columns and MAX-DOAS 3.6–8 km partial columns, accounting for the respective vertical resolution of each ground-based instrument. Using the CTM outputs as the intermediate, FTIR and MAX-DOAS retrievals have shown consistent seasonal modulations of HCHO throughout the investigated period, characterized by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum. Such comparisons have also highlighted that FTIR and MAX-DOAS provide complementary products for the HCHO retrieval above the Jungfraujoch station. Finally, tests have revealed that the updated IR parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database have a cumulative effect and significantly decrease the retrieved HCHO columns with respect to the use of the HITRAN 2008 compilation.

  14. Photovoltaic subsystem optimization and design tradeoff study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, W.J.

    1982-03-01

    Tradeoffs and subsystem choices are examined in photovoltaic array subfield design, power-conditioning sizing and selection, roof- and ground-mounted structure installation, energy loss, operating voltage, power conditioning cost, and subfield size. Line- and self-commutated power conditioning options are analyzed to determine the most cost-effective technology in the megawatt power range. Methods for reducing field installation of flat panels and roof mounting of intermediate load centers are discussed, including the cost of retrofit installations.

  15. A global assessment of NASA AIRS v6 and EUMETSAT IASI v6 precipitable water vapor using ground-based GPS SuomiNet stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jacola; Knuteson, Robert; August, Thomas; Hultberg, Tim; Ackerman, Steve; Revercomb, Hank

    2016-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is essential for monitoring moisture in real time for weather applications, as well as tracking the long-term changes in PWV for climate change trend detection. This study assesses the accuracies of the current satellite observing system, specifically the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v6 PWV product and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite Studies (EUMETSAT) Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) v6 PWV product, using ground-based SuomiNet Global Positioning System (GPS) network as truth. Elevation-corrected collocated matchups to each SuomiNet GPS station in North America and around the world were created, and results were broken down by station, ARM region, climate zone, and latitude zone. The greatest difference, exceeding 5%, between IASI and AIRS retrievals occurred in the tropics. Generally, IASI and AIRS fall within a 5% error in the PWV range of 20-40 mm (a mean bias less than 2 mm), with a wet bias for extremely low PWV values (less than 5 mm) and a dry bias for extremely high PWV values (greater than 50 mm). The operational IR satellite products are able to capture the mean PWV but degrade in the extreme dry and wet regimes.

  16. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  17. Development of a Ground-Based Analog to the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathaniel J.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.; Caldwell, E.; DeWitt, J.K.; Fincke, R.; Peters, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and Wyle engineers constructed a Horizontal Exercise Fixture (HEF) that was patented in 2006. Recently modifications were made to HEF with the goal of creating a device that mimics squat exercise on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and can be used by bed rest subjects who must remain supine during exercise. This project posed several engineering challenges, such as how best to reproduce the hip motions (we used a sled that allowed hip motion in the sagittal plane), how to counterweight the pelvis against gravity (we used a pulley and free-weight mechanism), and how to apply large loads (body weight plus squat load) to the shoulders while simultaneously supporting the back against gravity (we tested a standard and a safety bar that allowed movement in the subject s z-axis, both of which used a retractable plate for back support). METHODS An evaluation of the HEF was conducted with human subjects (3F, 3M), who performed sets of squat exercises of increasing load from 10-repetition maximum (RM) up to 1-RM. Three pelvic counterweight loads were tested along with each of the two back-support squat bars. Data collection included 3-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF), muscle activation (EMG), body motion (video-based motion capture), and subjective comments. These data were compared with previous ground-based ARED study data. RESULTS All subjects in the evaluation were able to perform low- to high-loading squats on the HEF. Four of the 6 subjects preferred a pelvic counterweight equivalent to 60 percent of their body weight. Four subjects preferred the standard squat bar, whereas 2 female subjects preferred the safety bar. EMG data showed muscle activation in the legs and low back typical of squat motion. GRF trajectories and eccentric-concentric loading ratios were similar to ARED. CONCLUSION: Squat exercise performed on HEF approximated squat exercise on ARED.

  18. Following solar activity with geomagnetic and cosmic-ray ground-based stations in the Iberian Peninsula region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Victor; José Blanco, Juan; Miquel Torta, Joan; Catalán, Manuel; Ribeiro, Paulo; Morozova, Anna; Tordesillas, José Manuel; Solé, Germán; Gomis-Moreno, Almudena

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is located in the South-West of Europe between 36°00' N and 43°47' N and between 9°29' W and 3°19' E. There are four Geomagnetic Observatories currently operative in this area devoted to the observation of the Earth's magnetic field: Observatori de l'Ebre (NE Spain); Observatorio de San Pablo de los Montes (central Spain); Observatorio de San Fernando (southern Spain); Observatório de Coimbra (central Portugal); plus another one, Observatorio de Güímar, in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). There is also one neutron monitor located in Guadalajara (central Spain; 40°38' N, 3°9' W at 708 m asl) continuously measuring the arrival of cosmic rays to the Earth's surface. In this work we show combined observations of these six stations during events caused by solar activity. We analyze them looking for differences that could imply extremely local effects caused by the response of the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere to solar activity.

  19. FLPP NGL Structural Subsystems Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaredson, D.; Ramusat, G.; Appel, S.; Cardone, T.; Persson, J.; Baiocco, P.; Lavelle, F.; Bouilly, Th.

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) is the basis for new paradigms, investigating the key elements, logic and roadmaps to prepare the development of the safe, reliable and low cost next European Launch Vehicle (LV) for access to space (dubbed NGL - Next Generation LV), with an initial operational capability mid-next decade. In addition to carry cargo to conventional GTO or SSO, the European NGL has to be flexible enough to cope with new pioneering institutional missions as well as the evolving commercial payloads market. This achievement is broached studying three main areas relevant to ELVs: System concepts, Propulsion and Core Technology During the preliminary design activity, a number of design alternatives concerning NGL main structural subsystems have been investigated. Technology is one of the ways to meet the NGL challenges to either improve the performances or to reduce the cost or both. The relevant requirements allow to steer a ‘top-down’ approach for their conception and to propose the most effective technologies. Furthermore, all these technology developments represent a significant ‘bottom-up’ approach investment and concern a large range of activities. The structural subsystems portfolio of the FLPP ‘Core Technology’ activity encompasses major cutting-edge challenges for maturation of the various subsystems leading to reduce overall structural mass, increasing structural margins for robustness, metallic and composite containment of cryogenic propellants, significantly reducing fabrication and operations cost, etc. to derive performing upper and booster stages. Application of concurrent engineering methods will allow developments of performing technology demonstrators in terms of need, demonstration objective, size and cost yielding to safe, low-risk technical approaches for a future development. Potential ability of these advanced structural LV technologies to satisfy the system requirements of the NGL and their current

  20. Observation of an Aligned Gas - Solid "Eutectic" during Controlled Directional Solidification Aboard the International Space Station - Comparison with Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Direct observation of the controlled melting and solidification of succinonitrile was conducted in the glovebox facility of the International Space Station (ISS). The experimental samples were prepared on ground by filling glass tubes, 1 cm ID and approximately 30 cm in length, with pure succinonitrile (SCN) in an atmosphere of nitrogen at 450 millibar pressure for eventual processing in the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) apparatus in the glovebox facility (GBX) on board the ISS. Real time visualization during controlled directional melt back of the sample showed nitrogen bubbles emerging from the interface and moving through the liquid up the imposed temperature gradient. Over a period of time these bubbles disappear by dissolving into the melt. Translation is stopped after melting back of about 9 cm of the sample, with an equilibrium solid-liquid interface established. During controlled re-solidification, aligned tubes of gas were seen growing perpendicular to the planar solid/liquid interface, inferring that the nitrogen previously dissolved into the liquid SCN was now coming out at the solid/liquid interface and forming the little studied liquid = solid + gas eutectic-type reaction. The observed structure is evaluated in terms of spacing dimensions, interface undercooling, and mechanisms for spacing adjustments. Finally, the significance of processing in a microgravity environment is ascertained in view of ground-based results.

  1. Investigation of Contaminated Ground Water at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells 12MW-10S and 12MW-03S, upgradient from the PRB, showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest showed a sharp increase, followed by a decrease. In 2007, the VOC concentrations began to increase in well 12MW-12S, downgradient from the PRB and thought to be unaffected by the PRB. The VOC-concentration changes in the forest, such as at well 12MW-12S, may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in ground-water-flow direction or may represent movement of a contamination pulse through the forest.

  2. Retrieval and validation of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR spectrometer at equatorial station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele Kenea, S.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.

    2012-09-01

    Since May 2009 high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra are recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude a.s.l.), Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3) are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5) and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS). A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels analysis of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information always comes from the measurement. We obtained 2.1 degrees of freedom on average for signals in the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. We have compared the FTIR retrieval of ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR) profiles and column amounts with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS), Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument. The mean relative differences are generally found below +15% in the altitude range of 27 to 36 km for comparison of VMR profiles made between MLS and MIPAS, whereas comparison with TES has shown below 9.4% relative difference. Furthermore, the mean relative difference is positive above 31 km, suggesting positive bias in the FTIR measurement of O3 VMR with respect to MLS, MIPAS and TES. The overall comparisons of column amounts of satellite measurements with the ground-based FTIR instruments show better agreement exhibiting mean relative differences of ground-based FTIR with respect to MLS and GOME-2 within +0.4% to +4.0% and corresponding standard deviations of 2.2 to 4.3% whereas, in the case of OMI, TES, AIRS, the mean relative differences are from -0.38 to -6.8%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit

  3. The Research and Implementation of Three Stages Traffic Stations Intelligent Monitor Systems Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-ying, Chen; Ting, Xiao; WangTao; Jin-yi, He

    This system used three stage intelligent traffic station subsystems to forecast the path on which vehicle will go. First stage subsystem can forecast road node which adjacented to traffic station. Second stage subsystem was designed for bigger area, for example city, the third stage subsystem was for the larger area between city. Second stage subsystem system used A* based on orientation to calculate shortest path, third stage subsystem calculated critical node of a large area. The system can compose dispersed monitor information, forecast vehicle path, dynamic analysis, hierarchical monitor .It played an important role in ITS.

  4. 星地光通信的天气可用性与地面站选址研究%Satellite-to-ground optical communication's usability with different weathers and ground station location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓峰; 赵尚弘; 李勇军; 王翔; 李瑞欣

    2012-01-01

    The attenuation of satellite-to-ground optical link in fog, rain, snow and cloud is calculated with empirical formulas. The result of simulation shows the longer the length of the light wave, the smaller the attenuation of the laser in the fog; the attenuation in the snow is 10 -100 times higher than that in the rain; when the optical depth of cloud is 4. 7, the laser attenuation is higher than 20 dB. Considering the geographic distribution, meteorological features and cloud cover statistics, it is suggested that the Tarim basin, the desert of western Inner Mongolia and the northwestern part of Loess Plateau in northwest of China should be favorable for satellite-to-ground optical communication ground station location.%利用经验公式计算了星地光链路在雾、雨、雪、云天气中的衰减,仿真结果表明:波长越长,雾对激光的衰减越小;雪对激光的衰减量高于雨对激光衰减量1~2个数量级;当光学厚度达到4.7时,云层对激光的衰减已达到20 dB以上.综合考虑我国的地理分布和气候特点以及云层覆盖情况,建议我国星地光通信地面站选址可以考虑西北地区的塔里木盆地-内蒙古西部戈壁沙漠-黄土高原西北部一带.

  5. Retrieval and satellite intercomparison of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR Spectrometer at Equatorial Station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level, Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3 are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5 and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS. A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information comes from the measurement. The degrees of freedom for signals is found to be 2.1 on average for the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. The ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR profiles and column amounts retrieved from FTIR spectra are compared with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS, Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS, Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 instruments. The mean relative differences in ozone profiles of FTIR from MLS and MIPAS are generally lower than 15% within the altitude range of 27 to 36 km, whereas difference from TES is lower than 1%. Comparisons of measurements of column amounts from the satellite and the ground-based FTIR show very good agreement as exhibited by relative differences within +0.2% to +2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2; and −0.9 to −9.0% for FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS. The corresponding standard deviations are within 2.0 to 2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2 comparisons whereas that of FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS are within 3.5 to 7.3%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations over an approximate 3-yr period.

  6. Retrieval and satellite intercomparison of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR Spectrometer at Equatorial Station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele Kenea, S.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.

    2013-02-01

    Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level), Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3) are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5) and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS). A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information comes from the measurement. The degrees of freedom for signals is found to be 2.1 on average for the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. The ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR) profiles and column amounts retrieved from FTIR spectra are compared with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS), Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instruments. The mean relative differences in ozone profiles of FTIR from MLS and MIPAS are generally lower than 15% within the altitude range of 27 to 36 km, whereas difference from TES is lower than 1%. Comparisons of measurements of column amounts from the satellite and the ground-based FTIR show very good agreement as exhibited by relative differences within +0.2% to +2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2; and -0.9 to -9.0% for FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS. The corresponding standard deviations are within 2.0 to 2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2 comparisons whereas that of FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS are within 3.5 to 7.3%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations over an approximate 3-yr period.

  7. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alland, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  8. Comparison of Relative Humidity obtained from SAPHIR on board Megha-Tropiques and Ground based Microwave Radiometer Profiler over an equatorial station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renju, Ramachandran Pillai; Uma, K. N.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Mathew, Nizy; Raju C, Suresh

    A comparison has been made between the SAPHIR on board Megha-Tropiques (MT) derived Relative Humidity (RH (%)) with that derived from a ground based multi-frequency Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MRP) observations over an equatorial station Thiruvananthapuram (8.5(°) N and 76.9(°) E) for a one year period. As a first step, the validation of MRP has been made against the radiosonde for two years (2010 and 2011) during the Indian monsoon period July-September. This analysis shows a wet bias below 6 km and dry bias above. The comparison between the MRP and the MT derived RH has been made at five different altitudinal levels (0.75, 2.25, 4.0, 6.25 and 9.2 km range) strictly under clear sky condition. The regression analysis between the two reveals very good correlation (>0.8) in the altitudinal layer of 2.25 to 6.25 km. The differences between the two observations had also been explained interms of percentage of occurrence between MT and the MRP at each altitudinal layer. About 70-80% of the time, the difference in the RH is found to below 10% at first three layer. The RMSE of 2% is observed at almost all the height layers. The differences have been attributed to the different measurement and retrieval techniques involved in the ground based and satellite based measurements. Since MRP frequecy channels are not sensitive to small water vapor variabilities above 6 km, large differences are observed. Radiative Transfer computation for the channels of both MRP and SAPHIR will be carried out to understand the variabilities.

  9. LTE RF subsystem power consumption modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new power consumption emulation model, for all possible scenarios of the RF subsystem, when transmitting a LTE signal. The model takes the logical interface parameters, Tx power, carrier frequency and bandwidth between the baseband and RF subsystem as inputs to compute the p...

  10. Laser and Optical Subsystem for NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohel, James; Kellogg, James; Elliott, Ethan; Krutzik, Markus; Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We describe the design and validation of the laser and optics subsystem for NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), a multi-user facility being developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for studies of ultra-cold quantum gases in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station. Ultra-cold atoms will be generated in CAL by employing a combination of laser cooling techniques and evaporative cooling in a microchip-based magnetic trap. Laser cooling and absorption imaging detection of bosonic mixtures of 87 Rb and 39 K or 41 K will be accomplished using a high-power (up to 500 mW ex-fiber), frequency-agile dual wavelength (767 nm and 780 nm) laser and optical subsystem. The CAL laser and optical subsystem also includes the capability to generate high-power multi-frequency optical pulses at 784.87 nm to realize a dual-species Bragg atom interferometer. Currently at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

  11. Efficient chaotic based satellite power supply subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Turci, Luiz Felipe [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: felipeturci@yahoo.com.br; Macau, Elbert E.N. [National Institute of Space Research (Inpe), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: elbert@lac.inpe.br; Yoneyama, Takashi [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: takashi@ita.br

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we investigate the use of the Dynamical System Theory to increase the efficiency of the satellite power supply subsystems. The core of a satellite power subsystem relies on its DC/DC converter. This is a very nonlinear system that presents a multitude of phenomena ranging from bifurcations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, coexistence of attractors, among others. The traditional power subsystem design techniques try to avoid these nonlinear phenomena so that it is possible to use linear system theory in small regions about the equilibrium points. Here, we show that more efficiency can be drawn from a power supply subsystem if the DC/DC converter operates in regions of high nonlinearity. In special, if it operates in a chaotic regime, is has an intrinsic sensitivity that can be exploited to efficiently drive the power subsystem over high ranges of power requests by using control of chaos techniques.

  12. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  13. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida include a probability of thunderstorm occurrence in their daily morning briefings. This information is used by personnel involved in determining the possibility of violating Launch Commit Criteria, evaluating Flight Rules for the Space Shuttle, and daily planning for ground operation activities on Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data. The forecasters requested that a lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of historical warm-season (May - September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season. This study used 15 years (1989-2003) of warm season data to develop the objective forecast equations. The local CCAFS 1000 UTC sounding was used to calculate stability parameters for equation predictors. The Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data were used to determine lightning occurrence for each day. The CGLSS data have been found to be more reliable indicators of lightning in the area than surface observations through local informal analyses. This work was based on the results from two earlier research projects. Everitt (1999) used surface observations and rawinsonde data to develop logistic regression equations that forecast the daily thunderstorm probability at CCAFS. The Everitt (1999) equations showed an improvement in skill over the Neumann-Pfeffer thunderstorm index (Neumann 1971), which uses multiple linear regression, and also persistence and climatology forecasts. Lericos et al. (2002) developed lightning distributions over the Florida peninsula based on specific flow regimes. The

  14. Portable end-to-end ground system for low-cost mission support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Barbara

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a revolutionary architecture of the end-to-end ground system to reduce overall mission support costs. The present ground system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is costly to operate, maintain, deploy, reproduce, and document. In the present climate of shrinking NASA budgets, this proposed architecture takes on added importance as it should dramatically reduce all of the above costs. Currently, the ground support functions (i.e., receiver, tracking, ranging, telemetry, command, monitor and control) are distributed among several subsystems that are housed in individual rack-mounted chassis. These subsystems can be integrated into one portable laptop system using established Multi Chip Module (MCM) packaging technology and object-based software libraries. The large scale integration of subsystems into a small portable system connected to the World Wide Web (WWW) will greatly reduce operations, maintenance and reproduction costs. Several of the subsystems can be implemented using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products further decreasing non-recurring engineering costs. The inherent portability of the system will open up new ways for using the ground system at the "point-of-use" site as opposed to maintaining several large centralized stations. This eliminates the propagation delay of the data to the Principal Investigator (PI), enabling the capture of data in real-time and performing multiple tasks concurrently from any location in the world. Sample applications are to use the portable ground system in remote areas or mobile vessels for real-time correlation of satellite data with earth-bound instruments; thus, allowing near real-time feedback and control of scientific instruments. This end-to-end portable ground system will undoubtedly create opportunities for better scientific observation and data acquisition.

  15. Bounds on entanglement in qudit subsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Kendon, Vivien M.; Zyczkowski, Karol; Munro, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The entanglement in a pure state of N qudits (d-dimensional distinguishable quantum particles) can be characterised by specifying how entangled its subsystems are. A generally mixed subsystem of m qudits is obtained by tracing over the other N-m qudits. We examine the entanglement in the space of mixed states of m qudits. We show that for a typical pure state of N qudits, its subsystems smaller than N/3 qudits will have a positive partial transpose and hence are separable or bound entangled. ...

  16. Microsatellite Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem Design and Implementation: Software-in-the-Loop Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of a microsatellite attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS and verification of its functionality by software-in-the-loop (SIL method. The role of ADCS is to provide attitude control functions, including the de-tumbling and stabilizing the satellite angular velocity, and as well as estimating the orbit and attitude information during the satellite operation. In Taiwan, Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT, dedicating for students to design experimental low earth orbit micro-satellite, called AFITsat. For AFITsat, the operation of the ADCS consists of three modes which are initialization mode, detumbling mode, and normal mode, respectively. During the initialization mode, ADCS collects the early orbit measurement data from various sensors so that the data can be downlinked to the ground station for further analysis. As particularly emphasized in this paper, during the detumbling mode, ADCS implements the thrusters in plus-wide modulation control method to decrease the satellite angular velocity. ADCS provides the attitude determination function for the estimation of the satellite state, during normal mode. The three modes of microsatellite adopted Kalman filter algorithm estimate microsatellite attitude. This paper will discuss using the SIL validation ADCS function and verify its feasibility.

  17. Bounds on entanglement in qudit subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Kendon, V M; Munro, W J; Kendon, Vivien M; Zyczkowski, Karol; Munro, William J

    2002-01-01

    The entanglement in a pure state of N qudits (d-dimensional distinguishable quantum particles) can be characterised by specifying how entangled its subsystems are. A generally mixed subsystem of m qudits is obtained by tracing over the other N-m qudits. We examine the entanglement in this mixed space of m qudits. We show that for a typical pure state of N qudits, its subsystems smaller than N/3 qudits will have a positive partial transpose and hence are separable or bound entangled. Additionally, our numerical results show that the probability of finding entangled subsystems smaller than N/3 falls exponentially in the dimension of the Hilbert space. The bulk of pure state Hilbert space thus consists of highly entangled states with multipartite entanglement encompassing at least a third of the qudits in the pure state.

  18. Compilation and Analysis of 20 and 30 GHz Rain Fade Events at the ACTS NASA Ground Station: Statistics and Model Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the propagation studies within the ACTS Project Office is to acquire 20 and 30 GHz rain fade statistics using the ACTS beacon links received at the NGS (NASA Ground Station) in Cleveland. Other than the raw, statistically unprocessed rain fade events that occur in real time, relevant rain fade statistics derived from such events are the cumulative rain fade statistics as well as fade duration statistics (beyond given fade thresholds) over monthly and yearly time intervals. Concurrent with the data logging exercise, monthly maximum rainfall levels recorded at the US Weather Service at Hopkins Airport are appended to the database to facilitate comparison of observed fade statistics with those predicted by the ACTS Rain Attenuation Model. Also, the raw fade data will be in a format, complete with documentation, for use by other investigators who require realistic fade event evolution in time for simulation purposes or further analysis for comparisons with other rain fade prediction models, etc. The raw time series data from the 20 and 30 GHz beacon signals is purged of non relevant data intervals where no rain fading has occurred. All other data intervals which contain rain fade events are archived with the accompanying time stamps. The definition of just what constitutes a rain fade event will be discussed later. The archived data serves two purposes. First, all rain fade event data is recombined into a contiguous data series every month and every year; this will represent an uninterrupted record of the actual (i.e., not statistically processed) temporal evolution of rain fade at 20 and 30 GHz at the location of the NGS. The second purpose of the data in such a format is to enable a statistical analysis of prevailing propagation parameters such as cumulative distributions of attenuation on a monthly and yearly basis as well as fade duration probabilities below given fade thresholds, also on a monthly and yearly basis. In addition, various subsidiary

  19. On similitude law of sub-systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zach Liang; George C. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Based on Buckingham's π-Theorem, dimensional analysis has achieved considerable success over the past near-century. Model testing has long been a powerful tool in both scientific studies and engineering applications. However,the prototype objects are becoming more and more complicated nowadays, and many of the prototype systems can contain several sub-systems. The conventional theories on model-prototype similarity and dimensional analysis have only limited application since the π -Theorem itself does not distinguish between the original system and subsystems. This is particularly true in the field of structural dynamics, where the structure is often modeled as a multi-degree-of-freedom system. In this paper, we attempt to show that, if a system can be decoupled into several nontrivial subsystems, then, in each subsystem,the number of π -terms will be reduced and therefore simplify the model testing. On the other hand, if a system cannot be decoupled into subsystems, then using model testing with reduced π -term analysis, both experimentally and theoretically,may introduce severe errors.

  20. Evaluation of an Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem for Deep Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Conrad, Ruth E.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Greenwood, Zachary W.; Kayatin, Matthew J.; Knox, James C.; Newton, Robert L.; Parrish, Keith J.; Takada, Kevin C.; Miller, Lee A.; Scott, Joseph P.; Stanley, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    An Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) suitable for deployment aboard deep space exploration mission vehicles has been developed and functionally demonstrated. This modified ARS process design architecture was derived from the International Space Station's (ISS) basic ARS. Primary functions considered in the architecture include trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal, carbon dioxide reduction, and oxygen generation. Candidate environmental monitoring instruments were also evaluated. The process architecture rearranges unit operations and employs equipment operational changes to reduce mass, simplify, and improve the functional performance for trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal, and oxygen generation. Results from integrated functional demonstration are summarized and compared to the performance observed during previous testing conducted on an ISS-like subsystem architecture and a similarly evolved process architecture. Considerations for further subsystem architecture and process technology development are discussed.

  1. Embedded Thermal Control for Spacecraft Subsystems Miniaturization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of spacecraft size, weight and power (SWaP) resources is an explicit technical priority at Goddard Space Flight Center. Embedded Thermal Control Subsystems are a promising technology with many cross cutting NSAA, DoD and commercial applications: 1.) CubeSatSmallSat spacecraft architecture, 2.) high performance computing, 3.) On-board spacecraft electronics, 4.) Power electronics and RF arrays. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem technology development efforts focus on component, board and enclosure level devices that will ultimately include intelligent capabilities. The presentation will discuss electric, capillary and hybrid based hardware research and development efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem development program consists of interrelated sub-initiatives, e.g., chip component level thermal control devices, self-sensing thermal management, advanced manufactured structures. This presentation includes technical status and progress on each of these investigations. Future sub-initiatives, technical milestones and program goals will be presented.

  2. On the SOR method with overlapping subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleev, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    A description is given of the iterative Jacobi method with overlapping subsystems and the corresponding Gauss-Seidel method. Similarly to the classical case, a generalized SOR method with overlapping subsystems is constructed by introducing an relaxation parameter. The concept of a ω-consistent matrix is defined. It is shown that, with the optimal choice of the parameter, the theory developed by Young remains valid for ω-consistent matrices. This implies certain results for ω-consistent H-matrices. The theoretical conclusions obtained in the paper are supported by numerical results.

  3. Retrievals of ethane from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations with updated line parameters: determination of the optimum strategy for the Jungfraujoch station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, W.; Perrin, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Sudo, K.; Yashiro, H.; Gauss, M.; Demoulin, P.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2012-04-01

    Ethane (C2H6) is the most abundant Non-Methane HydroCarbon (NMHC) in the Earth's atmosphere, with a lifetime of approximately 2 months. C2H6 has both anthropogenic and natural emission sources such as biomass burning, natural gas loss and biofuel consumption. Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical is by far the major C2H6 sink as the seasonally changing OH concentration controls the strong modulation of the ethane abundance throughout the year. Ethane lowers Cl atom concentrations in the lower stratosphere and is a major source of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and carbon monoxide (by reaction with OH). Involved in the formation of tropospheric ozone and in the destruction of atmospheric methane through changes in OH, C2H6 is a non-direct greenhouse gas with a net-global warming potential (100-yr horizon) of 5.5. The retrieval of ethane from ground-based infrared (IR) spectra is challenging. Indeed, the fitting of the ethane features is complicated by numerous interferences by strong water vapor, ozone and methane absorptions. Moreover, ethane has a complicated spectrum with many interacting vibrational modes and the current state of ethane parameters in HITRAN (e.g. : Rothman et al., 2009, see http://www.hitran.com) was rather unsatisfactory in the 3 μm region. In fact, PQ branches outside the 2973-3001 cm-1 range are not included in HITRAN, and most P and R structures are missing. New ethane absorption cross sections recorded at the Molecular Spectroscopy Facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Harrison et al., 2010) are used in our retrievals. They were calibrated in intensity by using reference low-resolution spectra from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Pseudoline parameters fitted to these ethane spectra have been combined with HITRAN 2004 line parameters (including all the 2006 updates) for all other species encompassed in the selected microwindows. Also, the improvement brought by the update of the line positions and intensities

  4. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyanov, G. P.; Kobylyatskiy, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept.

  5. Report on the ICES subsystem FLOWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, N.

    1980-01-01

    FLOWS is a recently developed ICES subsystem for applications in the field of hydraulic engineering. It is able to compute steady as well as unsteady flows in hydraulic networks of given dimensions. This means that is does not optimize any parameters describing the network. The network may be compos

  6. Spectroscopic subsystems in nearby wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) monitoring of solar-type visual binaries has been conducted at the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope to study short-period systems. Data reduction is described, mean and individual RVs of 163 observed objects are given. New spectroscopic binaries are discovered or suspected in 17 objects, for some of them orbital periods could be determined. Subsystems are efficiently detected even in a single observation by double lines and/or by the RV difference between the components of visual binaries. The potential of this detection technique is quantified by simulation and used for statistical assessment of 96 wide binaries within 67pc. It is found that 43 binaries contain at least one subsystem and the occurrence of subsystems is equally probable in either primary or secondary components. The frequency of subsystems and their periods match the simple prescription proposed by the author (2014, AJ, 147, 87). The remaining 53 simple wide binaries with a median projected separation of 1300AU have the distri...

  7. Intercomparison of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide columns retrieved from ground-based DOAS and FTIR and satellite DOAS instruments over the subtropical Izana station

    OpenAIRE

    Robles-Gonzalez, Cristina; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank; Garcia, Omaira; Blumenstock, Thomas; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A 13-year analysis (2000–2012) of the NO2 vertical column densities derived from ground-based (GB) instruments and satellites has been carried out over the Izaña NDACC (Network for the Detection of the Atmospheric Composition Change) subtropical site. Ground-based DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) instruments are intercompared to test mutual consistency and then used for validation of stratospheric NO2 fro...

  8. Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis Subsystem: Pressure Transducer Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Edward Shinuk

    2017-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key factor in paving the way for the future of human space exploration. The ability to harvest resources on foreign astronomical objects to produce consumables and propellant offers potential reduction in mission cost and risk. Through previous missions, the existence of water ice at the poles of the moon has been identified, however the feasibility of water extraction for resources remains unanswered. The Resource Prospector (RP) mission is currently in development to provide ground truth, and will enable us to characterize the distribution of water at one of the lunar poles. Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) is the primary payload on RP that will be used in conjunction with a rover. RESOLVE contains multiple instruments for systematically identifying the presence of water. The main process involves the use of two systems within RESOLVE: the Oxygen Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) and Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA). Within the LAVA subsystem, there are multiple calculations that depend on accurate pressure readings. One of the most important instances where pressure transducers (PT) are used is for calculating the number of moles in a gas transfer from the OVEN subsystem. As a critical component of the main process, a mixture of custom and commercial off the shelf (COTS) PTs are currently being tested in the expected operating environment to eventually down select an option for integrated testing in the LAVA engineering test unit (ETU).

  9. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for transmission by: (1) Stations in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service; (2) General aviation ground... continuity of any public communication in progress, provided that station identification is transmitted at... carrier; (2) For general aviation airborne mobile stations in the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service,...

  10. Simultaneous PMC and PMSE observations with a ground-based lidar and SuperDARN HF radar at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suzuki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A Rayleigh–Raman lidar system was installed in January 2011 at Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0° S, 39.6° E. Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs were detected by lidar at around 22:30 UTC (LT −3 h on 4 February 2011, which was the first day of observation. This was the first detection of PMCs over Syowa Station by lidar. On the same day, a Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN HF radar with oblique-incidence beams detected polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE between 21:30 and 23:00 UTC. This event is regarded as the last PMC activity around Syowa Station during the austral summer season (2010–2011, since no other PMC signals were detected by lidar in February 2011. This is consistent with results of PMC and mesopause temperature observations by satellite-born instruments of AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere/CIPS (Cloud Imaging and Particle Size and AURA/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and horizontal wind measurements taken by a separate MF radar. Doppler velocity of PMSE observed by the HF radar showed motion toward Syowa Station (westward. This westward motion is consistent with the wind velocities obtained by the MF radar. However, the PMSE region showed horizontal motion from a north-to-south direction during the PMC event. This event indicates that the apparent horizontal motion of the PMSE region can deviate from neutral wind directions and observed Doppler velocities.

  11. Simultaneous PMC and PMSE observations with a ground-based lidar and SuperDARN HF radar at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Nakamura, T.; Ejiri, M. K.; Ogawa, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Abo, M.; Kawahara, T. D.; Tomikawa, Y.; Yukimatu, A. S.; Sato, N.

    2013-10-01

    A Rayleigh-Raman lidar system was installed in January 2011 at Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0° S, 39.6° E). Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) were detected by lidar at around 22:30 UTC (LT -3 h) on 4 February 2011, which was the first day of observation. This was the first detection of PMCs over Syowa Station by lidar. On the same day, a Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radar with oblique-incidence beams detected polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) between 21:30 and 23:00 UTC. This event is regarded as the last PMC activity around Syowa Station during the austral summer season (2010-2011), since no other PMC signals were detected by lidar in February 2011. This is consistent with results of PMC and mesopause temperature observations by satellite-born instruments of AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere)/CIPS (Cloud Imaging and Particle Size) and AURA/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) and horizontal wind measurements taken by a separate MF radar. Doppler velocity of PMSE observed by the HF radar showed motion toward Syowa Station (westward). This westward motion is consistent with the wind velocities obtained by the MF radar. However, the PMSE region showed horizontal motion from a north-to-south direction during the PMC event. This event indicates that the apparent horizontal motion of the PMSE region can deviate from neutral wind directions and observed Doppler velocities.

  12. 铁路站房地源热泵系统工程热平衡分析%Analysis on Heat Balance of Ground Source Heat Pump System in Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈德安

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In regard to an actual railway station,based on its design circumstance of air-condition heating system and its testing report of ground heat transfer characteristics,the ground source heat pump system was adopted as its cold and heat source.Considering the need for heat balance of the ground source heat pump system,this thesis analyzes the two different schemes used in railway station buildings:the one is a ground source heat pump system assisted by boiler,and the other is a coupled system of solar energy with ground source heat pump.And then respectively for both schemes,this thesis calculates the required capacity of ground source heat pump unit and the required design scale of ground heat exchanger.This thesis also discusses how to achieve the cold and heat balance for the two different schemes,and analyzes each characteristics and applicability in actual projects.Finally this thesis points out:it is necessary to use suitable and customized heat balance modes for different projects on the basis of local conditions.%结合具体工程,根据某车站空调采暖系统设计工况及该工程地埋管换热特性测试报告,采用地源热泵系统作为冷热源.考虑地源热泵系统的冷热平衡需要,分析采用地源热泵+锅炉辅助系统及太阳能地源热泵耦合系统两种不同热平衡方案用于铁路站房,计算各自需要的热泵机组容量及室外埋管换热器具体设计规模.详细介绍两种系统的冷热平衡方式,并对各自特点及工程运用进行论述,提出在具体工程中因地制宜,应根据不同情况,采用合适的系统热平衡方式.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  14. Laser Ground System for Communication Experiments with ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkov, Volodymyr; Volovyk, Dmytro; Kuzkov, Sergii; Sodnik, Zoran; Pukha, Sergii; Caramia, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The ARTEMIS satellite with the OPALE laser communication terminal on-board was launched on 12 July, 2001. 1789 laser communications sessions were performed between ARTEMIS and SPOT-4 (PASTEL) from 01 April 2003 to 09 January 2008 with total duration of 378 hours. Regular laser communication experiments between ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS - altitude 2400 m above see level) and ARTEMIS in various atmosphere conditions were also performed. The Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched the KIRARI (OICETS) satellite with laser communication terminal called LUCE. Laser communication links between KIRARI and ARTEMIS were successfully realized and international laser communications experiments from the KIRARI satellite were also successfully performed with optical ground stations located in the USA (JPL), Spain (ESA OGS), Germany (DLR), and Japan (NICT). The German Space Agency (DLR) performed laser communication links between two LEO satellites (TerraSAR-X and NFIRE), demonstrating data transfer rates of 5.6Gbit/s and performed laser communication experiments between the satellites and the ESA optical ground station. To reduce the influence of weather conditions on laser communication between satellites and ground stations, a network of optical stations situated in different atmosphere regions needs to be created. In 2002, the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) started the development of its own laser communication system to be placed into the Cassegrain focus of its 0.7m AZT-2 telescope (Fe = 10.5m), located in Kyiv 190 meters above sea level. The work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA ARTEMIS has an orbital position of 21.4° E and an orbital inclination of more than 9.75°. As a result we developed a precise tracking system for AZT-2 telescope (weighing more than 2 tons) using micro-step motors. Software was developed for computer control of the telescope to track the satellite's orbit and a tracking accuracy of 0.6 arcsec was achieved

  15. Design and Implementation of UAV Ground Station Software Based on Qt%基于Qt的小型无人机地面站软件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾杰; 刘智腾

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the architecture and the main function of the control system for small UAV ground station, em-phatically discusses the use of third-party serial communication classes, Qwt virtual instrument, Google offline maps, SQLite da-tabase based on Qt to realize the control software of UAV ground station communication link, flight data display, electronic maps, flight data storage, and other functions. The experimental results show that the system can achieve the basic functions.%介绍小型无人机地面控制系统的架构和主要功能,着重讨论Qt环境下使用第三方串口通信类、Qwt虚拟仪表、Google离线地图、SQLite数据库,以实现无人机地面站控制软件的通信链路、飞行数据显示、电子地图、飞行数据的存储等功能。实验表明,该系统能够基本实现预期的功能。

  16. Two-day period fluctuation of PMC occurrence over Syowa Station, Antarctica observed by a ground-based lidar and AIM satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ejiri, M. K.; Tomikawa, Y.; Abo, M.; Kawahara, T.; Tsuda, T. T.; Nishiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    A Rayleigh/Raman lidar system has been operated by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) since February, 2011 (JARE 52nd) in Syowa Station Antarctica (69.0S, 39.5E). The lidar system consists of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355nm) as a transmitter and two telescopes with four photo multiplier tubes which are to detect Rayleigh scattered light from low and high atmosphere at 355 nm and N2 Raman emission at 387nm. Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) was detected by the lidar at 22:30UT (+3hr for LT) on Feb 4th, 2011, the first day of a routine operation. This event was the first time to detect PMC over Syowa Station by a lidar [Suzuki et al., Ann. Geophys., 2013]. However, signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the PMC event was not so good due to large shot noises from daytime background signals. Moreover, a receiver system was designed mainly for nighttime observations. In this way, observation of PMC during the midnight sun, which also corresponds to most frequent PMC season, was difficult. Thus, to improve SNR of the PMC observation with the lidar during daytime, a narrow band-pass Fabry-Perot etalon unit has been developed and installed in the receiver system on Dec 2013 by JARE 55th. By using this new system, clear PMC signals were successfully detected under daylight condition during the period of summer operation of JARE55th. During this period of 53 days (from 17 Dec. 2013 to 7 Feb. 2014), only 11 days were with a clear sky and suitable for PMC observation. Thus, it was difficult to study temporal variations on a PMC activity only by using the lidar data. Fortunately, NASA's AIM satellite had passed near Syowa Station and provided with complimentary PMC data during observation gap of the lidar. By combining our lidar data with the AIM/CIPS data, nearly continuous monitoring of PMC variability over Syowa Station was achieved for period between 13th and 18th in January 2014. PMC occurrence with an interval of two days over Syowa Station during the period was clearly

  17. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  18. Controls Interfaces for Two ALICE Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomen, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Software for the control of a laser alignment system for the Inner Tacking System (ITS) and for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) was developed for the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at CERN. The interfaces for both subsystems use the CERN-standard hardware controls system PVSS (Prozessvisualisierungs- und Steuerungs-System). Software for the ITS has been created to measure the relative alignment of the ITS with the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) so to ensure accurate particle tracking. The ITS alignment system locates laser images in four cameras. The EMC requires several subsystems to be running in order to operate properly. Software has been created and tested for the detector's high and low voltage systems, and temperature monitoring hardware. The ITS and EMC software specifications and design requirements are presented and their performance is analyzed.

  19. Analysis of the human operator subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynette A.; Hunter, Ian W.

    1991-01-01

    Except in low-bandwidth systems, knowledge of the human operator transfer function is essential for high-performance telerobotic systems. This information has usually been derived from detailed analyses of tracking performance, in which the human operator is considered as a complete system rather than as a summation of a number of subsystems, each of which influences the operator's output. Studies of one of these subsystems, the limb mechanics system, demonstrate that large parameter variations can occur that can have a profound effect on the stability of force-reflecting telerobot systems. An objective of this research was to decompose the performance of the human operator system in order to establish how the dynamics of each of the elements influence the operator's responses.

  20. Optical Subsystems for Next Generation Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, J.A; Polo, V.; Schrenk, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent optical technologies are providing higher flexibility to next generation access networks: on the one hand, providing progressive FTTx and specifically FTTH deployment, progressively shortening the copper access network; on the other hand, also opening fixed-mobile convergence solutions...... in next generation PON architectures. It is provided an overview of the optical subsystems developed for the implementation of the proposed NG-Access Networks....

  1. Liquid radioactive waste subsystem design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-06-01

    The Liquid Radioactive Waste Subsystem provides a reliable system to safely control liquid waste radiation and to collect, process, and dispose of all radioactive liquid waste without impairing plant operation. Liquid waste is stored in radwaste receiver tanks and is processed through demineralizers and temporarily stored in test tanks prior to sampling and discharge. Radwastes unsuitable for discharge are transferred to the Solid Radwaste System.

  2. Optical Subsystems for Next Generation Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, J.A; Polo, V.; Schrenk, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent optical technologies are providing higher flexibility to next generation access networks: on the one hand, providing progressive FTTx and specifically FTTH deployment, progressively shortening the copper access network; on the other hand, also opening fixed-mobile convergence solutions...... in next generation PON architectures. It is provided an overview of the optical subsystems developed for the implementation of the proposed NG-Access Networks....

  3. Subsystem codes with spatially local generators

    CERN Document Server

    Bravyi, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    We study subsystem codes whose gauge group has local generators in the 2D geometry. It is shown that there exists a family of such codes defined on lattices of size LxL with the number of logical qubits k and the minimum distance d both proportional to L. The gauge group of these codes involves only two-qubit generators of type XX and ZZ coupling nearest neighbor qubits (and some auxiliary one-qubit generators). Our proof is not constructive as it relies on a certain version of the Gilbert-Varshamov bound for classical codes. Along the way we introduce and study properties of generalized Bacon-Shor codes which might be of independent interest. Secondly, we prove that any 2D subsystem [n,k,d] code with spatially local generators obeys upper bounds kd=O(n) and d^2=O(n). The analogous upper bound proved recently for 2D stabilizer codes is kd^2=O(n). Our results thus demonstrate that subsystem codes can be more powerful than stabilizer codes under the spatial locality constraint.

  4. Singularly perturbed bifurcation subsystem and its application in power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yichun; Zhang Qingling; Zhu Yukun; Zhang Yan

    2008-01-01

    The singularly perturbed bifurcation subsystem is described,and the test conditions of subsystem persistence are deduced.By use of fast and slow reduced subsystem model,the result does not require performing nonlinear transformation.Moreover,it is shown and proved that the persistence of the periodic orbits for Hopf bifurcation in the reduced model through center manifold.Van der Pol oscillator circuit is given to illustrate the persistence of bifurcation subsystems with the full dynamic system.

  5. Thermal energy storage subsystems (a collection of quarterly reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Five quarterly reports are presented, covering the progress made in the development, fabrication, and delivery of three Thermal Energy Storage Subsystems. The design, development, and progress toward the delivery of three subsystems are discussed. The subsystem uses a salt hydrate mixture for thermal energy storage. Included are the program schedules, technical data, and other program activities from October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1977.

  6. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  7. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-09-16

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  8. Design and engineering of west-side revetment for Tachibana Bay Power Station. Swelling behavior of sand compaction pile improved ground and mechanical properties of composite ground; Tachibanawan hatsudensho Nishigogan koji no sekkei to seko. Sand compaction pile kairyo jiban no moriagari kyodo to fukugo jiban no rikigaku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, S.; Hara, J.; Ozaki, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan)

    1997-07-05

    This report covers a sand compaction pile (SCP) process performed for the improvement of the sea bottom along the west-side revetment of the power station where a 10-odd meter thick sedimentary layer of soft clayey soil exists. Since the sea is only 5m deep in this area, an engineering method is chosen capable of minimizing the swelling of the ground, and changes in the physical properties of the composite ground that may affect the stability of the revetment are investigated. In this report, an estimating equation is proposed for accurately predicting the swelling, including the additional swelling of the ground already swollen, to result from the SCP-assisted improvement of the ground and a description is given of changes in composite ground mechanical properties induced by the SCP-assisted engineering work. A `one-directional construction system with one block constituted of three spans` is contrived. Furthermore, an estimating technique taking into account the secondary swelling is proposed. As the result, the apparent swelling rate agrees very well with the actual swelling rate. An SCP method with its capability enhanced may be established by considering time-dependent changes in the mechanical properties of the clayey soil between piles and their impact on the safety factor. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. 三峡左岸龙泉换流站接地极导流系统设计%Design of grounding electrode feeder system of Three Gorges Longquan Converter Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振平

    2001-01-01

    直流接地极是直流输电系统中的一个重要组成部分,而接地极的导流系统的设计则是整个接地极最终设计成败的关键。目前我国电力系统中已投运的仅有葛—上直流接地极,在三峡龙泉换流站接地极导流系统设计中,利用现有的有限运行经验及数据,在对有关问题进行深入分析计算后,提出了接地极导流系统设计中应遵循的一些设计规律。%The DC grounding electrode is an important constituent of a DCpower transmission system, and the design of its feeder system is vital for the success of the whole electrode design. At present, only Ge-Shang DC grounding electrode has been put into operation in China. In the design of grounding electrode feeder system for the Three Gorges Longquan Converter Station, based on the existing limited running experience and data, thorough analyses and calculations are conducted on some related problems, and some rules to be followed in the said design are presented.

  10. 太中银铁路沿线站区地源热泵运行与维护管理%On operation of ground source heat pump and maintenance management at stations along Taiyuan-Zhongwei-Yinchuan Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉小洁

    2015-01-01

    在对地源热泵工作理论分析的基础上,结合太中银铁路太原局管段五站地埋管地源热泵实际使用中存在的管路断裂、换热量不足等问题,从系统运行与维护管理角度提出了一些改进建议,为地埋管地源热泵系统的推广应用提供了技术支持。%Based on the theoretic analysis of the ground source heat pump,the paper points out some improvement suggestions from the system op-eration and maintenance by combining with pipeline fracture,shortage of heat problems in the uses of the ground source heat pump at the five sta-tion of Taiyuan Bureau Segment along Taiyuan-Zhongwei-Yinchuan Railway,so as to provide some technical support for the application of the bur-ied ground source heat pump system.

  11. International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the development process of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model which is a subsystem analyses tool utilized in the ISSA design analysis cycles. Fast-track prototyping of the detailed relationships between daily crew and station consumables, propellant needs, maintenance requirements and crew rotation via spread sheets provide adequate benchmarks to assess cargo vehicle design and performance characteristics.

  12. The IXV Ground Segment design, implementation and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci di Scarfizzi, Giovanni; Bellomo, Alessandro; Musso, Ivano; Bussi, Diego; Rabaioli, Massimo; Santoro, Gianfranco; Billig, Gerhard; Gallego Sanz, José María

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an ESA re-entry demonstrator that performed, on the 11th February of 2015, a successful re-entry demonstration mission. The project objectives were the design, development, manufacturing and on ground and in flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled re-entry system. For the IXV mission a dedicated Ground Segment was provided. The main subsystems of the IXV Ground Segment were: IXV Mission Control Center (MCC), from where monitoring of the vehicle was performed, as well as support during pre-launch and recovery phases; IXV Ground Stations, used to cover IXV mission by receiving spacecraft telemetry and forwarding it toward the MCC; the IXV Communication Network, deployed to support the operations of the IXV mission by interconnecting all remote sites with MCC, supporting data, voice and video exchange. This paper describes the concept, architecture, development, implementation and operations of the ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle (IXV) Ground Segment and outlines the main operations and lessons learned during the preparation and successful execution of the IXV Mission.

  13. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  14. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pandit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 16 year (1998–2013 climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness and optical properties (cloud optical thickness observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006–December 2013 of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50–55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between −50 to −70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013 which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  15. Doppler lidar observations of sensible heat flux and intercomparisons with a ground-based energy balance station and WRF model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Davis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Convective and Orographically induced Precipitation Study (COPS, a scanning Doppler lidar was deployed at Achern, Baden-Wüttemberg, Germany from 13th June to 16th August 2007. Vertical velocity profiles ('rays' through the boundary layer were measured every 3 seconds with vertical profiles of horizontal wind velocity being derived from performing azimuth scans every 30 minutes. During Intense Observation Periods radiosondes were launched from the site. In this paper, a case study of convective boundary layer development on 15th July 2007 is investigated. Estimates of eddy dissipation rate are made from the vertically pointing lidar data and used as one input to the velocity-temperature co-variance equation to estimate sensible heat flux. The sensible heat flux values calculated from Doppler lidar data are compared with a surface based energy balance station and output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model.

  16. Testing flight software on the ground: Introducing the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method to the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenhao, E-mail: wenhao_sun@126.com [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cai, Xudong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Meng, Qiao [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-04-11

    Complex automatic protection functions are being added to the onboard software of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation method has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of ground testing that are brought by hardware and environmental limitations. We invented a time-saving approach by reusing the flight data as the data source of the simulation system instead of mathematical models. This is easy to implement and it works efficiently. This paper presents the system framework, implementation details and some application examples.

  17. Optical fiber telecommunications components and subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  18. Global GEO survey subsystem of the ISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotov, Igor; Agapov, Vladimir; Rumyantsev, Vasiliy; Biryukov, Vadim; Kornienko, Gennadiy; Litvinenko, Elena; Vikhristenko, Alexander; Zalles, Rodolfo; Guseva, Irina; Inasaridze, Raguli

    Dedicated subsystem of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) is created in order to provide the regular monitoring of the objects brighter than 15m at GEO region. For GEO longitudes between 31.5W and 90E a survey mode is implemented in a zone of ±16° width with respect to equator, for longitudes between 90E and 210W the selective areas are surveyed regularly in a zone of ±10° width, and for longitudes between 135W and 1 E the periodic observations are arranged in a zone of ±1° width. Initially existing astrographs of 23 cm and 40 cm aperture with FOV of 30'x30' were involved into the work. Then the dedicated 22-cm aperture telescope installed on the automated mount was elaborated. This new telescope having FOV of 4° x4° can provide up to 5000 measurements for around 400 GEO and HEO (mainly GTO) objects per night. Currently the six similar 22-cm aperture telescopes at different stages of operations are working in Tiraspol (Pridnestrovie), Nauchniy (Crimea, Ukraine), Pulkovo (St.-Petersburg, Russia), Kitab (Uzbekistan) and Ussuriysk (Far East, Russia) observation facilities. During the year of 2008 similar telescopes will be installed in Abastumani (Georgia), Milkovo (Kamchatka, Russia), Tarija (Bolivia), Blagoveshchensk (Far East, Russia) and Gissar (Tadjikistan). Since 2009 the subsystem will provide surveying capability for the GEO region in global scale both by longitude (0° -360° ) and inclination (0° -20° ). The trial operations of the first fully automated 22-cm telescope during 2007 (the part of GEO arc between 31.5W and 90E was surveyed about 60 times) showed existing large gap in our knowledge of space debris populations at GEO region. Few hundreds of uncatalogued respectively bright objects are detected at GEO and GTO orbits. Special processing of obtained short arc tracks for non-correlated object allowed to correlate some of them and thus to discover around 40 new objects. During 2007 slightly less than 200000 measurements

  19. Subsystem's dynamics under random Hamiltonian evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Vinayak,

    2011-01-01

    We study time evolution of a subsystem's density matrix under a unitary evolution, generated by a sufficiently complex, say quantum chaotic, Hamiltonian. We exactly calculate all coherences, purity and fluctuations. The reduced density matrix is described in terms of a noncentral correlated Wishart ensemble. Our description accounts for a transition from an arbitrary initial state towards a random state at large times, enabling us to determine the convergence time after which random states are reached. We identify and describe a number of other interesting features, like a series of collisions between the largest eigenvalue and the bulk, accompanied by a phase transition in its distribution function.

  20. Design of the pre detection on the ground control station of UAV%无人机地面控制站飞行预检软件的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷月香; 孙恒义; 刘慧霞

    2016-01-01

    According as the composing and working theory of the the ground control station,we design the pre detection software for the intricacies of the detection for the preflight. This software is based on Microsoft Visual C++2012,alse can communication by the common interface with the other softwalls of the station. When the whole system in powered on ,the software can detecte automatically by the instruction cycle and observation of hardware. The integration test showed the feasibility and advantage on the pre detection of UAV system.%依据无人机地面指挥控制站系统的组成和工作原理,针对飞行前操作手的检测工作的繁琐性,设计了飞行预检软件.该软件使用Microsoft Visual C++2012编程,与地面指挥控制站软件共用接口进行通信,全系统加电后,进行飞行前的测试环节,采用自动检测模式,指令循环结合飞机硬件观测的检测状态进行提示.经过系统联试,表明该软件在全系统的飞行前使用的可行性和优越性.

  1. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air-Force Station (CCAFS)ln Florida issues a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts. This information is used for general planning of operations at CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These facilities are located in east-central Florida at the east end of a corridor known as 'Lightning Alley', an indication that lightning has a large impact on space-lift operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data and an objective forecast tool developed over 30 years ago. The 45 WS requested that a new lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of more recent historical warm season (May-September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The resulting tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations, one for each month of the warm season, that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season.

  2. Exploiting the locality of periodic subsystem density-functional theory: efficient sampling of the Brillouin zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-12-01

    In order to approximately satisfy the Bloch theorem, simulations of complex materials involving periodic systems are made {{n}\\text{k}} times more complex by the need to sample the first Brillouin zone at {{n}\\text{k}} points. By combining ideas from Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) and orbital-free DFT, for which no sampling is needed due to the absence of waves, subsystem DFT offers an interesting middle ground capable of sizable theoretical speedups against Kohn-Sham DFT. By splitting the supersystem into interacting subsystems, and mapping their quantum problem onto separate auxiliary Kohn-Sham systems, subsystem DFT allows an optimal topical sampling of the Brillouin zone. We elucidate this concept with two proof of principle simulations: a water bilayer on Pt[1 1 1]; and a complex system relevant to catalysis—a thiophene molecule physisorbed on a molybdenum sulfide monolayer deposited on top of an α-alumina support. For the latter system, a speedup of 300% is achieved against the subsystem DTF reference by using an optimized Brillouin zone sampling (600% against KS-DFT).

  3. Extreme events in total ozone over the northern mid-latitudes: A case study based on long-term data sets from 5 ground-based stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Ribatet, Mathieu; Peter, Thomas; Davison, Anthony C.

    2010-05-01

    In this study we analyze the frequency distribution of extreme events in low and high total ozone (termed ELOs and EHOs) for 5 long-term stations in the northern mid-latitudes in Europe (Belsk, Poland; Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Hohenpeissenberg and Potsdam, Germany; and Uccle, Belgium). Further, the influence of these extreme events on annual and seasonal mean values and trends is analysed. The applied method follows the new "ozone extreme concept", which is based on tools from extreme value theory [Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007], recently developed by Rieder et al. [2010a, b]. Mathematically seen the decisive feature within the extreme concept is the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). In this analysis, the long-term trends needed to be removed first, differently to the treatment of Rieder et al. [2010a, b], in which the time series of Arosa was analysed, covering many decades of measurements in the anthropogenically undisturbed stratosphere. In contrast to previous studies only focusing on so called ozone mini-holes and mini-highs the "ozone extreme concept" provides a statistical description of the tails in total ozone distributions (i.e. extreme low and high values). It is shown that this concept is not only an appropriate method to describe the frequency and distribution of extreme events, it also provides new information on time series properties and internal variability. Furthermore it allows detection of fingerprints of physical (e.g. El Niño, NAO) and chemical (e.g. polar vortex ozone loss) features in the Earth's atmosphere as well as major volcanic eruptions (e.g. El Chichón, Mt. Pinatubo). It is shown that mean values and trends in total ozone are strongly influenced by extreme events. Trend calculations (for the period 1970-1990) are performed for the entire as well as the extremes-removed time series. The results after excluding extremes show that annual trends are most reduced at Hradec Kralove (about a factor of 3), followed by Potsdam

  4. Intercomparison of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide columns retrieved from ground-based DOAS and FTIR and satellite DOAS instruments over the subtropical Izana station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Gonzalez, Cristina; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank; Garcia, Omaira; Blumenstock, Thomas; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    A 13-year analysis (2000-2012) of the NO2 vertical column densities derived from ground-based (GB) instruments and satellites has been carried out over the Izaña NDACC (Network for the Detection of the Atmospheric Composition Change) subtropical site. Ground-based DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) instruments are intercompared to test mutual consistency and then used for validation of stratospheric NO2 from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY). The intercomparison has been carried out taking into account the various differences existing in instruments, namely temporal coincidence, collocation, sensitivity, field of view, etc. The paper highlights the importance of considering an "effective solar zenith angle" instead of the actual one when comparing direct-sun instruments with zenith sky ones for a proper photochemical correction. Results show that NO2 vertical column densities mean relative difference between FTIR and DOAS instruments is 2.8 ± 10.7 % for a.m. data. Both instruments properly reproduce the NO2 seasonal and the interannual variation. Mean relative difference of the stratospheric NO2 derived from OMI and DOAS is -0.2 ± 8.7 % and from OMI and FTIR is -1.6 ± 6.7 %. SCIAMACHY mean relative difference is of 3.7 ± 11.7 and -5.7 ± 11.0 % for DOAS and FTIR, respectively. Note that the days used for the intercomparison are not the same for all the pairs of instruments since it depends on the availability of data. The discrepancies are found to be seasonally dependent with largest differences in winter and excellent agreement in the spring months (AMJ). A preliminary analysis of NO2 trends has been carried out with the available data series. Results show increases in stratospheric NO2 columns in all instruments but larger values in those that are GB than that expected by nitrous oxide oxidation. The

  5. Security Problem of Wind Farm Booster Station Grounding Grid due to Lighting Stroke%雷击引起风电场升压站接地网安全性问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学华; 夏文华; 房翔

    2015-01-01

    风力发电场升压站作为风电场的重要组成部分,因为风电场所处位置一般较为恶劣,易遭受雷电波入侵,给设备和人身带来一系列的威胁。首先结合一风电场升压站遭受雷击的案例,对雷电流泄放前及泄放中两个时间段内,地网及地表的瞬态电位差进行仿真计算,然后分析和考察地网导体的瞬态电位分布对直接连接在水平地网上的一次设备、二次设备或二次系统的绝缘和干扰的影响,以及地表电位分布对人员安全的影响,并提供相应的防护建议。%Wind power plant booster station is an important component of the wind farm. Due to the location of wind farms in general is relatively poor, it is vulnerable to the thunder electric wave, and will bring a series of threats to equipment and personal safety. Combined with a case that a wind power plant booster station is struck by lightning, the transient potential difference of the earth's surface and the ground net before and in the process of lightning discharge flow are simulated and calculated. The influence of transient potential distribution of the ground net conductor on the interference and insulation of the primary equipment and secondary equipment or the secondary system that are directly connected with the level-ground grids and the influence of the surface potential distribution on the personnel safety are also shown. Some protective suggestions are given as well.

  6. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  7. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  8. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  9. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Integration with Models of Other Water Recovery Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to form a complete Water Recovery System (WRS) for future missions. Independent chemical process simulations with varying levels of detail have previously been developed using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) to aid in the analysis of the CDS and several WPA components. The existing CDS simulation could not model behavior during thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. The first part of this paper describes modifications to the ACM model of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version of the model can accurately predict behavior during thermal startup for both NaCl solution and pretreated urine feeds. The model is used to predict how changing operating parameters and design features of the CDS affects its performance, and conclusions from these predictions are discussed. The second part of this paper describes the integration of the modified CDS model and the existing WPA component models into a single WRS model. The integrated model is used to demonstrate the effects that changes to one component can have on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole.

  10. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  11. Local subsystems in gauge theory and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, William

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of defining localized subsystems in gauge theory and gravity. Such systems are associated to spacelike hypersurfaces with boundaries and provide the natural setting for studying entanglement entropy of regions of space. We present a general formalism to associate a gauge-invariant classical phase space to a spatial slice with boundary by introducing new degrees of freedom on the boundary. In Yang-Mills theory the new degrees of freedom are a choice of gauge on the boundary, transformations of which are generated by the normal component of the nonabelian electric field. In general relativity the new degrees of freedom are the location of a codimension-2 surface and a choice of conformal normal frame. These degrees of freedom transform under a group of surface symmetries, consisting of diffeomorphisms of the codimension-2 boundary, and position-dependent linear deformations of its normal plane. We find the observables which generate these symmetries, consisting of the conformal normal me...

  12. Development of light metals automotive structural subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, A.A.; Sachdev, A.K. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Key technological developments in aluminum and magnesium alloys were reviewed in relation to the manufacturing processes that enable lightweight automotive structural subsystems. Examples included the materials and processes evolution of lightweight body structures, chassis systems, and instrument panel beams. New aluminum and magnesium alloys and manufacturing technologies used to reduce mass and improve performance in vehicle cradle structures were discussed. Hydroforming processes used to enable the use of lightweight aluminum alloy tubes in automotive body structures were also reviewed, in addition to body architectures enabled by different materials and manufacturing processes. The review noted that magnesium instrument panels are now being designed to provide significant performance improvement, reduced vibration, and enhanced crashworthiness in new automobiles. It was concluded that vehicles will incorporate more lightweight materials such as nanocomposites and aluminum and magnesium sheets. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Joseph [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lantz, Kathy [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is preparing for the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) satellite in 2015. This satellite will feature higher time (5-minute versus 30-minute sampling) and spatial resolution (0.5 km vs 1 km in the visible channel) than current GOES instruments provide. NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service has funded the Global Monitoring Division at the Earth System Research Laboratory to provide ground-based validation data for many of the new and old products the new GOES instruments will retrieve specifically related to radiation at the surface and aerosol and its extensive and intensive properties in the column. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) had an emphasis on aerosol; therefore, we asked to be involved in this campaign to de-bug our new instrumentation and to provide a new capability that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facilities (AMF) did not possess, namely surface albedo measurement out to 1625 nm. This gave us a chance to test remote operation of our new multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer/multi-filter radiometer (MFRSR/MFR) combination. We did not deploy standard broadband shortwave and longwave radiation instrumentation because ARM does this as part of every AMF deployment. As it turned out, the ARM standard MFRSR had issues, and we were able to provide the aerosol column data for the first 2 months of the campaign covering the summer flight phase of the deployment. Using these data, we were able to work with personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to retrieve not only aerosol optical depth (AOD), but single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, as well.

  14. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  15. Workload characterization for the space station data communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA plans to launch a permanent manned space station in the early 1990's. The station will be used to support a wide variety of activities involving Earth and space observation, satellite maintenance, scientific experimentation, and commercial manufacturing. The control and monitoring of many of these activities will require extensive computer and communications system support. In order to identify an appropriate computer and communication system for supporting the space station, an attempt to characterize the space station's data communications subsystem workload is currently underway. Some of the special aspects of the workload characterization problem are discussed in connection with the space station, and some possible approaches are presented.

  16. Ground-motion site effects from multimethod shear-wave velocity characterization at 16 seismograph stations deployed for aftershocks of the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Angster, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    We characterize shear-wave velocity versus depth (Vs profile) at 16 portable seismograph sites through the epicentral region of the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral (Virginia, USA) earthquake to investigate ground-motion site effects in the area. We used a multimethod acquisition and analysis approach, where active-source horizontal shear (SH) wave reflection and refraction as well as active-source multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and passive-source refraction microtremor (ReMi) Rayleigh wave dispersion were interpreted separately. The time-averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (Vs30), interpreted bedrock depth, and site resonant frequency were estimated from the best-fit Vs profile of each method at each location for analysis. Using the median Vs30 value (270–715 m/s) as representative of a given site, we estimate that all 16 sites are National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class C or D. Based on a comparison of simplified mapped surface geology to median Vs30 at our sites, we do not see clear evidence for using surface geologic units as a proxy for Vs30 in the epicentral region, although this may primarily be because the units are similar in age (Paleozoic) and may have similar bulk seismic properties. We compare resonant frequencies calculated from ambient noise horizontal:vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) at available sites to predicted site frequencies (generally between 1.9 and 7.6 Hz) derived from the median bedrock depth and average Vs to bedrock. Robust linear regression of HVSR to both site frequency and Vs30 demonstrate moderate correlation to each, and thus both appear to be generally representative of site response in this region. Based on Kendall tau rank correlation testing, we find that Vs30 and the site frequency calculated from average Vs to median interpreted bedrock depth can both be considered reliable predictors of weak-motion site effects in the epicentral region.

  17. Design and test of the time transfer by laser link (T2L2) optical subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Samain, Etienne; Guillemot, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    We report on the design and test of the optical subsystem of the T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) space instrument. The T2L2 experiment, developed by OCA and CNES is a next generation optical time transfer system that will allow an improvement1,2 by one to two orders of magnitude as compared to the performances of existing microwave time transfer systems like GPS or Two-Way. The principle is derived from satellite laser ranging (SLR) technology with dedicated space equipment embarked on the satellite Jason 2, scheduled for launch in mid-2008. Satellite Laser Ranging stations (connected to the clocks to be synchronized) emit short laser pulses towards the satellite where they are equally reflected and dated by an onboard event timer. The departure and return of the laser pulses are also timed in the laser stations. The time transfer is derived aposteriori from the data triplets (departure, satellite, return) acquired on the satellite and the respective laser stations. The T2L2 instrument consists of an optical and an electronic subsystem. The optical subsystem is designed such that its field of view (FOV) covers the whole earth for the Jason 2 orbit. It features a linear and a non-linear channel consisting of optical elements and avalanche photodiodes; the linear channel's purpose is threefold: it triggers the whole timing system and measures both the background light and the laser pulse energy. The non-linear channel is for precise timing. We report on the detailed construction of the optical assembly and an exhaustive calibration and performance test campaign in terms of metrology. This test campaign was performed in the clean-room facilities at CNES, Toulouse in March/April 2007 with a dedicated test bed featuring a mode locked laser, variable geometry for different incidence angles and a reference timing system.

  18. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  19. The Space Telescope SI C&DH system. [Scientific Instrument Control and Data Handling Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadwal, Govind R.; Barasch, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Scientific Instrument Control and Data Handling Subsystem (SI C&DH) is designed to interface with five scientific instruments of the Space Telescope to provide ground and autonomous control and collect health and status information using the Standard Telemetry and Command Components (STACC) multiplex data bus. It also formats high throughput science data into packets. The packetized data is interleaved and Reed-Solomon encoded for error correction and Pseudo Random encoded. An inner convolutional coding with the outer Reed-Solomon coding provides excellent error correction capability. The subsystem is designed with the capacity for orbital replacement in order to meet a mission life of fifteen years. The spacecraft computer and the SI C&DH computer coordinate the activities of the spacecraft and the scientific instruments to achieve the mission objectives.

  20. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  1. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-12-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and

  2. Giada improved calibration of measurement subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, V.; Rotundi, A.; Sordini, R.; Accolla, M.; Ferrari, M.; Ivanovski, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Palumbo, P.

    2014-12-01

    GIADA (Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator) is an in-situ instrument devoted to measure the dynamical properties of the dust grains emitted by the comet. An Extended Calibration activity using the GIADA Flight Spare Model has been carried out taking into account the knowledge gained through the analyses of IDPs and cometary samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2. GIADA consists of three measurement subsystems: Grain Detection System, an optical device measuring the optical cross-section for individual dust; Impact Sensor an aluminum plate connected to 5 piezo-sensors measuring the momentum of impacting single dust grains; Micro Balance System measuring the cumulative deposition in time of dust grains smaller than 10 μm. The results of the analyses on data acquired with the GIADA PFM and the comparison with calibration data acquired during the pre-launch campaign allowed us to improve GIADA performances and capabilities. We will report the results of the following main activities: a) definition of a correlation between the 2 GIADA Models (PFM housed in laboratory and In-Flight Model on-board ROSETTA); b) characterization of the sub-systems performances (signal elaboration, sensitivities, space environment effects); c) new calibration measurements and related curves by means of the PFM model using realistic cometary dust analogues. Acknowledgements: GIADA was built by a consortium led by the Univ. Napoli "Parthenope" & INAF-Oss. Astr. Capodimonte, IT, in collaboration with the Inst. de Astrofisica de Andalucia, ES, Selex-ES s.p.a. and SENER. GIADA is presently managed & operated by Ist. di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali-INAF, IT. GIADA was funded and managed by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, IT, with a support of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science MEC, ES. GIADA was developed from a University of Kent, UK, PI proposal; sci. & tech. contribution given by CISAS, IT, Lab. d'Astr. Spat., FR, and Institutions from UK, IT, FR, DE and USA. We thank

  3. Development of computer simulation models for pedestrian subsystem impact tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, R.; Konosu, A.; Ishikawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    The European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC/WG10 and WG17) proposed three component subsystem tests for cars to assess pedestrian protection. The objective of this study is to develop computer simulation models of the EEVC pedestrian subsystem tests. These models are available to develop a

  4. Low-voltage Power Supply Subsystem for a Sub-Orbital Particle Physic Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Hugo Silva Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Experiment Module–Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO is a wide-field (+/-~30°of aperture 2.5m refractor telescope to be installed in the International Space Station (ISS. The instrument looks downward from its orbit, into Earth’s atmosphere, with the main objective of observing ultra-violet (UV fluorescence light generated by Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR extensive air showers (EAS. It is a frontier particle-physics experiment, the first of its kind. The validation of the technical readiness level of such a complex and unique instrument requires prototypes at several levels of integration. At the highest level, the EUSO-Balloon instrument has been conceived, through French space agency (CNES. At a smaller scale and in suborbital flight, EUSO-Balloon integrates all the sub-systems of the full space JEM-EUSO telescope, allowing end-to-end testing of hardware and interfaces, and to probing the global detection chain and strategy, while improving at the same time our knowledge of atmospheric and terrestrial UV background. EUSO-Balloon will be flown by CNES for the first time from Timmins, Canada; on spring 2014.This article presents the low-voltage power supply (LVPS subsystem development for the EUSO-Balloon instrument. This LVPS is the fully operational prototype for the space instrument JEM-EUSO. Besides design and construction, all performance tests and integration results with the other involved subsystems are shown.

  5. Simulating the Various Subsystems of a Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Okolnishnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of simulation models of various subsystems of a coal mine was developed with the help of a new visual interactive simulation system of technological processes. This paper contains a brief description of this simulation system and its possibilities. The main possibilities provided by the simulation system are: the quick construction of models from library elements, 3D representation, and the communication of models with actual control systems. These simulation models were developed for the simulation of various subsystems of a coal mine: underground conveyor network subsystems, pumping subsystems and coal face subsystems. These simulation models were developed with the goal to be used as a quality and reliability assurance tool for new process control systems in coal mining.

  6. Assessing Quality across Health Care Subsystems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Andrea; Pagán, José A.; Wong, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    Recent healthcare reform efforts in Mexico have focused on the need to improve the efficiency and equity of a fragmented healthcare system. In light of these reform initiatives, there is a need to assess whether healthcare subsystems are effective at providing high-quality healthcare to all Mexicans. Nationally representative household survey data from the 2006 Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (National Health and Nutrition Survey) were used to assess perceived healthcare quality across different subsystems. Using a sample of 7234 survey respondents, we found evidence of substantial heterogeneity in healthcare quality assessments across healthcare subsystems favoring private providers over social security institutions. These differences across subsystems remained even after adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic, and health factors. Our analysis suggests that improvements in efficiency and equity can be achieved by assessing the factors that contribute to heterogeneity in quality across subsystems. PMID:19305224

  7. Presence in the IP Multimedia Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing penetration of Internet Protocol (IP technologies, the wireless industry is evolving the mobile core network towards all-IP network. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is a standardised Next Generation Network (NGN architectural framework defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP to bridge the gap between circuit-switched and packet-switched networks and consolidate both sides into on single all-IP network for all services. In this paper, we provide an insight into the limitation of the presence service, one of the fundamental building blocks of the IMS. Our prototype-based study is unique of its kind and helps identifying the factors which limit the scalability of the current version of the presence service (3GPP TS 23.141 version 7.2.0 Release 7 [1], which will in turn dramatically limit the performance of advanced IMS services. We argue that the client-server paradigm behind the current IMS architecture does not suite the requirements of the IMS system, which defies the very purpose of its introduction. We finally elaborate on possible avenues for addressing this problem.

  8. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  9. Analysis of Ionospheric Effect During a Solar Eclipse Using GPS Observation of Occultation and Ground Stations%利用掩星和地基GPS研究日食电离层效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽民; 安家春; 孙伟; 赵莹

    2011-01-01

    A total solar eclipse on 22 July 2009, the longest one of this century, occurred in East Asia and Pacific.Meanwhile, a medium magnetic storm arise in the late eclipse.The electron density profiles in maximum eclipse time were obtained from COSMIC radio occultation, and time series of TEC in local area was obtained from ground GPS stations of Wuhan CORS.And some physical mechanism of ionospheric effects during in the eclipse were analyzed.%21世纪最长的一次日全食于2009-07-22发生,从亚洲东部一直延伸到太平洋地区,同时,日食后期开始伴随着一次中等强度的磁暴.本文利用COSMIC掩星GPS数据反演了食甚时刻电子密度变化情况,利用武汉CORS地基GPS数据反演了局部TEC时序变化情况,并分析了日食电离层效应的物理机制.

  10. Data capture and processing. [for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, John; Smith, Gene; Carper, Richard

    1987-01-01

    A systems concept developed in response to the specific requirements imposed by the Space Station and affiliated instrumentation is described. Particular attention is given to those subsystems associated with initial data capture, handling, routing, and distribution control for return link data via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The conceived approach, designated the Customer Data and Operations System, includes a data interface facility and a data handling center whose functions are data capture, demultiplexing and routing, early preprocessing, and ancillary data handling.

  11. Plasmakristall-4: New complex (dusty) plasma laboratory on board the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustylnik, M Y; Fink, M A; Nosenko, V; Antonova, T; Hagl, T; Thomas, H M; Zobnin, A V; Lipaev, A M; Usachev, A D; Molotkov, V I; Petrov, O F; Fortov, V E; Rau, C; Deysenroth, C; Albrecht, S; Kretschmer, M; Thoma, M H; Morfill, G E; Seurig, R; Stettner, A; Alyamovskaya, V A; Orr, A; Kufner, E; Lavrenko, E G; Padalka, G I; Serova, E O; Samokutyayev, A M; Christoforetti, S

    2016-09-01

    New complex-plasma facility, Plasmakristall-4 (PK-4), has been recently commissioned on board the International Space Station. In complex plasmas, the subsystem of μm-sized microparticles immersed in low-pressure weakly ionized gas-discharge plasmas becomes strongly coupled due to the high (10(3)-10(4) e) electric charge on the microparticle surface. The microparticle subsystem of complex plasmas is available for the observation at the kinetic level, which makes complex plasmas appropriate for particle-resolved modeling of classical condensed matter phenomena. The main purpose of PK-4 is the investigation of flowing complex plasmas. To generate plasma, PK-4 makes use of a classical dc discharge in a glass tube, whose polarity can be switched with the frequency of the order of 100 Hz. This frequency is high enough not to be felt by the relatively heavy microparticles. The duty cycle of the polarity switching can be also varied allowing to vary the drift velocity of the microparticles and (when necessary) to trap them. The facility is equipped with two videocameras and illumination laser for the microparticle imaging, kaleidoscopic plasma glow observation system and minispectrometer for plasma diagnostics and various microparticle manipulation devices (e.g., powerful manipulation laser). Scientific experiments are programmed in the form of scripts written with the help of specially developed C scripting language libraries. PK-4 is mainly operated from the ground (control center CADMOS in Toulouse, France) with the support of the space station crew. Data recorded during the experiments are later on delivered to the ground on the removable hard disk drives and distributed to participating scientists for the detailed analysis.

  12. Plasmakristall-4: New complex (dusty) plasma laboratory on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustylnik, M. Y.; Fink, M. A.; Nosenko, V.; Antonova, T.; Hagl, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Zobnin, A. V.; Lipaev, A. M.; Usachev, A. D.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Rau, C.; Deysenroth, C.; Albrecht, S.; Kretschmer, M.; Thoma, M. H.; Morfill, G. E.; Seurig, R.; Stettner, A.; Alyamovskaya, V. A.; Orr, A.; Kufner, E.; Lavrenko, E. G.; Padalka, G. I.; Serova, E. O.; Samokutyayev, A. M.; Christoforetti, S.

    2016-09-01

    New complex-plasma facility, Plasmakristall-4 (PK-4), has been recently commissioned on board the International Space Station. In complex plasmas, the subsystem of μm-sized microparticles immersed in low-pressure weakly ionized gas-discharge plasmas becomes strongly coupled due to the high (103-104 e) electric charge on the microparticle surface. The microparticle subsystem of complex plasmas is available for the observation at the kinetic level, which makes complex plasmas appropriate for particle-resolved modeling of classical condensed matter phenomena. The main purpose of PK-4 is the investigation of flowing complex plasmas. To generate plasma, PK-4 makes use of a classical dc discharge in a glass tube, whose polarity can be switched with the frequency of the order of 100 Hz. This frequency is high enough not to be felt by the relatively heavy microparticles. The duty cycle of the polarity switching can be also varied allowing to vary the drift velocity of the microparticles and (when necessary) to trap them. The facility is equipped with two videocameras and illumination laser for the microparticle imaging, kaleidoscopic plasma glow observation system and minispectrometer for plasma diagnostics and various microparticle manipulation devices (e.g., powerful manipulation laser). Scientific experiments are programmed in the form of scripts written with the help of specially developed C scripting language libraries. PK-4 is mainly operated from the ground (control center CADMOS in Toulouse, France) with the support of the space station crew. Data recorded during the experiments are later on delivered to the ground on the removable hard disk drives and distributed to participating scientists for the detailed analysis.

  13. An evaluation of oxygen-hydrogen propulsion systems for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetson, R. W.; Garrison, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for O2/H2 chemical and resistojet propulsion systems for the space station was developed and evaluated. The evolution of propulsion requirements was considered as the space station configuration and its utilization as a space transportation node change over the first decade of operation. The characteristics of candidate O2/H2 auxiliary propulsion systems are determined, and opportunities for integration with the OTV tank farm and the space station life support, power and thermal control subsystems are investigated. OTV tank farm boiloff can provide a major portion of the growth station impulse requirements and CO2 from the life support system can be a significant propellant resource, provided it is not denied by closure of that subsystem. Waste heat from the thermal control system is sufficient for many propellant conditioning requirements. It is concluded that the optimum level of subsystem integration must be based on higher level space station studies.

  14. An evaluation of oxygen/hydrogen propulsion systems for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetson, R. W.; Garrison, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for O2/H2 chemical and resistojet propulsion systems for the Space Station was developed and evaluated. The evolution of propulsion requirements was considered as the Space Station configuration and its utilization as a space transportation node change over the first decade of operation. The characteristics of candidate O2/H2 auxiliary propulsion systems are determined, and opportunities for integration with the OTV tank farm and the Space Station life support, power and thermal control subsystems are investigated. OTV tank farm boiloff can provide a major portion of the growth station impulse requirements and CO2 from the life support system can be a significant propellant resource, provided it is not denied by closure of that subsystem. Waste heat from the thermal control system is sufficient for many propellant conditioning requirements. It is concluded that the optimum level of subsystem integration must be based on higher level Space Station studies.

  15. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  16. MSG Power Subsystem Flight Return Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, G.; Canard, JP.; Perron, O.

    2011-10-01

    The Meteosat programme has been running for more than twenty years under ESA leadership. Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) is a series of 4 geostationary satellites developed and procured by the European Space Agency (ESA) on behalf of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). Eumetsat is still operating two of the first generation satellites models named MOP3 and MTP1 which are pointed towards the Indian ocean. The European meteorological service is now enhanced by two spacecrafts of the Second Generation (MSG-1 and MSG-2). They have been launched by Ariane 5 in August 2002 and December 2005 respectively. Thales Alenia Space, Prime Contractor of the program, has developed the MSG spacecraft based on a spin-axis stabilized technology. The Electrical Power Subsystem was subcontracted to Astrium GmbH. The Solar Array is composed of 8 body mounted panels, based on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Panel substrate. The Solar network utilizes 7854 Silicon High Eta cells delivering a beginning of life power of 740W. The 28 volts mainbus is regulated using a series shunt regulating concept (S3R type). Two identical SAFT batteries, built from NiCd cells and offering a 29Ah nameplate capacity are connected to the mainbus through battery discharge and charge regulators. Both Solar Array and batteries have been designed to provide power and energy for a nominal 7 years lifetime. These equipments are continuously monitored and are still operating in excellent condition after more than eight and five years in orbit. This paper will present the major electrical design aspects of the power chain and will describe the main parameters performances, which are analysed during the in-orbit operations. Batteries ageing is detailed thanks to reconditioning processed telemetry while the solar array performances over lifetime use dedicated solar array telemetry.

  17. ISS Double-Gimbaled CMG Subsystem Simulation Using the Agile Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inampudi, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach in simulating a cluster of 4 Control Moment Gyros (CMG) on the International Space Station (ISS) using a common sense approach (the agile development method) for concurrent mathematical modeling and simulation of the CMG subsystem. This simulation is part of Training systems for the 21st Century simulator which will provide training for crew members, instructors, and flight controllers. The basic idea of how the CMGs on the space station are used for its non-propulsive attitude control is briefly explained to set up the context for simulating a CMG subsystem. Next different reference frames and the detailed equations of motion (EOM) for multiple double-gimbal variable-speed control moment gyroscopes (DGVs) are presented. Fixing some of the terms in the EOM becomes the special case EOM for ISS's double-gimbaled fixed speed CMGs. CMG simulation development using the agile development method is presented in which customer's requirements and solutions evolve through iterative analysis, design, coding, unit testing and acceptance testing. At the end of the iteration a set of features implemented in that iteration are demonstrated to the flight controllers thus creating a short feedback loop and helping in creating adaptive development cycles. The unified modeling language (UML) tool is used in illustrating the user stories, class designs and sequence diagrams. This incremental development approach of mathematical modeling and simulating the CMG subsystem involved the development team and the customer early on, thus improving the quality of the working CMG system in each iteration and helping the team to accurately predict the cost, schedule and delivery of the software.

  18. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I effort demonstrated, through actual development and tests with a spacecraft system, the technical and programmatic feasibility of developing, within the...

  19. NICER instrument detector subsystem: description and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigozhin, Gregory; Gendreau, Keith; Doty, John P.; Foster, Richard; Remillard, Ronald; Malonis, Andrew; LaMarr, Beverly; Vezie, Michael; Egan, Mark; Villasenor, Jesus; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baumgartner, Wayne; Scholze, Frank; Laubis, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Huber, Alan

    2016-07-01

    An instrument called Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) will be placed on-board the Inter- national Space Station in 2017. It is designed to detect soft X-ray emission from compact sources and to provide both spectral and high resolution timing information about the incoming ux. The focal plane is populated with 56 customized Silicon Drift Detectors. The paper describes the detector system architecture, the electronics and presents the results of the laboratory testing of both ight and engineering units, as well as some of the calibration results obtained with synchrotron radiation in the laboratory of PTB at BESSY II.

  20. Development of a preprototype times wastewater recovery subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dehner, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    A three-man wastewater recovery preprototype subsystem using a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump to provide efficient potable water recovery from wastewater on extended duration space flights was designed, fabricated, and tested at one-gravity. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem. The tubular hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts, and provide structural integrity, improving on previous flat sheet membrane designs. A thermoelectric heat pump provides latent energy recovery. Application and integration of these key elements solved problems inherent in all previous reclamation subsystem designs.

  1. Space Shuttle Orbiter leading edge structural subsystem thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, D. M.; Cunningham, J. A.; Frahm, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive qualification test program and the STS-1 flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter have provided the data necessary to verify the performance of the Orbiter thermal protection system. The reinforced carbon-carbon leading edge structural subsystem is used on areas of the orbiter where temperatures exceed 2300 F. The subsystem consists of the ROC nose cap and wing leading edge panels, metallic attachments, internal insulation, and interface tiles. Thermal response data from the qualification tests and the STS-1 flight, postflight inspection, and analytical predictions support the conclusion that the thermal performance of the subsystem verified the design.

  2. Triple3 Redundant Spacecraft Subsystems (T3RSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — T3RSS is the system engineer's tool that allows a systematic approach to ensuring that even if one or more failures occur in a single component or subsystem, then...

  3. Review of Decoherence Free Subspaces, Noiseless Subsystems, and Dynamical Decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Quantum information requires protection from the adverse affects of decoherence and noise. This review provides an introduction to the theory of decoherence-free subspaces, noiseless subsystems, and dynamical decoupling. It addresses quantum information preservation as well protected computation.

  4. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-11-03

    This specification revises the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  5. Development of Pattern Recognition Options for Combining Safeguards Subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Thomas L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    This talk reviews project progress in combining process monitoring data and nuclear material accounting data to improve the over nuclear safeguards system. Focus on 2 subsystems: (1) nuclear materials accounting (NMA); and (2) process monitoring (PM).

  6. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-05-03

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  7. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  8. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  9. Statistical Design Model (SDM) of satellite thermal control subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshams, Mehran; Zabihian, Ehsan; Aarabi Chamalishahi, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Satellites thermal control, is a satellite subsystem that its main task is keeping the satellite components at its own survival and activity temperatures. Ability of satellite thermal control plays a key role in satisfying satellite's operational requirements and designing this subsystem is a part of satellite design. In the other hand due to the lack of information provided by companies and designers still doesn't have a specific design process while it is one of the fundamental subsystems. The aim of this paper, is to identify and extract statistical design models of spacecraft thermal control subsystem by using SDM design method. This method analyses statistical data with a particular procedure. To implement SDM method, a complete database is required. Therefore, we first collect spacecraft data and create a database, and then we extract statistical graphs using Microsoft Excel, from which we further extract mathematical models. Inputs parameters of the method are mass, mission, and life time of the satellite. For this purpose at first thermal control subsystem has been introduced and hardware using in the this subsystem and its variants has been investigated. In the next part different statistical models has been mentioned and a brief compare will be between them. Finally, this paper particular statistical model is extracted from collected statistical data. Process of testing the accuracy and verifying the method use a case study. Which by the comparisons between the specifications of thermal control subsystem of a fabricated satellite and the analyses results, the methodology in this paper was proved to be effective. Key Words: Thermal control subsystem design, Statistical design model (SDM), Satellite conceptual design, Thermal hardware

  10. ACCESS: Design and Sub-System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew J.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Rasucher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Pelton, Russell; Mott, D. Brent; Wen, Hiting; Foltz, Roger; Quijada, Manuel A.; Gum, Jeffery S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kahle, Duncan M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul D.; Hart, Murdock; Moos, H. Warren; Reiss, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. ACCESS, "Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars", is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 -1.7 micrometer bandpass.

  11. Role of Fe magnetic subsystems to form a magnetic spin glass state in RFeTi2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drokina, T. V.; Petrakovskii, G. A.; Bayukov, O. A.; Molokeev, M. S.; Bartolomé, J.; Arauzo, A.

    2017-10-01

    The experimental studies on R3+Fe3+Ti2O7 (R=Sm, Gd, Tb, Tm, Dy) magnetic properties evidence the low temperature spin glass state in all compounds. The possibility of rare-earth cation substitution allows the investigation of the role of magnetic iron Fe3+ ions and rare earth R3+ ions subsystems in a ground state formation in these oxide compounds.

  12. SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

  13. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, in a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation; testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to verify compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision-making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  14. Model reduction for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

  15. MIT/Draper Technology Development Partnership Project: Systems Analysis and On-Station Propulsion Subsystem Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    battery . These batteries work on the same principles as the primary Lithium Thionyl Chloride batteries ...ATD project. The battery being used on Draper’s ERGM project is the Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. MAP-9233, which is a primary Lithium Thionyl ... Chloride Battery with the following characteristics: Table 19: ERGM Battery Characteristics Part No. MAP-9233 Weight (kg) 0.465 Volume (cm3)

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis preprototype subsystem. [oxygen production for life support systems on space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and controls developed for an electrolysis demonstration unit for use with the life sciences payload program and in NASA's regenerative life support evaluation program are described. Components discussed include: the electrolysis module; power conditioner; phase separator-pump and hydrogen differential regulator; pressure regulation of O2, He, and N2; air-cooled heat exchanger; water accumulator; fluid flow sight gage assembly; catalytic O2/H2 sensor; gas flow sensors; low voltage power supply; 100 Amp DC contactor assembly; and the water purifier design.

  17. Real-Time Signal Processing Data Acquisition Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafinas, George A.; Stein, Alan J.; Bisson, Kenneth J.

    A digital signal processing sub-system has been developed for a coherent carbon dioxide laser radar system at Lincoln Laboratory's Firepond Research Facility. This high-resolution radar is capable of operating with a variety of waveforms; hence, the signal processing requirements of the sub-system vary from one application to the next, and require a sub-system with a high degree of flexibility. The primary function of the Data Acquisition sub-system is to provide range-Doppler images in real-time. Based on this objective, the sub-system must have the ability to route large amounts of digitized data at high rates between specialized processors performing the functions of data acquisition, digital signal processing, archiving, and image processing. A distributed processing design approach was used and the hardware design implemented was configured using all off-the-shelf commercially available products. The sub-system uses a high speed 24 MB/sec central bus and associated processor acting as the hub of the system. Attached to the bus is a large RAM memory buffer. Also attached to the central bus are individual processors which interface to specialized peripherals, performing the tasks of digitizing, vector processing, imaging, and archiving. The software for the complete Data Acquisition and Signal Processing sub-system was developed on a Digital Equipment MicroVAX IITM computer. Software developed for the completed system is coded mostly in a high level language to promote flexibility, modularity, and reducing development time. Some microcode had to be used where speed is essential. All Software design, development, and testing was done under VMSTM.

  18. Enhanced International Space Station Ku-Band Telemetry Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Andrew J.; Pitts, R. Lee; Welch, Steven J.; Bryan, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration. To fully utilize the ISS and take advantage of the modern protocols and updated Ku-band access, the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) has designed an approach to extend the Kuband forward link access for payload investigators to their on-orbit payloads. This dramatically increases the ground to ISS communications for those users. This access also enables the ISS flight controllers operating in the Payload Operations and Integration Center to have more direct control over the systems they are responsible for managing and operating. To extend the Ku-band forward link to the payload user community the development of a new command server is necessary. The HOSC subsystems were updated to process the Internet Protocol Encapsulated packets, enable users to use the service based on their approved services, and perform network address translation to insure that the packets are forwarded from the user to the correct payload repeating that process in reverse from ISS to the payload user. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. This will include the integration of COTS hardware and software as well as how the device is incorporated into the operational mission of the ISS. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology can be applicable to payload users of the ISS.

  19. Validation of space/ground antenna control algorithms using a computer-aided design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1995-01-01

    The validation of the algorithms for controlling the space-to-ground antenna subsystem for Space Station Alpha is an important step in assuring reliable communications. These algorithms have been developed and tested using a simulation environment based on a computer-aided design tool that can provide a time-based execution framework with variable environmental parameters. Our work this summer has involved the exploration of this environment and the documentation of the procedures used to validate these algorithms. We have installed a variety of tools in a laboratory of the Tracking and Communications division for reproducing the simulation experiments carried out on these algorithms to verify that they do meet their requirements for controlling the antenna systems. In this report, we describe the processes used in these simulations and our work in validating the tests used.

  20. Gamma Ray Array Detector Trigger Sub-System

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong-Wei, Du; Yi, Qian; KongJie,

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one of External Target Facility (ETF) subsystems at the Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou. The trigger subsystem of the GRAD has been developed based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. The GRAD trigger subsystem makes prompt L1 trigger decisions to select valid events. These decisions are made by processing the hit signals from 1024 CsI scintillators of the GRAD. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger subsystem generates 12-bit trigger signals that are passed to the ETF global trigger system. In addition, the GRAD trigger subsystem generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics and one FPGA of the trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in the other FPGA of the trigger module. The reliable and efficient performance in the Gamma-ray experiments demonstrates th...

  1. Safe Operation of HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem on Herschel Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Malgorzata; Juchnikowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Ward, John

    The HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem is part of the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) dedicated for astronomical observations,to be mounted on the ESA satellite HER- SCHEL. The Subsystem provides the local oscillator signal (480-1910 GHz) to each of the fourteen HIFI input mixers. Part of LO, the Local Oscillator Control Unit (LCU) provides the main interface between Local Oscillator Subsystem and HIFI/Herschel power and telemetry buses. The unit supplies Local Oscillator, decodes the HIFI macro-commands, programs and monitors the parameters of Ka-Band Synthesizer and THz multiplier chains and controls the operation of the whole Local Oscillator Subsystem. The unique microwave components used in HF multipliers are extremely sensitive to the proper biasing (polarity, voltage, current, presence of HF power).The ESA strategy of this mission requires full safe operation of the instrument. This requirements is covered by complex protection system implemented inside LCU. In this paper, we present the general overview of the protection system of microwave components. The different levels of protection (hardware realization and software procedures) are described as well as various reliability aspects. The functionality of LO subsystem controlled by LCU was tested in 2007. Now the flight model of HIFI instrument is integrated with the satellite and will be launched with Herschel mission in July 2008.

  2. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-04-27

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This subsystem specification establishes the interface and performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem. The DST Monitor and Control Subsystem consists of the new and existing equipment that will be used to provide tank farm operators with integrated local monitoring and control of the DST systems to support Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). New equipment will provide automatic control and safety interlocks where required and provide operators with visibility into the status of DST subsystem operations (e.g., DST mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers) and the ability to manually control specified DST functions as necessary. This specification is intended to be the basis for new project/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  3. Research and implementation of comprehensive situation sub-system in simulation platform of multiple UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Siliang; Huang, Siniu; Chen, Zongji

    2006-11-01

    Cooperative formation flight of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) becomes an attractive research field in recent years. The Simulation Platform of Multiple UAVs is a distributed interactive simulation environment based on High Level Architecture (HLA), which provides a universal simulation platform for the research of multiple UAVs, such as cooperative control, formation flight, mission planning, etc. The platform is composed of several nodes: Mission Control Station (MCS), Formation Control Unit (FCU), UAV Platform, Comprehensive Situation Display, 3-Dimension Display and Simulation Management. As an integral part of the simulation platform, the comprehensive situation sub-system monitors the geography environment and the situation of entities in the simulation. The sub-system is integrated into several nodes of the simulation platform: MCS, FCU and 2-Dimention Situation Display, etc. Considering generalized method and component-based rule, we design and implement comprehensive situation sub-system as well as supporting tool kits. It includes digital map walkthrough environment, map editor with Digital Elevation Model (DEM), bitmap creator, network communication module, situation display module and scenario editor module. Digital map walkthrough environment is a Geographic Information System (GIS) with specific functions, including multiple windows display, map walkthrough and data management. Map editor and bitmap creator create different type of digital map, which is suited for demands of the simulation, and generate terrain data for the UAVs to execute route planning based on DEM. Situation display module displays the situation information of entities in the simulation dynamically and timely. The system is developed without commercial GIS components, and integrated into the environment smoothly.

  4. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  5. The Main Subsystems Involved in Defining the Quality Management System in a Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrea Valentina Alina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hospital is the most important organization in health field, so they have to improve the quality in all the activities deployed. A very suitable way to show the hospital’s preoccupation for quality of health services is the quality management system certificate according ISO 9001/2000. In understanding the architecture of the hospital quality management system is necessary to decompose this system in subsystems and analyze each separately: the managerial subsystem, the human subsystem, the social subsystem, thetechnical subsystem, the informative subsystem. The relationship between those subsystems leads to the continuous improvement of quality in health services.

  6. Enhanced science capability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ronald R.; Kienlen, Mike

    2002-12-01

    , providing, in part, science solid state recorders and instrument command management sub-systems. This, together with just one direct-to-ground based X-Band station co-located with a science payload operations center provides for a direct data path to ground, bypassing NASA institutions. The science center exists to receive user service requests, perform required constraint checks necessary for safe instrument operations, and to disseminate user science data. Payload commands can be up-linked directly or, if required, relayed through the existing NASA institution. The concept is modular for the downlink Earth terminals; in that multiple downlink X-band ground stations can be utilized throughout the world. This has applications for Earth science data direct to regional centers similar to those services provided by the EOS Terra spacecraft. However, for the purposes of this concept, just one downlink site was selected in order to define the worst-case data acquisition scenario necessary to ascertain concept feasibility. The paper demonstrates that the concept is feasible and can lead to a design that significantly reduces operational dependency on the NASA institutions and astronauts while significantly increasing ISS science operational efficiency and access.

  7. Controlling chaos in a satellite power supply subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macau, E. E. N.; Ramos Turci, L. F.; Yoneyama, T.

    2008-12-01

    In this work, we show that chaos control techniques can be used to increase the region that can be efficiently used to supply the power requests for an artificial satellite. The core of a satellite power subsystem relies on its DC/DC converter. This is a very nonlinear system that presents a multitude of phenomena ranging from bifurcations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, coexistence of attractors, among others. The traditional power subsystem design techniques try to avoid these nonlinear phenomena so that it is possible to use linear system theory in small regions about the equilibrium points. Here, we show that chaos control can be used to efficiently extend the applicability region of the satellite power subsystem when it operates in regions of high nonlinearity.

  8. On the description of subsystems in relativistic hypersurface Bohmian mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Detlef; Lienert, Matthias

    2014-09-08

    A candidate for a realistic relativistic quantum theory is the hypersurface Bohm-Dirac model. Its formulation uses a foliation of space-time into space-like hypersurfaces. In order to apply the theory and to make contact with the usual quantum formalism, one needs a framework for the description of subsystems. The presence of spin together with the foliation renders the subsystem description more complicated than in the non-relativistic case with spin. In this paper, we provide such a framework in terms of an appropriate conditional density matrix and an effective wave function as well as clarify their relation, thereby generalizing previous subsystem descriptions in the non-relativistic case.

  9. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-03-22

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery. This subsystem transfers waste between transfer-associated structures (pits) and to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor Facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  10. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourdas, A. [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  11. Embedded Thermal Control for Subsystems for Next Generation Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. NASA, the Defense Department and commercial interests are actively engaged in developing miniaturized spacecraft systems and scientific instruments to leverage smaller cheaper spacecraft form factors such as CubeSats. This paper outlines research and development efforts among Goddard Space Flight Center personnel and its several partners to develop innovative embedded thermal control subsystems. Embedded thermal control subsystems is a cross cutting enabling technology integrating advanced manufacturing techniques to develop multifunctional intelligent structures to reduce Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) consumption of both the thermal control subsystem and overall spacecraft. Embedded thermal control subsystems permit heat acquisition and rejection at higher temperatures than state of the art systems by employing both advanced heat transfer equipment (integrated heat exchangers) and high heat transfer phenomena. The Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Engineering Branch has active investigations seeking to characterize advanced thermal control systems for near term spacecraft missions. The embedded thermal control subsystem development effort consists of fundamental research as well as development of breadboard and prototype hardware and spaceflight validation efforts. This paper will outline relevant fundamental investigations of micro-scale heat transfer and electrically driven liquid film boiling. The hardware development efforts focus upon silicon based high heat flux applications (electronic chips, power electronics etc.) and multifunctional structures. Flight validation efforts include variable gravity campaigns and a proposed CubeSat based flight demonstration of a breadboard embedded thermal control system. The CubeSat investigation is technology demonstration will characterize in long-term low earth orbit a breadboard embedded thermal subsystem and its individual components to develop

  12. Interface Supports Lightweight Subsystem Routing for Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Block, Gary L.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Whitaker, William D.; Dillon, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A wireless avionics interface exploits the constrained nature of data networks in flight systems to use a lightweight routing method. This simplified routing means that a processor is not required, and the logic can be implemented as an intellectual property (IP) core in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The FPGA can be shared with the flight subsystem application. In addition, the router is aware of redundant subsystems, and can be configured to provide hot standby support as part of the interface. This simplifies implementation of flight applications requiring hot stand - by support. When a valid inbound packet is received from the network, the destination node address is inspected to determine whether the packet is to be processed by this node. Each node has routing tables for the next neighbor node to guide the packet to the destination node. If it is to be processed, the final packet destination is inspected to determine whether the packet is to be forwarded to another node, or routed locally. If the packet is local, it is sent to an Applications Data Interface (ADI), which is attached to a local flight application. Under this scheme, an interface can support many applications in a subsystem supporting a high level of subsystem integration. If the packet is to be forwarded to another node, it is sent to the outbound packet router. The outbound packet router receives packets from an ADI or a packet to be forwarded. It then uses a lookup table to determine the next destination for the packet. Upon detecting a remote subsystem failure, the routing table can be updated to autonomously bypass the failed subsystem.

  13. Software Testbed for Developing and Evaluating Integrated Autonomous Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, James; Remolina, Emilio; Prompt, Axel; Robinson, Peter; Sweet, Adam; Nishikawa, David

    2015-01-01

    To implement fault tolerant autonomy in future space systems, it will be necessary to integrate planning, adaptive control, and state estimation subsystems. However, integrating these subsystems is difficult, time-consuming, and error-prone. This paper describes Intelliface/ADAPT, a software testbed that helps researchers develop and test alternative strategies for integrating planning, execution, and diagnosis subsystems more quickly and easily. The testbed's architecture, graphical data displays, and implementations of the integrated subsystems support easy plug and play of alternate components to support research and development in fault-tolerant control of autonomous vehicles and operations support systems. Intelliface/ADAPT controls NASA's Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), which comprises batteries, electrical loads (fans, pumps, and lights), relays, circuit breakers, invertors, and sensors. During plan execution, an experimentor can inject faults into the ADAPT testbed by tripping circuit breakers, changing fan speed settings, and closing valves to restrict fluid flow. The diagnostic subsystem, based on NASA's Hybrid Diagnosis Engine (HyDE), detects and isolates these faults to determine the new state of the plant, ADAPT. Intelliface/ADAPT then updates its model of the ADAPT system's resources and determines whether the current plan can be executed using the reduced resources. If not, the planning subsystem generates a new plan that reschedules tasks, reconfigures ADAPT, and reassigns the use of ADAPT resources as needed to work around the fault. The resource model, planning domain model, and planning goals are expressed using NASA's Action Notation Modeling Language (ANML). Parts of the ANML model are generated automatically, and other parts are constructed by hand using the Planning Model Integrated Development Environment, a visual Eclipse-based IDE that accelerates ANML model development. Because native ANML planners are currently

  14. Subsystem Strategy Setting for Iran Local Market: Benchmarking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad FATEMINEJAD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a comparative research on the selected countries in setting the local market to identify solutions for Market Regulation Subsystem. We initially identified the system of market regulating and strategies. Based on strategic business success measures in regulating the local market, we selected six countries named the United States, Turkey, Malaysia, South Korea, China and India and identified their missions and strategic planning to regulate their local market. We presented the status of the selected countries and compared them to Iran, and made solutions to develop the subsystem for local market regulation of Iran.

  15. Development and Validation of the On-Board Control Procedures Subsystem for the Herschel and Planck Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraguto, M.; Wittrock, T.; Barrenscheen, M.; Paakko, M.; Sipinen, V.; Pelttari, L.

    2009-05-01

    The On-Board Control Procedures (OBCP) subsystem of Herschel and Planck Satellites' Central Data Management Unit (CDMU) Application SW (ASW) provides means to control the spacecraft through small script-like programs written in a specific language called On-board Command Language (OCL). The implementation for Herschel and Planck satellites is an adaptation from previous experiences on instruments like Rosetta/OSIRIS, Venus Express/VMC and Dawn/FC, but it had also been adapted successfully for the GOCE satellite already. A thorough validation campaign has been conducted to qualify the H&P SW implementation for flight. The purpose of having on-board control procedures is to allow the ground operators to be able to prepare and up-link complex operations sequences (more complex than simple sequences of mission time-line telecommands) to be executed on-board during the mission operational phase. This is possible because the OBCPs run in a quite separate subsystem, so the creation of a new procedure does not require modification, uplink and re-validation of the whole on-board software. The OBCP subsystem allows these control procedures to be developed, tested on ground, and executed on the spacecraft.

  16. ALSAT-2A power subsystem behavior during launch, early operation, and in-orbit test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, N.; Attaba, M.; Beaufume, E.

    2012-09-01

    In 2006, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL) decided to design and built two optical Earth observation satellites. The first one, ALSAT-2A, was integrated and tested as a training and cooperation program with EADS Astrium. The second satellite ALSAT-2B will be integrated by ASAL engineers in the Satellite Development Center (CDS) at Oran in Algeria. On 12th July 2010, Algeria has launched ALSAT-2A onboard an Indian rocket PSLV-C15 from the Sriharikota launch base, Chennaï. ALSAT-2A is the first Earth observation satellite of the AstroSat-100 family; the design is based on the Myriade platform and comprising the first flight model of the New Astrosat Observation Modular Instrument (NAOMI). This Instrument offers a 2.5m ground resolution for the PAN channel and a 10m ground resolution for four multi-spectral channels which provides high imaging quality. The operations are performed from ALSAT-2 ground segment located in Ouargla (Algeria) and after the test phase ALSAT-2A provides successful images. ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem (EPS) is composed of a Solar Array Generator (SAG ), a Li-ion battery dedicated to power storage and energy source during eclipse or high consumption phases and a Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU). This paper focuses primarily on ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem behavior during Launch and Early OPeration (LEOP) as well as In Orbit Test (IOT). The telemetry data related to the SAG voltage, current and temperature will be analyzed in addition to battery temperature, voltage, charge and discharge current. These parameters will be studied in function of satellite power consumption.

  17. Modeling and simulation of a 100 kWe HT-PEMFC subsystem integrated with an absorption chiller subsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    A 100 kWe liquid-cooled HT-PEMFC subsystem is integrated with an absorption chiller subsystem to provide electricity and cooling. The system is designed, modeled and simulated to investigate the potential of this technology for future novel energy system applications. Liquid-cooling can provide...... better temperature control and is preferable for middle-scale transport applications, such as commercial vessels, because stack cooling can be achieved within smaller volumes. A commercial ship requiring cooling and electricity is taken as the case study for the application of the proposed system. All...... electrical power output of 100 kWe. The heat exhausted to the absorption chiller subsystem is 107 kW and can satisfy a cooling duty of up to 128 or 64.5 kW for a LiBr-water double-effect system or a water-NH3 single-effect system, respectively. Finally, the projected total cost is comparable to conventional...

  18. Treating the sibling subsystem: an adjunct of divorce therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibuk, M

    1989-04-01

    Sibling therapy, frequently overlooked as a method of treatment, is particularly appropriate in situations that require a deliberate focus on the "unit of continuity," or the subsystem that remains intact during a process of family reorganization. For this and other reasons it can be an effective tool in treating children of divorce. A case illustrating this use of sibling therapy is presented.

  19. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  20. Mark 4A DSN receiver-exciter and transmitter subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The present configuration of the Mark 4A DSN Receiver-Exciter and Transmitter Subsystems is described. Functional requirements and key characteristics are given to show the differences in the capabilities required by the Networks Consolidation task for combined High Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network tracking support.

  1. The OCLC Serials Sub-System: A First Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Neal L.; And Others

    This examination of the OCLC serials control sub-system points to positive and negative aspects of the OCLC system as they relate to serials, and evaluates the system's serials cataloging capabilities. While this report assumes a knowledge of the basic operations of OCLC, it describes the system in general, its function in cataloging, and its…

  2. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  3. Interconnection of subsystems in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    The focus in this paper is analysis of stability and controller design for interconnected systems. This includes both the case with known and unknown interconnected sub-system. The key element in both the stability analysis and controller design is the application of the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kuce...

  4. The Design of a High-Integrity Disk Management Subsystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation describes and experimentally evaluates the design of the Logical Disk, a disk management subsystem that guarantees the integrity of data stored on disk even after system failures, while still providing performance competitive to other storage systems. Current storage systems that

  5. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation (Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation (Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  6. The precision-processing subsystem for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, W. E.; Bybee, J. E.; Bedross, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the precision processor, a subsystem in the image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS). This processor is a special-purpose image-measurement and printing system, designed to process user-selected bulk images to produce 1:1,000,000-scale film outputs and digital image data, presented in a Universal-Transverse-Mercator (UTM) projection. The system will remove geometric and radiometric errors introduced by the ERTS multispectral sensors and by the bulk-processor electron-beam recorder. The geometric transformations required for each input scene are determined by resection computations based on reseau measurements and image comparisons with a special ground-control base contained within the system; the images are then printed and digitized by electronic image-transfer techniques.

  7. Preliminary input to the space shuttle reaction control subsystem failure detection and identification software requirements (uncontrolled)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, E.

    1976-01-01

    The current baseline method and software implementation of the space shuttle reaction control subsystem failure detection and identification (RCS FDI) system is presented. This algorithm is recommended for conclusion in the redundancy management (RM) module of the space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control system. Supporting software is presented, and recommended for inclusion in the system management (SM) and display and control (D&C) systems. RCS FDI uses data from sensors in the jets, in the manifold isolation valves, and in the RCS fuel and oxidizer storage tanks. A list of jet failures and fuel imbalance warnings is generated for use by the jet selection algorithm of the on-orbit and entry flight control systems, and to inform the crew and ground controllers of RCS failure status. Manifold isolation valve close commands are generated in the event of failed on or leaking jets to prevent loss of large quantities of RCS fuel.

  8. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  9. Design of a Control Moment Gyroscope Attitude Actuation System for the Attitude Control Subsystem Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    sweet tea and chicken sandwiches and employees’ great attitudes. Finally, thank you to my family, supporting me from South Dakota, Wisconsin, and...and applied torque, as shown in Figure 4.9. In essence , limiting the gimbal acceleration limits the rate of change of torque, or 80 Figure 4.7: Gimbal

  10. [The innovative dynamic of the mechanics, electronics and materials subsystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, José; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Vargas, Marco

    2012-12-01

    The mechanics, electronics and materials subsystem, one of the subsystems of the health care productive complex, encompasses different activities, usually clustered in what is called the medical, hospital and dental equipment and materials industry. This is a strategic area for health care, since it represents a continuous source of changes in care practices, and influences the provision of health care services. It has, moreover, potential for promoting the progress of Brazil's system of innovation and for increasing the competitiveness of the industry as a whole, given that it articulates future technologies. Despite the significant growth of this industry in Brazil in recent years, such equipment and materials have been presenting a growing deficit in the balance of trade. This incompatibility between national health care needs and the productive and innovative basis of the industry points to structural fragilities in the system. Using the framework of political economy, the article aims to discuss the development of this industry in Brazil and its challenges.

  11. Categorial Subsystem Independence as Morphism Co-possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenis, Zalán; Rédei, Miklós

    2017-08-01

    This paper formulates a notion of independence of subobjects of an object in a general (i.e., not necessarily concrete) category. Subobject independence is the categorial generalization of what is known as subsystem independence in the context of algebraic relativistic quantum field theory. The content of subobject independence formulated in this paper is morphism co-possibility: two subobjects of an object will be defined to be independent if any two morphisms on the two subobjects of an object are jointly implementable by a single morphism on the larger object. The paper investigates features of subobject independence in general, and subobject independence in the category of C*-algebras with respect to operations (completely positive unit preserving linear maps on C*-algebras) as morphisms is suggested as a natural subsystem independence axiom to express relativistic locality of the covariant functor in the categorial approach to quantum field theory.

  12. CONTROLLABILITY OF DELAY DEGENERATE CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH INDEPENDENT SUBSYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋威

    2003-01-01

    The controllability of delay degenerate differential control systems is discussed. Firstly, delay degenerate differential control system was transformed to be canonical form, and the connected terms were gotten rid of, had delay degenerate differential control systems with independent subsystems. For the general delay degenerate differnetial control systems, it was gotten that the necessary and sufficient condition of that they are controllable is that their reachable set is equal to the whole space For the delay degenerate differential control systems with independent subsystems, it was gotten that the necessary and sufficient conditions of that they are controllable are that their reachable sets are equal to their corresponding subspaces. Then some algebra criteria were gotten. Finally, an example was given to illustrate the main results.

  13. H∞ Optimal Model Reduction for Singular Fast Subsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJing; ZHANGQing-Ling; LIUWan-Quan; ZHOUYue

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, H∞ optimal model reduction for singular fast subsystems will be investigated. First, error system is established to measure the error magnitude between the original and reduced systems, and it is demonstrated that the new feature for model reduction of singular systems is to make H∞ norm of the error system finite and minimal. The necessary and sufficient condition is derived for the existence of the H∞ suboptimal model reduction problem. Next, we give an exactand practicable algorithm to get the parameters of the reduced subsystems by applying the matrix theory. Meanwhile, the reduced system may be also impulsive. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are that it is more flexible in a straight-forward way without much extra computation, and the order of the reduced systems is as minimal as possible. Finally, one illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model reduction approach.

  14. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Floreková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.

  15. The skeletal subsystem as an integrative physiology paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Aaron J; Iqbal, Jameel; Zaidi, Neeha; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2010-12-01

    Homeostatic bone remodeling depends on precise regulation of osteoblast-osteoclast coupling through intricate endocrine, immune, neuronal, and mechanical factors. The osteoblast-osteoclast model of bone physiology with layers of regulatory complexity can be investigated as a component of a local skeletal subsystem or as a part of a complete whole-body system. In this review, we flip the traditional investigative paradigm of scientific experimentation ("bottom-top research") to a "top-bottom" approach using systems biology. We first establish the intricacies of the two-cell model at the molecular signaling level. We then provide, on a systems level, an integrative physiologic approach involving many recognized organ-level subsystems having direct and/or indirect effects on bone remodeling. Lastly, a hypothetical model of bone remodeling based on frequency and amplitude regulatory mechanisms is presented. It is hoped that by providing a thorough model of skeletal homeostasis, future progress can be made in researching and treating skeletal morbidities.

  16. Pyrotechnic Actuator for Retracting Tubes Between MSL Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, John C.; Webster, Richard G.; Patterson, Keith D.; Orzewalla, Matthew A.; Roberts, Eric T.; Tuszynski, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus, denoted the "retractuator" (a contraction of "retracting actuator"), was designed to help ensure clean separation between the cruise stage and the entry-vehicle subsystem of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The retractuator or an equivalent mechanism is needed because of tubes that (1) transport a heat-transfer fluid between the stages during flight and (2) are cut immediately prior to separation of the stages retractuator. The role of the retractuator is to retract the tubes, after they are cut and before separation of the subsystem, so that cut ends of the tubes do not damage thermal-protection coats on the entry vehicle and do not contribute to uncertainty of drag and consequent uncertainty in separation velocity.

  17. System integration of marketable subsystems. [for residential solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: systems integration of marketable subsystems; development, design, and building of site data acquisition subsystems; development and operation of the central data processing system; operation of the MSFC Solar Test Facility; and systems analysis.

  18. Commissioning and operation of the CEBAF end station refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenius, D.; Bevins, B.; Chronis, W.C.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.; Keesee, M.; Wilson, J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    The CEBAF End Station Helium Refrigerator (ESR) System provides refrigeration at 80 K, 20 K and 4.5 K to three End Station experimental halls. The facility consists of a two stage helium screw compressor system, 4.5 K refrigerator, cryogen distribution valve box, and transfer lines to the individual experimental halls. The 4.5 K cold box and compressors were originally part of the ESCAR 1,500 W, 4 K refrigeration system at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which was first commissioned fin 1977. The compressors, 4.5 K cold box, and control system design were modified to adapt the plant for the requirements of the CEBAF experimental halls. Additional subsystems of cryogen distribution, transfer lines, warm gas management, and computer control interface were added. This paper describes the major plant subsystems, modifications, operational experiences and performance.

  19. Nonadiabatic Geometric Phase in Composite Systems and Its Subsystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    We point out that the time-dependent gauge transformation technique may be effective in investigating the nonadiabatic geometric phase of a subsystem in a composite system. As an example, we consider two uniaxially coupled spin -1/2 particles with one of particles driven by rotating magnetic field. The influences of coupling and precession frequency of the magnetic field on geometric phase are also discussed in detail.

  20. Photonics in switching: enabling technologies and subsystem design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, K.; Raffaelli, C.; Aleksic, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes recent research activities and results in the area of photonic switching carried out within the framework of the EU-funded e-Photon/ONe + network of excellence, Virtual Department on Optical Switching. Technology aspects of photonics in switching and, in particular, recent ad...... advances in wavelength conversion, ring resonators, and packet switching and processing subsystems are presented as the building blocks for the implementation of a high-performance router for the next-generation Internet....

  1. Functional Analysis for Double Shell Tank (DST) Subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2000-08-22

    This functional analysis identifies the hierarchy and describes the subsystem functions that support the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System described in HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007, System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System. Because of the uncertainty associated with the need for upgrades of the existing catch tanks supporting the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission, catch tank functions are not addressed in this document. The functions identified herein are applicable to the Phase 1 WFD mission only.

  2. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  3. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Karasyov, S P; Uvarov, V L

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels.

  4. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  5. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  6. Comments to the Article by Thuillier et al. "The Infrared Solar Spectrum Measured by the SOLSPEC Spectrometer Onboard the International Space Station" on the Interpretation of Ground-based Measurements at the Izaña Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Cuevas, E.; García, R.; Redondas, A.

    2016-10-01

    Thuillier et al. ( Solar Phys. 290, 1581, 2015) article compares ATLAS-3 reference composite solar spectral irradiance (SSI) with more recent spatial measurements, as well as ground-based ones, including IRSPERAD. With respect to the IRSPERAD spectrum of Bolsée et al. ( Solar Phys. 289, 2433, 2014), Thuillier et al. (2015) presents an analysis based on a set of meteorological parameters retrieved at the moment of the respective ground-based campaign. This comment is intended to give a new insight to the said analysis which is based upon revised values of the meteorological parameters incorrectly used in Thuillier et al. (2015).

  7. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,422 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  8. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,313 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1989 and June 30, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  9. Space Station Systems: a Bibliography with Indexes (Supplement 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 950 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  10. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,158 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1988 and June 30, 1988. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  11. Design and Implementation of the Security Subsystem in Payroll Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeyad M.Ali Alfawaer; GuiWeihua; Chen Xiaofang

    2002-01-01

    This paper designs a security subsystem based on password protection and triggers mechanism in database management systems. Structure and function of the security subsystem is described in a payroll management system as an example of how the security subsystem gives additional security from possible intended or accidental attacks to the entire database system. The security subsystem involves password protection, triggers and improved physical storage mechanism, which combine together to be integrity to enhance security performance.Implementation of the security subsystem in a payroll database has proved its effectiveness.

  12. Impulsive Controllability/Observability for Interconnected Descriptor Systems with Two Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of decentralized impulse controllability/observability for large-scale interconnected descriptor systems with two subsystems by derivative feedback is studied. Necessary conditions for the existence of a derivative feedback controller for the first subsystem of the large-scale interconnected descriptor systems ensuring the second subsystem to be impulse controllable and impulse observable are derived, respectively. Based on the results, a derivative feedback controller for the first subsystem of the large-scale interconnected descriptor systems is constructed easily such that the second subsystem is impulse controllable or impulse observable. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained in this paper.

  13. National Ignition Facility, subsystem design requirements beam control {ampersand} laser diagnostics SSDR 1.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, E.

    1996-11-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Alignment subsystem (WBS 1.7.1), Beam Diagnostics (WBS 1.7.2), and the Wavefront Control subsystem (WBS 1.7. 3) of the NIF Laser System (WBS 1.3). These three subsystems are collectively referred to as the Beam Control & Laser Diagnostics Subsystem. The NIF is a multi-pass, 192-beam, high-power, neodymium-glass laser that meets requirements set forth in the NIF SDR 002 (Laser System). 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Garces, Luis Jose

    2008-06-24

    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  15. Autonomous navigation - The ARMMS concept. [Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, L. J.; Jones, J. B.; Mease, K. D.; Kwok, J. H.; Goltz, G. L.; Kechichian, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual design is outlined for the navigation subsystem of the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS). The principal function of this navigation subsystem is to maintain the spacecraft over a specified equatorial longitude to within + or - 3 deg. In addition, the navigation subsystem must detect and correct internal faults. It comprises elements for a navigation executive and for orbit determination, trajectory, maneuver planning, and maneuver command. Each of these elements is described. The navigation subsystem is to be used in the DSCS III spacecraft.

  16. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  17. Development of an integrated spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for automated proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Peter Z.; Spencer, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation process of a highly automated Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for a small satellite on-orbit inspection application, enabling proximity operations without human-in-the-loop interaction. The paper focuses on the integration and testing of Guidance, Navigation, & Control software and the development of decision logic to address the question of how such a system can be effectively implemented for full automation. This process is unique because a multitude of operational scenarios must be considered and a set of complex interactions between subsystem algorithms must be defined to achieve the automation goal. The Prox-1 mission is currently under development within the Space Systems Design Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The mission involves the characterization of new small satellite component technologies, deployment of the LightSail 3U CubeSat, entering into a trailing orbit relative to LightSail using ground-in-the-loop commands, and demonstration of automated proximity operations through formation flight and natural motion circumnavigation maneuvers. Operations such as these may be utilized for many scenarios including on-orbit inspection, refueling, repair, construction, reconnaissance, docking, and debris mitigation activities. Prox-1 uses onboard sensors and imaging instruments to perform Guidance, Navigation, & Control operations during on-orbit inspection of LightSail. Navigation filters perform relative orbit determination based on images of the target spacecraft, and guidance algorithms conduct automated maneuver planning. A slew and tracking controller sends attitude actuation commands to a set of control moment gyroscopes, and other controllers manage desaturation, detumble, thruster firing, and target acquisition/recovery. All Guidance, Navigation, & Control algorithms are developed in a MATLAB/Simulink six degree-of-freedom simulation environment and are integrated using

  18. Healthy aging, memory subsystems and regional cerebral oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, F; Rioux, P; Desgranges, B; Marchal, G; Petit-Taboué, M C; Dary, M; Lechevalier, B; Baron, J C

    1995-07-01

    The present study was designed to search for concomitant age-related changes in memory subsystems, defined according to current structural theories, and resting oxygen consumption in selected brain regions. We have investigated a sample of subjects between 20 and 68 years of age and strictly screened for their good health. We applied in the same subjects a battery of neuropsychological tests selected to investigate several memory subsystems, and high-resolution positron imaging with stereotaxic localization to study a purposely limited number of cerebral structures, selected on a priori hypotheses to match the different memory subsystems. Our results showed significant age-related changes in performance on some tests, consistent with the literature, including an increase in semantic memory and a decrease in both working memory (central executive system) and verbal episodic and explicit memory. There was also an age-related linear decrease in global brain oxygen consumption which regionally reached statistical significance for the neocortical areas and the left thalamus. There was a limited number of significant, age-independent correlations between the raw psychometric test scores and resting regional oxidative metabolism. Consistent with our present understanding of the functional anatomy of memory, the Associate Learning scores (verbal episodic and explicit memory) were positively correlated with left hippocampal and thalamic metabolism. The positive relationships found between right hippocampal metabolism and performance in the Associate Learning and the Brown-Peterson tests were less expected but would be consistent with findings from recent PET activation studies. The results from this investigation are discussed in the light of current knowledge concerning the neuropsychology and the neurobiology of both aging and memory.

  19. Safety design for enclosed ground flare at gas transportation station%封闭式地面火炬在天然气长输管道站场中的安全设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of enclosed ground flare are introduced in this paper along with the risks in accidents. The design for safety facilities of it are discussed as well.%介绍了封闭式地面火炬的特点、事故状态下可能存在的风险,并针对封闭式地面火炬的主要安全设施设计进行了分析和探讨.

  20. A Higher Order Godunov Method for Radiation Hydrodynamics: Radiation Subsystem

    CERN Document Server

    Sekora, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A higher order Godunov method for the radiation subsystem of radiation hydrodynamics is presented. A key ingredient of the method is the direct coupling of stiff source term effects to the hyperbolic structure of the system of conservation laws; it is composed of a predictor step that is based on Duhamel's principle and a corrector step that is based on Picard iteration. The method is second order accurate in both time and space, unsplit, asymptotically preserving, and uniformly well behaved from the photon free streaming (hyperbolic) limit through the weak equilibrium diffusion (parabolic) limit and to the strong equilibrium diffusion (hyperbolic) limit. Numerical tests demonstrate second order convergence across various parameter regimes.

  1. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, A.; Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Smith, T.; Wang, X.

    1995-05-01

    In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS.

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  3. Stability conditions of complex switched systems with unstable subsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖扬

    2004-01-01

    New stability conditions for complex switched systems are presented. We propose the concepts of attractive region and semi-attractive region, which are used as a tool for analyzing the stability of switched systems with unstable subsystems. Based on attractive region the sufficient conditions with less conservative for stability of switched systems have been established, there is no limitation for all members of the system set to be stable. Since our results have considered and utilized the decreasing span of oscillating solutions of the switched systems, they are more practical than the other presented ones of stability of switched systems, and need not resort to multiple Lyapunov functions.

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  5. The New York Public Library Automated Book Catalog Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Michael Malinconico

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive automated bibliographic control system has been developed by the New York Public Library. This system is unique in its use of an automated authority system and highly sophisticated machine filing algorithms. The primary aim was the rigorous control of established forms and their cross-reference structure. The original impetus for creation of the system, and its most highly visible product, is a photocomposed book catalog. The book catalog subsystem supplies automatic punctuation of condensed entries and contains the ability to pmduce cumulation/ supplement book catalogs in installments without loss of control of the crossreferencing structure.

  6. Data Management Applications for the Service Preparation Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ivy P.; Chang, George W.; Bui, Tung; Allen, Christopher; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie C.; Bui, Bach X.; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Kim, Rachel Y.; Zendejas, Silvino C.; hide

    2009-01-01

    These software applications provide intuitive User Interfaces (UIs) with a consistent look and feel for interaction with, and control of, the Service Preparation Subsystem (SPS). The elements of the UIs described here are the File Manager, Mission Manager, and Log Monitor applications. All UIs provide access to add/delete/update data entities in a complex database schema without requiring technical expertise on the part of the end users. These applications allow for safe, validated, catalogued input of data. Also, the software has been designed in multiple, coherent layers to promote ease of code maintenance and reuse in addition to reducing testing and accelerating maturity.

  7. Antenna and RF Subsystem Integration in Cellular Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, Pablo; Bahramzy, Pevand; Svendsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    wireless standards and demanding power and size requirements. The first technique is based on integrating the antenna as part of the RF filtering chain to relax the requirements of current duplex filters up to 30dB off-band. We also outline a discussion on the different approaches for adaptive antenna......We discuss in this article a number of techniques that can be used to improve the RF performance on a mobile device. All those techniques rely on tight antenna and modem subsystem codesign. In a short introduction, the article outlines the need of these techniques, based on the advent of new...

  8. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  9. Robonaut 2 - Preparing for Intra-Vehicular Mobility on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Julia; Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Taylor, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has been undergoing experimental trials on board the International Space Station (ISS) for more than a year. This upper-body anthropomorphic robotic system shown in Figure 1 has been making steady progress after completing its initial checkout. R2 demonstrated free space motion, physically interacted with its human crew mates, manipulated interfaces on its task board and has even used its first tool. This steady growth in capability will lead R2 to its next watershed milestone. Developers are currently testing prototype robotic climbing appendages and a battery backpack in preparation of sending flight versions of both subsystems to the ISS in late 2013. Upon integration of its new components, R2 will be able to go mobile inside the space station with a twofold agenda. First, R2 will learn to maneuver in microgravity in the best possible laboratory for such a task. Second, it will start providing early payback to the ISS program by helping with intra-vehicular (IVA) maintenance tasks. The experience gained inside the ISS will be invaluable in reducing risk when R2 moves to its next stage and is deployed as an extra-vehicular (EVA) tool. Even on its current fixed base stanchion, R2 has already shown its capability of performing several maintenance tasks on the ISS. It has measured the air flow through one of the stations vents and provided previously unavailable real time flow data to ground operators. R2 has cleaned its first handrail, exciting some crew members that perhaps Saturday morning housekeeping on the station may someday become a task they can hand off to their robotic colleague. Other tasks, including using radio frequency identification (RFID) tools for inventory tasks or vacuuming air filters, have also been suggested and will be explored. Once mobile, R2 will take on these tasks and more to free up crew time for more important science and exploration pursuits. In addition to task exploration, research and testing is happening on orbit

  10. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  11. Multi-agent Based Charges subsystem for Supply Chain Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Rani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to design charges subsystem using multi agent technology which deals with calculation, accrual and collection of various charges levied at the goods in a supply chain Logistics. Accrual of various charges such as freight, demurrage, and wharfage take place implicitly in the SC system at the various events of different subsystems which is collected and calculated by software agents. An Agent-based modeling is an approach based on the idea that a system is composed of decentralized individual ‘agents’ and that each agent interacts with other agents according to its localized knowledge. Our aim is to design a flexible architecture that can deal with next generation supply chain problems based on a multi-agent architecture. In this article, a multi agent system has been developed to calculate charges levied at various stages on good sheds.. Each entity is modeled as one agent and their coordination lead to control inventories and minimize the total cost of SC by sharing information and forecasting knowledge and using negotiation mechanism.

  12. Optimisation study of a vehicle bumper subsystem with fuzzy parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, L.; Moens, D.; Donders, S.; Vandepitte, D.

    2012-10-01

    This paper deals with the design and optimisation for crashworthiness of a vehicle bumper subsystem, which is a key scenario for vehicle component design. The automotive manufacturers and suppliers have to find optimal design solutions for such subsystems that comply with the conflicting requirements of the regulatory bodies regarding functional performance (safety and repairability) and regarding the environmental impact (mass). For the bumper design challenge, an integrated methodology for multi-attribute design engineering of mechanical structures is set up. The integrated process captures the various tasks that are usually performed manually, this way facilitating the automated design iterations for optimisation. Subsequently, an optimisation process is applied that takes the effect of parametric uncertainties into account, such that the system level of failure possibility is acceptable. This optimisation process is referred to as possibility-based design optimisation and integrates the fuzzy FE analysis applied for the uncertainty treatment in crash simulations. This process is the counterpart of the reliability-based design optimisation used in a probabilistic context with statistically defined parameters (variabilities).

  13. Rotating field collector subsystem phase 1 study and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Eibling, J. A.

    1982-10-01

    The rotating field collector system is an alternative concept in which all heliostats are mounted on a single large platform which rotates around a tower to track the azumuthal angle of the Sun. Each heliostat is mounted to the platform with appropriate pivots, linkage, and controls to provide the additional positioning required to properly direct the solar radiation onto the receiver. The results are presented of the first phase of a study to investigate the technical and economic merits of a particular type of rotating field collector subsystem. The large pie-shaped platform would revolve over an array of support pedestals by means of a roller at the top of each pedestal. Several heliostats were built to demonstrate their construction features, and the operation of both flat and amphitheater rotating fields was studied. Work included an analysis of the concepts, development of modifications and additions to make the system comply with design criteria, and cost estimates to be used for comparison with other heliostat subsystems. Because of considerably high cost estimates, the focus of a large part of the study was directed toward developing lower cost designs of major components.

  14. Ground source heat station energy-saving environmental protection significance of field application in road%地源热能在道路站场应用的节能环保意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志堂

    2014-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal resources, high grade road, especially the high-way management, maintenance and service station building in winter heating, summer air conditioning service,has important implications for the conservation of traditional energy and curb environmental pollu-tion.%开发利用地热资源,为高等级道路,特别是高速公路管理、养护和服务站区内建筑的冬季供暖、夏季空调服务,对于传统能源的节约和遏制环境污染具有重要意义。

  15. On the subsystem formulation of linear-response time-dependent DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Michele

    2013-05-28

    A new and thorough derivation of linear-response subsystem time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is presented and analyzed in detail. Two equivalent derivations are presented and naturally yield self-consistent subsystem TD-DFT equations. One reduces to the subsystem TD-DFT formalism of Neugebauer [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 134116 (2007)]. The other yields Dyson type equations involving three types of subsystem response functions: coupled, uncoupled, and Kohn-Sham. The Dyson type equations for subsystem TD-DFT are derived here for the first time. The response function formalism reveals previously hidden qualities and complications of subsystem TD-DFT compared with the regular TD-DFT of the supersystem. For example, analysis of the pole structure of the subsystem response functions shows that each function contains information about the electronic spectrum of the entire supersystem. In addition, comparison of the subsystem and supersystem response functions shows that, while the correlated response is subsystem additive, the Kohn-Sham response is not. Comparison with the non-subjective partition DFT theory shows that this non-additivity is largely an artifact introduced by the subjective nature of the density partitioning in subsystem DFT.

  16. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattle farming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri were purposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted using quota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystem agribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were given for up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution, respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952; RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were: up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness; down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness and Supporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion of research indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index and give positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.

  17. The development of the intrinsic functional connectivity of default network subsystems from age 3 to 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Zhai, Hongchang; Friederici, Angela D; Jia, Fucang

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, research on human functional brain imaging using resting-state fMRI techniques has been increasingly prevalent. The term "default mode" was proposed to describe a baseline or default state of the brain during rest. Recent studies suggested that the default mode network (DMN) is comprised of two functionally distinct subsystems: a dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) subsystem involved in self-oriented cognition (i.e., theory of mind) and a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem engaged in memory and scene construction; both subsystems interact with the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC) and posterior cingulate (PCC) as the core regions of DMN. The present study explored the development of DMN core regions and these two subsystems in both hemispheres from 3- to 5-year-old children. The analysis of the intrinsic activity showed strong developmental changes in both subsystems, and significant changes were specifically found in MTL subsystem, but not in DMPFC subsystem, implying distinct developmental trajectories for DMN subsystems. We found stronger interactions between the DMPFC and MTL subsystems in 5-year-olds, particularly in the left subsystems that support the development of environmental adaptation and relatively complex mental activities. These results also indicate that there is stronger right hemispheric lateralization at age 3, which then changes as bilateral development gradually increases through to age 5, suggesting in turn the hemispheric dominance in DMN subsystems changing with age. The present results provide primary evidence for the development of DMN subsystems in early life, which might be closely related to the development of social cognition in childhood.

  18. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering closeout report for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, J.; Christensen, R.W.; Hayman, G.; Jones, D.C.; Ross, R.; Wilds, W.; Yeamans, S.; Ziock, H.J.

    1995-02-01

    The authors group at Los Alamos National Laboratory was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the silicon tracking system of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) experiment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. The responsibility included the overall design of the system from the mechanical point of view, development and integration of the cooling system, which was required to remove the heat generated by the front-end electronics, assembly of the system to extremely tight tolerances, and verification that the construction and operational stability and alignment tolerances would be met. A detailed description of the concepts they developed and the work they performed can be found in a report titled ``Silicon Subsystem Mechanical Engineering Work for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration`` which they submitted to the SSC Laboratory. In addition to the mechanical engineering work, they also performed activation, background, and shielding studies for the SSC program. Much of the work they performed was potentially useful for other future high energy physics (HEP) projects. This report describes the closeout work that was performed for the Los Alamos SDC project. Four major tasks were identified for completion: (1) integration of the semi-automated assembly station being developed and construction of a precision part to demonstrate solutions to important general assembly problems (the station was designed to build precision silicon tracker subassemblies); (2) build a state-of-the-art TV holography (TVH) system to use for detector assembly stability tests; (3) design, build, and test a water based cooling system for a full silicon shell prototype; and (4) complete and document the activation, background, and shielding studies, which is covered in a separate report.

  19. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  20. Subsystem Quantum Mechanics and its Applications to Crystalline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Pengfei

    This thesis reports results of the author's investigations along the theme that both dynamic and static properties of molecules and solids can be expressed in terms of their parts from theoretical and applied aspects. Specifically, the following four main results are obtained: (1) A topological analysis of the charge density in crystals has been developed. This is an extension of the theory of molecular structure to crystalline systems. Relationships between the bulk properties of a crystal and its topological structure have been established. A comparison of the topological properties of molecules and crystals have been made. (2) The theory of atoms in molecules has been extended to a crystal and yields a variational definition of a Wigner-Seitz cell. This definition maximizes the relation of the cell to the physical form exhibited by the charge density and the derived structure factors that account, in a natural way, for the observed intensities of scattered electrons and X-rays. It has been demonstrated that the theory of atoms in molecules and crystals can provide a way to model the behaviour of solids. This is done through the use of the fact that atomic properties are often transferable from one system to another. (3) The subsystem variational principle has been reformulated in terms of quantum field theoretical language and the subsystem Feynman path integrals of electrons have been obtained using the coherent representation. This part contributes to the foundation of the theory of atoms in molecules and crystals. (4) Both dynamic and static quantum mechanical subspace techniques have been extensively investigated. A new variational method has been derived for embedding one system in another using the R-matrix formalism within the density functional approach. A formal subspace perturbation scheme has been proposed. These methods aim to obtain the charge distribution of a subsystem starting from known reference systems. Before I came here I was confused about

  1. Internet use during childhood and the ecological techno-subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Marie Johnson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research findings suggest both positive and negative developmental consequences of Internet use during childhood (e.g., playing video games have been associated with enhanced visual skills as well as increased aggression. Several studies have concluded that environmental factors mediate the developmental impact of childhood online behaviour. From an ecological perspective, we propose the techno-subsystem, a dimension of the microsystem (i.e., immediate environments. The techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers and nonliving (e.g., hardware elements of communication, information, and recreation technologies in direct environments. By emphasizing the role of technology in child development, the ecological techno-subsystem encourages holistic exploration of the developmental consequences of Internet use (and future technological advances during childhood. L’usage d’Internet chez les enfants et le sous-système Techno écologique Résumé : Les résultats de recherche semblent indiquer que l’usage d’Internet chez les enfants aurait des conséquences développementales qui soit à la fois positives et négatives (ex. : l’usage des jeux vidéo auraient été associés à un accroissement des habileté visuelles ainsi qu’à un accroissement de l’agressivité. Plusieurs études ont aussi conclue que l’impact du comportement des enfants quand il sont en ligne sur leur développement serait affecté par des facteurs environnementaux. Dans une perspective écologique, nous proposons le sous-système Techno, une dimension du microsystème (ex :. les environnements immédiats. Le sous-système Techno comprend l’interaction de l’enfant avec des éléments vivants (e. : les paires et non vivants (ex; les ordinateurs de communication, d’information et de technologie de jeux dans des environnements directes.

  2. Extension of the statistical modal energy distribution analysis for estimating energy density in coupled subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, N.; Guyader, J. L.

    2012-06-01

    The present article deals with an extension of the Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis (SmEdA) method to estimate kinetic and potential energy density in coupled subsystems. The SmEdA method uses the modal bases of uncoupled subsystems and focuses on the modal energies rather than the global energies of subsystems such as SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis). This method permits extending SEA to subsystems with low modal overlap or to localized excitations as it does not assume the existence of modal energy equipartition. We demonstrate that by using the modal energies of subsystems computed by SmEdA, it is possible to estimate energy distribution in subsystems. This approach has the same advantages of standard SEA, as it uses very short calculations to analyze damping effects. The estimation of energy distribution from SmEdA is applied to an academic case and an industrial example.

  3. A development and integration analysis of commercial and in-house control subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Dalesio, L.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The acquisition and integration of commercial automation and control subsystems in physics research is becoming more common. It is presumed these systems present lower risk and less cost. This paper studies four subsystems used in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) resonance-control cooling subsystem (RCCS), the high-power RF subsystem and the RFQ vacuum subsystem were outsourced; the low-level RF (LLRF) subsystem was developed in-house. Based on the authors experience a careful evaluation of the costs and risks in acquisition, implementation, integration, and maintenance associated with these approaches is given.

  4. Understanding the requirements imposed by programming model middleware on a common communication subsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntinas, D.; Gropp, W.

    2005-12-13

    In high-performance parallel computing, most programming-model middleware libraries and runtime systems use a communication subsystem to abstract the lower-level network layer. The functionality required of a communication subsystem depends largely on the programming model implemented by the middleware. In order to maximize performance, middleware libraries and runtime systems typically implement their own communication subsystems that are specially tuned for the middleware, rather than use an existing communication subsystem. This situation leads to duplicated effort and prevents different middleware libraries from being used by the same application in hybrid programming models. In this paper we describe features required by various middleware libraries as well as some desirable features that would make it easier to port a middleware library to the communication subsystem and allow the middleware to make use of high-performance features provided by some networking layers. We show that none of the communication subsystems that we evaluate support all of the features.

  5. 明暗挖结合施工地铁车站地表沉降研究%Analysis of the Impact on the Laws of Ground Settlement in Underground Railway Stations Building through Open and Covered-cut Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻凤海; 王岩

    2015-01-01

    Relying on a semi-open-cut subway station engineering of Dalian Metro, a large open-cut excavation and a PBA subway station which has a large section had be simulated. The excavation and support process were established into 3D model, by using FEM software ADINA. By compared the surface settlement where interrelated by the different construct steps with measure data, the paper shows that the maximum soil settlement appear in the concrete diaphragm wall back and go down away from the excavation by vertical direction. In the direction parallel to the pit, surface settlement curve shaped like a funnel. The surface subsidence rule changes significantly when the Drift-PBA method construction was completed: the surface settling curve assumes funnel shape, but contrasted with the revised Peck formula curve which based on the measured data shows that the both are similar in width of the settlement trough.%依托大连地铁一号线某明暗挖车站工程实例,通过应用大型通用有限元数值分析软件ADINA建立三维模型,模拟车站明挖基坑及大断面洞桩法暗挖开挖及支护过程,研究不同开挖步序后基坑开挖与暗挖施工相互影响部位地表沉降规律,同时结合实测监控量测数据对比总结。研究结果表明,地铁车站无内撑深基坑开挖后,垂直于基坑方向连续墙背后土体地表沉降最大,向远离基坑位置逐渐减小,平行于基坑边呈漏斗状沉降规律;大断面洞桩法暗挖施工后地表沉降显著变化,地表沉降曲线呈漏斗状变化规律,但与实测数据经修正Peck公式拟合后对比发现,两者沉降槽宽度基本一致。

  6. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  7. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  8. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  9. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  10. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  11. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  12. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  13. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  14. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  15. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  16. Space/ground systems as cooperating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) it is agreed that autonomy is an important goal for the design of future spacecraft and that this requires on-board artificial intelligence. NASA emphasizes deep space and planetary rover missions, while ESA considers on-board autonomy as an enabling technology for missions that must cope with imperfect communications. ESA's attention is on the space/ground system. A major issue is the optimal distribution of intelligent functions within the space/ground system. This paper describes the multi-agent architecture for space/ground systems (MAASGS) which would enable this issue to be investigated. A MAASGS agent may model a complete spacecraft, a spacecraft subsystem or payload, a ground segment, a spacecraft control system, a human operator, or an environment. The MAASGS architecture has evolved through a series of prototypes. The paper recommends that the MAASGS architecture should be implemented in the operational Dutch Utilization Center.

  17. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  18. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    OCDS) ................................................... 077 BIRJAND 408090 8612 (OCDS) ............................................. ( 381 BUSHEHR...ALL HOURS # 2 1 0 1 0 # 0 # 1 # 1 1 CACECR-IB 080 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMM ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID...082. L@ OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SIJ44ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID: OIMB LOCATION: 32054’N, 59016’E ELEVATION (FEET): 4823 LST

  19. A Ground-Based Validation System of Teleoperation for a Space Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Xueqian Wang; Houde Liu; Wenfu Xu; Bin Liang; Yingchun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Teleoperation of space robots is very important for future on‐orbit service. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experiments are required to verify the function and validity of the teleoperation system before a space robot is launched. In this paper, a ground‐based validation subsystem is developed as a part of a teleoperation system. The subsystem is mainly composed of four parts: the input verification module, the onboard verification module, the dynamic and ima...

  20. Stochastic Mode-Reduction in Models with Conservative Fast Sub-Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Ankita; Timofeyev, Ilya; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic mode reduction strategy is applied to multiscale models with a deterministic energy-conserving fast sub-system. Specifically, we consider situations where the slow variables are driven stochastically and interact with the fast sub-system in an energy-conserving fashion. Since the stochastic terms only affect the slow variables, the fast-subsystem evolves deterministically on a sphere of constant energy. However, in the full model the radius of the sphere slowly changes due to the...

  1. The human operator transfer function: Identification of the limb mechanics subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynette A.; Hunter, Ian W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research is to decompose the performance of the human operator in terms of the subsystems that determine the operator's responses in order to establish how the dynamics of these component subsystems influence the operator's performance. In the present experiment, the dynamic stiffness of the human elbow joint was measured at rest and under different levels of biceps muscle activation; this work forms part of the analysis of the limb mechanics subsystem.

  2. Portable Life Support Subsystem Thermal Hydraulic Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bruce; Pinckney, John; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. The PLSS thermal hydraulic model simulates the thermal, pressure, flow characteristics, and human thermal comfort related to the PLSS performance. This paper presents modeling approaches and assumptions as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are presented that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  3. Lacie phase 1 Classification and Mensuration Subsystem (CAMS) rework experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Hsu, E. M.; Liszcz, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was designed to test the ability of the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem rework operations to improve wheat proportion estimates for segments that had been processed previously. Sites selected for the experiment included three in Kansas and three in Texas, with the remaining five distributed in Montana and North and South Dakota. The acquisition dates were selected to be representative of imagery available in actual operations. No more than one acquisition per biophase were used, and biophases were determined by actual crop calendars. All sites were worked by each of four Analyst-Interpreter/Data Processing Analyst Teams who reviewed the initial processing of each segment and accepted or reworked it for an estimate of the proportion of small grains in the segment. Classification results, acquisitions and classification errors and performance results between CAMS regular and ITS rework are tabulated.

  4. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  5. Progress report for the scintillator plate calorimeter subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report covers the work completed in FY90 by ANL staff and those of Westinghouse STC and BICRON Corporation under subcontract to ANL towards the design of a compensating calorimeter based on the use of scintillator plate as the sensitive medium. It is presented as five task sections dealing with respectively mechanical design; simulation studies; optical system design; electronics development; development of rad hard plastic scintillator and wavelength shifter and a summary. The work carried out by the University of Tennessee under a subcontract from ANL is reported separately. Finally, as principal institution with responsibility for the overall management of this subsystem effort, the summary here reports the conclusions resulting from the work of the collaboration and their impact on our proposed direction of effort in FY91. This proposal, for obvious reasons is given separately.

  6. Spread of entanglement for small subsystems in holographic CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Sandipan

    2016-01-01

    We develop an analytic perturbative expansion to study the propagation of entanglement entropy for small subsystems after a global quench, in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Opposite to the large interval limit, in this case the evolution of the system takes place at timescales that are shorter in comparison to the local equilibration scale and thus, different physical mechanisms govern the dynamics and subsequent thermalization. In particular, we show that the heuristic picture in terms of a "entanglement tsunami" does not apply in this regime. We find two crucial differences. First, that the instantaneous rate of growth of the entanglement is not constrained by causality, but rather its time average. And second, that the approach to saturation is always continuous, regardless the shape of the entangling surface. Our analytic expansion also enables us to verify some previous numerical results, namely, that the saturation time is non-monotonic with respect to the chemical potential. All of our resu...

  7. A model for the emergence of adaptive subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopazo, H; Gordon, M B; Perazzo, R; Risau-Gusman, S

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of learning and evolution in a changing environment. A stable learning capability is regarded as an emergent adaptive system evolved by natural selection of genetic variants. We consider the evolution of an asexual population. Each genotype can have 'fixed' and 'flexible' alleles. The former express themselves as synaptic connections that remain unchanged during ontogeny and the latter as synapses that can be adjusted through a learning algorithm. Evolution is modelled using genetic algorithms and the changing environment is represented by two optimal synaptic patterns that alternate a fixed number of times during the 'life' of the individuals. The amplitude of the change is related to the Hamming distance between the two optimal patterns and the rate of change to the frequency with which both exchange roles. This model is an extension of that of Hinton and Nowlan in which the fitness is given by a probabilistic measure of the Hamming distance to the optimum. We find that two types of evolutionary pathways are possible depending upon how difficult (costly) it is to cope with the changes of the environment. In one case the population loses the learning ability, and the individuals inherit fixed synapses that are optimal in only one of the environmental states. In the other case a flexible subsystem emerges that allows the individuals to adapt to the changes of the environment. The model helps us to understand how an adaptive subsystem can emerge as the result of the tradeoff between the exploitation of a congenital structure and the exploration of the adaptive capabilities practised by learning.

  8. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Design, specifications, and diagrams for the thermal storage subsystem for the 10-MW pilot tower focus power plant are presented in detail. The Honeywell thermal storage subsystem design features a sensible heat storage arrangement using proven equipment and materials. The subsystem consists of a main storage containing oil and rock, two buried superheater tanks containing inorganic salts (Hitec), and the necessary piping, instrumentation, controls, and safety devices. The subsystem can provide 7 MW(e) for three hours after twenty hours of hold. It can be charged in approximately four hours. Storage for the commercial-scale plant consists of the same elements appropriately scaled up. Performance analysis and tradeoff studies are included.

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattlefarming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri werepurposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted usingquota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling.Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystemagribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were givenfor up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution,respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952;RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were:up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness;down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness andSupporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion ofresearch indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index andgive positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.

  10. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  11. Sliding Mode Thermal Control System for Space Station Furnace Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Mark E.; Shtessel, Yuri B.

    1998-01-01

    The decoupled control of the nonlinear, multiinput-multioutput, and highly coupled space station furnace facility (SSFF) thermal control system is addressed. Sliding mode control theory, a subset of variable-structure control theory, is employed to increase the performance, robustness, and reliability of the SSFF's currently designed control system. This paper presents the nonlinear thermal control system description and develops the sliding mode controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to operate in their local sliding modes, resulting in control system invariance to plant uncertainties and external and interaction disturbances. The desired decoupled flow-rate tracking is achieved by optimization of the local linear sliding mode equations. The controllers are implemented digitally and extensive simulation results are presented to show the flow-rate tracking robustness and invariance to plant uncertainties, nonlinearities, external disturbances, and variations of the system pressure supplied to the controlled subsystems.

  12. Remote Diagnosis of the International Space Station Utilizing Telemetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Somnath; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Malepati, Venkat; Domagala, Chuck; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Alena, Richard; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Modern systems such as fly-by-wire aircraft, nuclear power plants, manufacturing facilities, battlefields, etc., are all examples of highly connected network enabled systems. Many of these systems are also mission critical and need to be monitored round the clock. Such systems typically consist of embedded sensors in networked subsystems that can transmit data to central (or remote) monitoring stations. Moreover, many legacy are safety systems were originally not designed for real-time onboard diagnosis, but a critical and would benefit from such a solution. Embedding additional software or hardware in such systems is often considered too intrusive and introduces flight safety and validation concerns. Such systems can be equipped to transmit the sensor data to a remote-processing center for continuous health monitoring. At Qualtech Systems, we are developing a Remote Diagnosis Server (RDS) that can support multiple simultaneous diagnostic sessions from a variety of remote subsystems.

  13. Spacelab Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Edward J.; Gaskins, Roger B.

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab (SL) ground processing is active at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The palletized payload for the second Shuttle launch is staged and integrated with interface verification active. The SL Engineering Model is being assembled for subsequent test and checkout activities. After delivery of SL flight elements from Europe, prelaunch operations for the first SL flight start with receipt of the flight experiment packages and staging of the SL hardware. Experiment operations consist of integrating the various experiment elements into the SL racks, floors and pallets. Rack and floor assemblies with the experiments installed, are integrated into the flight module. Aft end-cone installation, pallet connections, and SL subsystems interface verifications are accomplished, and SL-Orbiter interfaces verified. The Spacelab cargo is then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) in a controlled environment using a canister/transporter. After the SL is installed into the Orbiter payload bay, physical and functional integrity of all payload-to-Orbiter interfaces are verified and final close-out operations conducted. Spacelab payload activities at the launch pad are minimal with the payload bay doors remaining closed. Limited access is available to the module through the Spacelab Transfer Tunnel. After mission completion, the SL is removed from the Orbiter in the OPF and returned to the SL processing facility for experiment equipment removal and reconfiguration for the subsequent mission.

  14. Environmental interactions on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Gabriel, Stephen B.; Murphy, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the key environment/system interactions associated with the Space Station and its companion polar platform and defines the range of test environments that will need to be simulated. These environments include the neutral atmosphere, the ionospheric plasma, natural and man-made particulates, the ambient magnetic field, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the ram/wake environment. The system/environment interactions include glow, oxygen erosion, drag, radiation effects, induced electric fields, high-voltage solar-array effects, and EMC/EMI associated with plasma/neutral gas operations. The Space Station and its associated systems pose unique demands on the ability to simulate these effects; synergistic effects require multiple environments to be simulated simultaneously, and the long life requirements require proper scaling of the exposure time. The analysis of specific effects and the calibration or improvement of ground test techniques will likely require in situ evaluation. Qualification and acceptance testing, because of cost and the impractically of extensive on-orbit analysis/modification, will likely remain ground test objectives except in very rare cases.

  15. First observations of tropospheric δD data observed by ground- and space-based remote sensing and surface in-situ measurement techniques at MUSICA's principle reference station (Izaña Observatory, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias; Christner, Emanuel; Rodríguez, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Dyroff, Christoph; Wiegele, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of the project MUSICA (Multiplatform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi global tropospheric water vapor isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. Therefore, new ground- and space-based remote sensing observations (NDACC-FTIR and IASI/METOP) are combined with in-situ measurements. This work presents the first comparison between in-situ and remote sensing observations made at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The in-situ measurements are made by a Picarro L2120-i water vapor isotopologue analyzer. At Izaña the in-situ data are affected by local small-scale mixing processes: during daylight, the thermally buoyant upslope flow prompts the mixing between the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the low Free Troposphere (FT). However, the remote sensors detect δD values averaged over altitudes that are more representative for the free troposphere. This difference has to be considered for the comparison. In general, a good agreement between the MUSICA remote sensing and the in situ H2O-versus-δD plots is found, which demonstrates that the MUSICA δD remote sensing products add scientifically valuable information to the H2O data.

  16. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the electrical power distribution and control subsystem, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeckpeper, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA first completed an analysis of the Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter EPD and C hardware. The IOA product for the EPD and C analysis consisted of 1671 failure mode analysis worksheets that resulted in 468 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the proposed NASA Post 51-L baseline which consisted of FMEAs and 158 CIL items. Volume 1 contains the EPD and C subsystem description, analysis results, ground rules and assumptions, and some of the IOA worksheets.

  17. A method of time transfer between remote stations via LRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Evan; Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; McGarry, Jan F.; Mao, Dandan

    2014-05-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is a standard geodetic technique that uses the round trip time of light from a ground station to a satellite to determine distance. When combined with a spacecraft detector and timing system, this technique can also be used to transfer time between ground stations, demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. We describe an additional method of time transfer using simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) by two or more ground stations to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). A one way ranging is necessary, as two way ranging via retroreflectors for time transfer becomes impractical at lunar distances. The method will utilize the one-way LR currently being performed as a part of the LRO mission, allowing time transfer to be a by-product of the conventional usage of the data. Each ground station is referenced to a Master Clock using a multifrequency all-view GPS receiver at both the ground station and Master Clock locations.The Master Clock is located close enough to the ground station to make ionospheric differences in signal path negligible. Two or more stations range to LRO at the same time and their times of arrival are compared. Results from a ground-based experiment are shown, with sub-nanosecond precision shown to be achievable. Ultimately this measurement will provide a more precise and accurate relation of timing standards between stations, leading to a marked improvement in orbit determination.

  18. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  19. Minimum Requirements for the CUS (Common User Subsystem) Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-20

    Defense Technical Information Center 2 copies Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22314 CSED Review Panel Dr. Dan Alpert , Director 1 copy Center for Advanced...Park Redondo Beach, CA 90278 Dr. Ruth Davis 1 copy The Pymatuning Group, Inc. 2000 N. 15th Street, Suite 707 Arlington, VA 22201 Dr. Larry E. Druffel 1

  20. Model description document for a computer program for the emulation/simulation of a space station environmental control and life support system (ESCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanosy, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Emulation/Simulation Computer Model (ESCM) computes the transient performance of a Space Station air revitalization subsystem with carbon dioxide removal provided by a solid amine water desorbed subsystem called SAWD. This manual describes the mathematical modeling and equations used in the ESCM. For the system as a whole and for each individual component, the fundamental physical and chemical laws which govern their operations are presented. Assumptions are stated, and when necessary, data is presented to support empirically developed relationships.

  1. Catalog of strong motion stations in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, R. W.

    1990-04-01

    The catalog contains information on all strong motion stations operating in Eastern North America known to the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). The location, coordinates, installation dates, type of instrument, operator, structure type and size, and site geology are listed for each station. The format of the catalog is patterned after the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 81-664, 'Western Hemisphere Strong-Motion Accelerograph Station List-1980' but the entries have been updated as of January 1990. There are 237 stations listed in the catalog which include 414 recording instruments. One third of these stations are intended to record free-field ground motion while the rest are associated with large engineered structures. The relationship of station location to seismicity is shown in a series of figures and a method is described to predict peak acceleration levels from an earthquake where the magnitude and distance to station are known.

  2. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  3. A Method for Determining the Reliability Index of a Materiel Subsystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the reliability index of a subsystem in the materiel demonstration phase -AHP Failure Rate Method. It fully considers the various factors which influence a subsystem reliability index and solves a difficult problem that puz zles the demonstration personnel.

  4. The Organization of the Distance Teaching Sub-System in an Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Fabio J.

    The problem of finding an adequate organization for the distance teaching subsystem in the Open University of Venezuela (Universidad Nacional Abierta) is analyzed. Problems facing this subsystem concern: communications with the headquarters and within the learning centers network, interaction with the environment in order to create a favorable…

  5. Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication,…

  6. Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The subsystem design of the SEC-601 solar collector was evaluated. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet three inches wide and eight feet seven inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the subsystem performance specifications and the assembly and installation drawings of the solar collectors and manifold.

  7. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN Subsystem, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    1986-01-01

    Describes BURN Subsystem, Part 1, the operational fire behavior prediction subsystem of the BEHAVE fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system. The manual covers operation of the computer program, assumptions of the mathematical models used in the calculations, and application of the predictions.

  8. Optimization of a thermoelectric generator subsystem for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, a thermoelectric (TE) exhaust heat recovery subsystem for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack was developed and modeled. Numerical simulations were conducted and have identified an optimized subsystem configuration and 4 types of compact heat...

  9. Variants of Topology Editing Strategy in the Subsystem of Printed Circuit Boards Manufacturability Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Panchak; Konstantyn Kolesnyk; Marian Lobur

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the variants of printed circuit boards topology editing strategies implemented in the subsystem of automatic printed circuit boards topology editing. Depending on the requirements for printed circuit board topology, a subsystem user can create variants of editing strategies in order to minimize the amount of the technologically justified places with a minimum clearance between the elements of the topology.

  10. Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication,…

  11. Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication, information, and…

  12. Selected Lessons Learned in Space Shuttle Orbiter Propulsion and Power Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Francisco J.; Martinez, Hugo; Ryan, Abigail; Westover, Shayne; Davies, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Over its 30 years of space flight history, plus the nearly 10 years of design, development test and evaluation, the Space Shuttle Orbiter is full of lessons learned in all of its numerous and complex subsystems. In the current paper, only selected lessons learned in the areas of the Orbiter propulsion and power subsystems will be described. The particular Orbiter subsystems include: Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), Hydraulics and Water Spray Boiler (WSB), Mechanical Flight Controls, Main Propulsion System (MPS), Fuel Cells and Power Reactant and Storage Devices (PRSD), Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), Electrical Power Distribution (EPDC), electrical wiring and pyrotechnics. Given the complexity and extensive history of each of these subsystems, and the limited scope of this paper, it is impossible to include most of the lessons learned; instead the attempt will be to present a selected few or key lessons, in the judgment of the authors. Each subsystem is presented separate, beginning with an overview of the hardware and their function, a short description of a few historical problems and their lessons, followed by a more comprehensive table listing of the major subsystem problems and lessons. These tables serve as a quick reference for lessons learned in each subsystem. In addition, this paper will establish common lessons across subsystems as well as concentrate on those lessons which are deemed to have the highest applicability to future space flight programs.

  13. Development of low-noise CCD drive electronics for the world space observatory ultraviolet spectrograph subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Mike; Clapp, Matthew; King, James; Morse, Tom; Mihalcea, Ionut; Waltham, Nick; Hayes-Thakore, Chris

    2016-07-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major Russian-led international collaboration to develop a large space-borne 1.7 m Ritchey-Chrétien telescope and instrumentation to study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm, exceeding the current capabilities of ground-based instruments. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph subsystem (WUVS) is led by the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences and consists of two high resolution spectrographs covering the Far-UV range of 115-176 nm and the Near-UV range of 174-310 nm, and a long-slit spectrograph covering the wavelength range of 115-305 nm. The custom-designed CCD sensors and cryostat assemblies are being provided by e2v technologies (UK). STFC RAL Space is providing the Camera Electronics Boxes (CEBs) which house the CCD drive electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. This paper presents the results of the detailed characterisation of the WUVS CCD drive electronics. The electronics include a novel high-performance video channel design that utilises Digital Correlated Double Sampling (DCDS) to enable low-noise readout of the CCD at a range of pixel frequencies, including a baseline requirement of less than 3 electrons rms readout noise for the combined CCD and electronics system at a readout rate of 50 kpixels/s. These results illustrate the performance of this new video architecture as part of a wider electronics sub-system that is designed for use in the space environment. In addition to the DCDS video channels, the CEB provides all the bias voltages and clocking waveforms required to operate the CCD and the system is fully programmable via a primary and redundant SpaceWire interface. The development of the CEB electronics design has undergone critical design review and the results presented were obtained using the engineering-grade electronics box. A variety of parameters and tests are included ranging from general system metrics, such as the power and mass

  14. Space station, 1959 to . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  15. A Subsystem Test Bed for Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, An; Yan, Yihua; Wang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph is a solar dedicated radio interferometric array that will produce high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution, and high spectral resolution images of the Sun simultaneously in decimetre and centimetre wave range. Digital processing of intermediate frequency signal is an important part in a radio telescope. This paper describes a flexible and high-speed digital down conversion system for the CSRH by applying complex mixing, parallel filtering, and extracting algorithms to process IF signal at the time of being designed and incorporates canonic-signed digit coding and bit-plane method to improve program efficiency. The DDC system is intended to be a subsystem test bed for simulation and testing for CSRH. Software algorithms for simulation and hardware language algorithms based on FPGA are written which use less hardware resources and at the same time achieve high performances such as processing high-speed data flow (1 GHz) with 10 MHz spectral resolution. An experiment with the test bed is illustrated by using geostationary satellite data observed on March 20, 2014. Due to the easy alterability of the algorithms on FPGA, the data can be recomputed with different digital signal processing algorithms for selecting optimum algorithm.

  16. Trajectory Optimization of Electric Aircraft Subject to Subsystem Thermal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Burt, Jonathan M.; Gray, Justin S.

    2017-01-01

    Electric aircraft pose a unique design challenge in that they lack a simple way to reject waste heat from the power train. While conventional aircraft reject most of their excess heat in the exhaust stream, for electric aircraft this is not an option. To examine the implications of this challenge on electric aircraft design and performance, we developed a model of the electric subsystems for the NASA X-57 electric testbed aircraft. We then coupled this model with a model of simple 2D aircraft dynamics and used a Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto collocation optimal control approach to find optimal trajectories for the aircraft with and without thermal constraints. The results show that the X-57 heat rejection systems are well designed for maximum-range and maximum-efficiency flight, without the need to deviate from an optimal trajectory. Stressing the thermal constraints by reducing the cooling capacity or requiring faster flight has a minimal impact on performance, as the trajectory optimization technique is able to find flight paths which honor the thermal constraints with relatively minor deviations from the nominal optimal trajectory.

  17. Preliminary design report for OTEC stationkeeping subsystems (SKSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-12

    Lockheed Ocean Systems with IMODCO prepared these preliminary designs for OTEC Stationkeeping Subsystems (SKSS) under contract to NOAA in support of the Department of Energy OTEC program. The results of Tasks III, V, and VI are presented in this design report. The report consists of five sections: introduction, preliminary designs for the multiple anchor leg (MAL) and tension anchor leg (TAL), costs and schedule, and conclusions. Extensive appendixes provide detailed descriptions of design methodology and include backup calculations and data to support the results presented. The objective of this effort is to complete the preliminary designs for the barge-MAL and Spar-TAL SKSS. A set of drawings is provided for each which show arrangements, configuration, component details, engineering description, and deployment plan. Loads analysis, performance assessment, and sensitivity to requirements are presented, together with the methodology employed to analyze the systems and to derive the results presented. Life cycle costs and schedule are prepared and compared on a common basis. Finally, recommendations for the Commercial Plant SKSS are presented for both platform types.

  18. Upgrade of ESO's FIERA CCD Controller and PULPO Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Moreno, J.; Geimer, C.; Balestra, A.; Haddad, N.

    An overview of FIERA is presented with emphasis on its recent upgrade to PCI. The PCI board hosts two DSPs, one for real time control of the camera and another for on-the-fly processing of the incoming video data. In addition, the board is able to make DMA transfers, to synchronize to other boards alike, to be synchronized by a TIM bus and to control PULPO via RS232. The design is based on the IOP480 chip from PLX, for which we have developed a device driver for both Solaris and Linux. One computer is able to host more than one board and therefore can control an array of FIERA detector electronics. PULPO is a multifunctional subsystem widely used at ESO for the housekeeping of CCD cryostat heads and for shutter control. The upgrade of PULPO is based on an embedded PC running Linux. The upgraded PULPO is able to handle 29 temperature sensors, control 8 heaters and one shutter, read out one vacuum sensor and log any combination of parameters.

  19. The RAST Server: Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Ross A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of prokaryotic genome sequences becoming available is growing steadily and is growing faster than our ability to accurately annotate them. Description We describe a fully automated service for annotating bacterial and archaeal genomes. The service identifies protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes, assigns functions to the genes, predicts which subsystems are represented in the genome, uses this information to reconstruct the metabolic network and makes the output easily downloadable for the user. In addition, the annotated genome can be browsed in an environment that supports comparative analysis with the annotated genomes maintained in the SEED environment. The service normally makes the annotated genome available within 12–24 hours of submission, but ultimately the quality of such a service will be judged in terms of accuracy, consistency, and completeness of the produced annotations. We summarize our attempts to address these issues and discuss plans for incrementally enhancing the service. Conclusion By providing accurate, rapid annotation freely to the community we have created an important community resource. The service has now been utilized by over 120 external users annotating over 350 distinct genomes.

  20. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  1. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  2. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  3. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  4. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  5. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  6. A DTN-ready application for the real-time dissemination of Earth Observation data received by Direct Readout stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronis, Dimitris; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Tsigkanos, Antonis; Ghita, Bogdan; Evans, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The majority of Earth observation satellites operate in low Earth sun-synchronous orbit and transmit data captured by a variety of sensors. The effective dissemination of satellite data in real-time is a crucial parameter for disaster monitoring in particular. Generally, a spacecraft collects data and then stores it on-board until it passes over dedicated ground stations to transmit the data. Additionally, some satellites (e.g. Terra, Aqua, Suomi-NPP, NOAA series satellites) have the so-called Direct Broadcast (DB) capability, which is based on a real-time data transmission sub-system. Compatible Direct Readout (DR) stations in direct line of sight are able to receive these transmissions. To date data exchange between DR stations have not been fully exploited for real-time data dissemination. Stations around the world store data locally, which is then disseminated on demand via Internet gateways based on the standard TCP-IP protocols. On the other hand, Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), which deliver data by enabling store-and-forward transmission in order to cope with link failures, service disruptions and network congestion, could prove as an alternative/complementary transmission mechanism for the efficient dissemination of data. The DTN architecture allows for efficient utilization of the network, using in-network storage and taking advantage of the network availability among the interconnected nodes. Although DTNs were originally developed for high-propagation delay, challenged connectivity environments such as deep space, the broader research community has investigated possible architectural enhancements for various emerging applications (e.g., terrestrial infrastructure, ground-to-air communications, content retrieval and dissemination). In this paper, a scheme for the effective dissemination of DB data is conceptualized, designed and implemented based on store-and-forward transmission capabilities provided by DTNs. For demonstration purposes, a set-up has

  7. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 1: Flight article requirements. Appendix A: Mission requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The requirements for several configurations of flight articles are presented. These requirements provide the basis to design manned remote work station development test articles and establish tests and simulation objectives for the resolution of development issues. Mission system and subsystem requirements for four MRWS configurations included: open cherry picker; closed cherry picker; crane turret; and free flyer.

  8. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 2, appendix B: Trade and design definition studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    System trades, evaluations, and selection were organized under the appropriate manned remote work station roles and subsystems. Those trades/evaluations that have an impact on simulator fidelity were given emphasis in terms of identifying alternate concepts, making a selection, and defining the system approach. Those trades that do not impact simulator fidelity have the issues delineated and future study requirements identified.

  9. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  10. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  11. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  12. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  13. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  14. The Roman stational liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mieczkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The papal stational liturgy in Rome was a particular kind of worship service from the Christian Antiquity to the XIV century. Its essential elements are four. Its always took place under the leadership of the pope or his representative. This form of liturgy was mobile: it was celebrated in different basilicas or churches of Rome. Third, the choice of church depended on the feast, liturgical seasons or commemoration being celebrated. Fourth, the stational liturgy was the urban liturgical celebration of the day. The highpoint of this system was Lent. Throughout the entire system Church of Rome manifested its own unity. The station was usually the Pope’s solemn mass in the stational church for the whole city. But on certain days in the year the Pope went in another church (collecta, from which a solemn procession was made to the stational church.

  15. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  16. Worker health and safety in solar thermal power systems. III. Thermal energy storage subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullman, A.Z.; Sokolow, B.B.; Daniels, J.; Hurt, P.

    1979-10-01

    The effects of the use of thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems in solar thermal power systems (STPS) on operating failures and on worker health and safety are examined. Revelant near- and medium-term designs for TES subsystems are reviewed. Generic failure events are considered by an event tree methodology. Three generic categories of initiating events are identified which can lead to release of storage fluids and other hazards. Three TES subsystem designs are selected for, and subjected to, analysis. A fluid release event tree for a sensible heat TES subsystem using mixed media organic oil/crushed rock and sand, designed for the Barstow, CA, 10 MWe pilot plant, is developed. Toxicology and flammability hazards are considered. The effect of component failures, including ullage and fluid maintenance units, on subsystem safety is considered. A latent heat subsystem using NaNO/sub 3//NaOH as the working medium is studied, and relevant failure events delineated. Mechanical equipment failures including the scraped wall heat exchangers, are examined. Lastly, a thermochemical TES subsystem using SO/sub 2//SO/sub 3/ interconversion is considered. Principle hazards identified include mechanical failures and storage fluid release. The integrity of the system is found to depend on catalyst and heat exchanger reliability. Dynamic response to off-normal system events is considered.

  17. Statistical Design Model (SDM) of power supply and communication subsystem's Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshams, Mehran; Zabihian, Ehsan; Zabihian, Ahmadreza

    In this paper, based on the fact that in designing the energy providing and communication subsystems for satellites, most approaches and relations are empirical and statistical, and also, considering the aerospace sciences and its relation with other engineering fields such as electrical engineering to be young, these are no analytic or one hundred percent proven empirical relations in many fields. Therefore, we consider the statistical design of this subsystem. The presented approach in this paper is entirely innovative and all parts of the energy providing and communication subsystems for the satellite are specified. In codifying this approach, the data of 602 satellites and some software programs such as SPSS have been used. In this approach, after proposing the design procedure, the total needed power for the satellite, the mass of the energy providing and communication subsystems , communication subsystem needed power, working band, type of antenna, number of transponders the material of solar array and finally the placement of these arrays on the satellite are designed. All these parts are designed based on the mission of the satellite and its weight class. This procedure increases the performance rate, avoids wasting energy, and reduces the costs. Keywords: database, Statistical model, the design procedure, power supply subsystem, communication subsystem

  18. Predicting speech intelligibility with a multiple speech subsystems approach in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C; Weismer, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and speech intelligibility, were measured in 22 children with CP. These children included 13 with a clinical diagnosis of dysarthria (speech motor impairment [SMI] group) and 9 judged to be free of dysarthria (no SMI [NSMI] group). Data from children with CP were compared to data from age-matched typically developing children. Multiple acoustic variables reflecting the articulatory subsystem were different in the SMI group, compared to the NSMI and typically developing groups. A significant speech intelligibility prediction model was obtained with all variables entered into the model (adjusted R2 = .801). The articulatory subsystem showed the most substantial independent contribution (58%) to speech intelligibility. Incremental R2 analyses revealed that any single variable explained less than 9% of speech intelligibility variability. Children in the SMI group had articulatory subsystem problems as indexed by acoustic measures. As in the adult literature, the articulatory subsystem makes the primary contribution to speech intelligibility variance in dysarthria, with minimal or no contribution from other systems.

  19. A Simple Estimation of Coupling Loss Factors for Two Flexible Subsystems Connected via Discrete Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple formula is proposed to estimate the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA coupling loss factors (CLFs for two flexible subsystems connected via discrete interfaces. First, the dynamic interactions between two discretely connected subsystems are described as a set of intermodal coupling stiffness terms. It is then found that if both subsystems are of high modal density and meanwhile the interface points all act independently, the intermodal dynamic couplings become dominated by only those between different subsystem mode sets. If ensemble- and frequency-averaged, the intermodal coupling stiffness terms can simply reduce to a function of the characteristic dynamic properties of each subsystem and the subsystem mass, as well as the number of interface points. The results can thus be accommodated within the theoretical frame of conventional SEA theory to yield a simple CLF formula. Meanwhile, the approach allows the weak coupling region between the two SEA subsystems to be distinguished simply and explicitly. The consistency and difference of the present technique with and from the traditional wave-based SEA solutions are discussed. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the good performance of the present technique.

  20. Subsystem approach to the electrodynamics in dielectric fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brandon A.

    2012-10-01

    A century has now passed since the origins of the Abraham-Minkowski controversy pertaining to the correct form of optical momentum in media. Since, the debate has come to reference the general debate over optical momentum, including a number of competing formulations. The pervasive modern view is that the Abraham momentum represents the optical momentum contained within the fields and the Minkowski momentum includes a material component which is coupled with the fields. A recently proposed resolution to the debate identified Abraham's kinetic momentum as responsible for the overall center-of-mass translations of a medium and Minkowski's canonical momentum as responsible for local translations of a medium within or with respect to another medium. Still, current literature reveals significant confusion as to how systems of light and matter should be modeled as to deduce the equations of motion when multiple material types are present. For example, the state-of-the-art model for optical dynamics of submerged particles assumes over damped systems such that the mass of the particles is ignored in the equations of motion. In this paper, we apply the subsystem approach to deduce the electrodynamics of such systems. We show that regardless of which electromagnetic momentum continuity law is applied, the equations of motion can be correctly deduced as long as the continuity law is consistent with Maxwells equations and the overall system is closed such that momentum is conserved. Because the closed system includes the material response, the model can be very complex. However, we demonstrate with simple, well-known examples.

  1. System, subsystem, hive: boundary problems in computational theories of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Fekete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious will do so for some – perhaps most – of its subsystems, as well as for irrelevantly extended systems (e.g., the original system augmented with physical appendages that contribute nothing to the properties supposedly supporting consciousness, and for aggregates of individually conscious systems (e.g., groups of people. This problem suggests that the properties that are being measured are epiphenomenal to consciousness, or else it implies a bizarre proliferation of minds. We propose that a solution to the boundary problem can be found by identifying properties that are intrinsic or systemic: properties that clearly differentiate between systems whose existence is a matter of fact, as opposed to those whose existence is a matter of interpretation (in the eye of the beholder. We argue that if a putative MoC can be shown to be systemic, this ipso facto resolves any associated boundary issues. As test cases, we analyze two recent theories of consciousness in light of our definitions: the Integrated Information Theory and the Geometric Theory of consciousness.

  2. Observables, gravitational dressing, and obstructions to locality and subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William; Giddings, Steven B.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum field theory—our basic framework for describing all nongravitational physics—conflicts with general relativity: the latter precludes the standard definition of the former's essential principle of locality, in terms of commuting local observables. We examine this conflict more carefully, by investigating implications of gauge (diffeomorphism) invariance for observables in gravity. We prove a dressing theorem, showing that any operator with nonzero Poincaré charges, and in particular any compactly supported operator, in flat-spacetime quantum field theory must be gravitationally dressed once coupled to gravity, i.e., it must depend on the metric at arbitrarily long distances, and we put lower bounds on this nonlocal dependence. This departure from standard locality occurs in the most severe way possible: in perturbation theory about flat spacetime, at leading order in Newton's constant. The physical observables in a gravitational theory therefore do not organize themselves into local commuting subalgebras: the principle of locality must apparently be reformulated or abandoned, and in fact we lack a clear definition of the coarser and more basic notion of a quantum subsystem of the Universe. We discuss relational approaches to locality based on diffeomorphism-invariant nonlocal operators, and reinforce arguments that any such locality is state-dependent and approximate. We also find limitations to the utility of bilocal diffeomorphism-invariant operators that are considered in cosmological contexts. An appendix provides a concise review of the canonical covariant formalism for gravity, instrumental in the discussion of Poincaré charges and their associated long-range fields.

  3. Age Differences in the Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Default Network Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eCampbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the default mode network (DMN includes two core regions, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and several unique subsystems that are functionally distinct. These include a medial temporal lobe (MTL subsystem, active during remembering and future projection, and a dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC subsystem, active during self-reference. The PCC has been further subdivided into ventral (vPCC and dorsal (dPCC regions that are more strongly connected with the DMN and cognitive control networks, respectively. The goal of this study was to examine age differences in resting state functional connectivity within these subsystems. After applying a rigorous procedure to reduce the effects of head motion, we used a multivariate technique to identify both common and unique patterns of functional connectivity in the MTL vs. the dmPFC, and in vPCC vs. dPCC. All four areas had robust functional connectivity with other DMN regions, and each also showed distinct connectivity patterns in both age groups. Young and older adults had equivalent functional connectivity in the MTL subsystem. Older adults showed weaker connectivity in the vPCC and dmPFC subsystems, particularly with other DMN areas, but stronger connectivity than younger adults in the dPCC subsystem, which included areas involved in cognitive control. Our data provide evidence for distinct subsystems involving DMN nodes, which are maintained with age. Nevertheless, there are age differences in the strength of functional connectivity within these subsystems, supporting prior evidence that DMN connectivity is particularly vulnerable to age, whereas connectivity involving cognitive control regions is relatively maintained. These results suggest an age difference in the integrated activity among brain networks that can have implications for cognition in older adults.

  4. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, S. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K.; ; Buccellato, S. A. [Fermilab; Crowley, C. F. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. D. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Kasper, P. [Fermilab; Krafczyk, G. E. [Fermilab; Lee, A. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Reitzner, S. D. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stefanik, A. M. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Vaziri, K. [Fermilab; Williams, K. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Densham, C. [RAL, Didcot

    2016-10-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The target and horns are encased in actively cooled steel and concrete shielding in a chamber called the target chase. The reference design chase is filled with air, but nitrogen and helium are being evaluated as alternatives. A replaceable beam window separates the decay pipe from the target chase. The facility is designed for initial operation at 1.2 MW, with the ability to upgrade to 2.4 MW, and is taking advantage of the experience gained by operating Fermilab’s NuMI facility. We discuss here the design status, associated challenges, and ongoing R&D and physics-driven component optimization of the Target Station.

  5. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  6. About the number of maximal subsystems in S(2,4,v

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Zeitler

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available It's of great interest, to find systems S(2,4,v with subsystems S(2,4,r=1/3(v-1 – known as maximal subsystems. Up to now there exist only a few results – mainly due to Resmini and Shen. In this paper we prove a new partial result: Exactly for all v∊{121,40}+108N there exists a system S(2,4,v with exactly two, but also a system with exactly four maximal subsystems.

  7. Compact Hybrid Subsystem of 16 Channel Optical Demultiplexer, 2x2 Switches, Optical Power Monitors and Control Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichiro Takahashi; Toshihiko Kishimoto; Shintaro Mouri; Youichi Hata; Hideaki Yusa; Mitsuaki Tamura; Kazuhito Saito; Hisao Maki

    2003-01-01

    A compact hybrid subsystem of 16channel optical demultiplexer, 2x2 switches, optical power monitors and control circuit board is developed. The subsystem is able to add or drop arbitrary optical channels and monitor the optical power level by software commands. The size of the subsystem is 170x200x30(mm).

  8. PROMIS series. Volume 8: Midlatitude ground magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    This is the eighth in a series of volumes pertaining to the Polar Region Outer Magnetosphere International Study (PROMIS). This volume contains 24 hour stack plots of 1-minute average, H and D component, ground magnetograms for the period March 10 through June 16, 1986. Nine midlatitude ground stations were selected from the UCLA magnetogram data base that was constructed from all available digitized magnetogram stations. The primary purpose of this publication is to allow users to define universal times and onset longitudes of magnetospheric substorms.

  9. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  10. Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Analysis of Power-Ground Planes Taking Into Account Decoupling Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2017-03-22

    In this paper, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method is developed to analyze the power-ground planes taking into account the decoupling capacitors. In the presence of decoupling capacitors, the whole physical system can be split into two subsystems: 1) the field subsystem that is governed by Maxwell\\'s equations that will be solved by the DGTD method, and 2) the circuit subsystem including the capacitor and its parasitic inductor and resistor, which is going to be characterized by the modified nodal analysis algorithm constructed circuit equations. With the aim to couple the two subsystems together, a lumped port is defined over a coaxial surface between the via barrel and the ground plane. To reach the coupling from the field to the circuit subsystem, a lumped voltage source calculated by the integration of electric field along the radial direction is introduced. On the other hand, to facilitate the coupling from the circuit to field subsystem, a lumped port current source calculated from the circuit equation is introduced, which serves as an impressed current source for the field subsystem. With these two auxiliary terms, a hybrid field-circuit matrix equation is established, which enables the field and circuit subsystems are solved in a synchronous scheme. Furthermore, the arbitrarily shaped antipads are considered by enforcing the proper wave port excitation using the magnetic surface current source derived from the antipads supported electric eigenmodes. In this way, the S-parameters corresponding to different modes can be conveniently extracted. To further improve the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in handling multiscale meshes, the local time-stepping marching scheme is applied. The proposed algorithm is verified by several representative examples.

  11. Lifelong learning and the need of designing and implementing an educational subsystem in Macedonian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Elizabeta Mitreva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The education of the employees in each instance of company comes wiith the purpose to gain competences and experience in order to realize every business process in accordance with the requests of the products/ services, legal obligation and competitiveness criteria, as well as with the appointing of the employees requests, and all that with the intention to achieve quality where it is necessary to involve everyone in their own field. In this paper the following inputs are being given in order to get a clear picture if Macedonian companies are keen on to learning and stimulating the individual and collective learning as to improve the results in general. According to the given results in the research, it is stated that Macedonian companies do not care about the quality, insufficiently pay attention to the continuous education, make small investments in the innovations and over all, the quality system is built in a very small number of companies. In this paper the following model for a successful designing and implementing of the educational system as a subsystem of the house of quality is suggested. This methodology is integral and universal meaning it is applicable to all companies and institutions. Without a given training about TQM (Total Quality Management philosophy and a continued education provided firstly to the managers and further on to all the employees, the TQM strategy could not be implemented as well as the benefits that come with the quality system. All the above is imposing a stronger systematic effort where the bases lay in: strong leadership (new style of the top management, realistically grounded market vision, politics and strategy and systematic orientation and business moral that will gain back the confidence between the management and the employees, staff participation (efficiency and cooperativeness in the teamwork that will not stifle the creativity and the individualism.

  12. Characterization of the ASPIICS/OPSE metrology sub-system and PSF centroiding procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreggia, D.; Fineschi, S.; Capobianco, G.; Bemporad, A.; Focardi, M.; Landini, F.; Massone, G.; Casti, M.; Nicolini, G.; Pancrazi, M.; Romoli, M.; Noce, V.; Baccani, C.; Cernica, I.; Purica, M.; Nisulescu, M.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Renotte, E.

    2016-07-01

    years have raised increasing interest. Many applications of astronomical observation techniques, as coronography and interferometry get great benefit when moved in space and the employment of diluted systems represents a milestone to step-over in astronomical research. In this work, we present the Optical Position Sensors Emitter (OPSE) metrological sub-system on-board of the PROBA3. PROBA3 is an ESA technology mission that will test in-orbit many metrology techniques for the maintenance of a Formation Flying with two satellites, in this case an occulter and a main satellite housing a coronagraph named ASPIICS, kept at an average inter-distance of 144m. The scientific task is the observation of the Sun's Corona at high spatial and temporal resolution down to 1.08R⊙. The OPSE will monitor the relative position of the two satellites and consists of 3 emitters positioned on the rear surface of the occulter, that will be observed by the coronagraph itself. A Centre of Gravity (CoG) algorithm is used to monitor the emitter's PSF at the focal plane of the Coronagraph retrieving the Occulter position with respect to the main spacecraft. The 3σ location target accuracy is 300μm for lateral movement and 21cm for longitudinal movements. A description of the characterization tests on the OPSE LED sources, and of the design for a laboratory set-up for on ground testing is given with a preliminary assessment of the performances expected from the OPSE images centroiding algorithm.

  13. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  14. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  15. Evolution, structure and function of hydrologic subsystems in hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, P. A.; Brooks, P.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T.; McDonnell, J. J.; Rasmussen, C.; Sivapalan, M.

    2007-12-01

    Hillslopes offer a useful elementary scale to construct catchment hydrologic models, and to understand the role of water in the landscape. However, hillslopes exhibit enormous complexity and heterogeneity, much of which is not easily observable. The complexity is driven by the interactions between water, biogeochemistry, ecology and soils, within the constraints set by the climate and the geologic history of the system. These interactions create complex, non-random patterns and structures in space-time. Current models have difficulty accounting for these interactions and unobserved structural complexity. A new approach may ask: why do the complex structures exist at all? Taking the view that the hydrology of a landscape has evolved along with its soils, ecology and geomorphology, we may ask if the hydrologic subsystem of a hillslope has a functional role in the maintenance of the overall system. This functional role may be expressed as an organizing principle - a constraint on possible ways that the hydrologic flowpaths may be organized such that the functional role is met. If a relationship can be established between an organizing principle and the structure of hydrologic flow-paths and storages, it can form the basis for developing closure relations at the hillslope scale that have meaningful relationships to the underlying dynamics. In this way, heterogeneity and complexity of hillslopes are no longer problems to be overcome, but rather are keys to making meaningful predictions. Formulating and testing organizing principles will necessarily require the synthesis of knowledge from many disciplines. One approach is to construct artificial hillslopes in a controlled environment, and use them to ask, given a set of observable constraints (climate, soil, ecologic and biogeochemical parameters) which structures and responses are "behavioral" - in the sense that they fulfill the function set by the organizing principle. Such artificial hillslopes will be constructed at

  16. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  17. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  18. Simulation and Improvement of the Processing Subsystem of the Manchester Dataflow Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Manchester dataflow computer is a famous dynamic dataflow computer.It is centralized in architecture and simple in organization.Its overhead for communication and scheduling is very small.Its efficiency comes down,when processing elements in the processing subsystem increase.Several articles evaluated its performance and presented improved methods.The authors studied its processing subsystem and carried out the simulation.The simulation results show that the efficiency of the processing subsystem drops dramatically when average instruction execution microcycles become less and the maximum instruction execution rate is nearly attained.Two improved methods are presented to oversome the disadvantage.The improved processing subsystem with a cheap distributor made up of a bus and a two-level fixed priority circuit possesses almost full efficiency no matter whether the average nstruction execution microcycles number is large or small and even if the maximum instruction execution rate is approached.

  19. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  20. A membrane-based subsystem for very high recoveries of spacecraft waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Roderick J.; Retzlaff, Sandra E.; Radke-Mitchell, Lyn; Newbold, David D.; Price, Donald F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the continued development of a membrane-based subsystem designed to recover up to 99.5 percent of the water from various spacecraft waste waters. Specifically discussed are: (1) the design and fabrication of an energy-efficient reverse-osmosis (RO) breadboard subsystem; (2) data showing the performance of this subsystem when operated on a synthetic wash-water solution - including the results of a 92-day test; and (3) the results of pasteurization studies, including the design and operation of an in-line pasteurizer. Also included in this paper is a discussion of the design and performance of a second RO stage. This second stage results in higher-purity product water at a minimal energy requirement and provides a substantial redundancy factor to this subsystem.

  1. ADAPTIVE SUBSYSTEM FOR DETECTING AND PREVENTING ANOMALIES AS A PROTECTION MEANS AGAINST NETWORK ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simankov V. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of networks anomalies detection system based on modular adaptive approach practical implementation. The list of specific modules used in the practical implementation of IPS, their architecture, algorithms, software, organizational and technical support determined at technical working design based on the results of the audit, evaluation and risk analysis. In the general list of modules (subsystems we may include: intrusion detection and prevention (IPS / IDS subsystems; monitoring, data collection, and event correlation, administration and management subsystem and others. We have demonstrated the specificity of formation requirements for the basic mechanisms of the subsystems in terms of development and implementation of specific architecture with some examples, plus practically implemented structure of system modules, as well as organizational and technical support system functioning

  2. A membrane-based subsystem for very high recoveries of spacecraft waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Roderick J.; Retzlaff, Sandra E.; Radke-Mitchell, Lyn; Newbold, David D.; Price, Donald F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the continued development of a membrane-based subsystem designed to recover up to 99.5 percent of the water from various spacecraft waste waters. Specifically discussed are: (1) the design and fabrication of an energy-efficient reverse-osmosis (RO) breadboard subsystem; (2) data showing the performance of this subsystem when operated on a synthetic wash-water solution - including the results of a 92-day test; and (3) the results of pasteurization studies, including the design and operation of an in-line pasteurizer. Also included in this paper is a discussion of the design and performance of a second RO stage. This second stage results in higher-purity product water at a minimal energy requirement and provides a substantial redundancy factor to this subsystem.

  3. Transient Analysis of Pressurization and Pneumatic Subsystems of the X-34 Main Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Knight, K. C.; Chamption, R. H., Jr.; Kennedy, Jim W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Transient models for the pressurization, vent/relief, and pneumatic subsystems of the X-34 Main Propulsion System are presented and simulation of their operation within prescribed requirements are provided. First, using ROCket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) program, pressurization subsystem operation was simulated and helium requirements and the ullage thermodynamic condition within each propellant tank were calculated. Then, Overpressurization scenarios of propellant tanks and the response of vent/relief valves were evaluated using ROCETS simulation of simultaneous operation of the pressurization and vent/relief subsystems by incorporating the valves data into the model. Finally, the ROCETS simulation of in-flight operation of pneumatic subsystem predicted the overall helium consumption, Inter-Propellant Seal (IPS) purge flowrate and thermodynamic conditions, and Spin Start power.

  4. Large area crop inventory experiment crop assessment subsystem software requirements document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The functional data processing requirements are described for the Crop Assessment Subsystem of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment. These requirements are used as a guide for software development and implementation.

  5. Fabrication and laboratory testing of a high-temperature superconducting subsystem for DSC1800 mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    LiuKun; Zhu Mei Hong; Wei Bin; Liu Bang Chang; Zhang Xia; Gao Long Ma; Zhang Guo Yong; He Wen Jun; Gao Bao Xin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, fabrication and testing of a 20-pole high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filter for DSC1800 mobile communications with the pass band from 1710 to 1785 MHz. The test results show that the insertion loss of the pass band is less than 0.3 dB, the out-of-band rejection is better than 65 dB, and the steepness of the band edges is greater than 14 dB MHz sup - sup 1. We also tested an HTS subsystem, which consists of the HTS filter, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) with 21 dB gain and a Stirling Cooler, and a traditional subsystem, which consists of a traditional filter and a LNA with 23 dB gain. The results show that the HTS subsystem is much better than the conventional subsystem.

  6. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  7. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  8. Preliminary design of the Space Station internal thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Mark T.; Patterson, David W.; Turner, Larry D.

    1987-01-01

    The baseline preliminary design configuration of the Internal Thermal Control system (ITCS) of the U.S. Space Station pressurized elements (i.e., the Habitation and U.S. Laboratory modules, pressurized logistics carrier, and resources nodes) is defined. The ITCS is composed of both active and passive components. The subsystems which comprise the ITCS are identified and their functional descriptions are provided. The significant trades and analyses, which were performed during Phase B (i.e., the preliminary design phase) that resulted in the design described herein, are discussed. The ITCS interfaces with the station's central Heat Rejection and Transport System (HRTS), other systems, and externally attached pressurized payloads are described. Requirements on the ITCS with regard to redundancy and experiment support are also addressed.

  9. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  10. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  11. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  12. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  13. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  14. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  15. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  16. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  17. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  18. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  19. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  20. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.